Chen, Andrew Cn
Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed d...
Chen, Andrew Cn
Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed determination, (b) distraction, (c) placebo, (d) hypnosis, (e) meditation, (f) qi-gong, (g) belief, and (h) emotions, respectively, in the brain function for pain modulation. In each, the operational definition, cortical processing, neuroimaging, and pain modulation were systematically deliberated. However, not all studies had featured the brain modulation processing but rather demonstrated potential effects on human pain. In our own studies on the emotional modulation on human pain, we observed that emotions could be induced from music melodies or pictures perception for reduction of tonic human pain, mainly in potentiation of the posterior alpha EEG fields, likely resulted from underneath activities of precuneous in regulation of consciousness, including pain perception. To sum, higher brain functions become the leading edge research in all sciences. How to solve the information bit of thinking and feeling in the brain can be the greatest challenge of human intelligence. Application of higher cortical modulation of human pain and suffering can lead to the progress of social humanity and civilization.
The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…
Dando, Coral J.; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin
Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime. PMID:27149330
Dando, Coral J; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin
Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.
Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A total of 494 ...
Thompson, K. F.
of instrumentality on risk perception; and the impact of "false alarms" or "near misses." We conclude with practical recommendations for ways that risk communications may best be presented to avoid (or, in some cases, to capitalize on) these typical psychological hurdles to the understanding of risk. 1 http://www.scec.org/ucerf/ 2 Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica, XLVII: 263-291. 3 Hau, R., Pleskac, T. J., Kiefer, J., & Hertwig, R. (2008). The Description/Experience Gap in Risky Choice: The Role of Sample Size and Experienced Probabilities. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 21: 493-518. 4 Lichtenstein, S., Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B., Layman, M., & Combs, B. (1978). Judged frequency of lethal events. JEP: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 551-578. 5 Hertwig, R., Barron, G., Weber, E. U., & Erev, I. (2006). The role of information sampling in risky choice. In K. Fiedler, & P. Juslin (Eds.), Information sampling and adaptive cognition. (pp. 75-91). New York: Cambridge U Press. 6 Budescu, DV, Weinberg, S & Wallsten, TS (1987). Decisions based on numerically and verbally expressed uncertainties. JEP: Human Perception and Performance, 14(2), 281-294. 7 Gigerenzer, G., Hertwig, R., Van Den Broek, E., Fasolo, B., & Katsikopoulos, K. V. (2005). "A 30% chance of rain tomorrow": How does the public understand probabilistic weather forecasts? Risk Analysis, 25(3), 623-629.
Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.
Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.
Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Brenneman, Miranda M.; Glass, Jamie N.; Brito, Gabriela R.; Terranova, Andrew M.; Kim, JongHan; Meyersburg, C. A.; Piroch, Joan
College students (N = 297) completed a perceptions of psychology as a science survey before and after completion of psychology courses. Psychology as a science scores increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the research methods courses, but scores in introductory psychology courses did not change and scores for students in…
Jepsen, Denise M; Rodwell, John J
Despite debate on the nature of employees' perceptions of their psychological contract, little research has compared employees' and employers' sides of the psychological contract. All 80 items from both scales in the Psychological Contract Inventory were used in a survey of 436 currently working, non-student respondents. Structural equation modeling yielded nonsymmetrical perspectives on promises and obligations, highlighting the validity of approaching the issues via individual perceptions.
Romeo Cretu, Zeno; Armas, Iuliana; Stanciugelu, Irina
The importance of studying the relationship with the natural hazard events from a psycho-social perspective is fundamental by the experience with past disasters as much as by the research in the field that proved that the people's psychologic structures may constitute a starting point for risk reduction. People's psycho-behavioural patterns contain conscious or unconscious references to the environmental risk, thus creating certain adjustment strategies and mechanisms, with a certain degree of psychological vulnerability. In modern man's case, the high level of awareness in front of natural dangers, doubled by the perception of the environment's unsafety, experienced as a lack of control, brings to attention nowadays the problematic of the analysis of natural risk perception, as a main factor in the adjustment of human communities' capacity of adapting to the natural environment's dynamics. The major objective of this present work is, based on the development of an efficient evaluation methodology, to identify specific relational patterns to seismic risk in Bucharest, function the characteristics of the urban environment, the social, economical and psychological vulnerability, with results that can be applied for disaster management. For explaining human reactions and the way in which they perceive and evaluate the psychological resources, on a daily basis, but also in risk situations (earthquakes), a multi-modal questionnaire was conceived through qualitative methods (a focus group, along with experts from the Public and Administrative Sciences National School, Risk Communication Center). The questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence, in which were included different type of questions (with single or multiple answers, open questions etc), and also questions using different scaling methods. The items caught cognitive elements (expectations, anticipations and negative or positive judgments regarding risk element), affective (feelings) and behavioral
A. O. Pocelujko
The article investigates the prerequisite analysis of social perception in different epistemological, psychological General (sociopsychological) theories. Epistemology is the philosophy section, which explores the general premise of cognitive activity, the ratio of knowledge and reality, establishing the terms of true and certain knowledge creates a stable foundation for the study of social perception. Depending on a particular epistemological concepts can differentiate different understandi...
Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.
Surveys psychology textbook authors and editors on their perceptions of the introductory psychology textbook market. Finds that the textbook market is divided into three levels according to quality, and that authors and editors are not familiar with most textbooks. Notes that the growth of used book companies has adversely affected the market.…
Nash, Poppy; Schlösser, Annette; Scarr, Tanya
This article reports on an investigation into school teachers' perceptions of disruptive behaviour from a psychological perspective. The inter-disciplinary nature of this research bridges the understanding between educational and psychological perspectives on disruptive behaviour. This article discusses evidence that for the most troubled pupils,…
Bartels, Jared M; Hinds, Ryan M; Glass, Laura A; Ryan, Joseph J
The goal was to examine the relationship between the number of psychology courses students have taken and their perceptions of psychology as a science. Additionally, differences in perceptions of psychology among psychology, education, and natural science majors were examined. Results indicated that students who had taken four or more psychology courses had more favorable perceptions of psychology as a science compared to those who had taken no courses or one course and those who had taken two to three courses. No significant differences in overall perceptions of psychology emerged among students in the three majors.
Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A
This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.
Neural Networks for Perception, Volume 1: Human and Machine Perception focuses on models for understanding human perception in terms of distributed computation and examples of PDP models for machine perception. This book addresses both theoretical and practical issues related to the feasibility of both explaining human perception and implementing machine perception in terms of neural network models. The book is organized into two parts. The first part focuses on human perception. Topics on network model ofobject recognition in human vision, the self-organization of functional architecture in t
Dec 5, 2017 ... (MBSRQ), Zung Depression Rating Scale, and Zung Anxiety Rating Scale were ... KEYWORDS: Obesity, body perception, quality of life, obesity and depression, obesity, and ..... of mothers with language delayed children.
The poster refers to important contributions of psychological research on colours. Special emphasis is given to the fundamental classification proposed by David Katz, who strongly influenced subsequent studies; e.g., those by Karl Bühler and Gaetano Kanizsa. In particular, the opposition between diaphanic and epiphanic colours is discussed and applied to two recent paintings of a contemporary experimental artist.
Feb 7, 2018 ... (MBSRQ), Zung Depression Rating Scale, and Zung Anxiety Rating Scale were applied to ... psychological distress, and subjective quality of life among obese and ... kg/m2, not receiving any medication, no special training .... Emotional role ..... Questionnaire (MBSRQ) showed positive improvement.
Background: There is a paucity of reports in the literature detailing the assessment of the beliefs,perception and psychological impact of acne patients . This is the first study from Saudi Arabia designed to address this issue. Materials and methods: A voluntary self-completed questionnaire was used to collect data from acne ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between the prior experience, cognitive perceptions and psychological skills of senior rugby players in South Africa. The study population included 139 trans-national players, 106 provincial players and 95 club rugby players (N=340). A cross-sectional design was ...
The purpose of this study was to explore students' expectations and perceptions of a first-year Psychology course (Psyc 100) at the University of the North. The idea of obtaining information about the students' opinions (especially from those in their first year of study) was spurred by the realisation that students can usefully ...
With the rationale to promote the national and international discipline, praxis and value of Sport and Exercise Psychology (S&EP) as well as make a contribution to the limited amount of comparison research, this study focused on comparative perceptions of relevant, knowledgeable S&EP stakeholders in South Africa (SA) ...
signals, motivating approach. Novelty, and the detection of certain olfactory and visual cues associated with spoilage or contamination, act as orientation or threat signals and motivate closer inspection or avoidance. Anticipatory affects are an inherent part of these behaviour regulation systems...... problematic food safety behaviours are likely to occur. The presentation will begin with an overview of the relevant psychological mechanisms that regulate approach and avoidance behaviour with respect to potentially hazardous foods. Learned representations of familiarity and reward value act as safety...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, it was aimed to find out if psychological contract perception of physicians and nurses is different or not. METHODS: The study has been cross sectionaly contucted from May to June 2010, in a 1200 bed education and research hospital in Ankara. We aimed at reaching all of the physicians and nurses without any sampling. A questionnaire method was used for data collection. Out of 646 surveys given out, we collected 413. To measure psychological contract perception of workers, Psychological Contract Scale with the 17 items developed by Millward and Hopkins. RESULTS: The reliability analysis of the Scale showed that Cronbach Alpha coefficient for the transactional contract dimension is 0,66, and for the relational contract dimension is 0,71. Whereas the univarite analysis showed that differences between transactional contract perception of physicians and nurses were significant multivarite variance analysis showed that differences between transactional (F=1.38, p=0.241 and relational (F=3.01, p=0.084 contract perception of physicians and nurses were not significant, and their perception related to both dimensions were affected only by their educational level (p<0.05. CONSLUSION: We hope that the results of this study provides significant information for healthcare organisation managers. But a more detailed study is needed to claim that these results are marginal. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 63-70
Lee, Seungyoon; Foote, Jeremy; Wittrock, Zachary; Xu, Siyu; Niu, Li; French, Doran C
Adolescents' social cognitive understanding of their social world is often inaccurate and biased. Focusing on peer groups, this study examines how adolescents' psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics influence the extent to which they accurately identify their own and others' peer groups. Analyses were conducted with a sample of 1481 seventh- and tenth-grade Chinese students who are embedded with 346 peer groups. Overall, females and older students had more accurate perceptions. In addition, lower self-esteem, higher indegree centrality, and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of one's own groups, whereas higher academic performance and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of others' groups. Implications for understanding the connection between adolescents' psychological and behavioral traits, social relationships, and social cognition are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Latinus, Marianne; Belin, Pascal
We are all voice experts. First and foremost, we can produce and understand speech, and this makes us a unique species. But in addition to speech perception, we routinely extract from voices a wealth of socially-relevant information in what constitutes a more primitive, and probably more universal, non-linguistic mode of communication. Consider the following example: you are sitting in a plane, and you can hear a conversation in a foreign language in the row behind you. You do not see the speakers' faces, and you cannot understand the speech content because you do not know the language. Yet, an amazing amount of information is available to you. You can evaluate the physical characteristics of the different protagonists, including their gender, approximate age and size, and associate an identity to the different voices. You can form a good idea of the different speaker's mood and affective state, as well as more subtle cues as the perceived attractiveness or dominance of the protagonists. In brief, you can form a fairly detailed picture of the type of social interaction unfolding, which a brief glance backwards can on the occasion help refine - sometimes surprisingly so. What are the acoustical cues that carry these different types of vocal information? How does our brain process and analyse this information? Here we briefly review an emerging field and the main tools used in voice perception research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alexandrov, Viktor Vasilievitch
This book considers computer vision to be an integral part of the artificial intelligence system. The core of the book is an analysis of possible approaches to the creation of artificial vision systems, which simulate human visual perception. Much attention is paid to the latest achievements in visual psychology and physiology, the description of the functional and structural organization of the human perception mechanism, the peculiarities of artistic perception and the expression of reality. Computer vision models based on these data are investigated. They include the processes of external d
Risk perceptions are only slightly correlated with the expected values of a probability distribution for negative health impacts. Psychometric studies have documented that context variables such as dread or personal control are important predictors for the perceived seriousness of risk. Studies about cultural patterns of risk perceptions emphasize different response set to risk information, depending on cultural priorities such as social justice versus personal freedom. This chapter reports the major psychological research pertaining to the factors that govern individual risk perception and discusses the psychometric effects due to people's risk perception and the experience of severe stress. The relative importance of the psychometric content variables, the signals pertaining to each health risks and symbolic beliefs are explained. (Author)
Petro P. Vorobiyenko
Full Text Available The article describes the results of research on the process of human perception of information, the definitions of the main channels of perception of the external world, and the diagnoses of the prevailing channel. The experience and practical achievements of scientists are analyzed in the context of psychology, pedagogy, socionics, neurolinguistic programming. Certain methods for diagnosing the dominant channel of human perception of information using electronic resources and software complexes are considered. An extended model of the process of human information perception is presented based on the three-element classification of personality types: visual, audial, kinesthetic. The main stages of the creation of an automated "perception.guide" system for diagnosing the leading channel of information perception with the purpose of choosing the most effective teaching methods using information and communication technologies are revealed. The advantages of using the system for educational purposes are determined.
Full Text Available The present research aimed to investigate the influence of personality (Five-Factor Model on Psychological Contract Breach. Using random sampling procedure, data were collected from 90 faculties of colleges of Royal University of Bhutan. Personality scales by John, Naumann, and Soto (2008 and Robinson and Morrison’s (2000 Psychological Contract Breach scale were used in this study. Correlation and regression analysis were carried out to analyze the obtained data. Results revealed that Extraversion and Neuroticism dimensions of the personality model have been found to be positively associated with the perception of breach. Employees who are by nature Agreeable and Conscientiousness are less likely to perceive breach in their psychological contract. Organization should look into the personality aspect while recruiting employees. If employees are hired with certain personality traits, they may focus on their performance and organizational growth.
Renn, O [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Programmgruppe Technik und Gesellschaft; Swaton, E [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint IAEA-IIASA Risk Assessment Group
Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed.
Renn, O.; Swaton, E.
Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed. (author)
Research purpose: The study identifies the most important breaches and investigates which values underlie employee perceptions of breach of the psychological contract. It also addresses values that lead to employees interpreting incidents as breaches. Motivation for the study: The study calls on the fact that employees make inconsequential contributions to the terms of many formal employment contracts may imply that such contracts cannot be viewed as documents between equals. Research design, approach and method: The study identifies the most prominent breaches of the psychological contract and the values underlying the perceptions that violations have occurred. Main findings: The data revealed lack of promotion, poor interpersonal relations between colleagues and bad treatment by seniors as three main breaches of the contract, and social recognition, world of peace and sense of accomplishment as three dominant values that underlie perceptions of contract violation. Practical/managerial implications: The competent and intelligent manner in which lack of promotion is handled and communicated to employees is vital because it has implications for their willingness to contribute, their career prospects and their intention to stay in the organisation. Contribution/value-add: This research can serve as the basis for the development of survey or research instruments that are appropriate and relevant to the population.
Full text of publication follows: this paper argues that perceptual control is an essential component in human risk evaluation. Control is seen as an integrative concept between the psychometric research paradigm and various psychological theories. The psychometric approach to the study of risk has mainly dealt with the intuitive judgements people do when they are asked to evaluate risky activities and technologies. It shows that people judge risk in relation to the possible consequences and probabilities related to an outcome; the former more typical for the public and the latter more often used by experts. The psychometric research tradition has concentrated on doing human risk evaluations quantifiable and the reactions predictable. This paper also relates to possible practical implications of this strategy, namely that humans react heterogeneously to different kinds of threats due to perceived control. Theoretical ability to explain and elaborate perceptions of risk, as well as individual reactions, were the main criteria for the literature selection, which includes work on e.g. attribution theory, locus of control, and learned helplessness. Thus, the paper addresses available psychological views for a contribution to a developed theoretical framework for human risk evaluation. It seeks to compare and integrate the psychometric research tradition within social psychological theories. The way in which people find their informational basis for their risk judgements, either from others or from their own perceptions is also discussed. Furthermore, the theories are related to the social and psychological reactions of the Chernobyl accident. The paper concludes that psychological theories can contribute to a more comprehensive framework for the understanding of human risk evaluation, leading to a more coherent and integrative knowledge. (author)
Because immunological defence against pathogens is costly and merely reactive, human anti-pathogen defence is also characterized by proactive behavioural mechanisms that inhibit contact with pathogens in the first place. This behavioural immune system comprises psychological processes that infer infection risk from perceptual cues, and that respond to these perceptual cues through the activation of aversive emotions, cognitions and behavioural impulses. These processes are engaged flexibly, producing context-contingent variation in the nature and magnitude of aversive responses. These processes have important implications for human social cognition and social behaviour-including implications for social gregariousness, person perception, intergroup prejudice, mate preferences, sexual behaviour and conformity. Empirical evidence bearing on these many implications is reviewed and discussed. This review also identifies important directions for future research on the human behavioural immune system--including the need for enquiry into underlying mechanisms, additional behavioural consequences and implications for human health and well-being.
Konstantin V. Minyar-Beloruchev
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to psychological aspects and psychological perception of spatial and temporal dimensions of the historical process. Space and time do not exist separately, they are closely interconnected: everything that happens in history has certain spatial and temporal position. From historical perspective spatial characteristics of a particular territory are twofold: territory’s psychical position remains unperturbed, while its political status and national affiliation are revised in the course of time. Territories vary in their value: the most valuable objects of physical environment such as sea-coasts, courses and estuaries of rivers, mineral deposits, industrial regions, etc. serve as objects of contention on the international arena, while areas that do not possess such characteristics can be of no interest to international actors. Historical time does not necessarily coincide with chronological time. For example, according to Eric Hobsbawm, the so-called long Nineteenth Century lasted from 1789 to 1914, while the short Twentieth Century lasted only from 1914 to 1991. Psychological time should also be taken into account – perception of relation between past, present, and future developments, as well as perception of chronological intervals within which certain historical developments take place. Time sets chronological framework for the historical process, it can be both cyclical and linear at the same time. Progress in transportation and communication leads to the situation where linear characteristics of space and time remain the same, while space compresses and time accelerates: movement of physical objects and information transfer take less and less time. Such process was ushered in during the Nineteenth Century (Transportation and Communication Revolutions and it accelerated in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries. Present wars can last only months and days, not years; negotiations are conducted directly by chief
While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that these constructs are independent. Distinct parental psychological characteristics were hypothesized for each construct. The parents of 871 children, ages 22-72 months, completed a four-part protocol (clinical background data, Child Vulnerability Scale, Parent Protection Scale, and Brief Symptom Inventory). A distinct parent symptom profile was found for perceived child vulnerability (somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, and anxiety). Overprotection was associated with phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and paranoid ideation. These findings provide further support for the differentiation of these constructs.
Ferguson, Christopher J
In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Liberman, N.; Förster, J.
In 4 studies, the authors examined the prediction derived from construal level theory (CLT) that higher level of perceptual construal would enhance estimated egocentric psychological distance. The authors primed participants with global perception, local perception, or both (the control condition).
Akin-Little, K. Angeleque; Bray, Melissa A.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Kehle, Thomas J.
There is a paucity of research examining the experiences and perceptions of women employed as school psychology academicians. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain female school psychology academicians' perceptions of their respective academic climates, levels of support, incidences of harassment, and levels of stress. Comparisons…
The aim of this keynote address is to show how theoretical ideas from the cultural-historical tradition have been used to address issues that fall within the scope of interest for Brazilian school psychologists. The first part of the conference discusses the idea of radical-local teaching...... which explains how this perspective was used with lower secondary school boys in Denmark who had been expelled from several schools. These two parts will be used to illustrate a perspective about full human development, expressed through cultural-historical theoretical concepts, as an orientation...... for all professional approaches to school psychology....
S A Mudrak
Full Text Available The article outlines the current trends in the environmental psychological research of the peculiarities of developing the subject-subjective human relationship with nature: considering human habitat environment as a set of natural objects; studying certain natural sites as psychologically attributive elements of the environment; determining the psychological meaning of the «Human Habitat Environment»; giving the analysis of the problem of the subjectivity development in human interaction with the natural objects.
A human error is one of the factors which cause an accident in NPP. The in-situ psychological background plays an important role in inducing it. The author analyzes the structure of one's psychological background when one is at work, and gives a few examples of typical psychological background resulting in human errors. Finally it points out that the fundamental way to eliminate the unfavourable psychological background of safety production is to establish the safety culture in NPP along with its characteristics
Full Text Available Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and nonlinear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.
April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Katya L. Le Blanc; Jing Xing
In response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is sponsoring work to update the technical basis underlying human reliability analysis (HRA) in an effort to improve the robustness of HRA. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a hybrid of existing methods addressing limitations of current HRA models and in particular issues related to intra- and inter-method variabilities and results. This hybrid method is now known as the Integrated Decision-tree Human Event Analysis System (IDHEAS). Existing HRA methods have looked at elements of the psychological literature, but there has not previously been a systematic attempt to translate the complete span of cognition from perception to action into mechanisms that can inform HRA. Therefore, a first step of this effort was to perform a literature search of psychology, cognition, behavioral science, teamwork, and operating performance to incorporate current understanding of human performance in operating environments, thus affording an improved technical foundation for HRA. However, this literature review went one step further by mining the literature findings to establish causal relationships and explicit links between the different types of human failures, performance drivers and associated performance measures ultimately used for quantification. This is the first of two papers that detail the literature review (paper 1) and its product (paper 2). This paper describes the literature review and the high-level architecture used to organize the literature review, and the second paper (Whaley, Hendrickson, Boring, & Xing, these proceedings) describes the resultant cognitive framework.
Nuclear weapons, population explosion, resource and food-supply depletion, and environmental deterioration have been posing increasing threats to human survival. Moreover, for the first time in history, all these major global threats are human caused and can, therefore, be traced in large part to psychological origins. After a brief overview of the nature and extent of current threats, this paper suggests criteria for an adequate psychology of human survival. The causes and effects of the threats are examined from various psychological perspectives and the psychological principles underlying effective responses are deduced. The ways in which mental health professionals may contribute to this most crucial task are discussed. 76 references
IT MAY BE FUN TO PERCEIVE ILLUSIONS, BUT THE UNDERSTANDING OF HOW THEY WORK IS EVEN MORE STIMULATING AND SUSTAINABLE: They can tell us where the limits and capacity of our perceptual apparatus are found-they can specify how the constraints of perception are set. Furthermore, they let us analyze the cognitive sub-processes underlying our perception. Illusions in a scientific context are not mainly created to reveal the failures of our perception or the dysfunctions of our apparatus, but instead point to the specific power of human perception. The main task of human perception is to amplify and strengthen sensory inputs to be able to perceive, orientate and act very quickly, specifically and efficiently. The present paper strengthens this line of argument, strongly put forth by perceptual pioneer Richard L. Gregory (e.g., Gregory, 2009), by discussing specific visual illusions and how they can help us to understand the magic of perception.
Cicero, G; De Luca, R; Dorangricchia, P; Lo Coco, G; Guarnaccia, C; Fanale, D; Calò, V; Russo, A
Oncological Genetic Counselling (CGO) allows the identification of a genetic component that increases the risk of developing a cancer. Individuals' psychological reactions are influenced by both the content of the received information and the subjective perception of their own risk of becoming ill or being a carrier of a genetic mutation. This study included 120 participants who underwent genetic counselling for breast and/or ovarian cancer. The aim of the study was to examine the relation between their cancer risk perception and the genetic risk during CGO before receiving genetic test results, considering the influence of some psychological variables, in particular distress, anxiety and depression. Participants completed the following tools during a psychological interview: a socio-demographic form, Cancer Risk Perception (CRP) and Genetic Risk Perception (GRP), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Distress Thermometer (DT). The data seem to confirm our hypothesis. Positive and significant correlations were found between the observed variables. Moreover, genetic risk perception determined an increase in depressive symptomatology and cancer risk perception led to an increase in anxious symptomatology, specifically in participants during cancer treatment. The present results suggest the importance of assessing genetic and cancer risk perception in individuals who undergo CGO, to identify those who are at risk of a decrease in psychological well-being and of developing greater psychological distress.
Mahoney, Emery B.; Perfect, Michelle M.; Edwinson, Roxanne M.
Since the mid-1990s, an imbalance between the number of available American Psychological Association (APA)-accredited internships and applicants has existed. In 2014, 14% of predoctoral psychology students who applied for internships accredited by the APA or members of the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) did…
Stanway, Alicia R.; Bordia, Sarbari; Fein, Erich C.
The current study takes an exploratory approach to investigate which situational factors influence perceptions of psychological contracts, as well as the content that comprises psychological contracts in the dance training industry. Semi-structured interviews ("n"?=?10) were conducted with students enrolled in a higher education…
This research compared psychological well-being and physical self-perceptions of convenience samples of health club members, hockey players, runners, soccer players, surfers and a control group of non-sports persons. All sports groups perceived themselves to be significantly more psychologically well than the control ...
Singer, Dani; Hunter, Myra
... Psychological therapy and counselling with individuals and families after donor conception Sharon A Pettle Chapter 9 182 Policy development in third party reproduction: an international perspective...
Using anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, and the results from studies conducted in space analog environments on Earth and in the actual space environment, this book broadly reviews the various psychosocial issues that affect space travelers. Unlike other books that are more technical in format, this text is targeted for the general public. With the advent of space tourism and the increasing involvement of private enterprise in space, there is now a need to explore the impact of space missions on the human psyche and on the interpersonal relationships of the crewmembers. Separate chapters of the book deal with psychosocial stressors in space and in space analog environments; psychological, psychiatric, interpersonal, and cultural issues pertaining to space missions; positive growth-enhancing aspects of space travel; the crew-ground interaction; space tourism; countermeasures for dealing with space; and unique aspects of a trip to Mars, the outer solar system, and interstellar travel. .
Full Text Available This study was conducted to find out if the psychological contract and organizational justice perceptions of paramedical personnel were affected by their socio-demographic factors and to determine whether there is a significant relation between their psychological contract and organizational justice perceptions. The study has been sectionally contucted in July-August 2010, to a 1200 bed education and research hospital in Ankara. We aimed at reaching all of the paramedical personnel without any sampling. Of 600 questionnaires distributed, we collected 458 (76,3%. The questionnaire used for collecting data consists of three parts. The first part concentrates on the individual characteristics of health workers while the second part contains the 17 item Psychological Contract Scale developed by Millward and Hopkins (1998 that is based on the quantitative approach of psychological contract. ln the third part, we used the and ldquo;Organisational Justice Measurement'' with 17 statements developed by Colquitt (2001. One of the statements refers to the study of Iscan and Naktiyok (2004. The results of the study showed that the psychological contract and organizational justice perceptions of paramedical personnel were very low. Also, their psychological contract and organizational justice perceptions were significantly affected by gender (p0,05. In addition, it was seen that there was a significant but weak relationshlp between health workers' psychological contract and organizational justice perceptions. The results of this study can provide signiflcant information to the health care management to understand psychological contract and organisational justice perception of their paramedical personnel. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(4.000: 293-299
Sims, Chris R
The fundamental goal of perception is to aid in the achievement of behavioral objectives. This requires extracting and communicating useful information from noisy and uncertain sensory signals. At the same time, given the complexity of sensory information and the limitations of biological information processing, it is necessary that some information must be lost or discarded in the act of perception. Under these circumstances, what constitutes an 'optimal' perceptual system? This paper describes the mathematical framework of rate-distortion theory as the optimal solution to the problem of minimizing the costs of perceptual error subject to strong constraints on the ability to communicate or transmit information. Rate-distortion theory offers a general and principled theoretical framework for developing computational-level models of human perception (Marr, 1982). Models developed in this framework are capable of producing quantitatively precise explanations for human perceptual performance, while yielding new insights regarding the nature and goals of perception. This paper demonstrates the application of rate-distortion theory to two benchmark domains where capacity limits are especially salient in human perception: discrete categorization of stimuli (also known as absolute identification) and visual working memory. A software package written for the R statistical programming language is described that aids in the development of models based on rate-distortion theory. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Joseph; Theol, M
Human nature has a dark side, something important to religions. Evolutionary psychology has been used to illuminate the human shadow side, although as a discipline it has attracted criticism. This article seeks to examine the evolutionary psychology's understanding of human nature and to propose an unexpected dialog with an enduring account of human evil known as original sin. Two cases are briefly considered: murder and rape. To further the exchange, numerous theoretical and methodological criticisms and replies of evolutionary psychology are explored jointly with original sin. Evolutionary psychology can partner with original sin since they share some theoretical likenesses and together they offer insights into the nature of what it means to be human.
Full Text Available Human trafficking is a widely studied phenomenon. Comparing public perceptions of trafficking to institutional (i.e. the academy, governmental and non-governmental organizations perceptions gives a richer understanding of the problem. The data for this study were collected in and around Chisinau, Moldova in the summer of 2004. Public discourse provides a more intimate "portraiture" of the issue, but the public also demonstrated a complex level of understanding of this social problem in this study. Its view is juxtaposed against an institutional view of human trafficking as explored through a literature review. Combining institutional and public perceptions and knowledge of a social problem is helpful in not only establishing a more thorough understanding of the social problem and guiding policy decisions, but in exploring the experiences victims may face at the community level.
The concept of the uncertainty principle that position and momentum cannot be simultaneously specified to arbitrary accuracy is somewhat difficult to reconcile with experience. This note describes order-of-magnitude calculations which quantify the inadequacy of human perception with regards to direct observation of the breakdown of the trajectory concept implied by the uncertainty principle. Even with the best optical microscope, human vision is inadequate by three orders of magnitude. 1 figure
BACKGROUND: Coping and illness perception are considered to be important contributors in the relationship between physical and psychological factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the complex relationship of coping and illness perception on physical and psychological factors in RA using a structural model. METHODS: We assessed coping, illness perception, depression, anxiety, pain, arthritis-related disability and perceived social support in 68 adults with RA. RESULTS: Greater pain was detected in patients with increased scores on passive coping scale, greater severity of physical disability and increased depression and anxiety. Illness perception was found to be a mediator in the relationship between physical disability and passive coping on one hand and depression, anxiety and pain on the other. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesised structural model has proven to be a useful paradigm for understanding the associations between multiple factors in RA presentation: clinical, emotional, personal and cognitive.
Much theorizing in psychology and related disciplines begins with a given model of the mind that is then applied in research projects to study concrete phenomena. Sometimes psychological research can be theory-driven in quite an explicit way, approaching the logic of the hypothetico-deductive method. Others reject this and prefer to work inductively, and, in the extreme case of positivism, perhaps try to avoid theorizing altogether. In this article I shall suggest another way to think of the relationship between psychological theories and psychological phenomena. My suggestion is not simply to replace the hypothetico-deductive model with an inductive one, but to argue that the most direct route to theories of the human mind that grasp its complexity is to begin with the Kantian question of transcendental philosophy: X exists - how is X possible? In the context of this article, I apply this questioning to the phenomenon of grief: Grief exists - what general psychological theory of the mind do we need in order to account for its possibility? I attempt to extract three general psychological points from the existence of grief, viz. (1) the deep relationality of the self, (2) the limitations of evolutionary accounts, and (3) the normativity of psychological phenomena. I shall argue that these are general psychological lessons to be learned from grief, although they could also be arrived at by considering several other significant psychological phenomena.
Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.
Allen, Andrew P.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Clarke, Gerard
Abstract In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress‐related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain–gut–microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain–gut–microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain–gut–microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology. PMID:28804508
Problem Statement: Modern management approaches attach great importance to both the informal and the economic aspects of the organizations. Identifying teachers' psychological contract types and fit levels of a work environment in terms of variables such as seniority, educational degree, and school type will lead to discovery of the motivational…
Cihan Mehmet Kadipasaoglu
Full Text Available Prevailing theories suggests that cortical regions responsible for face perception operate in a serial, feed-forward fashion. Here, we utilize invasive human electrophysiology to evaluate serial models of face-processing via measurements of cortical activation, functional connectivity, and cortico-cortical evoked potentials. We find that task-dependent changes in functional connectivity between face-selective regions in the inferior occipital (f-IOG and fusiform gyrus (f-FG are bidirectional, not feed-forward, and emerge following feed-forward input from early visual cortex (EVC to both of these regions. Cortico-cortical evoked potentials similarly reveal independent signal propagations between EVC and both f-IOG and f-FG. These findings are incompatible with serial models, and support a parallel, distributed network underpinning face perception in humans.
Pauli, Wolfgang M; O'Reilly, Randall C; Yarkoni, Tal; Wager, Tor D
Decades of animal and human neuroimaging research have identified distinct, but overlapping, striatal zones, which are interconnected with separable corticostriatal circuits, and are crucial for the organization of functional systems. Despite continuous efforts to subdivide the human striatum based on anatomical and resting-state functional connectivity, characterizing the different psychological processes related to each zone remains a work in progress. Using an unbiased, data-driven approach, we analyzed large-scale coactivation data from 5,809 human imaging studies. We (i) identified five distinct striatal zones that exhibited discrete patterns of coactivation with cortical brain regions across distinct psychological processes and (ii) identified the different psychological processes associated with each zone. We found that the reported pattern of cortical activation reliably predicted which striatal zone was most strongly activated. Critically, activation in each functional zone could be associated with distinct psychological processes directly, rather than inferred indirectly from psychological functions attributed to associated cortices. Consistent with well-established findings, we found an association of the ventral striatum (VS) with reward processing. Confirming less well-established findings, the VS and adjacent anterior caudate were associated with evaluating the value of rewards and actions, respectively. Furthermore, our results confirmed a sometimes overlooked specialization of the posterior caudate nucleus for executive functions, often considered the exclusive domain of frontoparietal cortical circuits. Our findings provide a precise functional map of regional specialization within the human striatum, both in terms of the differential cortical regions and psychological functions associated with each striatal zone.
Ahtola, Annarilla; Kiiski-Mäki, Hanna
Indirect work of school psychologists has not actualized itself widely in everyday practices. To understand this contradiction, the working environment of school psychologists, that is, the school, is worthy of closer examination. In the present study, we wanted to find out which factors affect school professionals' perceptions of school…
Full Text Available The present work highlights the different aspects of human perception of environment, specific characteristics of the subjective estimation of its state and attitudes to environmental quality. The authors claim more scientific awareness for the understanding of the motivations determining human behavior during interaction with the environment and knowledge about the objective functional system “perception—action” as part of complex geoecological analyses. Furthermore the populations view on the further development of the landscape to improve its living conditions etc. is a crucial part of this concept.
Goette, William F.; Delello, Julie A.; Schmitt, Andrew L.; Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Rangel, Angelica
This study compares the academic performance and perceptions of 114 undergraduate students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course. Specifically, this study focuses on whether face-to-face (F2F) or blended modalities are associated with student learning outcomes. In this study, data analysis was based upon the examination of end-of-course…
Tuncel, Ibrahim; Aricioglu, Ahu
The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting the intercultural sensitivity perception levels of Psychological Counseling and Guidance students. This study was conducted in Pamukkale University which is located in the western part of Turkey. Data were gathered from 524 freshmen, sophomore, junior and senior students who are…
Payne, Sheila C.
A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of psychological and safety environments of an oil and gas multinational enterprise. Twenty information technology professionals were interviewed to explore their feelings, perceptions, beliefs, and values of the phenomenon. The interviews elicited data about facets…
Lowinger, Robert Jay
A sample of 201 college students were surveyed with respect to their perceptions of severity and willingness to seek psychological help for drug and alcohol problems. Results indicated that students perceive alcohol problems as significantly less serious than drug problems and are significantly less willing to seek help for alcohol problems. Males…
Sons, 1977. 6 15. Horn, J, L. Human abilities: A review of research and theory in the early 1970’s. Annual Review of Psychology. 1976, 27^, 437...Mother-Infant Interaction, Howard A. Moss. 149. Sex of Parent X Sex of Child: Socioemotional Development, Micheal Lewis and Marsha Weinraub. 165...C. Thomas, 1971. Contents: Biology of Sex Differences. 3. Psychological Sex Differences. 12. Freudian Theory of Feminine Development. 43. The
Muhammad Dawood Idrees
Full Text Available The safety of construction workers is always a major concern at construction sites as the construction industry is inherently dangerous with many factors influencing worker safety. Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety. However, research on psychological factors that are characteristic of different age groups have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychological factors on the perception of worker safety for two different age groups. After an extensive literature review, different psychological factors were identified, and a hypothetical research model was developed based on psychological factors that could affect workers’ perception of safety. A survey instrument was developed, and data were collected from seven different construction sites in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test the hypothetical model for both age groups. The results revealed that workload and job satisfaction are significantly dominant factors on workers’ perception of safety in older workers, whereas organizational relationships, mental stress, and job security are dominant factors for younger workers at construction sites.
Andersen, Janice; Nordin, Karin; Sandberg, Sverre
Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) requires long-term treatment and follow-up, although many patients experience life-long remission. The aim of this cross-sectional postal survey was to describe and investigate the association between illness perception, health complaints, self-reported symptoms and distress in persons with PCT. The participants perceived PCT as a chronic condition with high levels of personal and treatment control. Persons who reported active symptoms scored higher on perceived illness threat, total health complaints and psychological distress compared with those in remission or latent phases. However, a higher perception of illness threat and the total burden of health complaints were more closely associated with psychological distress than were perceived PCT symptoms activity. This has implications for clinical consultation; dermatologists should be attentive to symptoms activity, but also recognize that patients in remission with a high perceived illness threat and multiple health complaints might be especially vulnerable to psychological distress with regards to PCT.
Ana Carolina Gravena Vanalli
Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the education professionals' perception about the performance of school psychologists. To attain this goal, 24 education professionals were interviewed, being 19 educators and five school psychologists from 11 private and public schools of two cities of São Paulo state. Based on descriptions about the psychologists' performance found in the literature, it is possible to compare them to the school psychologists' performance and to the education professionals' perception. From the data obtained, it was verified that the participants had knowledge, even though in a general perspective, about the performance area and considered important the service of those professionals to the school as an institution. However, it was noticed the difference of perception between the performances reported by the psychologists and these professionals' performance described by the other education professionals interviewed, seeming to generate dissatisfaction and possible conflicts. Therefore, it is necessary that the psychologist attributions become clearer and widespread so their interventions could match educators' expectations, provide satisfying results and be more frequently included in school institutions.
Perrella, Andrea M L; Kiss, Simon J
Increasingly, support for water fluoridation has come under attack. We seek an explanation, focusing on the case of Waterloo, Ontario, where a 2010 referendum overturned its water fluoridation program. In particular, we test whether individuals perceive the risks of water fluoridation based not on 'hard' scientific evidence but on heuristics and cultural norms. A sample of 376 residents in Waterloo were surveyed in June 2012 using random digit dialing. We use factor analysis, OLS regression, as well as t-tests to evaluate a survey experiment to test the credibility hypothesis. Perceptions of fluoride as a risk are lower among those who perceive fluoride's benefits (B = .473, p < 0.001) and those whose cultural view is 'egalitarian' (B = .156, p < 0.05). The experiment shows a lower level of perception of fluoride's benefits among respondents who are told that water fluoridation is opposed by a national advocacy group (Group A) compared to those who are told that the government and the World Health Organization support fluoridation (Group B) (t = 1.6547, p < 0.05), as well as compared to the control group (t = 1.8913, p < 0.05). There is no difference between Group B and the control, possibly because people's already general support for fluoridation is less prone to change when told that other public organizations also support fluoridation. Public health officials should take into account cultural norms and perceptions when individuals in a community appear to rise up against water fluoridation, with implications for other public health controversies.
H. Tezcan UYSAL
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of industrial and organizational psychology on entrepreneurship university perceptions of academic personnel that maintain their duties as executives within the climate of university. In accordance with this purpose, a study for academicians that carry out their duties as executives virtually in two state universities one of which (Y takes place among entrepreneur and entrepreneurial university index while another (X doesn't take place within this index was conducted. The results of the questionnaires which tried to measure the entrepreneurial university perception and industrial and organizational psychology were analyzed with correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, Kruskal-Wallis H Test and Mann-Whitney U test within the scope of SPSS program. As a result of the correlation analysis that was conducted for both of the samplings, a significant relationship was detected between negative and positive industrial and organizational psychology and entrepreneurial university perception. As a result of the regression analysis that was conducted for the sample obtained from X university, it was determined that the psychological output that had the most effect on the entrepreneurship university perception of the executives was motivation while the negative output that had the most effect was the intention to quit the job. As a result of the regression analysis that was conducted for the sample obtained from the Y University, it was detected that the positive output that had the most effect on the entrepreneurial university conception of the executives was motivation, while the negative output that had the most effect was job stress. As a result of the comparison of both examples, the fundamental psychological factor that intensified the entrepreneurial university perception was high motivation.
Full Text Available Childbirth is one of the most vulnerable moments and the most important and memorable events in the lives of women that despite of bringing happiness, it can be associated with psychological trauma and endanger the mother and neonate health. Mothers' perception of the psychological birth trauma is a highly subjective process that depends on the cultural, social and biological conditions of mothers that is not achievable except with examination of their views. This study aimed to understand psychological birth trauma from the perceptions of Iranian mothers.A qualitative research design using in-depth interviews of 23 Iranian mothers was conducted from Tehran and Isfahan health centers. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using conventional content analysis.Two themes were extracted from the data: impact of psychological birth trauma and trends of psychological birth trauma. Several categories and sub-categories also emerged from the data. Feelings of fear, anxiety, helplessness and sense of impending death (collapse were reported by the mothers.By considering the unforgettable experience of mothers from the psychological birth trauma, a plan for supportive care before, during and after birth is critical.
According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively.
Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.
Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A
Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.
Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.
Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…
Abdai, Judit; Ferdinandy, Bence; Terencio, Cristina Baño; Pogány, Ákos; Miklósi, Ádám
Humans have a tendency to perceive inanimate objects as animate based on simple motion cues. Although animacy is considered as a complex cognitive property, this recognition seems to be spontaneous. Researchers have found that young human infants discriminate between dependent and independent movement patterns. However, quick visual perception of animate entities may be crucial to non-human species as well. Based on general mammalian homology, dogs may possess similar skills to humans. Here, we investigated whether dogs and humans discriminate similarly between dependent and independent motion patterns performed by geometric shapes. We projected a side-by-side video display of the two patterns and measured looking times towards each side, in two trials. We found that in Trial 1, both dogs and humans were equally interested in the two patterns, but in Trial 2 of both species, looking times towards the dependent pattern decreased, whereas they increased towards the independent pattern. We argue that dogs and humans spontaneously recognized the specific pattern and habituated to it rapidly, but continued to show interest in the 'puzzling' pattern. This suggests that both species tend to recognize inanimate agents as animate relying solely on their motions. © 2017 The Author(s).
Capezza, Nicole M; D'Intino, Lauren A; Flynn, Margaret A; Arriaga, Ximena B
It is commonly assumed that male abuse is more damaging than female abuse, just as it previously has been assumed that physical abuse is more harmful than psychological abuse. We sought to examine gender assumptions given that they may cause people to overlook the harm that men experience with a psychologically abusive partner. The current experiment compared perceptions of male and female perpetrators of psychological abuse, and examined whether gendered perceptions were affected by sexist beliefs or participants' own sex. The experiment also explored the effect of the victim's response to a perpetrator's abuse. College participants ( N = 195) read a scenario depicting a hypothetical marital conflict that manipulated the sex of the perpetrator, the level of abuse (abuse or no abuse), and whether the victim did or did not respond with some aggression. In scenarios that featured abuse (relative to no-abuse conditions), a male perpetrator was consistently perceived more harshly than a female perpetrator. Participant sex and sexism did not moderate this gender-based perception. Varying the victim's response in the scenario affected perceptions more in the no-abuse condition than in the abuse condition. The findings are discussed in terms of robust gender assumptions and the difficulties in challenging such assumptions.
We also notice the element of environmental influences in people's behaviour. This state of affairs sometime make us to wonder whether we are really free moral agents or whether our actions are not after all determined by forces and circumstances beyond our control. In this paper while it is recognized that human actions ...
Full Text Available Purpose: Diagnosis of the opportunities and threats associated with the introduction of the euro in Poland was the main focus of this study. The research had two main objectives: exploratory and operational. The exploratory objective was to capture the structure of convictions affecting Poles’ attitudes toward the introduction of the euro. The operational objective was to verify which of those convictions have the most infl uence on the lack of support for the introduction of the euro. Methodology: The research was conducted with a national random sample (n=509 of Polish citizens. The CAPI/ CASI face-to-face questionnaire was used. Findings: There exists a multi-level structure of attitudes towards the euro. The attitude toward the introduction of the euro is explained by attitudes toward the euro and the Polish zloty, perceived gains and losses from introduction of the euro and life attitudes. One cannot force another individual to support the introduction of the euro. However, one can act upon the convictions of the nation, which has a major impact on raising euro acceptance. The most impact is from strengthening of national beliefs, which strongly and positively affect the level of euro acceptance, whereas any reduction lowers the acceptance of the introduction of a new currency. Limitations: As any other social phenomena, money perception is very dynamic and dependent on current political and social issues. Therefore, despite the fact that the model seems to defi ne the factors and their influence on euro perception very accurately, it is essential that every time it is applied, the current state of mind of the society is measured. Furthermore, additional research should be conducted for groups deviating from the average results for the society. Originality: The practical aspect of this research is the opportunity to point out convictions, which need to be modified to increase euro acceptance.
Baldwin, Susie B; Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Eisenman, David P
This study examined coercive conditions experienced by trafficked persons in the context of Biderman's theory of coercion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 adult women trafficked into Los Angeles County, from 10 countries, for domestic work and/or sex work. Participants described health problems they experienced in relation to their trafficking experience and their perceptions of conditions that caused health problems. Utilizing a framework analysis approach, we analyzed themes using Biderman's framework. Participants reported experiencing the range of nonphysical coercive tactics outlined by Biderman, including isolation, monopolization of perception, induced debility or exhaustion, threats, occasional indulgences, demonstration of omnipotence, degradation, and enforcement of trivial demands. Our analysis demonstrates how these coercion tactics reinforced the submission of trafficked persons to their traffickers even in the absence of physical force or restraints. Such psychological abuse creates extreme stress that can lead to acute and chronic, physical and mental health problems. © The Author(s) 2014.
Larsen, Randy J.; Buss, David M.; Wismeijer, Andreas; Song, John; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine
Using a unique organizational framework that emphasizes six domains of knowledge about human nature, Personality Psychology presents an accessible, contemporary look at personality as a collection of interrelated topics and themes. The book focuses on the scientific basis of our knowledge about
Jack, Rachael E.; Crivelli, Carlos; Wheatley, Thalia
open access article Psychology aims to understand real human behavior. However, cultural biases in the scientific process can constrain knowledge. We describe here how data-driven methods can relax these constraints to reveal new insights that theories can overlook. To advance knowledge we advocate a symbiotic approach that better combines data-driven methods with theory.
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study of the psychological determination of the state’s image in the students’ perception. The results of empirical research of the influence of the students’ adaptation and orientation to their vision of the state are described in the article. The state image in the perception of student youth was analyzed according to the parameters of the state’s accomplishment assessment, the feeling of a sense of belonging to the state, the sense of vision of the state existence and the assessment of the state power as competent, effective, credible, and strong.
Cottrell, David; Campbell, Megan E J
When one hears footsteps in the hall, one is able to instantly recognise it as a person: this is an everyday example of auditory biological motion perception. Despite the familiarity of this experience, research into this phenomenon is in its infancy compared with visual biological motion perception. Here, two experiments explored sensitivity to, and recognition of, auditory stimuli of biological and nonbiological origin. We hypothesised that the cadence of a walker gives rise to a temporal pattern of impact sounds that facilitates the recognition of human motion from auditory stimuli alone. First a series of detection tasks compared sensitivity with three carefully matched impact sounds: footsteps, a ball bouncing, and drumbeats. Unexpectedly, participants were no more sensitive to footsteps than to impact sounds of nonbiological origin. In the second experiment participants made discriminations between pairs of the same stimuli, in a series of recognition tasks in which the temporal pattern of impact sounds was manipulated to be either that of a walker or the pattern more typical of the source event (a ball bouncing or a drumbeat). Under these conditions, there was evidence that both temporal and nontemporal cues were important in recognising theses stimuli. It is proposed that the interval between footsteps, which reflects a walker's cadence, is a cue for the recognition of the sounds of a human walking.
The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de
Liberman, Nira; Förster, Jens
In 4 studies, the authors examined the prediction derived from construal level theory (CLT) that higher level of perceptual construal would enhance estimated egocentric psychological distance. The authors primed participants with global perception, local perception, or both (the control condition). Relative to the control condition, global processing made participants estimate larger psychological distances in time (Study 1), space (Study 2), social distance (Study 3), and hypotheticality (Study 4). Local processing had the opposite effect. Consistent with CLT, all studies show that the effect of global-versus-local processing did emerge when participants estimated egocentric distances, which are distances from the experienced self in the here and now, but did not emerge with temporal distances not from now (Study 1), spatial distances not from here (Study 2), social distances not from the self (Study 3), or hypothetical events that did not involve altering an experienced reality (Study 4).
Khambalia, Amina; Hardy, Louise L; Bauman, Adrian
To compare overweight and obese adolescents with accurate and inaccurate self-reported weight perception across a range of behaviours and measures of psychological well-being. This study uses a cross-sectional survey of grade 7-12 high school students in New South Wales, Australia, conducted in 2008 (n= 7553). Overweight and obese students based on body mass index were classified as accurate perceivers (weight perception was 'too fat') or inaccurate perceivers (weight perception was 'about right'). Nearly a third of adolescents had incongruity between self-perceived body weight status and body mass index-determined weight category. Compared with boys, girls were less likely to underestimate their body weight (odds ratio: 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.27) and more likely to overestimate their body weight (odds ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 3.3, 3.5). Accurate body weight perception was higher in obese adolescents compared with overweight adolescents (69.5% vs. 44.0%). Compared with mis-perceivers, accurate overweight and obese perceivers had significantly higher odds of trying to lose weight and being more physically active; however, they showed a combination of unhealthy and healthy behaviours (i.e. dietary patterns and sedentary activities). Accurate weight perception among overweight and obese adolescents was associated with increased odds of feeling sad or depressed in the past 6 months. Further research on social, familial and psychological factors that predict or mediate healthy and unhealthy weight-related behaviours among adolescents by accuracy of weight perception is needed. Accurate weight perception should be considered in counselling and behavioural interventions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that
Asamoah, Emmanuel Selase; Chovancová, Miloslava
Price ending is an important pricing strategy that has been used by retailers over the years. The trend seems to be effective considering how consumers react especially to products with odd price endings. This review is aimed at providing an understanding of the psychological influences of price ending on buyers, using the theory of perception. It analysis theories and existing literature on the topic and brings out augmentative pricing strategies that retailers can adopt in consumer markets....
José Antonio Pomares Alfonso; Ana María Molina Gómez
Background: as teachers are able to express in their conduct and relationships with the students values such as responsibility, love for their country and profession, honesty and sense of justice, among others, they will enhance their preparation as a learning motive. Objective: to assess the perception of first year Health Psychology students on their professor’s responsibility value. Methods: a descriptive study conducted at the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos in March, 2010 th...
Emmanuel Selase Asamoah; Miloslava Chovancová
Price ending is an important pricing strategy that has been used by retailers over the years. The trend seems to be effective considering how consumers react especially to products with odd price endings. This review is aimed at providing an understanding of the psychological influences of price ending on buyers, using the theory of perception. It analysis theories and existing literature on the topic and brings out augmentative pricing strategies that retailers can adopt in consumer markets....
Itzhaki, Michal; Hildesheimer, Galya; Barnoy, Sivia; Katz, Michael
Family members often rely on health care professionals to guide and support them through the decision-making process. Although family involvement in medical decisions should be included in the preservice curriculum for the health care professions, perceptions of students in caring professions on family involvement in medical decision-making have not yet been examined. To examine the perceptions of nursing and psychology students on family involvement in medical decision-making for seriously ill patients. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. First year undergraduate nursing and psychology students studying for their Bachelor of Arts degree were recruited. Perceptions were assessed with a questionnaire constructed based on the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), which examines decision-maker preferences. The questionnaire consisted of two parts referring to the respondent once as the patient and then as the family caregiver. Questionnaires were completed by 116 nursing students and 156 psychology students. Most were of the opinion that family involvement in decision-making is appropriate, especially when the patient is incapable of making decisions. Nursing students were more inclined than psychology students to think that financial, emotional, and value-based considerations should be part of the family's involvement in decision-making. Both groups of students perceived the emotional consideration as most acceptable, whereas the financial consideration was considered the least acceptable. Nursing and psychology students perceive family involvement in medical decision-making as appropriate. In order to train students to support families in the process of decision-making, further research should examine Shared Decision-Making (SDM) programs, which involve patient and clinician collaboration in health care decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R
The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.
DiNapoli, Jean Marie; O'Flaherty, Deirdre; Musil, Carol; Clavelle, Joanne T; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
The purpose of this study was to describe relationships between structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and engagement among clinical nurses. Empowerment and engagement are key drivers of retention and quality in healthcare. Creating an empowering culture and an engaged staff supports initiatives that are essential for positive work environments. A survey of 280 nurses in a national conference was conducted using the Conditions of Work Effectiveness, Psychological Empowerment Instrument, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis were used to determine relationships between demographic data and study variables. Overall, nurses had high perceptions of structural empowerment and psychological empowerment and were moderately engaged. Also, significant positive relationships were found between the key study variables. Results show positive correlations between empowerment and perceived engagement among clinical nurses.
Green, Debbie; Callands, Tamora A; Radcliffe, Alison M; Luebbe, Aaron M; Klonoff, Elizabeth A
This study examined clinical psychology graduate students' definitions of diversity and their perceptions of their exposure to and satisfaction regarding their level of diversity training. Four hundred and ninety-one students from Counsel of University Directors of Clinical Psychology (CUDCP) member programs completed an online survey. Overall, students perceived that their programs considered diversity narrowly, concentrating primarily on ethnicity, race, and culture to the neglect of sexual orientation, religion, language, and physical disability. Likewise, students expressed greater satisfaction with training regarding ethnicity/race and gender than broader areas of diversity, but rated the importance of addressing all areas of diversity as high. Although this study underscores the limited experience that students perceive they have had with various underrepresented groups, programs appear to have incorporated a variety of diversity training modalities that could be expanded upon to meet the interests of psychology students.
Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi
Abstract Objective To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Findings Out of the 180 604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59 807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32–1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94–2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Conclusion Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress. PMID:26478623
Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana
Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.
Clarke, Colin; Eales-Reynolds, Lesley-Jane
The purpose of this paper is to examine if customer care (CC) can be directly linked to patient safety through a human factors (HF) framework. Data from an online questionnaire, completed by a convenience healthcare worker sample (n=373), was interrogated using thematic analysis within Vincent et al.'s (1998) HF theoretical framework. This proposes seven areas affecting patient safety: institutional context, organisation and management, work environment, team factors, individual, task and patient. Analysis identified responses addressing all framework areas. Responses (597) principally focused on work environment 40.7 per cent (n=243), organisation and management 28.8 per cent (n=172). Nevertheless, reference to other framework areas were clearly visible within the data: teams 10.2 per cent (n=61), individual 6.7 per cent (n=40), patients 6.0 per cent (n=36), tasks 4.2 per cent (n=24) and institution 3.5 per cent (n=21). Findings demonstrate congruence between CC perceptions and patient safety within a HF framework. The questionnaire requested participants to identify barriers to rather than CC enablers. Although this was at a single site complex organisation, it was similar to those throughout the NHS and other international health systems. CC can be viewed as consonant with patient safety rather than the potentially dangerous consumerisation stance, which could ultimately compromise patient safety. This work provides an original perspective on the link between CC and patient safety and has the potential to re-focus healthcare perceptions.
Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.
Ebersole, Tela M.; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G.
This article outlines the theoretical rationale and process for an integrated-science approach to teaching sensation and perception (S&P) to undergraduate psychology students that may also serve as an integrated-science curriculum. The course aimed to introduce the interdisciplinary evolution of this psychological field irrespective of any…
Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Tsemach, Sigalit
Purpose: This study explores the mediating role of psychological empowerment on authentic leadership, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB), and a variety of withdrawal behaviors among teachers, using the psychological model of perceptions-attitudes-behaviors. Research Design: A total of 366 teachers from 23 randomly selected Israeli schools…
Full Text Available This paper discusses and evaluates the application of a social psychologically enriched, user-centered approach to agent architecture design. The major aim is to facilitate human-agent interaction (HAI by making agents not only algorithmically more intelligent but also socially more skillful in communicating with the user. A decision-making model and communicative argumentation strategies have been incorporated into the agent architecture. In the presented content resource management experiments, enhancement of human task performance is demonstrated for users that are supported by a persuasive agent. This superior performance seems to be rooted in a more trusting collaborative relationship between the user and the agent, rather than in the appropriateness of the agent's decision-making suggestions alone. In particular, the second experiment demonstrated that interface interaction design should follow the principles of task-orientation and implicitness. Making the influence of the agent too salient can trigger counterintentional effects, such as users' discomfort and psychological reactance.
Pate, Judy; Malone, Charles
Interviews with 20 employees 5 years after a factory closure explored pre- and postlayoff experiences and perceptions of current employers. The experience of the violation of the psychological contract affected perceptions of loyalty, commitment, and trust that were transferred to the current employer. (SK)
Wagemans, Johan; Elder, James H.; Kubovy, Michael; Palmer, Stephen E.; Peterson, Mary A.; Singh, Manish; von der Heydt, Rüdiger
In 1912, Max Wertheimer published his paper on phi motion, widely recognized as the start of Gestalt psychology. Because of its continued relevance in modern psychology, this centennial anniversary is an excellent opportunity to take stock of what Gestalt psychology has offered and how it has changed since its inception. We first introduce the key findings and ideas in the Berlin school of Gestalt psychology, and then briefly sketch its development, rise, and fall. Next, we discuss its empirical and conceptual problems, and indicate how they are addressed in contemporary research on perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization. In particular, we review the principles of grouping, both classical (e.g., proximity, similarity, common fate, good continuation, closure, symmetry, parallelism) and new (e.g., synchrony, common region, element and uniform connectedness), and their role in contour integration and completion. We then review classic and new image-based principles of figure-ground organization, how it is influenced by past experience and attention, and how it relates to shape and depth perception. After an integrated review of the neural mechanisms involved in contour grouping, border-ownership, and figure-ground perception, we conclude by evaluating what modern vision science has offered compared to traditional Gestalt psychology, whether we can speak of a Gestalt revival, and where the remaining limitations and challenges lie. A better integration of this research tradition with the rest of vision science requires further progress regarding the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the Gestalt approach, which will be the focus of a second review paper. PMID:22845751
Wagemans, Johan; Elder, James H; Kubovy, Michael; Palmer, Stephen E; Peterson, Mary A; Singh, Manish; von der Heydt, Rüdiger
In 1912, Max Wertheimer published his paper on phi motion, widely recognized as the start of Gestalt psychology. Because of its continued relevance in modern psychology, this centennial anniversary is an excellent opportunity to take stock of what Gestalt psychology has offered and how it has changed since its inception. We first introduce the key findings and ideas in the Berlin school of Gestalt psychology, and then briefly sketch its development, rise, and fall. Next, we discuss its empirical and conceptual problems, and indicate how they are addressed in contemporary research on perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization. In particular, we review the principles of grouping, both classical (e.g., proximity, similarity, common fate, good continuation, closure, symmetry, parallelism) and new (e.g., synchrony, common region, element and uniform connectedness), and their role in contour integration and completion. We then review classic and new image-based principles of figure-ground organization, how it is influenced by past experience and attention, and how it relates to shape and depth perception. After an integrated review of the neural mechanisms involved in contour grouping, border ownership, and figure-ground perception, we conclude by evaluating what modern vision science has offered compared to traditional Gestalt psychology, whether we can speak of a Gestalt revival, and where the remaining limitations and challenges lie. A better integration of this research tradition with the rest of vision science requires further progress regarding the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the Gestalt approach, which is the focus of a second review article.
Alexanders, Jenny; Anderson, Anna; Henderson, Sarah
Research has demonstrated that incorporating psychological interventions within physiotherapy practice has numerous potential benefits. Despite this physiotherapists have reported feeling inadequately trained to confidently use such interventions in their day-to-day practice. To systematically review musculoskeletal physiotherapists' perceptions regarding the use of psychological interventions within physiotherapy practice. Eligible studies were identified through a rigorous search of AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsychINFO from January 2002 until August 2013. Full text qualitative, quantitative and mixed methodology studies published in English language investigating musculoskeletal physiotherapists' perceptions regarding their use of psychological interventions within physiotherapy practice. Included studies were appraised for risk of bias using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative checklist. Meta-analysis was not possible due to study heterogeneity. Six studies, all with a low risk of bias, met the inclusion criteria. These studies highlighted that physiotherapists appreciate the importance of using psychological interventions within their practice, but report inadequate understanding and consequent underutilisation of these interventions. These results should be noted with some degree of caution due to various limitations associated with the included studies and with this review, including the use of a qualitative appraisal tool for mixed methodology/quantitative studies. These findings suggest that musculoskeletal physiotherapists are aware of the potential benefits of incorporating psychological interventions within their practice but feel insufficiently trained to optimise their use of such interventions; hence highlighting a need for further research in this area and a review of physiotherapist training. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delgado Álvarez, Carmen; Estrada Aranda, Benito; López Huerto, José A
Studies reporting similar figures of couple (man-woman) violence and works questioning the validity of the instruments employed have generated controversy about the conceptualization of this construct. One of the critical issues is the different ways of perceiving violence between men and women, as well as its nature in the cultural context. This may affect self-reported answers. A questionnaire evaluating the degree of violence perceived in ten kinds of psychological partner abuse was applied. 1750 students from Spain and Mexico, all of them randomly selected, completed it. Through MANOVA, greater perception of violence in the Spanish sample than in the Mexican one was obtained; in both countries, there was a greater perception in women than in men. Effects of gender-culture interaction were obtained in four dimensions: Isolation, Sexual Pressure, Emotional Manipulation, and Dominance. Multidimensional scaling showed two perceived dimensions: (1) "Proactive-Passive Tactics", stronger in the Spanish culture and (2) "Punitive-Emotional Tactics", stronger in the Mexican culture. These results confirm gender-culture effects in perception of psychological violence in the partner.
Tschacher, Wolfgang; Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre
Cognitive psychology encounters various problems, such as the problem of intentionality, the symbol grounding and representation problems, and the problem of cognitive stability. These problems originate from the mind-body dichotomy; thus, foundational philosophical topics have quite concrete consequences for cognitive psychology and autonomous agents design. We argue that cognitive theory and modeling must account for stability, autonomy or completeness (i.e., should not rely on homunculi), and optimality. A synergetic model is proposed that has the desired properties: Cognition rests upon perception-action cycles. Cognition is viewed as ecological, i.e. it is situated by environmental affordances (valences) which signal energy resources. These cycles have an built-in optimality function because they maximize entropy production by dissipating affordances.
Özbaş, Azize Atli; Tel, Havva
Oncology nursing is stressful by its nature, and nurses in the field experience a high amount of stress and burnout. In order to cope with occupational stress, nurses need to employ flexible adjustment mechanisms that allow them the power to process their experiences. Failure of efficient stress management causes burnout, and burnout is closely related to powerlessness. It is therefore believed that the occurrence of burnout can be reduced by means of psychological empowerment of nurses. Our study was conducted to determine the effect of a "psychodrama-based psychological empowerment program" on (1) the perception of empowerment and (2) the levels of burnout in oncology nurses. The sample was made up of 82 oncology nurses (38 nurses in the study group and 44 in the control/comparison group). Study data were collected using the Psychological Empowerment Scale, the Nurse Work Empowerment Scale, and Maslach's Burnout Inventory. The study group attended a "psychodrama-based psychological empowerment program" (2 hours, 1 day a week, for 10 weeks). For data assessment, we employed an independent t test and one-way analysis of variance. The psychological empowerment and workplace empowerment scores of nurses in the study group increased and their burnout scores decreased following attendance in the psychodrama-based psychological empowerment program. We found that the psychodrama-based psychological empowerment program increased psychological empowerment and enhanced perception of workplace empowerment while decreasing levels of burnout in oncology nurses. The program is recommended and should allow oncology nurses to benefit from their personal experiences and thus increase self-empowerment, to enhance their perception of empowerment, and to prevent burnout.
Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R
Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Psychological peculiarities of icon perception during prayer through the lens of theological and literary texts in cultural-historical and christian context. This research is dedicated to the psychotherapeutic effect of prayer in front of a Christian icon and icon mediated perception, namely the perception through the spectrum period of theological and modern literature (in Christian space, a registered historical decline known as "separation from church" time. In was identified and defined the concepts, as well as the functional pictogram and Christian prayer. For this purpose, it was investigated the theological texts and artistic works of local authors. In these texts the human being according to Christian conception, represent the symbol of a "living icon". These identify the main aim of pictogram as a mediator between human being and Higher Spirituality. The icon perception are "speculation in paints", which helps the person in building a dialogue between him and God, as the higher absolute spiritual and moral value. This research generates a main conclusion, where icon social perception of is an indicator of spiritual potential of human light.
Mitsukura, Eiichi; Satoh, Shunji
We propose a computational model that is consistent with human perception of depth in "ambiguous regions," in which no binocular disparity exists. Results obtained from our model reveal a new characteristic of depth perception. Random dot stereograms (RDS) are often used as examples because RDS provides sufficient disparity for depth calculation. A simple question confronts us: "How can we estimate the depth of a no-texture image region, such as one on white paper?" In such ambiguous regions, mathematical solutions related to binocular disparities are not unique or indefinite. We examine a mathematical description of depth completion that is consistent with human perception of depth for ambiguous regions. Using computer simulation, we demonstrate that resultant depth-maps qualitatively reproduce human depth perception of two kinds. The resultant depth maps produced using our model depend on the initial depth in the ambiguous region. Considering this dependence from psychological viewpoints, we conjecture that humans perceive completed surfaces that are affected by prior-stimuli corresponding to the initial condition of depth. We conducted psychological experiments to verify the model prediction. An ambiguous stimulus was presented after a prior stimulus removed ambiguity. The inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was inserted between the prior stimulus and post-stimulus. Results show that correlation of perception between the prior stimulus and post-stimulus depends on the ISI duration. Correlation is positive, negative, and nearly zero in the respective cases of short (0-200 ms), medium (200-400 ms), and long ISI (>400 ms). Furthermore, based on our model, we propose a computational model that can explain the dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John
The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.
Tomba, C; Baldassarri, A; Coletta, M; Cesana, B M; Basilisco, G
Symptoms of lactose intolerance are often attributed to lactose malabsorption but, as this relationship has not been demonstrated when a small dose of lactose similar to that contained in one cup of milk is ingested by intolerant patients, psychological factors may play a role in altered symptom perception. To assess the hypothesis that the psychological profile influences the symptoms of lactose intolerance. One hundred and two consecutive patients underwent a 15 g lactose hydrogen breath test to assess lactose malabsorption. The patients recorded the presence and severity of symptoms of lactose intolerance during the breath test using visual analogue scales. The psychological profile was assessed using a psychological symptom checklist, and health-related quality of life by means of the short-form health survey. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance were diagnosed in, respectively, 18% and 29% of the patients. The two conditions were not associated, and the severity of intolerance was even less in the patients with malabsorption. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that a high somatisation t-score was significantly associated with lactose intolerance (odds ratio 4.184; 1.704-10.309); the effects of the other psychological variables and of lactose malabsorption were not statistically significant. Health-related quality of life was significantly reduced in the patients with somatisation, but not in those with lactose malabsorption. The symptoms of lactose intolerance during hydrogen breath testing at a low physiological lactose load, are unrelated to lactose malabsorption, but may reveal a tendency towards somatisation that could impair the quality of life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Varia, R; Abidin, R R
The goals of this current project were to expand and elaborate on the results of Varia, Abidin, and Dass' (1996) study to better understand what historical parenting factors may contribute in creating a "Minimizing" perception of childhood psychological abuse. A second objective included examining the association between perceptual styles and adult ratings of adult relationship satisfaction. Ninety individuals from a non-clinical adult sample completed self-report questionnaires regarding psychological maltreatment and adult relationship satisfaction. Three groups were created and compared using analysis of variance. The groups were (I) "Non-Abused," consistent reporters of no abuse; (II) "Acknowledgers," consistent reporters of abuse; and (III) "Minimizers," reporters of abuse, but do not label themselves as having been abused. Results indicated a continuum effect with the Non-Abused individuals reporting the highest level of maternal warmth and affection, the Acknowledgers reporting the lowest, with the Minimizers in the middle. The Non-Abused group reported the healthiest adjustment in terms of adult relationship satisfaction. While Minimizers and Acknowledgers reported similar levels of psychologically abusive experiences, Acknowledgers reported more difficulties with adult relationships. This study highlights the importance of studying Minimizers, a group which describes abusive events but minimizes the meaning and scope of these experiences. The relatively higher levels of maternal care which the Minimizers reported is hypothesized to be associated with their perceptions that they were not abused and acted as a protective factor associated with better quality adult relationships. The varying degrees of nurturance and care in the early family environment of abused individuals is speculated to be associated with distinct perceptual styles.
Takano, Kenichi; Reason, J.
In order to identify cognitive error mechanisms observed in the dynamic operational environment, the following materials were analyzed giving special attention to psychological biases, together with possible cognitive tasks and these location, and internal and external performance shaping factors: (a) 13 human factors analyses of US nuclear power plant accidents, (b) 14 cases of Japanese nuclear power plant incidents, and (c) 23 cases collected in simulator experiments. In the resulting analysis, the most frequently identified cognitive process associated with error productions was situation assessment, and following varieties were KB processes and response planning, all of that were the higher cognitive activities. Over 70% of human error cases, psychological bias was affecting to cognitive errors, especially those to higher cognitive activities. In addition, several error occurrence patterns, including relations between cognitive process, biases, and PSFs were identified by the multivariate analysis. According to the identified error patterns, functions that an operator support system have to equip were discussed and specified for design base considerations. (author)
Anna B. Leonova
Full Text Available The concept of human functional states (HFS is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers’ states are discussed. Three different strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplified with the help of two empirical studies concerned with reliability of fire-fighters’ work in the Chernobyl Zone and effects of interruptions in computerized office environment. A general framework for applied HFS research is proposed in order to develop new ecologically valid psychodiagnostic procedures that can help to create efficient stress-management programs for enhancing human reliability and performance in complex job environment.
Chittem, Mahati; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R
Non-disclosure of a cancer diagnosis is a common practice in many Asian cultures where family-based medical decision making is the norm. The present study sought to compare Indian cancer patients who were aware versus unaware of their cancer diagnosis on a range of patient characteristics, levels of psychological distress and illness perceptions. A sample of 329 Indian cancer patients were interviewed about their understanding of their illness (to assess awareness of a cancer diagnosis) and administered the following measures: the modified Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Demographic and medical details were also obtained. Over half of the sample (54.1%) was unaware of their cancer diagnosis. A logistic regression analysis predicting perceived diagnostic disclosure indicated that awareness of a cancer diagnosis was associated with being involved in medical decisions, receiving multiple treatments, longer treatment durations, greater perceived understanding of one's illness (illness coherence) and citing a cause for one's illness. The results highlight the importance of the context in which decisions about the patient's illness are made (e.g. by whom) as well as illness perceptions relating to patients' understanding of their illness. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Martha Jiménez García
Full Text Available In Mexico 75.5% of children and young students in elementary and secondary school are at insufficient and elementary levels in mathematics. The purpose of this research is to join the UNESCO initiative by granting quality education, boosted by technology (Rose, 2013. Specifically, the objective is to analyze the impact of using a tutorial video on academic achievement, based on Gestalt psychology stimulating the sensation and perception cognitive capabilities. Using a 50 student sample was used, which was divided into two groups (experimental and control we test whether students that use a tutorial video based on sensation and perception increase their attention and interest to increase academic achievement. The experimental group was a virtual class with tutorial videos on the use of slopes, explanation of the equation, and a virtual graph generator. Both groups were a survey and an exam. The results show that a high impact on the grades and on the perception of knowledge in the experimental group; the average academic achievement of the experimental group was 9.31, against 2 in the control group. Thus, we conclude that the tutorial video presented stimulates cognitive capabilities and improves academic achievement with a 7.3 impact per additional unit of tutorial video, presented as reinforcement of the class.
Mance, Jennifer; Edwards, Lindsey
This study aimed to examine the relationship between psychological well-being and self-perception in adolescents with cochlear implants, in relation to their perceptions of hearing, deaf signing, and orally communicating deaf peers. Self-perceptions were examined in 22 cochlear implant users aged 12-18 years, using the repertory grid technique that allows the respondent to generate personally relevant 'identity' constructs. Psychological well-being was assessed using the Beck Youth Inventory, a series of five self-report questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, disruptive behaviour, anger, and self-esteem. Correlational analyses indicated that perceiving oneself as close to any peer, irrespective of which peer, was associated with better psychological well-being. There was also a significant positive association between perceived degree of similarity specifically to hearing peers, and psychological well-being. The closer the implanted adolescents perceived themselves to be to their hearing peers, the better their overall psychological well-being. In contrast, perceiving oneself as more similar to deaf signing peers or deaf oral peers was not significantly associated with psychological well-being. The findings are discussed in the context of previous research on social comparison, Deaf identity, and the aims of cochlear implantation.
Thumfart, Stefan; Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Lughofer, Edwin; Eitzinger, Christian; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Groissboeck, Werner; Richter, Roland
Texture is extensively used in areas such as product design and architecture to convey specific aesthetic information. Using the results of a psychological experiment, we model the relationship between computational texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures. Contrary to previous
The bestselling Games People Play is the book that has helped millions of people understand the dynamics of relationships, by psychiatrist Eric Berne.We all play games. In every encounter with other people we are doing so. The nature of these games depends both on the situation and on who we meet.Eric Berne's classic Games People Play is the most accessible and insightful book ever written about the games we play: those patterns of behaviour that reveal hidden feelings and emotions. Wise and witty, it shows the underlying motivations behind our relationships and explores the roles that we try to play - and are forced to play.Games People Play gives you the keys to unlock the psychology of others - and yourself. You'll become more honest, more effective, and a true team player.'A brilliant, amusing, and clear catalogue of the psychological theatricals that human beings play over and over again' Kurt VonnegutEric Berne was a prominent psychiatrist and bestselling author.After inventing his groundbreaking Transa...
Kappers, Astrid M L
In this paper, I focus on the role of active touch in three aspects of shape perception and discrimination studies. First an overview is given of curvature discrimination experiments. The most prominent result is that first-order stimulus information (that is, the difference in attitude or slope
Allen, Brian; Brymer, Melissa J; Steinberg, Alan M; Vernberg, Eric M; Jacobs, Anne; Speier, Anthony H; Pynoos, Robert S
Psychological First Aid (PFA), developed by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and the Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, has been widely disseminated both nationally and internationally, and adopted and used by a number of disaster response organizations and agencies after major catastrophic events across the United States. This study represents a first examination of the perceptions of providers who utilized PFA in response to a disaster. Study participants included 50 individuals who utilized PFA in their response to Hurricane Gustav or Ike. Findings indicated that participation in PFA training was perceived to increase confidence in working with adults and children. PFA was not seen as harmful to survivors, and was perceived as an appropriate intervention for responding in the aftermath of hurricanes.
Ibert, Fabienne; Eckstein, Monika; Günther, Frank; Mutters, Nico T
Background: Spatial isolation is a common infection control measure, but negative psychological effects are often neglected. We investigated which factors influence the perception of single room isolated patients. Methods: In the present correlative cross-sectional study, 32 isolated patients have been interviewed within three departments of the Heidelberg University Hospital, one of Germany's largest hospitals. The following questionnaires were used: 10-Item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a self-developed questionnaire to evaluate the individual experience of isolation. Data were analysed using correlation and regression analysis. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between the isolation period and anxiety (r=.42, pSurfing the internet had a positive relationship with thinking about beautiful things (r=.41, pwell-being of the patient.
As we stand poised on the verge of a new era of spaceflight, we must rethink every element, including the human dimension. This book explores some of the contributions of psychology to yesterday’s great space race, today’s orbiter and International Space Station missions, and tomorrow’s journeys beyond Earth’s orbit. Early missions into space were typically brief, and crews were small, often drawn from a single nation. As international cooperation in space exploration has increased over the decades, the challenges of communicating across cultural boundaries and dealing with interpersonal conflicts have become all the more important, requiring different coping skills and sensibilities than “the right stuff” expected of early astronauts. As astronauts travel to asteroids or establish a permanent colony on the Moon, with the eventual goal of reaching Mars, the duration of expeditions will increase markedly, as will the psychosocial stresses. Away from their home planet for extended times, future spac...
Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A
The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.
Wagemans, Johan; Feldman, Jacob; Gepshtein, Sergei; Kimchi, Ruth; Pomerantz, James R; van der Helm, Peter A; van Leeuwen, Cees
Our first review article (Wagemans et al., 2012) on the occasion of the centennial anniversary of Gestalt psychology focused on perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization. It concluded that further progress requires a reconsideration of the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the Gestalt approach, which is provided here. In particular, we review contemporary formulations of holism within an information-processing framework, allowing for operational definitions (e.g., integral dimensions, emergent features, configural superiority, global precedence, primacy of holistic/configural properties) and a refined understanding of its psychological implications (e.g., at the level of attention, perception, and decision). We also review 4 lines of theoretical progress regarding the law of Prägnanz-the brain's tendency of being attracted towards states corresponding to the simplest possible organization, given the available stimulation. The first considers the brain as a complex adaptive system and explains how self-organization solves the conundrum of trading between robustness and flexibility of perceptual states. The second specifies the economy principle in terms of optimization of neural resources, showing that elementary sensors working independently to minimize uncertainty can respond optimally at the system level. The third considers how Gestalt percepts (e.g., groups, objects) are optimal given the available stimulation, with optimality specified in Bayesian terms. Fourth, structural information theory explains how a Gestaltist visual system that focuses on internal coding efficiency yields external veridicality as a side effect. To answer the fundamental question of why things look as they do, a further synthesis of these complementary perspectives is required.
Wagemans, Johan; Feldman, Jacob; Gepshtein, Sergei; Kimchi, Ruth; Pomerantz, James R.; van der Helm, Peter A.; van Leeuwen, Cees
Our first review paper on the occasion of the centennial anniversary of Gestalt psychology focused on perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization. It concluded that further progress requires a reconsideration of the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the Gestalt approach, which is provided here. In particular, we review contemporary formulations of holism within an information-processing framework, allowing for operational definitions (e.g., integral dimensions, emergent features, configural superiority, global precedence, primacy of holistic/configural properties) and a refined understanding of its psychological implications (e.g., at the level of attention, perception, and decision). We also review four lines of theoretical progress regarding the law of Prägnanz—the brain’s tendency of being attracted towards states corresponding to the simplest possible organization, given the available stimulation. The first considers the brain as a complex adaptive system and explains how self-organization solves the conundrum of trading between robustness and flexibility of perceptual states. The second specifies the economy principle in terms of optimization of neural resources, showing that elementary sensors working independently to minimize uncertainty can respond optimally at the system level. The third considers how Gestalt percepts (e.g., groups, objects) are optimal given the available stimulation, with optimality specified in Bayesian terms. Fourth, Structural Information Theory explains how a Gestaltist visual system that focuses on internal coding efficiency yields external veridicality as a side-effect. To answer the fundamental question of why things look as they do, a further synthesis of these complementary perspectives is required. PMID:22845750
Cantoni, Virginio; Setti, Alessandra
The theme of this book on human and machine perception is communication, interaction, and integration. For each basic topic there are invited lectures, corresponding to approaches in nature and machines, and a panel discussion. The lectures present the state of the art, outlining open questions and stressing synergies among the disciplines related to perception. The panel discussions are forums for open debate. The wide spectrum of topics allows comparison and synergy and can stimulate new approaches.
A. Baghban Baghestan
Full Text Available Aims: As a prevalent metabolic disease, diabetes can be followed by severe mental outcomes leading to problems affecting the daily life. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of acceptance and commitment-based intervention on illness perception and psychological capital in persons with type II diabetes. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest semi-experimental study, 34 patients with type II diabetes were studied in the Diabetes Clinic of Chamran Hospital of Ferdows City in 2015. The subjects, selected via available sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including control (n=17 persons and experimental (n=17 persons groups. Data was collected by short illness perception questionnaire (IPQ and Luthans’ psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ. Eight 60-minute acceptance and commitment-base intervention sessions were weekly conducted in experimental group. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software using descriptive statistics and covariance analysis test. Findings: The pretest score having been adjusted, the acceptance and commitment-based intervention significantly increases the scores of illness perception and its sub-scales (p=0.0001 except the personal control sub-scale. In addition, it significantly increases the scores of the psychological capital and its sub-scales (p=0.0001 in patients with type II diabetes. Conclusion: The acceptance and commitment-based intervention can considerably improve the illness perception and the psychological capital in persons with type II diabetes.
Efilti, Erkan; Arslan, Coskun
The purpose of the present research is investigating psychological counseling and guidance department students' perceptions of their inclusive education related competence. The work group of the present research consists of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year undergraduate students, who studied at Konya Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Kelesoglu Faculty…
Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Stafford-Brown, Johanna
Background: Research into stress management interventions for clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) is limited, despite evidence indicating that these individuals are at risk for elevated stress, which can negatively impact personal and professional functioning. This study explored: (1) CPTs' perceptions of a previously evaluated Acceptance and…
Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Weiner, Kevin S; Kay, Kendrick; Gomez, Jesse
Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective regions composing this network. We emphasize the importance of the neural tissue properties and white matter connections of each region, as these anatomical properties may be tightly linked to the functional characteristics of the ventral face network. We end by considering how empirical investigations of the neural architecture of the face network may inform the development of computational models and shed light on how computations in the face network enable efficient face perception.
Firmin, Michael W.; Johnson, Erica J.; Wikler, Jeremiah
We examined the coverage given by General Psychology textbooks, representing 8 major commercial publishers, regarding the professions of psychology, counseling, marriage & family therapy, and social workers. Of the 24 textbooks assessed, we found substantial bias favoring the coverage of psychology. While 25% of the texts mentioned social workers,…
Fawzi Mohamed Agael
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the identification of different influences on the built environment, and those which have a physical and psychological impact on people. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the built environment on the lives of people. The interrelationship between people and built environment is based on human perception. This research will explore this relationship further in order to develop a clear understanding of the ways in which architecture may influence peoples’ perceptions and experiences. Additionally, the research entails a comparison between two important theories: the first is an Image of the city derived using the Mental Map Theory; the second is related to Space Syntax Theory. The two theories will be applied in two different cities in Libya with the aim of assessing the importance of their interrelationship and how it may be understood more clearly. This paper will also provide guidelines for improving urban design and planning standards with the end goal of producing a high quality perception by those who actually use the space. Moreover, it concludes with a number of research avenues that should be pursued to answer how the properties of built environment affect human perception.
Sinnott, Joan M.; Speaker, H. Anton; Powell, Laura A.; Mosteller, Kelly W.
Zoo animals were tested to see if they perceived the scary nature of Halloween masks, using a procedure that measured the avoidance response latency to take food from a masked human experimenter. Human perception of the masks was also assessed using a rating scale, with results showing that a Bill Clinton mask was rated not scary, while a Vampire mask was rated very scary. Animal results showed that primate latencies correlated significantly with the human ratings, while non-primate latencies...
Fan, Shaojing; Ng, Tian-Tsong; Koenig, Bryan L; Herberg, Jonathan S; Jiang, Ming; Shen, Zhiqi; Zhao, Qi
Visual realism is defined as the extent to which an image appears to people as a photo rather than computer generated. Assessing visual realism is important in applications like computer graphics rendering and photo retouching. However, current realism evaluation approaches use either labor-intensive human judgments or automated algorithms largely dependent on comparing renderings to reference images. We develop a reference-free computational framework for visual realism prediction to overcome these constraints. First, we construct a benchmark dataset of 2520 images with comprehensive human annotated attributes. From statistical modeling on this data, we identify image attributes most relevant for visual realism. We propose both empirically-based (guided by our statistical modeling of human data) and CNN-learned features to predict visual realism of images. Our framework has the following advantages: (1) it creates an interpretable and concise empirical model that characterizes human perception of visual realism; (2) it links computational features to latent factors of human image perception.
Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.
Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of…
As with many developing areas of inquiry, the psychology of risk management has progressed from an initial focus on proximal effects to an exploration of more stable distal factors, from risk perception to social trust. Risk perception is concerned with disruptions in the relations between individuals and their physical environments, specifically with the varying negative effects experienced by individuals. These effects have been found to be socially constructed, with systematic variations among groups (e.g., lay-person and experts; among various groups of experts; men and women; those with economic interests and those without; etc.). The focus of risk perception research has shifted over time: from the likelihood of specific health effects; to the likelihood of a wide range of effects, including emotional effects, varying with context; and, finally, to general emotional effects, positive and negative affect. This shift can be seen to be from cognitive/rational to affective; from expert/technical to public. The second stage of inquiry moved away from the surface effects of risk perception to the study of confidence. Confidence is concerned with constancy, the underlying, not directly experienced order of the relations between individuals and their social/physical environments. Disruptions in confidence lead to concern with risk. Initially, confidence was said to be based on past performance and systems of control, objectively defined; the appropriate response to disruptions was risk communication, the provision of correct information. Failures in risk communication indicated that confidence must be based on subjective judgements of past performance and systems of control. The third, and present, stage of inquiry moved back from confidence, and from the physical environment, to the study of social trust. Social trust is concerned with the relations between individuals within social groups. Individuals tend to trust others whom they judge to be similar to themselves
Public perception and acceptance of nuclear energy is now the most critical question concerning the future of nuclear energy. This is a review of the dynamics of societal risk taking as applied to nuclear power. It is shown that the human intellect is not well equipped for making decisions about risky activities. Risk-benefit relations are discussed. Some of the possible reasons why nuclear power is presently unpopular are described. Responses to a Battelle questionnaire on attitudes toward nuclear waste disposal are discussed
Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Martin, Scott B.; Wrisberg, Craig A.
Context: Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. Objective: To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Design: Quantitative study. Setting: A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s): Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Results: Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes. PMID:27159188
Full Text Available Background: Spatial isolation is a common infection control measure, but negative psychological effects are often neglected. We investigated which factors influence the perception of single room isolated patients.Methods: In the present correlative cross-sectional study, 32 isolated patients have been interviewed within three departments of the Heidelberg University Hospital, one of Germany’s largest hospitals. The following questionnaires were used: 10-Item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and a self-developed questionnaire to evaluate the individual experience of isolation. Data were analysed using correlation and regression analysis.Results: A significant positive correlation was found between the isolation period and anxiety (r=.42, p<.05. Interestingly, a significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the duration of contact to nursing staff and negative daydreaming (r=.89, p<.01. The activity watching television was associated with higher levels of anxiety (r=.38, p<.05. Surfing the internet had a positive relationship with thinking about beautiful things (r=.41, p<.05. Conclusions: Our study results have implications how to improve the psychological situation of patients during spatial isolation. Contact between nursing staff and patients is crucial, since this contact significantly associated with negative daydreaming, probably due to increased neediness of emotional and physical care in some patients. The duration of the isolation has an influence on the experience of anxiety. Activities to cope with the isolation, however, not always have positive effects on the well-being of the patient.
Transgenic banana has been developed to prevent hepatitis B through vaccination. Its production seems to be an ideal alternative for cheaper vaccines. The objective of this paper is to assess the ethical perception of transgenic banana which involved the transfer of human albumin gene, and to compare their ethical ...
Ayu, A.P.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Pinxten, W.J.L.; Schellekens, A.F.A.
Background: Negative attitudes towards patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) are common among psychologists. Perceptions of addiction might affect professionals’ attitudes towards patients. Personal substance use is associated with perceptions. Objective: To explore perceptions of addiction
Emmanuel Selase Asamoah
Full Text Available Price ending is an important pricing strategy that has been used by retailers over the years. The trend seems to be effective considering how consumers react especially to products with odd price endings. This review is aimed at providing an understanding of the psychological influences of price ending on buyers, using the theory of perception. It analysis theories and existing literature on the topic and brings out augmentative pricing strategies that retailers can adopt in consumer markets. Also, an exploratory study was conducted to identify the prevalence of odd prices in the Czech retail sector. The exploratory study was based on 16 different home-drop advertising material, short magazines and leaflets by retails shops in the Zlin region. These leaflets, short magazines and home-drop advertising material were collected and analyzed over 3 month period to identify the dominance of odd and even pricing strategy (total number of advertisements = 922. Also, in order to have a comprehensive coverage of the odd-even pricing phenomenon, opinions of some buyers were sought on their perception of odd-pricing and how the odd-pricing influence their buying decisions. Opinions of a total of 173 shoppers were sampled. The study found clear evidence of the predominant use and preference by shoppers for odd prices compared to even prices in different product categories, especially fast moving consumer goods. The paper concludes by providing the marketing implications and suggestions on when odd and even price ending strategies should be used and for what category of products this strategy can be used. Also, the implications of price endings on marketing communication are highlighted.
Daniel R. Williams
The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...
older ones. Misperception of being overweight is associated with a less positive body image, and the perception of being very underweight is associated with higher scores for general psychopathology.Keywords: weight misperception, self-esteem, positive body image, psychological distress, food beliefs
Alargarsamy Balasubramanian, A.C.
The research interests and applicability of robotics have diversified and seen a
tremendous growth in recent years. There has been a shift from industrial robots operating in constrained settings to consumer robots working in dynamic environments associated closely with everyday human
Parental approval and readiness for HPV vaccine uptake were found to be significantly associated (p =0.000). Since knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination is quite low, there is need to increase awareness about the Vaccination among female adolescents and their mothers. Also, peer educators in schools ...
Hill, Catherine M; Webber, Amanda D
Nonhuman primates (referred to as primates in this study) are sometimes revered as gods, abhorred as evil spirits, killed for food because they damage crops, or butchered for sport. Primates' perceived similarity to humans places them in an anomalous position. While some human groups accept the idea that primates "straddle" the human-nonhuman boundary, for others this resemblance is a violation of the human-animal divide. In this study we use two case studies to explore how people's perceptions of primates are often influenced by these animals' apparent similarity to humans, creating expectations, founded within a "human morality" about how primates should interact with people. When animals transgress these social rules, they are measured against the same moral framework as humans. This has implications for how people view and respond to certain kinds of primate behaviors, their willingness to tolerate co-existence with primates and their likely support for primate conservation initiatives. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Beer, Amanda M; Spanierman, Lisa B; Greene, Jennifer C; Todd, Nathan R
This mixed methods study examined social justice commitments of counseling psychology graduate trainees. In the quantitative portion of the study, a national sample of trainees (n = 260) completed a web-based survey assessing their commitments to social justice and related personal and training variables. Results suggested that students desired greater social justice training than what they experienced in their programs. In the qualitative portion, we used a phenomenological approach to expand and elaborate upon quantitative results. A subsample (n = 7) of trainees who identified as strong social justice activists were interviewed regarding their personal, professional, and training experiences. Eleven themes related to participants' meanings of and experiences with social justice emerged within 4 broad categories: nature of social justice, motivation for activism, role of training, and personal and professional integration. Thematic findings as well as descriptive statistics informed the selection and ordering of variables in a hierarchical regression analysis that examined predictors of social justice commitment. Results indicated that trainees' perceptions of training environment significantly predicted their social justice commitment over and above their general activist orientation and spirituality. Findings are discussed collectively, and implications for training and future research are provided. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Hernandez, Siomara; Cruz, Myrella L; Seguinot, Inevy I; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Appleyard, Caroline B
Pain in patients with endometriosis is considered a significant source of stress but does not always correlate with severity of the condition. We have demonstrated that stress can worsen endometriosis in an animal model. Here, we tested the impact of a psychological stress protocol on pain thresholds and pain receptors. Endometriosis was induced in female rats by suturing uterine horn tissue next to the intestinal mesentery. Sham rats had sutures only. Rats were exposed to water avoidance stress for 7 consecutive days or handled for 5 minutes (no stress). Fecal pellets and serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured as an index of anxiety. Pain perception was assessed using hot plate and Von Frey tests. Substance P, enkephalin, endomorphin-2, Mu opioid receptor (MOR), and neurokinin-1 receptor expression in the spinal cord were measured by immunohistochemistry. Fecal pellets and CORT were significantly higher in the endo-stress (ES) group than endo-no stress (ENS; P stress groups (SNS; P stress reversed the allodynic effect caused by endo ( P stress develop more severe symptoms but interestingly stress seems to have beneficial effects on abdominal allodynia, which could be a consequence of the stress-induced analgesia phenomenon.
Catastrophes of various kinds occur worldwide inflicting major human suffering, more so in the less privileged regions of the world. Human beings react differently to different traumatic situations and to the threat of an event in spite of man common underlying factors. Psychological reactions to catastrophic natural events like flooding on the perception of risk of flooding across various communities thus becomes an interesting study. Economic situation, lack of knowledge and resources are assumed to give a totally different perspective to reactions and perception of risk and its interpretation specially in an underprivileged country like India, compared to other developed countries. For the proposed session, the results of a study carried out in India will be presented. This includes reactions and responses of individuals and general public affected by flooding and their perceptions of risk of flooding. The study also focuses on a comparison between the people affected and at risk of flooding. Socio-cultural values, religion and superstitions, common beliefs and expectations from authorities will be studied as underlying variables, to what extent they might have an impact on the behavioral pattern of an individual in a situation and the perception of oncoming risk. A sizeable number of the Indian population resides in areas, which are generally affected by flooding or highly prone to flooding. Could perceptions vary among individuals within the society or is it simply poverty and unaffordability that drive these people info such hazardous areas? Lack of consciousness may seem to be an important variable, but what really matters and needs to be looked into is how threatened they actually feel. (author)
Full Text Available This essay investigates the psychological and perceptive view of reading as a visual fact and looks at its operations in different environments: from the traditional printed page to the more recent electronic page of the e-book, with particular attention reserved to the relationship between "word" (the linguistic aspects covered by the alphabetical vision and "image" (image of the word and image with the word - visual hypertext integrated with verbal texts in e-book. In the light of the studies of the Psychology of perception, Neurophysiology and Phenomenology, the experience of reading is a function that transcends those value systems tending to oppose the categories of verbal and visual, intellect and intuition, logos and disorder. But literature shows even better the inviolability of belonging of word and image, and how the thinking in images consists in building a bridge between the visible trace and the invisible thing.
Visell, Yon; Campos, Jennifer; Lécuyer, Anatole
This book presents a survey of past and recent developments on human walking in virtual environments with an emphasis on human self-motion perception, the multisensory nature of experiences of walking, conceptual design approaches, current technologies, and applications. The use of virtual reality and movement simulation systems is becoming increasingly popular and more accessible to a wide variety of research fields and applications. While, in the past, simulation technologies have focused on developing realistic, interactive visual environments, it is becoming increasingly obvious that our everyday interactions are highly multisensory. Therefore, investigators are beginning to understand the critical importance of developing and validating locomotor interfaces that can allow for realistic, natural behaviours. The book aims to present an overview of what is currently understood about human perception and performance when moving in virtual environments and to situate it relative to the broader scientific and ...
Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan
Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Human, Lauren J; Dirks, Melanie A; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith
Parents and adolescents often hold discrepant views about the family environment and these discrepancies may in turn influence adolescents' psychological adjustment. The current study examined how adolescent-parent perceptions of family routines and chaos, and their congruence and incongruence, relate to adolescents' self-reported psychological adjustment (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), both concurrently (N dyads = 261; 53 % female) and 2 years later (N dyads = 118; 50 % female). Using polynomial regression and response surface analysis, results indicated that adolescents' perceptions of the family environment were a stronger predictor of adolescents' adjustment than parents' perceptions (76 % mothers), concurrently and over time. However, both congruence and incongruence in adolescent-parent perceptions were also related to adolescents' adjustment. Specifically, congruently negative adolescent-parent perceptions were associated with worse concurrent adolescent adjustment. Further, incongruence defined by more negativity in adolescents' versus parents' perceptions was associated with worse adolescent psychological adjustment, concurrently and over time. In sum, in addition to the strong links between adolescents' perceptions of the family and their own psychological adjustment, examining how congruent and incongruent adolescents' perceptions are with parents' perceptions may shed additional light on how the family environment relates to adolescent adjustment.
Green, G. Almont
Observation and interviews with people viewing autostereoscopic 3D imagery provides evidence that there are many human perception considerations required for 3D content creation. A study was undertaken whereby it was witnessed that certain test autostereoscopic imagery elicited a highly emotional response and engagement, while other test autostereoscopic imagery was given only a passing glance. That an image can be viewed with a certain level of stereopsis does not make it compelling. By taking into consideration the manner in which humans perceive depth and the space between objects, 3D content can achieve a level of familiarity and realness that is not possible with single perspective imagery. When human perception issues are ignored, 3D imagery can be undesirable to viewers and a negative bias against 3D imagery can occur. The preparation of 3D content is more important than the display technology. Where human perception, as it is used to interpret reality, is not mimicked in the creation of 3D content, the general public typically express a negative bias against that imagery (where choices are provided). For some, the viewing of 3D content that could not exist naturally, induces physical discomfort.
Gauss, Julie W.; Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia
BACKGROUND Understanding women’s psychological barriers to getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined pain perceptions of Pap testing among Black, Latina and Arab women and goal setting to receive Pap tests. METHODS Data on 420 women, a longitudinal study, were analyzed using Chi-square tests of differences and generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS At baseline, 30.3% of Black and 35.5% of Latina women perceived Pap tests to be very painful compared to 24.2% of Arab women. Perceptions of pain influenced goal settings, such as scheduling a first ever Pap test (Odds ratio = 0.58, 95% Confidence interval: 0.14-0.94). Immediately following the intervention, women’s perception that Pap tests are very painful significantly declined (P-valuetest is very painful significantly reduces the likelihood of Black, Latina and Arab women setting the goal to schedule their first ever Pap test. Latina women are the least likely to improve their perception that the Pap test is very painful, though national statistics show they have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. These findings are instructive for designing tailored interventions to break down psychological barriers to Pap screening among underserved women. PMID:23288606
Despite its popularity among researchers the radiosity method still suffers some disadvantage over other global illumination methods. Usual implementations of the radiosity method use criteria based on radiometric values to drive the computation and to decide about sufficient mesh quality or to estimate the error of the simulation process and to decide when the simulation can be safely terminated. This is absolutely correct for the case of radiometric simulation, when the user is interested in actual values of radiometric quantities. On the other hand, the radiosity method is very often used just to generate pictures for the human observer and those pictures are not required to be the results of correct physical simulations, they just have to look the same. The results of research on human visual performance and visual signal processing can be built into the image synthesis algorithm itself under some circumstances and guarantee that no effort will be spent on computing changes that are only marginally important for the human observer. In the area of image processing, perceptual error metrics are used for image comparison and image coding that enable to better predict the differences between two images as opposed to the perceptually inappropriate and widely used mean-squared error metrics. Tone reproduction operators known from image synthesis make it possible to map a bright scale of image luminance onto a narrow scale of CRT luminance in such a way that the perceived CRT image produces the same mental image as the original image. Perceptually-driven radiosity algorithms exist, which use various methods to control the optimum density of the finite-element mesh defining the scene that is being rendered, to include only visible discontinuity lines into this mesh, and to predict the convergence of the method. We will describe an hierarchical extension to the Monte Carlo radiosity that keeps the accuracy of the solution high only in the area immediately visible from
Duplàa, Emmanuel; Kaufman, David; Sauvé, Louise; Renaud, Lise
This study explored the perceptions of seniors who play digital games on the potential benefits of these games and on the factors associated with these perceptions. We developed and administered a questionnaire to a sample of 590 Canadian seniors in British Columbia and Quebec that addressed demographics, digital game practices, and perceived benefits. Results of administering the questionnaire showed that cognitive benefits were reported more frequently than social or psychological benefits. First language and gender were associated with the benefits reported, with fewer Francophones and women reporting benefits. The most important factor found was whether or not they played online, as playing online was associated with greater perceptions of social, as well as cognitive, benefits. Social and cognitive benefits are reported by seniors from playing digital games and should be investigated through future experimental and quasi-experimental research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, exposure refers to survivors who suffered from life-changing situations, such as personal injuries, the deaths or injury of family members, relatives or friends or the loss of or damage to personal or family property, as a result of the earthquake. The mediating effect of risk perception on the exposure and psychological health in survivors from the Longmen Shan Fault area and the moderating effect of social support on the relationship between risk perception and psychological health were both examined. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a local Longmen Shan Fault area near the epicenter of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV, the standard Chinese 12-item Short Form (SF-12v2, and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS were used to interview 2,080 earthquake survivors in the period one-year after the earthquake. Based on the environment and the characteristics of the Longmen Shan Fault area, a risk perception questionnaire was developed to evaluate survivor risk perception. Factor and regression analyses were conducted to determine the hypothetical relations. Results The analyses provided effective support for the hypothesized model. Survivor risk perception was classified into direct risk perception and indirect risk perception. Survivor direct risk perception was found to play a partial mediating role in the relationship between exposure and the two domains (Physical component summary (PCS and the Mental component summary (MCS of psychological health. Survivor indirect risk perception was found to have a only partial mediating effect on the association between exposure and MCS. Social support was found to moderate the influence of risk perception on psychological health. Conclusion Risk communication should be considered in future post-earthquake psychological assistance programs and social support strategies could also be
Wagemans, Johan; Elder, James H.; Kubovy, Michael; Palmer, Stephen E.; Peterson, Mary A.; Singh, Manish; von der Heydt, Rüdiger
In 1912, Max Wertheimer published his paper on phi motion, widely recognized as the start of Gestalt psychology. Because of its continued relevance in modern psychology, this centennial anniversary is an excellent opportunity to take stock of what Gestalt psychology has offered and how it has changed since its inception. We first introduce the key findings and ideas in the Berlin school of Gestalt psychology, and then briefly sketch its development, rise, and fall. Next, we discuss its empiri...
This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…
Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.
Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…
Wagemans, Johan; Elder, James H.; Kubovy, Michael; Palmer, Stephen E.; Peterson, Mary A.; Singh, Manish; von der Heydt, Rudiger
In 1912, Max Wertheimer published his paper on phi motion, widely recognized as the start of Gestalt psychology. Because of its continued relevance in modern psychology, this centennial anniversary is an excellent opportunity to take stock of what Gestalt psychology has offered and how it has changed since its inception. We first introduce the key…
Temane, Qambeshile Michael
There is a lacuna in the field of positive psychology as far as the conceptualisation of influences of environmental contexts on psychological well-being is concerned, and there is also a lack of credible empirical findings on the dynamics of processes involved. The aim of the current study was to test various models on the possible mediating role of subjective perceptions of health, personality factors and spirituality in the dynamics of context and psychological well-being. ...
Morales, N M
Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.
Du, Wenqi; Goh, Key Seng; Pan, Tso-Chien
Human perception to tremors during earthquakes in high-rise buildings is usually associated with psychological discomfort such as fear and anxiety. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the level of perception to tremors for occupants living in high-rise buildings subjected to ground motion excitations. Unlike other approaches based on empirical or historical data, the proposed methodology performs a regression analysis using the analytical results of two generic models of 15 and 30 stories. The recorded ground motions in Singapore are collected and modified for structural response analyses. Simple predictive models are then developed to estimate the perception level to tremors based on a proposed ground motion intensity parameter—the average response spectrum intensity in the period range between 0.1 and 2.0 s. These models can be used to predict the percentage of occupants in high-rise buildings who may perceive the tremors at a given ground motion intensity. Furthermore, the models are validated with two recent tremor events reportedly felt in Singapore. It is found that the estimated results match reasonably well with the reports in the local newspapers and from the authorities. The proposed methodology is applicable to urban regions where people living in high-rise buildings might feel tremors during earthquakes.
Zakrajsek, Rebecca A; Martin, Scott B; Wrisberg, Craig A
Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Quantitative study. A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P sport and building confidence). Chi-square analyses indicated that female ATs' ratings of perceived benefits were higher (P ≤ .001) than those of male ATs, and the ratings of ATs who were likely to encourage the use of SPCs were higher (P ≤ .001) than those who were unlikely to encourage SPC service use. Athletic trainers in our study who had previous positive SPC experiences were most likely to use SPCs and their services during the injury-rehabilitation process. Possible implications are offered for how ATs interested in sport psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes.
SHAHIMI, Farnaz; HEAVEN, Patrick; CIARROCHI, Joseph
Background This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck’s psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. Methods: The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. Results: The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Conclusion: Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study. PMID:23967424
Shahimi, Farnaz; Heaven, Patrick; Ciarrochi, Joseph
This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck's psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study.
Quispel, L; Warris, S; Heemskerk, A; Mulder, LJM; van Wolffelaar, PC; Maarse, FJ; Akkerman, AE; Brand, AN; Mulder, LJM
This paper describes the design of an autonomous agent for controlling vehicles in a traffic simulator. This agent is based on recent developments in artificial intelligence, autonomous robotics and cognitive psychology. The goal of the agent is to simulate realistic driving behavior. The agent is
Filingeri, Davide; Havenith, George
The ability to perceive thermal changes in the surrounding environment is critical for survival. However, sensing temperature is not the only factor among the cutaneous sensations to contribute to thermoregulatory responses in humans. Sensing skin wetness (i.e. hygrosensation) is also critical both for behavioral and autonomic adaptations. Although much has been done to define the biophysical role of skin wetness in contributing to thermal homeostasis, little is known on the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning the ability to sense skin wetness. Humans are not provided with skin humidity receptors (i.e., hygroreceptors) and psychophysical studies have identified potential sensory cues (i.e. thermal and mechanosensory) which could contribute to sensing wetness. Recently, a neurophysiological model of human wetness sensitivity has been developed. In helping clarifying the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in sensing skin wetness, this model has provided evidence for the existence of a specific human hygrosensation strategy, which is underpinned by perceptual learning via sensory experience. Remarkably, this strategy seems to be shared by other hygroreceptor-lacking animals. However, questions remain on whether these sensory mechanisms are underpinned by specific neuromolecular pathways in humans. Although the first study on human wetness perception dates back to more than 100 years, it is surprising that the neurophysiological bases of such an important sensory feature have only recently started to be unveiled. Hence, to provide an overview of the current knowledge on human hygrosensation, along with potential directions for future research, this review will examine the psychophysical and neurophysiological bases of human skin wetness perception. PMID:27227008
Haber, Ralph N.
Theories of visual perception traditionally have considered a static retinal image to be the starting point for processing; and has considered processing both to be passive and a literal translation of that frozen, two dimensional, pictorial image. This paper considers five problem areas in the analysis of human visually guided locomotion, in which the traditional approach is contrasted to newer ones that utilize dynamic definitions of stimulation, and an active perceiver: (1) differentiation between object motion and self motion, and among the various kinds of self motion (e.g., eyes only, head only, whole body, and their combinations); (2) the sources and contents of visual information that guide movement; (3) the acquisition and performance of perceptual motor skills; (4) the nature of spatial representations, percepts, and the perceived layout of space; and (5) and why the retinal image is a poor starting point for perceptual processing. These newer approaches argue that stimuli must be considered as dynamic: humans process the systematic changes in patterned light when objects move and when they themselves move. Furthermore, the processing of visual stimuli must be active and interactive, so that perceivers can construct panoramic and stable percepts from an interaction of stimulus information and expectancies of what is contained in the visual environment. These developments all suggest a very different approach to the computational analyses of object location and identification, and of the visual guidance of locomotion.
Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustín; Carmen Torres-Sibille, Ana del; Cloquell-Ballester, Víctor-Andrés; Santamarina-Siurana, María Cristina
The objective of this investigation is to evaluate how visual perception varies as the rural landscape is altered by human interventions of varying character. An experiment is carried out using Semantic Differential Analysis to analyse the effect of the character and the type of the intervention on perception. Interventions are divided into elements of “permanent industrial character”, “elements of permanent rural character” and “elements of temporary character”, and these categories are sub-divided into smaller groups according to the type of development. To increase the reliability of the results, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient tool, is applied to validate the semantic space of the perceptual responses and to determine the number of subjects required for a reliable evaluation of the scenes.
Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin, E-mail: email@example.com; Carmen Torres-Sibille, Ana del; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Santamarina-Siurana, Maria Cristina
The objective of this investigation is to evaluate how visual perception varies as the rural landscape is altered by human interventions of varying character. An experiment is carried out using Semantic Differential Analysis to analyse the effect of the character and the type of the intervention on perception. Interventions are divided into elements of 'permanent industrial character', 'elements of permanent rural character' and 'elements of temporary character', and these categories are sub-divided into smaller groups according to the type of development. To increase the reliability of the results, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient tool, is applied to validate the semantic space of the perceptual responses and to determine the number of subjects required for a reliable evaluation of the scenes.
Pedro S. A. Wolf
Full Text Available Animal behaviorists have made extensive use of GPS technology since 1991. In contrast, psychological research has made little use of the technology, even though the technology is relatively inexpensive, familiar, and widespread. Hence, its potential for pure and applied psychological research remains untapped. We describe three methods psychologists could apply to individual differences research, clinical research, or spatial use research. In the context of individual differences research, GPS technology permits us to test hypotheses predicting specific relations among patterns of spatial use and individual differences variables. In a clinical context, GPS technology provides outcome measures that may relate to the outcome of interventions designed to treat psychological disorders that, for example, may leave a person homebound (e.g. Agoraphobia, PTSD, TBI. Finally, GPS technology provides natural measures of spatial use. We, for example, used GPS technology to quantify traffic flow and exhibit use at the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. Interested parties could easily extend this methodology some aspects of urban planning or business usage.DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.74
Proctor, Robert W; Urcuioli, Peter J
We consider requirements for effective interdisciplinary communication and explore alternative interpretations of "building bridges between functional and cognitive psychology." If the bridges are intended to connect radical behaviourism and cognitive psychology, or functional contextualism and cognitive psychology, the efforts are unlikely to be successful. But if the bridges are intended to connect functional relationships and cognitive theory, no construction is needed because the bridges already exist within cognitive psychology. We use human performance and animal research to illustrate the latter point and to counter the claim that the functional approach is unique in offering a close relationship between science and practice. Effective communication will be enhanced and, indeed, may only occur if the goal of functional contextualism extends beyond just "the advancement of functional contextual cognitive and behavioral science and practice" to "the advancement of cognitive and behavioral science and practice" without restriction. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Timothy R Jordan
Full Text Available The Shroud of Turin (hereafter the Shroud is one of the most widely known and widely studied artifacts in existence, with enormous historical and religious significance. For years, the Shroud has inspired worldwide interest in images on its fabric which appear to be of the body and face of a man executed in a manner consistent with crucifixion, and many believe that these images were formed in the Shroud's fibers during the Resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. But, more recently, other reports have suggested that the Shroud also contains evidence of inscriptions, and these reports have been used to add crucial support to the view that the Shroud is the burial cloth of Jesus. Unfortunately, these reports of inscriptions are based on marks that are barely visible on the Shroud, even when images are enhanced, and the actual existence of writing on the Shroud is still a matter of considerable debate. Here we discuss previous evidence concerning the psychological processes involved generally in the perception of writing, and especially when letters and words are indistinct. We then report two experiments in which the influence of religious context on perception of inscriptions was addressed specifically, using an image of woven fabric (modern linen containing no writing and with no religious provenance. This image was viewed in two different contexts: in the Religious Context, participants were informed that the image was of a linen artifact that was important to the Christian faith whereas, in the non-religious Neutral Context, participants were informed that the image was of a simple piece of linen. Both groups were told that the image may contain faint words and were asked to report any words they could see. All participants detected words on the image, and indicated that these words were visible and were able to trace on the image the words they detected. In each experiment, more religious words were detected in the Religious Context condition than
Jordan, Timothy R; Sheen, Mercedes; Abedipour, Lily; Paterson, Kevin B
The Shroud of Turin (hereafter the Shroud) is one of the most widely known and widely studied artifacts in existence, with enormous historical and religious significance. For years, the Shroud has inspired worldwide interest in images on its fabric which appear to be of the body and face of a man executed in a manner consistent with crucifixion, and many believe that these images were formed in the Shroud's fibers during the Resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. But, more recently, other reports have suggested that the Shroud also contains evidence of inscriptions, and these reports have been used to add crucial support to the view that the Shroud is the burial cloth of Jesus. Unfortunately, these reports of inscriptions are based on marks that are barely visible on the Shroud, even when images are enhanced, and the actual existence of writing on the Shroud is still a matter of considerable debate. Here we discuss previous evidence concerning the psychological processes involved generally in the perception of writing, and especially when letters and words are indistinct. We then report two experiments in which the influence of religious context on perception of inscriptions was addressed specifically, using an image of woven fabric (modern linen) containing no writing and with no religious provenance. This image was viewed in two different contexts: in the Religious Context, participants were informed that the image was of a linen artifact that was important to the Christian faith whereas, in the non-religious Neutral Context, participants were informed that the image was of a simple piece of linen. Both groups were told that the image may contain faint words and were asked to report any words they could see. All participants detected words on the image, and indicated that these words were visible and were able to trace on the image the words they detected. In each experiment, more religious words were detected in the Religious Context condition than in the Neutral
Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.
The Radon program in the Czech Republic has a relatively long and rich history. Procedures, which enable to evaluate the risk of radon penetration from the ground, to protect new buildings, to find existing buildings with elevated indoor radon levels and to realise remedial measures in such buildings, have been developed, published and tested. In some cases, the whole system may fail due to psychological or sociological reasons. Three types of problems (conflicts) will be presented: human behaviour affecting measurement results, conflict between individual and 'all-society' points of view, interpretation of radon risk itself. (authors)
The time has come, perhaps, to go beyond merely acknowledging that language is a core manifestation of the workings of the human mind and that it relates interactively to all aspects of thinking. The issue, thus, is not to decide whether language and human thought may be ineluctably linked (they just are), but rather to determine what the characteristics of this relationship may be and to understand how language influences-and may be influenced by-nonverbal information processing. In an attempt to demystify linguistic relativity, I review neurolinguistic studies from our research group showing a link between linguistic distinctions and perceptual or conceptual processing. On the basis of empirical evidence showing effects of terminology on perception, language-idiosyncratic relationships in semantic memory, grammatical skewing of event conceptualization, and unconscious modulation of executive functioning by verbal input, I advocate a neurofunctional approach through which we can systematically explore how languages shape human thought.
Rentmeester, Christy A; Severson, Susie
This essay describes an example of how we-one professor of the elective course Art, Medicine, and Clinical Moral Perception at Creighton University School of Medicine, one Director of Adult Programs at the Joslyn Museum of Art in Omaha, Nebraska, and fourth year medical students-practice perception skills using art objects. This essay presents one example of the journal assignments to which students respond in written narratives about their own perception habits. We also share questions any health professions educator can use to guide students' study of their habits of perception using art objects.
Stein, Kathleen F.
The number of individuals with psychological disabilities attending colleges and universities has increased steadily over the last decade. However, students with psychological disabilities are less likely to complete their college programs than their non-disabled peers and peers with other types of disabilities. This qualitative study explored how…
Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.
We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…
Strigo, I A; Carli, F; Bushnell, M C
Animal studies show reduced nociceptive responses to noxious heat stimuli and increases in endogenous beta-endorphin levels in cold environments, suggesting that human pain perception may be dependent on ambient temperature. However, studies of changes in local skin temperature on human pain perception have yielded variable results. This study examines the effect of both warm and cool ambient temperature on the perception of noxious and innocuous mechanical and thermal stimuli. Ten subjects (7 men and 3 women, aged 20-23 yr) used visual analog scales to rate the stimulus intensity, pain intensity, and unpleasantness of thermal (0-50 degrees C) and mechanical (1.2-28.9 g) stimuli applied on the volar forearm with a 1-cm2 contact thermode and von Frey filaments, respectively. Mean skin temperatures were measured throughout the experiment by infrared pyrometer. Each subject was tested in ambient temperatures of 15 degrees C (cool), 25 degrees C (neutral), and 35 degrees C (warm) on separate days, after a 30-min acclimation to the environment. Studies began in the morning after an 8-h fast. Mean skin temperature was altered by ambient temperature (cool room: 30.1 degrees C; neutral room: 33.4 degrees C; warm room: 34.5 degrees C; P cool than in the neutral environment (P cool room and that noxious heat stimuli were more unpleasant in a warm environment. Environmental temperature did not alter ratings of warm (37 and 40 degrees C) or mechanical stimuli. These results indicate that, in humans, a decrease in skin temperature following exposure to cool environments reduces thermal pain. Suppression of Adelta primary afferent cold fiber activity has been shown to increase cold pain produced by skin cooling. Our current findings may represent the reverse phenomenon, i.e., a reduction in thermal nociceptive transmission by the activation of Adelta cutaneous cold fibers.
We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e., as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new 'conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing-light as a geometric theory-and human touching-only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle-plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects-as they occur in smaller entities-appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping ultimately with separated entities, meaning that a more general theory will be needed.
Full Text Available We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e. as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new `conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing -- light as a geometric theory -- and human touching -- only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle -- plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable objects in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects -- as they occur in smaller entities -- appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping with separated entities, meaning that a more general
Evangeli, Michael; Baker, Laura L E; Pady, Kirsten; Jones, Bethanie; Wroe, Abigail L
Current HIV-risk perception refers to the extent to which individuals think they might be HIV-positive. This belief, distinct from the perceived risk about being infected with HIV in the future, is likely to have a range of important consequences. These consequences may include both psychological effects (e.g., impacts on well-being) and behavioural effects (e.g., HIV testing uptake). Given these possible outcomes, and the suggested importance of risk perception in health behaviour models, understanding the behavioural and psychological antecedents of current HIV-risk perception is crucial. This systematic review investigates the relationship between behavioural and psychological factors and current HIV-risk perception (in individuals who are unaware of their actual HIV status). Eight studies were eligible for inclusion in the review (five quantitative and three qualitative studies). Drug risk behaviour and sexual risk behaviour (both self and partner) were often associated with current HIV-risk perception, although other studies failed to show a relationship between one's own sexual risk behaviour and risk perception. Psychological factors were only rarely assessed in relation to current HIV-risk perception. Where these variables were included, there was evidence that experiencing symptoms perceived to be consistent with HIV and prompts to test were associated with increased current HIV-risk perception. These findings are consistent with the Common-Sense Model (CSM) of illness representation and self-regulation. Methodological quality criteria were rarely met for the included studies. In addition, it was often difficult to ascertain whether potentially includable studies were eligible due to imprecise definitions of HIV-risk perception. Research and practice implications are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of risk appraisals as a potential mediator of the relationship between HIV-risk behaviour, symptoms and current HIV-risk perception.
Dickinson, Sven J
This comprehensive and authoritative text/reference presents a unique, multidisciplinary perspective on Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision. Rather than focusing purely on the state of the art, the book provides viewpoints from world-class researchers reflecting broadly on the issues that have shaped the field. Drawing upon many years of experience, each contributor discusses the trends followed and the progress made, in addition to identifying the major challenges that still lie ahead. Topics and features: examines each topic from a range of viewpoints, rather than promoting a speci
Jaime Castro Martínez
Full Text Available This paper presents a debate between the relations of logic and psychology. It starts with the presentation of Keysser’s logicism. It describes some background to the debate on Mill’s psychologism and Husserl´s criticism of the laws of logic, in contrast to the laws of the nature of human thought. It continues with the contributions to the discussion by Gestalt theory. Then, the Piagetian bet for a mental logic is presented. The essay concludes with the need to consider psychological logic as distinct from formal logic: a dynamic logic of facts or logic of experience
Greven, Inez M; Downing, Paul E; Ramsey, Richard
Neuroscience research has examined separately how we detect human agents on the basis of their face and body (person perception) and how we reason about their thoughts, traits or intentions (person knowledge). Neuroanatomically distinct networks have been associated with person perception and person knowledge, but it remains unknown how multiple features of a person (e.g. thin and kind) are linked to form a holistic identity representation. In this fMRI experiment, we investigated the hypothesis that when encountering another person specialised person perception circuits would be functionally coupled with circuits involved in person knowledge. In a factorial design, we paired bodies or names with trait-based or neutral statements, and independent localiser scans identified body-selective and mentalising networks. When observing a body paired with a trait-implying statement, functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that body-selective patches in bilateral fusiform gyri were functionally coupled with nodes of the mentalising network. We demonstrate that when forming a representation of a person circuits for representing another person's physical appearance are linked to circuits that are engaged when reasoning about trait-based character. These data support the view that a 'who' system for social cognition involves communication between perceptual and inferential mechanisms when forming a representation of another's identity. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.
Full Text Available The article treats the impact of psychological researches upon the humanistic ethic came out from Lumières, and subsequently on the liberal thought influenced by that. Hence it first presents the crisis which psychoanalysis induced to the traditional image of human being as rational an capable of free will. It also shows the way that humanistic view was transformed and so recovered in a more democratic sense by the analytical psychology and mainly the cultural psychoanalysis.
Lee, Ai Noi; Nie, Youyan
Using a convenience sample of 289 teachers in Singapore, this study examined: (1) whether there were significant differences between teachers' perceptions of principal's and immediate supervisor's empowering behaviours; and (2) teachers' perceptions of principal's and immediate supervisor's empowering behaviours in relation to teachers'…
Roh, Su Yeon
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates on perceived health state and psychological wellbeing. The subjects of this study were 187 female college students participating in Pilates classes in six universities located in Gyeonggi-do. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS and AMOS 18.0 version. The results are as follows. First, the physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their perceived health state. Second, the physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their psychological well-being. Third, the perceived health state of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their psychological well-being. Fourth, there is a causal relationship among the physical self-perception, perceived health state, and psychological well-being of female college students participating in Pilates classes. In particular, the physical self-perception obtained by the students through their Pilates classes strengthens their psychological well-being through their perceived health state. PMID:29740551
Roh, Su Yeon
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates on perceived health state and psychological wellbeing. The subjects of this study were 187 female college students participating in Pilates classes in six universities located in Gyeonggi-do. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS and AMOS 18.0 version. The results are as follows. First, the physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their perceived health state. Second, the physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their psychological well-being. Third, the perceived health state of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their psychological well-being. Fourth, there is a causal relationship among the physical self-perception, perceived health state, and psychological well-being of female college students participating in Pilates classes. In particular, the physical self-perception obtained by the students through their Pilates classes strengthens their psychological well-being through their perceived health state.
Kang, Hee Sun; Shin, Hyunsook; Hyun, Myung-Sun; Kim, Mi Ja
This paper is a report of a descriptive study of young Korean women's perceptions of use of the human papilloma virus vaccine. In Korea, cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women, and the rate of human papilloma virus infection is increasing. A national media campaign has recently begun to promote human papilloma virus vaccination. However, research addressing the acceptability of this vaccine to women in Korea has been limited. Twenty-five Korean women, 21-30 years of age, participated in seven focus groups. The data were collected in 2007. Participants were concerned about the potential harmful effects of the human papilloma virus vaccine, a possible increase in unsafe sexual behaviours, and the high cost of the vaccine, which is not covered by health insurance. They suggested group vaccination at-cost or free of charge. They discussed ambivalence about the vaccination, the need for more information about the vaccine, and questions about its effectiveness. Most preferred to wait until more people have been vaccinated. There is a need for more aggressive dissemination of information about the safety and efficacy of the human papilloma virus vaccine. More reasonable cost, insurance coverage, or free vaccination using a group approach might increase young Korean women's acceptance and use of the human papilloma virus vaccine.
April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing
This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.
Full Text Available Today, human capital is considered a key factor of achieving the competitive advantage in different industries. The present study, as an applied and descriptive research, aims at providing formulation and evaluation of human resource development of an Iranian Petrochemical Company (APC. The human resource experts and managers of APC together with university professors of human capital and familiar with local conditions of Khuzestan province, Iran, made up the statistical population of this research. In this connection, first the internal factors (including advantages and disadvantages were identified using human resource excellence indicators. Then, the opportunities and threats of human resource system were found via PESTEL approach. In the next step, the primary strategies were formulated using the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT Matrix. The next phases of the study were included evaluation and ranking of human resource development strategies based on analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria decision making method and grey systems theory. According to results of the research, defensive strategies (WT are suggested as the best and most appropriate strategies in human resource area. In other words, the internal and external factors of APC are problematic. Accordingly, APC is expected to adopt WT strategy, minimize the weaknesses, and avoid threats. Subsequent to the above policy, the strategies of WO, ST, and SO are advised to employ.
Abbas, Ozan Luay; Kurkcuoglu, Ayla; Aytop, Cigdem Derya; Uysal, Cengiz; Pelin, Can
Visual perception of symmetry is a major determinant of satisfaction after aesthetic rhinoplasty. In this study, we sought to investigate the existence of any relationship between anthropometric characteristics of the face and visual perceptions of asymmetry among rhinoplasty patients and to evaluate tools that can shed light on patients who appear at high risk for exaggerating potential asymmetries. In the first part, 168 rhinoplasty patients were asked to fill out the demographic questionnaire, nasal shape evaluation scale, and the somatosensory amplification scale. In the second part, we examined the relationship between anthropometric characteristics of the face and visual perceptions of asymmetry using standardized photographs of 100 medical students. In the third part, patients answered the rhinoplasty outcome evaluation questionnaire 6 months after the surgery. Objectively, no symmetrical face was observed in the anthropometric evaluation. Subjectively, only 73% and 54% of the faces were considered asymmetrical by the rhinoplasty and the control groups, respectively. The rate of asymmetry perception was significantly greater in revision patients when compared with primary rhinoplasty patients. The relationship between the rate of subjective perception of asymmetry and the somatosensory amplification scale scores was statistically significant. We found a significant inverse relationship between the rate of asymmetry perception and the rhinoplasty outcome evaluation scores. Plastic surgeons should be aware of this high selectivity in asymmetry perception, which is associated with poor postoperative satisfaction. Somatosensory amplification scale may help identify rhinoplasty patients at a high risk for exaggerating potential asymmetries. III.
Gibbard, Katherine; Griep, Yannick; De Cooman, Rein; Hoffart, Genevieve; Onen, Denis; Zareipour, Hamidreza
With the knowledge that team work is not always associated with high(er) performance, we draw from the Multi-Level Theory of Psychological Contracts, Person-Environment Fit Theory, and Optimal Distinctiveness Theory to study shared perceptions of psychological contract (PC) breach in relation to shared perceptions of complementary and supplementary fit to explain why some teams perform better than other teams. We collected three repeated survey measures in a sample of 128 respondents across 46 teams. After having made sure that we met all statistical criteria, we aggregated our focal variables to the team-level and analyzed our data by means of a longitudinal three-wave autoregressive moderated-mediation model in which each relationship was one-time lag apart. We found that shared perceptions of PC breach were directly negatively related to team output and negatively related to perceived team member effectiveness through a decrease in shared perceptions of supplementary fit. However, we also demonstrated a beneficial process in that shared perceptions of PC breach were positively related to shared perceptions of complementary fit, which in turn were positively related to team output. Moreover, best team output appeared in teams that could combine high shared perceptions of complementary fit with modest to high shared perceptions of supplementary fit. Overall, our findings seem to indicate that in terms of team output there may be a bright side to perceptions of PC breach and that perceived person-team fit may play an important role in this process.
Full Text Available With the knowledge that team work is not always associated with high(er performance, we draw from the Multi-Level Theory of Psychological Contracts, Person-Environment Fit Theory, and Optimal Distinctiveness Theory to study shared perceptions of psychological contract (PC breach in relation to shared perceptions of complementary and supplementary fit to explain why some teams perform better than other teams. We collected three repeated survey measures in a sample of 128 respondents across 46 teams. After having made sure that we met all statistical criteria, we aggregated our focal variables to the team-level and analyzed our data by means of a longitudinal three-wave autoregressive moderated-mediation model in which each relationship was one-time lag apart. We found that shared perceptions of PC breach were directly negatively related to team output and negatively related to perceived team member effectiveness through a decrease in shared perceptions of supplementary fit. However, we also demonstrated a beneficial process in that shared perceptions of PC breach were positively related to shared perceptions of complementary fit, which in turn were positively related to team output. Moreover, best team output appeared in teams that could combine high shared perceptions of complementary fit with modest to high shared perceptions of supplementary fit. Overall, our findings seem to indicate that in terms of team output there may be a bright side to perceptions of PC breach and that perceived person-team fit may play an important role in this process.
Asadi, Houshyar; Mohamed, Shady; Lim, Chee Peng; Nahavandi, Saeid
The vestibular system, which consists of semicircular canals and otolith, are the main sensors mammals use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Identifying the most suitable and consistent mathematical model of the vestibular system is important for research related to driving perception. An appropriate vestibular model is essential for implementation of the Motion Cueing Algorithm (MCA) for motion simulation purposes, because the quality of the MCA is directly dependent on the vestibular model used. In this review, the history and development process of otolith models are presented and analyzed. The otolith organs can detect linear acceleration and transmit information about sensed applied specific forces on the human body. The main purpose of this review is to determine the appropriate otolith models that agree with theoretical analyses and experimental results as well as provide reliable estimation for the vestibular system functions. Formulating and selecting the most appropriate mathematical model of the vestibular system is important to ensure successful human perception modelling and simulation when implementing the model into the MCA for motion analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Froh, Jeffrey J.; Huebner, E. Scott; Youssef, Al-Jameela; Conte, Vincent
This study is a content analysis of a random selection of 20% (N = 1,168) of articles from "School Psychology Quarterly", "Psychology in the Schools", the "Journal of School Psychology", and "School Psychology Review". Across the four journals, 27% of the articles had a positive focus, and the percentage of articles focused on the positive has…
Swim, Janet K; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S
We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact, primarily through patterns of reproduction and consumption. We identify and distinguish individual, societal, and behavioral predictors of environmental impact. Relevant research in these areas (as well as areas that would be aided by greater attention by psychologists) are reviewed. We conclude by highlighting ethical issues that emerge when considering how to address human behavioral contributions to climate change.
Fielding, J; Weaver, S M
This study compares hospital- (n = 67) and community-based (n = 55) mental health nurses in relation to their perceptions of the work environment and also their psychological health. Measures include: the General Health Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Work Environment Scale. The data, obtained from self-returned questionnaires, show that community nurses rated their work environments higher for the dimensions of Involvement, Supervisor Support, Autonomy, Innovation and Work Pressure. Hospital nurses saw their environments as being higher in (managerial) Control. There were no differences between the groups for the dimensions of Peer Cohesion, Task Orientation, Clarity or (physical) Comfort. Furthermore, there were no overall differences between the two groups in relation to psychological health, although the pattern of factors associated with emotional well-being differed. Finally, analyses of the community data revealed that those nurses with 'flexitime' arrangements evaluated their work environments less positively and showed higher levels of psychological strain than did those working 'fixed-time' schedules. The findings suggest that the hospital and community environments make different demands on nursing staff, and that this should be considered when organizing nursing services if stress is to be avoided.
Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Berger, Rita
Healthcare accreditation models generally include indicators related to healthcare employees' perceptions (e.g. satisfaction, career development, and health safety). During the accreditation process, organizations are asked to demonstrate the methods with which assessments are made. However, none of the models provide standardized systems for the assessment of employees. In this study, we analyzed the psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality in healthcare organizations. The Human Capital Questionnaire was applied to a sample of 902 nurses in four European countries (Spain, Portugal, Poland, and the UK). Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: satisfaction with leadership, identification and commitment, satisfaction with participation, staff well-being, career development opportunities, and motivation. The results showed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which when applied to healthcare organizations, provide a better understanding of nurses' perceptions, and is a parsimonious instrument for assessment and organizational accreditation. From a practical point of view, improving the quality of human capital, by analyzing nurses and other healthcare employees' perceptions, is related to workforce empowerment. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Wada, Atsushi; Sakano, Yuichi; Ando, Hiroshi
Glossiness is the visual appearance of an object's surface as defined by its surface reflectance properties. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the neural substrates underlying its perception. In this study, we performed the first human neuroimaging experiments that directly investigated where the processing of glossiness resides in the visual cortex. First, we investigated the cortical regions that were more activated by observing high glossiness compared with low glossiness, where the effects of simple luminance and luminance contrast were dissociated by controlling the illumination conditions (Experiment 1). As cortical regions that may be related to the processing of glossiness, V2, V3, hV4, VO-1, VO-2, collateral sulcus (CoS), LO-1, and V3A/B were identified, which also showed significant correlation with the perceived level of glossiness. This result is consistent with the recent monkey studies that identified selective neural response to glossiness in the ventral visual pathway, except for V3A/B in the dorsal visual pathway, whose involvement in the processing of glossiness could be specific to the human visual system. Second, we investigated the cortical regions that were modulated by selective attention to glossiness (Experiment 2). The visual areas that showed higher activation to attention to glossiness than that to either form or orientation were identified as right hV4, right VO-2, and right V3A/B, which were commonly identified in Experiment 1. The results indicate that these commonly identified visual areas in the human visual cortex may play important roles in glossiness perception. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Amanda M Cooksey
Full Text Available Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others.Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology.The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.
Balint, Tibor S.; Hall, Ashley
Expanding humanity into space is an inevitable step in our quest to explore our world. Yet space exploration is costly, and the awaiting environment challenges us with extreme cold, heat, vacuum and radiation, unlike anything encountered on Earth. Thus, the few pioneers who experience it needed to be well protected throughout their spaceflight. The resulting isolation heightens the senses and increases the desire to make humanly connections with any other perceived manifestation of life. Such connections may occur via sensory inputs, namely vision, touch, sound, smell, and taste. This then follows the process of sensing, interpreting, and recognizing familiar patterns, or learning from new experiences. The desire to connect could even transfer to observed objects, if their movements and characteristics trigger the appropriate desires from the observer. When ordered in a familiar way, for example visual stimuli from lights and movements of an object, it may create a perceived real bond with an observer, and evoke the feeling of surprise when the expected behavior changes to something no longer predictable or recognizable. These behavior patterns can be designed into an object and performed autonomously in front of an observer, in our case an astronaut. The experience may introduce multiple responses, including communication, connection, empathy, order, and disorder. While emotions are clearly evoked in the observer and may seem one sided, in effect the object itself provides a decoupled bond, connectivity and communication between the observer and the artist-designer of the object. In this paper we will discuss examples from the field of arts and other domains, including robotics, where human perception through object interaction was explored, and investigate the starting point for new innovative design concepts and future prototype designs, that extend these experiences beyond the boundaries of Earth, while taking advantage of remoteness and the zero gravity
Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Greg; Elbe, Anne-Marie
The objective of this study was to explore how sport psychology consultants perceive the challenges they face at the Olympic Games. Post-Olympics semistructured interviews with 11 experienced sport psychology consultants who worked at the London Games were conducted. The interviews were transcribed...... and inductively content analyzed. Trustworthiness was reached through credibility activities (i.e., member checking and peer debriefing). The participants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges Before...... the Olympics (e.g., negotiating one’s role) and Challenges During the Olympics (e.g., dealing with the media). The challenges the sport psychology consultants perceived as important validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions that exist in the literature. The findings extend the knowledge on sport...
Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie
The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content...... analyzed. The results show that consultants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges before the Olympics (e.g. negotiating your role) and Challenges during the Olympics (e.g. dealing with the media......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...
Hirata, Hiromi; Harvath, Theresa A
The purpose of this study was to explore Japanese care workers' attributions, beliefs and cultural explanations of physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms. Physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms by older people with dementia have been associated with occupational stress among care workers in the United States and other Western countries and may contribute to staff turnover. However, few studies related to this issue have been conducted in Japan, where care worker reaction to physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms might be different because of cultural and customary differences in how care is provided for older people. This study reports on the results of three open-ended questions that were part of a larger study that explored Japanese care workers' experiences with aggressive behaviour symptoms in persons with dementia. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 137 care workers in 10 nursing homes in the northern and western areas of Japan. The answers to the open-ended questions were analysed using a content analysis. Most of the participants indicated that they believed that physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms came from residents' stress from dementia. Approximately, one-fourth of the participants responded that Japanese values such as chu (loyalty) and joge (hierarchy) influenced their work with residents with physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms. Seventeen participants (12%) commented either that they respected older people or that they respected older people as persons who had had many experiences in life. Interestingly, 43 responses (41.0%) indicated that physically and psychologically aggressive behaviour symptoms influenced quality of care positively, while, not surprisingly, about 30 responses indicated that those behaviour symptoms influenced quality of care negatively. Findings from this study indicate that the training and education needs to
Tracey J. Devonport
Full Text Available The study used semi-structured interviews to explore the views of three high performance kickboxers regarding the contribution of psychology to the development and maintenance of expert performance within kickboxing. The results provide a useful insight into the experiences of high performance kickboxers, identifying those mental skills and psychological attributes that are perceived to contribute to success. Participants identified seven mental skills that they believed to be linked to success in kickboxing; 1 effective use of self-talk, 2 relaxation, 3 heightened concentration, 4 self-regulation of arousal, 5 goal setting, 6 coping with being hit, and 7 imagery. Three psychological characteristics were identified by all participants as contributing to success, 1 high self-efficacy, 2 highly motivated and 3 mental toughness. Although not specifically identified by participants, it is suggested that a fourth psychological characteristic was also apparent. Participants demonstrated varying degrees of emotional intelligence thorough their ability to monitor and manipulate their emotional states prior to and during competition. Martial artists used a number of long and short-term psychological strategies in preparing for competition. Furthermore, whilst mental skills were not systematically practiced, all participants endeavored to integrate some form of mental training within physical training. It is recommended that sport psychologists help martial artists develop and refine individualized mental training routines, assisting with the formal integration of psychological training into physical training. Martial artists spend the majority of their time practicing as opposed to competing. As such, the integration of mental skills training within physical training may help ensure quality practice, and facilitate the effective transfer of mental skills into competition
Athy, Jeremy; Friedrich, Jeff; Delany, Eileen
Egon Brunswik (1903 1955) first made an interesting distinction between perception and explicit reasoning, arguing that perception included quick estimates of an object’s size, nearly always resulting in good approximations in uncertain environments, whereas explicit reasoning, while better at achieving exact estimates, could often fail by wide margins. An experiment conducted by Brunswik to investigate these ideas was never published and the only available information is a figure of the results presented in a posthumous book in 1956. We replicated and extended his study to gain insight into the procedures Brunswik used in obtaining his results. Explicit reasoning resulted in fewer errors, yet more extreme ones than perception. Brunswik’s graphical analysis of the results led to different conclusions, however, than did a modern statistically-based analysis.
Social cognitive theory is founded on an agentic perspective. This article reviews the core features of human agency and the individual, proxy, and collective forms in which it is exercised. Agency operates through a triadic codetermination process of causation. Knowledge from this line of theorizing is widely applied to effect individual and social change, including worldwide applications that address some of the most urgent global problems.
Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten
A model of computational auditory signal-processing and perception that accounts for various aspects of simultaneous and nonsimultaneous masking in human listeners is presented. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model described by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892 (1997...... discrimination with pure tones and broadband noise, tone-in-noise detection, spectral masking with narrow-band signals and maskers, forward masking with tone signals and tone or noise maskers, and amplitude-modulation detection with narrow- and wideband noise carriers. The model can account for most of the key...... properties of the data and is more powerful than the original model. The model might be useful as a front end in technical applications....
Harris, Roma M.
Feminist therapy, a form of psychotherapy which reflects an androgynous view of sex roles, strives to identify the constraints of traditional sex role expectations and to help women take control of their lives. Women's studies courses may also achieve similar goals. Female students (N=32) enrolled in a psychology of women course were tested to…
Wagemans, Johan; Feldman, Jacob; Gepshtein, Sergei; Kimchi, Ruth; Pomerantz, James R.; van der Helm, Peter A.; van Leeuwen, Cees
Our first review article (Wagemans et al., 2012) on the occasion of the centennial anniversary of Gestalt psychology focused on perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization. It concluded that further progress requires a reconsideration of the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the Gestalt approach, which is provided here. In…
Turner, Lisa A.; McCormick, Wesley H.
Academic entitlement characterises students who expect positive academic outcomes without personal effort. The current study examined the relations of perceived parental warmth and parental psychological control with two dimensions of academic entitlement (i.e., entitled expectations and externalised responsibility) among college students.…
Epstude, K.; Peetz, J.
Humans have the unique capacity to mentally travel through time, that is, to reflect on the past, anticipate the future, and construct alternate realities in their minds. The ability to mentally travel through time affects a variety of social psychological topics. Representations of events can
Rodriguez, Maria A.; Espinoza, José M.
The development of a teaching methodology for the undergraduate Psychology course Human Development II in a private university in Lima, Peru is described. The theoretical framework consisted of an integration of Citizen Science and Service Learning, with the application of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), specifically Wikipedia and…
Martin, Sarah L; Power, Andrea; Boyle, Yvonne; Anderson, Ian M; Silverdale, Monty A; Jones, Anthony K P
Although there is clear evidence for the serotonergic regulation of descending control of pain in animals, little direct evidence exists in humans. The majority of our knowledge comes from the use of serotonin (5-HT)-modulating antidepressants as analgesics in the clinical management of chronic pain. Here, we have used an acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to manipulate 5-HT function and examine its effects of ATD on heat pain threshold and tolerance, attentional manipulation of nociceptive processing and mood in human volunteers. Fifteen healthy participants received both ATD and balanced amino acid (BAL) drinks on two separate sessions in a double-blind cross-over design. Pain threshold and tolerance were determined 4 h post-drink via a heat thermode. Additional attention, distraction and temperature discrimination paradigms were completed using a laser-induced heat pain stimulus. Mood was assessed prior and throughout each session. Our investigation reported that the ATD lowered plasma TRP levels by 65.05 ± 7.29% and significantly reduced pain threshold and tolerance in response to the heat thermode. There was a direct correlation between the reduction in total plasma TRP levels and reduction in thermode temperature. In contrast, ATD showed no effect on laser-induced pain nor significant impact of the distraction-induced analgesia on pain perception but did reduce performance of the painful temperature discrimination task. Importantly, all findings were independent of any effects of ATD on mood. As far as we are aware, it is the first demonstration of 5-HT effects on pain perception which are not confounded by mood changes.
Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian
Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles
Zhang, Fengrong; Zhang, Xinhong
In this paper, a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect in human population and saturation effect within avian population is investigated. This model describes the transmission of avian influenza among avian population and human population in random environments. For stochastic avian-only system, persistence in the mean and extinction of the infected avian population are studied. For the avian-human influenza epidemic system, sufficient conditions for the existence of an ergodic stationary distribution are obtained. Furthermore, a threshold of this stochastic model which determines the outcome of the disease is obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad perspective on the use of the methods and techniques of the behavioral and social sciences as they pertain to the work of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, particularly in issues of risk perception. Four major topics or themes are discussed: (1) a brief overview of the classic theories of risk perception; (2) current contractor work in the area of risk perception and cognitive psychology; (3) other uses of the social and behavioral sciences in the Agency; and (4) methodological considerations in using the techniques
Ali, Nadia; Rose, Sarah; Ahmed, Lubna
Undergraduate students' perception of feedback and level of engagement with the feedback they receive have gained increasing attention in the educational literature recently to identify areas which require educators' attention. However, research in this area has generally been based on limited self-selecting samples, and has not considered how…
Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Potamianos, Grigoris
to control for the effects of demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 137 women with fertility problems undergoing IVF in a public hospital. All participants completed questionnaires that measured fertility-related stress, state anxiety, depressive symptomatology, perception of control...
Lee, Hye-Jung; Hong, Youngil; Choi, Hyoseon
This study explores issues related to the tutor's role when initiating tutoring as an institutional strategy at a conventional university. Based on a pilot tutoring program implemented in four college courses, we investigated the perceptions of instructors, tutors and students regarding the role of tutoring and whether it affected the…
In the controversy that broke out in 1911 over Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management, many critics contended that it ignored "the human factor" and reduced workers to machines. Psychologists succeeded in positioning themselves as experts of the human factor, and their instruments and expertise as the necessary complement of Taylor's psychologically deficient system. However, the conventional view that the increasing influence of psychologists and other social scientists "humanized" management theory and practice needs to be amended. Taylor's scientific management was not less human than later approaches such as Human Relations, but it articulated the human factor differently, and aligned it to its own instruments and practices in such a way that it was at once external to them and essential to their functioning. Industrial psychologists, on the other hand, at first presented themselves as engineers of the human factor and made the human mind an integral part of management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kunyk, Diane; Craig-Broadwith, Morgan; Morris, Heather; Diaz, Ruth; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Wang, JianLi
The estimated societal and economic costs of mental illness and psychological injury in the workplace is staggering. Governments, employers and other stakeholders have been searching for policy solutions. This qualitative, exploratory study sought to uncover organizational receptivity to a voluntary comprehensive standard for dealing with psychological health and safety in the workplace. A series of five focus groups were conducted in a large Western Canadian city in November 2013. The seventeen participants were from the fields of healthcare, construction/utilities, manufacturing industries, business services, and finance. They worked in positions of management, consulting, human resources, health promotion, health and safety, mediation, and occupational health and represented organizations ranging in size from 20 to 100,000 employees. The findings confirm and illustrate the critical role that psychological health and safety plays across workplaces and occupations. This standard resonated across the represented organizations and fit with their values. This alignment posed challenges with articulating its added value. There appears to be a need for simplified engagement and implementation strategies of the standard that can be tailored to the nuanced differences between types and sizes of industries. It appears that organizations in the most need of improving psychological health and safety may be the least receptive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Humanism was introduced to psychologists through Maslow and Rogers’s views in the twentieth century. This school deals with the human needs and his innate tendencies. Utopia, exalted experiences, religious experiences, high motivations and human nature are among Maslow and Rogers’s ideas. Attar, one of the greatest Muslim mystics of the 6th and 7th centuries has also considered these subjects in his poems and has tried to explain and interpret them. Many of Attar’s ideas can be explained using ideas and principles in humanism and it can be highlighted that he has tried to advance some theories in this field. In fact, it is obvious that, like many other mystics, Attar has utilized psychological concepts in his teachings, and his ideas and theories in this regard can be unraveled through scholarly research on his writings on the part of experts in psychology. On the other hand, to interpret many of the mystical ideas, it is necessary to be familiar with some theories in psychology. The present research, as a descriptive-analytical research, tries to explain Attar’s ideas about human needs, perfect man, exalted experiences and high motivation using the ideas and principles in humanism.
Lenochová, Pavlína; Vohnoutová, Pavla; Roberts, S Craig; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl; Havlíček, Jan
Cross-culturally, fragrances are used to modulate body odor, but the psychology of fragrance choice has been largely overlooked. The prevalent view is that fragrances mask an individual's body odor and improve its pleasantness. In two experiments, we found positive effects of perfume on body odor perception. Importantly, however, this was modulated by significant interactions with individual odor donors. Fragrances thus appear to interact with body odor, creating an individually-specific odor mixture. In a third experiment, the odor mixture of an individual's body odor and their preferred perfume was perceived as more pleasant than a blend of the same body odor with a randomly-allocated perfume, even when there was no difference in pleasantness between the perfumes. This indicates that fragrance use extends beyond simple masking effects and that people choose perfumes that interact well with their own odor. Our results provide an explanation for the highly individual nature of perfume choice.
M.G.L.M. van Doorn (Mark); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)
textabstractMultimedia information retrieval in digital libraries is a difficult task for computers in general. Humans on the other hand are experts in perception, concept representation, knowledge organization and memory retrieval. Cognitive psychology and science describe how cognition works in
Kostopoulou, Sotiria; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Katsaragakis, Stylianos; Papazoglou, Irene; Zygogianni, Anna; Galanos, Antonis; Mystakidou, Kyriaki
The present study assesses the relationship between patient dignity in advanced cancer and the following variables: psychological distress, preparatory grief, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The sample consisted of 120 patients with advanced cancer. The self-administered questionnaires were as follows: the Preparatory Grief in Advanced Cancer Patients (PGAC), the Patient Dignity Inventory-Greek (PDI-Gr), the Greek Schedule for Attitudes toward Hastened Death (G-SAHD), and the Greek version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (G-HADS). Moderate to strong statistically significant correlations were found between the 4 subscales of PDI-Gr (psychological distress, body image and role identity, self-esteem, and social support) with G-HADS, G-SAHD, and PGAC ( P dignity among patients with advanced cancer. Clinicians should assess and attend to dignity-distressing factors in the care of patients with advanced cancer.
Wagemans, Johan; Feldman, Jacob; Gepshtein, Sergei; Kimchi, Ruth; Pomerantz, James R.; van der Helm, Peter A.; van Leeuwen, Cees
Our first review paper on the occasion of the centennial anniversary of Gestalt psychology focused on perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization. It concluded that further progress requires a reconsideration of the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the Gestalt approach, which is provided here. In particular, we review contemporary formulations of holism within an information-processing framework, allowing for operational definitions (e.g., integral dimensions, emergent feature...
Konrad, Beatrice; Hiti, David; Chang, Bernard P; Retuerto, Jessica; Julian, Jacob; Edmondson, Donald
As many as 12% of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients screen positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms due to their cardiac event, and emergency department (ED) factors such as overcrowding have been associated with risk for PTSD. We tested the association of patients' perceptions of their proximity to a critically ill patient during ED evaluation for ACS with development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) in the month after hospital discharge. Participants were enrolled in the REactions to Acute Care and Hospitalization (REACH) study during evaluation for ACS in an urban ED. Participants reported whether they perceived a patient near them was close to death. They also reported their current fear, concern they may die, perceived control, and feelings of vulnerability on an Emergency Room Perceptions questionnaire. One month later, participants reported on PTSD symptoms specific to the cardiac event and ED hospitalization. Of 763 participants, 12% reported perceiving a nearby patient was likely to die. In a multivariate linear regression model [F(9757) = 19.69, p accounting for 62% of the adjusted effect and causing the main effect to become statistically nonsignificant. We found patients who perceived a nearby patient was likely to die had significantly greater PTSD symptoms at 1 month. Awareness of this association may be helpful for designing ED patient management procedures to identify and treat patients with an eye to post-ACS psychological care.
Malenchenko, A.F.; Sushko, S.N.; Saltanova, I.V.; Tushin, N.N.; Kozlovskaya, A.V.; Bortnovskij, V.N.; Dorofeeva, S.M.; Gapanovich-Kajdalov, N.V.; Gapanovich-Kajdalova, E.V.
The paper presents the analysis of questioning about perception of nuclear power plant construction in Belarus and about concomitant environmental risk. The opinion poll has been conducted among students of: Department of Environmental Monitoring of the International A. Sakharov Environmental University, Physics Department of Belarus State University, Department of General Hygienic and Environmental Medicine of Gomel State Medical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Minsk Polytechnic College. (authors)
Alcover, Carlos-María; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Chambel, Maria José
Working conditions in call/contact centers influence employees' perceptions of their relations with the organization and their attitudes to work. Such perceptions can be analyzed through the psychological contract. The association between the relational/transactional orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit the organization was examined, as well as the mediating role of affective commitment in employment relations. Data were collected from 973 employees in a cross-sectional survey. Analysis confirmed that there was a statistically significant relation between the orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit, which was positive for transactionally oriented and negative for relationally oriented contracts. A mediating role for affective commitment was also confirmed, and a full mediating effect was reported for both orientations.
In this dissertation, the correlation mechanism in modeling the process in the visual perception is introduced. It has been well described that the correlation mechanism is effective for describing subjective attributes in auditory perception. The main result is that it is possible to apply the correlation mechanism to the process in temporal vision and spatial vision, as well as in audition. (1) The psychophysical experiment was performed on subjective flicker rates for complex waveforms. A remarkable result is that the phenomenon of missing fundamental is found in temporal vision as analogous to the auditory pitch perception. This implies the existence of correlation mechanism in visual system. (2) For spatial vision, the autocorrelation analysis provides useful measures for describing three primary perceptual properties of visual texture: contrast, coarseness, and regularity. Another experiment showed that the degree of regularity is a salient cue for texture preference judgment. (3) In addition, the autocorrelation function (ACF) and inter-aural cross-correlation function (IACF) were applied for analysis of the temporal and spatial properties of environmental noise. It was confirmed that the acoustical properties of aircraft noise and traffic noise are well described. These analyses provided useful parameters extracted from the ACF and IACF in assessing the subjective annoyance for noise. Thesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from Junko Atagi, 6813 Mosonou, Saijo-cho, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0024, Japan. E-mail address: atagi\\@urban.ne.jp.
Comer, K.; Gaddy, C.D.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.
The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a project to evaluate psychological scaling techniques for use in generating estimates of human error probabilities. The project evaluated two techniques: direct numerical estimation and paired comparisons. Expert estimates were found to be consistent across and within judges. Convergent validity was good, in comparison to estimates in a handbook of human reliability. Predictive validity could not be established because of the lack of actual relative frequencies of error (which will be a difficulty inherent in validation of any procedure used to estimate HEPs). Application of expert estimates in probabilistic risk assessment and in human factors is discussed
Weisbuch, Max; Grunberg, Rebecca L; Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini
Beliefs about the malleability versus stability of traits (incremental vs. entity lay theories) have a profound impact on social cognition and self-regulation, shaping phenomena that range from the fundamental attribution error and group-based stereotyping to academic motivation and achievement. Less is known about the causes than the effects of these lay theories, and in the current work the authors examine the perception of facial emotion as a causal influence on lay theories. Specifically, they hypothesized that (a) within-person variability in facial emotion signals within-person variability in traits and (b) social environments replete with within-person variability in facial emotion encourage perceivers to endorse incremental lay theories. Consistent with Hypothesis 1, Study 1 participants were more likely to attribute dynamic (vs. stable) traits to a person who exhibited several different facial emotions than to a person who exhibited a single facial emotion across multiple images. Hypothesis 2 suggests that social environments support incremental lay theories to the extent that they include many people who exhibit within-person variability in facial emotion. Consistent with Hypothesis 2, participants in Studies 2-4 were more likely to endorse incremental theories of personality, intelligence, and morality after exposure to multiple individuals exhibiting within-person variability in facial emotion than after exposure to multiple individuals exhibiting a single emotion several times. Perceptions of within-person variability in facial emotion-rather than perceptions of simple diversity in facial emotion-were responsible for these effects. Discussion focuses on how social ecologies shape lay theories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available An empirical research was carried out with the aim of exploring in levels of anomy, social well-being and institutional trust and their relationship. Is a descriptive correlation study with a non experimental design based on a convenience sample composed by 585 participants (34.7% males and 65.3% females, age: M = 28.50; SD = 11.02 from Buenos Aires and other Argentinian cities. Results show a general positive perception of social well being -with a lack in others confidence-, low levels of institutional trust and high punctuations inanomic frustration. Convergent validity was corroborated and group differences showed up.
Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano
Based on our teaching experience in medicine and psychology degree programs, we examine different aspects of human evolution that can help students to understand how the human body and mind work and why they are vulnerable to certain diseases. Three main issues are discussed: 1) the necessity to consider not only the mechanisms, i.e. the "proximate causations", implicated in biological processes but also why these mechanisms have evolved, i.e. the "ultimate causations" or "adaptive significance", to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of human body and mind; 2) examples of how human vulnerabilities to disease are caused by phylogenetic constraints, evolutionary tradeoffs reflecting the combined actions of natural and sexual selection, and/or mismatch between past and present environment (i.e., evolution of the eye, teeth and diets, erect posture and their consequences); 3) human pair-bonding and parent-offspring relationships as the result of socio-sexual selection and evolutionary compromises between cooperation and conflict. These psychobiological mechanisms are interwoven with our brain developmental plasticity and the effects of culture in shaping our behavior and mind, and allow a better understanding of functional (normal) and dysfunctional (pathological) behaviors. Thus, because the study of human evolution offers a powerful framework for clinical practice and research, the curriculum studiorum of medical and psychology students should include evolutionary biology and human phylogeny.
Romaratezabala, Estibaliz; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Castillo, Daniel; Gorostegi-Anduaga, Ilargi; Yanci, Javier
The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of two warm-up protocols of different duration on physical performance, perceived load and perception of being ready for a match in handball players. Eighteen handball players were randomly divided into two groups (Wup 34min , warm-up protocol of 34 min, Wup 17min , warm-up protocol of 17 min). Before and after the warm-up protocols, they performed a battery of physical tests and recorded their perception of feeling ready for a match. At the end of the warm-up protocols, all the players evaluated their differentiated perceived effort (dRPE). The results showed that neither of the protocols significantly modified (p > 0.05) the players' physical performance. However, the Wup 34min group showed higher values in the differentiated warm-up perceived load (dRPE-WL) (p warm-up protocols significantly modified the players' physical performance, a greater perceived muscular load may cause a greater decrease in acceleration capacity.
Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene
Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030
Harker, Rachel; Pidgeon, Aileen M; Klaassen, Frances; King, Steven
Human service professionals are concerned with the intervention and empowerment of vulnerable social populations. The human service industry is laden with employment-related stressors and emotionally demanding interactions, which can lead to deleterious effects, such as burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Little attention has been given to developing knowledge of what might enable human service workers to persist and thrive. Cultivating and sustaining resilience can buffer the impact of occupational stressors on human service professionals. One of the psychological factors associated with cultivating resilience is mindfulness. The aim of this current research is to improve our understanding of the relationship between resilience, mindfulness, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and psychological distress among human service professionals. The current study surveyed 133 human service professionals working in the fields of psychology, social work, counseling, youth and foster care work to explore the predictive relationship between resilience, mindfulness, and psychological distress. The results showed that higher levels of resilience were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress, burnout and secondary traumatic stress. In addition, higher levels of mindfulness were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress and burnout. The findings suggest that cultivating resilience and mindfulness in human service professionals may assist in preventing psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Limitations of this study are discussed together with implications for future research.
Full Text Available Visually judging the sex of another can be achieved easily in most social encounters. When the signals that inform such judgements are weak (e.g. outdoors at night, observers tend to expect the presence of males-an expectation that may facilitate survival-critical decisions under uncertainty. The present aim was to examine whether this male bias depends on expertise. To that end, Caucasian and Asian observers targeted female and male hand images that were either the same or different to the observers' race (i.e. long term experience was varied while concurrently, the proportion of targets changed across presentation blocks (i.e. short term experience change. It was thus found that: (i observers of own-race stimuli were more likely to report the presence of males and absence of females, however (ii observers of other-race stimuli--while still tending to accept stimuli as male--were not prone to rejecting female cues. Finally, (iii male-biased measures did not track the relative frequency of targets or lures, disputing the notion that male bias derives from prior expectation about the number of male exemplars in a set. Findings are discussed in concert with the pan-stimulus model of human sex perception.
Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar
The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of the course, to provide the students with an effective knowledge of the gross anatomy, histology, embryology and the clinical anatomy. On the other hand, the students' feedback regarding the lecture methods and the teaching environment is crucial in judging the efficacy of the present curriculum. To obtain the students' feedback about the environment of the lecture classes, as regards the venue, the teaching and learning aids which are used, the lecture class schedule of the university (the number of classes per week, the durations of the lecture classes, etc.) and the existing departmental practices (display of the class routine in advance, synchronization between the lecture and the practical classes), so that their suggestions could help the faculty in planning the most effective teaching procedures. A semi structured questionnaire was supplied to the students to get their feedback. Most of the students found the air conditioned seminar room's environment to be more comfortable and they supported the existing durations of the lecture hours with the combined use of chalk and a board and overhead projectors (OHPs). The perceptions of the learners helped in modifying the departmental practice in the desired way.
Laws, A; Patsalides, B
Human rights abuses of women are ubiquitous throughout the world. Those perpetrated by governments entitle women to seek political asylum, and many women refugees do so in the United States. The asylum process often requires medical or psychological evaluations to corroborate women's reports of torture or other abuses. This article provides an overview of how to conduct such examinations and how to document findings for the asylum process.
Nguyen, Sean; Wong, David T
The search for a resource that can be used to detect a broad range of diseases easily and reliably is akin to a search for the diagnostic Holy Grail. Yet, each of us may have inside our mouths, a key to the pathological and disease biomarker library hidden inside our bodies. Saliva--the source of all this information--is the secretory product of glands located in or around the oral cavity. If one could read the stories of diagnostic information present within saliva, then the abundance of information waiting to be found could be comparable to a vast vault of information, such as the Internet. Upon dissection of this data, it would be seen that the source of this information is from saliva's origin as a filtrate of blood, and that the validity of both mediums should be equal. Although one day this may be the view, most people's hold of saliva, current and past cultures, have fared much more diverse meanings to the secretion. Ivan Pavlov's experiments has shown how closely tied salivation is with the thought of food, one of life's primary indulgences. The relationship between salivation and behaviors within our daily lives is undeniable. Yet most people never appreciate the uniqueness of saliva. Throughout the world, saliva carries definite positive and negative connotations, based upon its social, psychological, behavioral, and cultural settings. The thought of saliva may be viewed as grotesque in one population, yet may be the vehicle of blessing in other cultures. Saliva's double nature brings up some interesting cultural, social, behavioral, and psychological points about how saliva is perceived in the world, some of which are subsequently stated in order to present saliva as the spirited fluid it is.
Thellman, Sam; Silvervarg, Annika; Ziemke, Tom
People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants ( N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior - (2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.
Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel
This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…
Watson, Sunnie Lee; Kim, Woori
This study examines learner enrolment purposes, perceptions on instructional activities and their relationship to learning gains in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. Using an author-developed survey, learners reported their perceptions on instructional activities and learning gains within the…
Paletz, Susannah B F; Bearman, Christopher; Orasanu, Judith; Holbrook, Jon
The presence of social psychological pressures on pilot decision making was assessed using qualitative analyses of critical incident interviews. Social psychological phenomena have long been known to influence attitudes and behavior but have not been highlighted in accident investigation models. Using a critical incident method, 28 pilots who flew in Alaska were interviewed. The participants were asked to describe a situation involving weather when they were pilot in command and found their skills challenged. They were asked to describe the incident in detail but were not explicitly asked to identify social pressures. Pressures were extracted from transcripts in a bottom-up manner and then clustered into themes. Of the 28 pilots, 16 described social psychological pressures on their decision making, specifically, informational social influence, the foot-in-the-door persuasion technique, normalization of deviance, and impression management and self-consistency motives. We believe accident and incident investigations can benefit from explicit inclusion of common social psychological pressures. We recommend specific ways of incorporating these pressures into theHuman Factors Analysis and Classification System.
Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…
Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M
Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.
Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary
"Artificial humans", so-called "Embodied Conversational Agents" and humanoid robots, are assumed to facilitate human-technology interaction referring to the unique human capacities of interpersonal communication and social information processing. While early research and development in artificial intelligence (AI) focused on processing and production of natural language, the "new AI" has also taken into account the emotional and relational aspects of communication with an emphasis both on understanding and production of nonverbal behavior. This shift in attention in computer science and engineering is reflected in recent developments in psychology and social cognitive neuroscience. This article addresses key challenges which emerge from the goal to equip machines with socio-emotional intelligence and to enable them to interpret subtle nonverbal cues and to respond to social affordances with naturally appearing behavior from both perspectives. In particular, we propose that the creation of credible artificial humans not only defines the ultimate test for our understanding of human communication and social cognition but also provides a unique research tool to improve our knowledge about the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Onish, Keiichi; Kim, Young Woo; Obinata, Goro; Hase, Kazunori
We investigated impedance perception characteristics of humans in the man-machine interface. Sensibility or operational feel about physical properties of machine dynamics is obtained through perception process. We evaluated the impedance perception characteristics of humans who are operating a mechanical system, based on extended Scheffe's subjective evaluation method in full consideration of the influence of impedance level, impedance difference, experiment order, individual difference and so on. Constant method based quantitative evaluation was adopted to investigate the influence of motion frequency and change of the impedance on human impedance perception characteristics. Experimental results indicate that humans perceive impedance of mechanical systems based on comparison process of the dynamical characteristics of the systems. The proposed method can be applied to quantify the design requirement of man-machine interface. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through experimental results.
Onish, Keiichi [Yamaha Motor Co., Shizuoka (Japan); Kim, Young Woo [Daegu Techno Park R and D Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Obinata, Goro [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Hase, Kazunori [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)
We investigated impedance perception characteristics of humans in the man-machine interface. Sensibility or operational feel about physical properties of machine dynamics is obtained through perception process. We evaluated the impedance perception characteristics of humans who are operating a mechanical system, based on extended Scheffe's subjective evaluation method in full consideration of the influence of impedance level, impedance difference, experiment order, individual difference and so on. Constant method based quantitative evaluation was adopted to investigate the influence of motion frequency and change of the impedance on human impedance perception characteristics. Experimental results indicate that humans perceive impedance of mechanical systems based on comparison process of the dynamical characteristics of the systems. The proposed method can be applied to quantify the design requirement of man-machine interface. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through experimental results.
Tunstel, E.; Howard, A.; Edwards, D.; Carlson, A.
This paper presents a technique for learning to assess terrain traversability for outdoor mobile robot navigation using human-embedded logic and real-time perception of terrain features extracted from image data.
Jones, Edgar; Wessely, Simon
In contemporary culture, soldiers held as prisoners-of-war (POWs) or as hostages are considered at significant risk of mental illness, in particular post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This assumption contrasts with the psychiatric orthodoxy of the First World War when it was concluded in both Britain and Germany that POWs were protected against 'war neurosis'. Although 'barbed wire disease' was identified during time of captivity, post-release effects were not recognized. The repatriation of 'protected' POWs in 1943 prompted a reassessment of the psychological impact of imprisonment when servicemen of previous good character began to behave aberrantly. Rehabilitation programmes were designed to enable soldiers to re-adapt to service or civilian roles. Difficulties of adjustment were cast in social and cognitive terms, and corrective measures were occupational and educational. Psychiatric disorders found in POWs were explained in terms of a pre-conflict predisposition to, or a history of, mental illness. However, retrospective studies of veteran POWs have found a high prevalence of PTSD. A change in attitudes is explored in relation to the advance of medical terminology into the territory of emotions and the attribution of pathological processes to self-recovering mental states. The reclassification of the effects of imprisonment implies that diagnoses in military psychiatry are culturally determined and can be understood only if they are placed in a context that includes changing beliefs about mental illness, the formal development of the psychiatric profession and the immediate needs of the armed forces.
Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.
Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected
Muller, Leah; Rolston, John D.; Fox, Neal P.; Knowlton, Robert; Rao, Vikram R.; Chang, Edward F.
Objective. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a clinical gold standard for human brain mapping and readily evokes conscious percepts, yet the neurophysiological changes underlying these percepts are not well understood. Approach. To determine the neural correlates of DES, we stimulated the somatosensory cortex of ten human participants at frequency-amplitude combinations that both elicited and failed to elicit conscious percepts, meanwhile recording neural activity directly surrounding the stimulation site. We then compared the neural activity of perceived trials to that of non-perceived trials. Main results. We found that stimulation evokes distributed high gamma activity, which correlates with conscious perception better than stimulation parameters themselves. Significance. Our findings suggest that high gamma activity is a reliable biomarker for perception evoked by both natural and electrical stimuli.
Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.
Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.
De La Torre, Gabriel G.; van Baarsen, Berna; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Kanas, Nick; Weiss, Karine; Schneider, Stefan; Whiteley, Iya
Recently the psychological effects of space flight have gained in attention. In uncovering the psychological challenges that individuals and teams can face, we need research options that integrate psychosocial aspects with behavioral, performance, technical and environmental issues. Future perspectives in Space Psychology and Human Spaceflight are reviewed in this paper. The topics covered include psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects, neurocognitive testing tools, decision making, autonomy and delayed communications, well being, mental health, situational awareness, and methodology. Authors were members of a European Space Agency (ESA) Research Topical Team on Psychosocial and Behavioral Aspects of Human Spaceflight. They discuss the different topics under a common perspective of a theoretical and practical framework, showing interactions, relationships and possible solutions for the different aspects and variables in play. Recommendations for every topic are offered and summarized for future research in the field. The different proposed research ideas can be accomplished using analogs and simulation experiments, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight microgravity studies. These topics are especially important for future Moon and Mars mission design and training.
Ripberger, Joseph T.; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.; Carlson, Deven E.; Gupta, Kuhika; Carlson, Nina; Dunlap, Riley E.
In complex systems where humans and nature interact to produce joint outcomes, mitigation, adaptation, and resilience require that humans perceive feedback—signals of health and distress—from natural systems. In many instances, humans readily perceive feedback. In others, feedback is more difficult to perceive, so humans rely on experts, heuristics, biases, and/or identify confirming rationalities that may distort perceptions of feedback. This study explores human perception of feedback from natural systems by testing alternate conceptions about how individuals perceive climate anomalies, a form of feedback from the climate system. Results indicate that individuals generally perceive climate anomalies, especially when the anomalies are relatively extreme and persistent. Moreover, this finding is largely robust to political differences that generate predictable but small biases in feedback perception at extreme ends of the partisan spectrum. The subtlety of these biases bodes well for mitigation, adaptation, and resilience as human systems continue to interact with a changing climate system.
Batchelder, William H
Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John
The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty ...
Oesch, Nathan; Miklousic, Igor
In the New York Times bestselling book The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists (2006), the world was granted its first exclusive introduction to the steadily growing dating coach and pick-up artist community. Many of its most prominent authorities claim to use insights and information gleaned both through first-hand experience as well as empirical research in evolutionary psychology. One of the industry's most well-respected authorities, the illusionist Erik von Markovik, promotes a three-phase model of human courtship: Attraction, building mutual Comfort and Trust, and Seduction. The following review argues that many of these claims are in fact grounded in solid empirical findings from social, physiological and evolutionary psychology. Two texts which represent much of this literature are critiqued and their implications discussed.
Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra
The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.
Zhang, Maochen; Hong, Liwen; Zhang, Tianyu; Lin, Yun; Zheng, Sichang; Zhou, Xiaolin; Fan, Rong; Wang, Zhengting; Zhang, Chenli; Zhong, Jie
Disease severity, illness perceptions, coping strategies, stress, psychological well-being, and quality of life were reported to have close relationships. According to the Common Sense Model, illness perceptions and coping strategies could mediate the relationship between illness stimuli and illness outcomes such as psychological health and quality of life. Stress was also associated with the individual's disease severity, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. The study aimed to explore the influencing factors of illness outcomes, and to what extent illness perceptions, coping strategies, and stress mediate the relationship between disease severity and anxiety, and depression and quality of life. Our study included 159 patients with Crohn's disease who were attending a tertiary hospital outpatient clinic or who were hospitalized. Disease severity was measured with the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. Illness perceptions were measured with the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Coping strategies were measured with the Carver Brief Coping Questionnaire. Stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Quality of life was measured with the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Disease severity, illness perceptions, maladaptive coping, stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life were significantly correlated with each other among patients with Crohn's disease. Using structural equation modeling to describe the inner relationship of the aforementioned variables, an excellent-fitted model was drawn. ( χ 2 =13.83, P =0.18, χ 2 /N=1.38, standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] 0.97, comparative fit index [CFI] >0.99). Disease severity had a direct influence on illness perceptions. Illness perceptions had a direct influence on stress. Both illness perceptions and stress had direct influences on anxiety, depression, and quality of life, while
R. Elisabeth Cornwell
Full Text Available Sociobiology and its descendant evolutionary psychology (EP have struggled to gain ground within the social sciences over the past 30 years. While some have heralded the Triumph of Sociobiology (Alcock, 2001, others have critiqued it as a poor approach to understanding human behavior and would prefer that a Darwinian perspective remain outside the domain of human social sciences. We attempt to assess just how successful (or not it has been by examining how it has been covered in introductory psychology textbooks over the past 30 years. Our findings indicate that a Darwinian perspective has gained influence and acceptance within the field of psychology over the past three decades. However, we also find that EP as a sub-discipline is often perceived as narrowly defined and limited to research on mating strategies. We address how these perceptions may affect the future of EP, and possible steps needed to increase both the acceptance and importance of evolutionary theory to psychology.
Gordon M Shepherd
Full Text Available The conference was organized and welcomed by Lisa Sasson, representing the NYU Steinhardt School and its Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Public Health in cooperation with the NYU School of Dentistry. As a co-organizer, I added my welcome, and explained how the many disciplines brought together in the conference constituted a new vision for the science of human flavor perception, which can be summarized by the term “neurogastronomy” (1. The speakers and the disciplines they represent were bound together by several principles. First, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This is understood to apply to most research in biology; here we wished to show that it applies especially to the human behavior of choosing foods to eat, a view put forward most prominently by Richard Wrangham based on his book "Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human". We also wished to show that the sensory and motor apparatus of the mouth and nose need to be understood as adaptations through human evolution, as carefully documented by Daniel Lieberman, based on his recent "Evolution of the Human Head". Many of the speakers picked up this theme in their presentations. It is clear that an evolutionary framework must be part of understanding flavor and healthy eating. A second principle was that "Flavor is not in the food; it is created by the brain". Just as color is created out of different wavelengths of light by neural processing mechanisms in our brains, so is flavor created by neural processing mechanisms out of different molecules emitted by the food and drink in our mouths. This requires understanding neural mechanisms at all levels of organization of the brain, a vast field that our conference only began to address, starting with the sensory receptors and sensory systems as discussed by Gary Beauchamp for taste and Stuart Firestein for olfaction. Current research reported by Ivan De Araujo on sugars is dissociating their sweet
Clark, Torin K.; Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.
Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception, and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal-otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: (a) static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, (b) static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, (c) static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and (d) static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments. PMID:25999822
Torin K. Clark
Full Text Available Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: a static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, b static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, c static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and d static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments.
Koski, Jessica; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R.
Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are socio-cultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents. PMID:25697184
Full Text Available In modern moral philosophy, virtue ethics has developed into one of the major approaches to ethical inquiry. As it seems, however, it is faced with a kind of perplexity similar to the one that Elisabeth Anscombe has described in Modern moral philosophy with regard to ethics in general. For if we assume that Anscombe is right in claiming that virtue ethics ought to be grounded in a sound philosophy of psychology, modern virtue ethics seems to be baseless since it lacks or even avoids reflections on the human soul. To overcome this difficulty, the paper explores the conceptual connections between virtue and soul in Aristotle's ethics. It claims that the human soul is the principle of virtue since reflections on the soul help us to define the nature of virtue, to understand the different kinds of virtues, and to answer the question why human beings need the virtues at all.
Selected writings of B. F. Skinner are compared to 5 current topics in mainstream psychology, including the role of the unconscious, human language, the role of dispositions in psychology, human perceptions of conformity and bias, and mindfulness. The striking similarities between Skinner's work and these 5 current topics support Richelle's (1993)…
Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard
Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Markov, A V
In his main work, "On the origin of species", Darwin has refrained from discusion of the origin of man; be only mentioned that his theory would "throw light" on this problem. This famous Darwin's phrase turned out to be one of the most succesful scientific predictions. In the present paper some of the most important recent adavnces in paleoanthroplogy, comparative genetics and evolutionary psychology are reviewed. These three disciplines currently contribute most to our knowledge of anthropogenesis. The review demonstrates that Darwin's ideas not only "threw light" on human origin and evolution; they provided a comprehensive framework for a great variety of studies concerning different aspects of anthropogenesis.
Lilienfeld, Scott O
Data indicate that large percentages of the general public regard psychology's scientific status with considerable skepticism. I examine 6 criticisms commonly directed at the scientific basis of psychology (e.g., psychology is merely common sense, psychology does not use scientific methods, psychology is not useful to society) and offer 6 rebuttals. I then address 8 potential sources of public skepticism toward psychology and argue that although some of these sources reflect cognitive errors (e.g., hindsight bias) or misunderstandings of psychological science (e.g., failure to distinguish basic from applied research), others (e.g., psychology's failure to police itself, psychology's problematic public face) reflect the failure of professional psychology to get its own house in order. I offer several individual and institutional recommendations for enhancing psychology's image and contend that public skepticism toward psychology may, paradoxically, be one of our field's strongest allies.
Caren B. Scheepers
Full Text Available Orientation: Human resource practices influence the psychological contract between employee and employer and, ultimately, organisational performance. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of human resource practices on the types of psychological contracts in an iron ore mining company in South Africa empirically. Motivation for the study: Although there have been a number of conceptual studies on the effect of human resource practices on psychological contracts, there has been no effort to synthesise the links between these contracts and various human resource practices systematically. This study endeavoured to provide quantitative evidence to verify or refute conceptual studies on this relationship. Its findings could inform human resource strategies and, ultimately, the prioritisation of human resource practices to improve the cost-effective allocation of resources. Research design, approach and method: The researchers administered two questionnaires. These were Rousseau’s Psychological Contract Inventory (2000 and the Human Resource Practices Scale of Geringer, Colette and Milliman (2002. The researchers conducted the study with 936 knowledge workers at an iron ore mining company in South Africa. They achieved a 32% response rate. Main findings: The findings showed that most participants have relational contracts with the organisation. Another 22% have balanced contracts, 8% have transitional contracts whilst only 1% have transactional contracts. The study suggests that there are relationships between these psychological contracts and specific human resource practices. The study found that training and development was the most important human resource practice for developing relational and balanced contracts. Employees thought that they contributed more than their employer did to the relationship. The researchers developed a model to illustrate the influence of the various human resource practices on
Water quality perceptions influence people’s preferences for visiting coastal areas and willingness to participate in activities on or near the water. They also influence people’s social values for a waterbody, sense of place, support for protection of a waterbody, an...
Background About 1.6 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) from northern Uganda have been living in encampments since the late 1980s. In conflict settings such as northern Uganda women are disproportionately affected compared to men. This study explores women and men IDPs' perceptions of their access to ...
Curran, Laura; Sanchez Mayers, Ray; Fulghum, Fontaine
Online programs have proliferated rapidly in higher education, and this reality holds true for social work education as well. Employing a mixed methods design, this study looked at employer perceptions of online degrees compared to traditional degrees. Data was collected through an online survey that included Likert type and open-ended questions…
Boyle, R J; Umasunthar, T; Smith, J G; Hanna, H; Procktor, A; Phillips, K; Pinto, C; Gore, C; Cox, H E; Warner, J O; Vickers, B; Hodes, M
Mothers of children with food allergy have increased anxiety, which may be influenced by healthcare professionals' communication of risk. To evaluate a brief psychological intervention for reducing anxiety in mothers of children with food allergy. Two hundred mothers of children with food allergy were recruited from allergy clinics. A computer-generated randomization list was used to allocate participants to a single-session cognitive behavioural therapy intervention including a risk communication module, or standard care. Anxiety and risk perception were assessed at 6 weeks and 1 year. Primary outcome was state anxiety at 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes included state anxiety at 1 year, risk perception at 6 weeks and 1 year, and salivary cortisol response to a simulated anaphylaxis scenario at 1 year. We found no significant difference in the primary outcome state anxiety at 6 weeks, with mean 31.9 (SD 10.2) intervention, 34.0 (10.2) control; mean difference 2.1 (95% CI -0.9, 5.0; P=.17). There was significantly reduced state anxiety at 6 weeks in the intervention group, in the subgroup of participants with moderate/high anxiety at enrolment (103/200, 52%), with mean 33.0 (SD 9.3) intervention, 37.8 (SD 10.0) control; mean difference 4.8 (95% CI 0.9, 8.7; P=.016; Cohen's d effect size 0.50). The psychological intervention also reduced risk perception and salivary cortisol response (P=.032; effect size 0.36). We found evidence that a brief psychological intervention which incorporates accurate risk information may impact on anxiety, risk perception and physiological stress response in mothers of children with food allergy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The author explores the meaning and the importance of the will in Rank's relation-based self-creative, self-constructive psychology and argues for the consideration of the concept of the will in psychoanalysis. The paper shows that Rank's concept of the will explains what gives a human being the impetus to choose an action, positive or negative. When validated by the other, this will, the power of intention, enables a person to create his/her unique individuality. The paper reviews Rank's definition of will and traces the evolution of his ideas of intentionality in his writings. Further, the author discusses how Rank attempts to capture the subtle movements of the human mind as suffused with struggles and dynamic interplay between external and internal forces.
Full Text Available Maochen Zhang,1,* Liwen Hong,1,* Tianyu Zhang,1 Yun Lin,1 Sichang Zheng,1 Xiaolin Zhou,1 Rong Fan,1 Zhengting Wang,1 Chenli Zhang,2 Jie Zhong1 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Exclusive Medical Center, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Disease severity, illness perceptions, coping strategies, stress, psychological well-being, and quality of life were reported to have close relationships. According to the Common Sense Model, illness perceptions and coping strategies could mediate the relationship between illness stimuli and illness outcomes such as psychological health and quality of life. Stress was also associated with the individual’s disease severity, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Objectives: The study aimed to explore the influencing factors of illness outcomes, and to what extent illness perceptions, coping strategies, and stress mediate the relationship between disease severity and anxiety, and depression and quality of life. Methods: Our study included 159 patients with Crohn’s disease who were attending a tertiary hospital outpatient clinic or who were hospitalized. Disease severity was measured with the Crohn’s Disease Activity Index. Illness perceptions were measured with the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Coping strategies were measured with the Carver Brief Coping Questionnaire. Stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Quality of life was measured with the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Results: Disease severity, illness perceptions, maladaptive coping, stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life were significantly correlated with each other among patients with Crohn’s disease. Using structural equation modeling to describe the inner relationship of the
Higuera-Trujillo, Juan Luis; López-Tarruella Maldonado, Juan; Llinares Millán, Carmen
Psychological research into human factors frequently uses simulations to study the relationship between human behaviour and the environment. Their validity depends on their similarity with the physical environments. This paper aims to validate three environmental-simulation display formats: photographs, 360° panoramas, and virtual reality. To do this we compared the psychological and physiological responses evoked by simulated environments set-ups to those from a physical environment setup; we also assessed the users' sense of presence. Analysis show that 360° panoramas offer the closest to reality results according to the participants' psychological responses, and virtual reality according to the physiological responses. Correlations between the feeling of presence and physiological and other psychological responses were also observed. These results may be of interest to researchers using environmental-simulation technologies currently available in order to replicate the experience of physical environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cultural studies and especially semiological theory has recently sought to re-conceptualise classical problems considered in academic psychology such as perception, identity, and "subjectivity". It is argued that these theorizations are reductionist and/or theoretically incoherent without an adequate epistemology. Yet they have become for many students of the human sciences the conventional modes of analyzing such questions as personal identity.
Song, Chen; Sandberg, Kristian; Andersen, Lau Møller; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Rees, Geraint
GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. The level of GABA varies substantially across individuals, and this variability is associated with interindividual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition or whether the GABA levels of different cortical regions selectively influence perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how the GABA levels of parietal and occipital cortices related to interindividual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception. We used visual contextual illusion as a perceptual assay since the illusion dissociates perceptual content from stimulus content and the magnitude of the illusion reflects the effect of visual inhibition. Across individuals, we observed selective correlations between the level of GABA and the magnitude of contextual illusion. Specifically, parietal GABA level correlated with size illusion magnitude but not with orientation or brightness illusion magnitude; in contrast, occipital GABA level correlated with orientation illusion magnitude but not with size or brightness illusion magnitude. Our findings reveal a region- and feature-dependent influence of GABA level on human visual perception. Parietal and occipital cortices contain, respectively, topographic maps of size and orientation preference in which neural responses to stimulus sizes and stimulus orientations are modulated by intraregional lateral connections. We propose that these lateral connections may underlie the selective influence of GABA on visual perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human visual system, varies substantially across individuals. This interindividual variability in GABA level is linked to interindividual differences in many aspects of visual perception. However, the widespread influence of GABA raises the
Andersen, Lau Møller; Blicher, Jakob Udby
GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. The level of GABA varies substantially across individuals, and this variability is associated with interindividual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition or whether the GABA levels of different cortical regions selectively influence perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how the GABA levels of parietal and occipital cortices related to interindividual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception. We used visual contextual illusion as a perceptual assay since the illusion dissociates perceptual content from stimulus content and the magnitude of the illusion reflects the effect of visual inhibition. Across individuals, we observed selective correlations between the level of GABA and the magnitude of contextual illusion. Specifically, parietal GABA level correlated with size illusion magnitude but not with orientation or brightness illusion magnitude; in contrast, occipital GABA level correlated with orientation illusion magnitude but not with size or brightness illusion magnitude. Our findings reveal a region- and feature-dependent influence of GABA level on human visual perception. Parietal and occipital cortices contain, respectively, topographic maps of size and orientation preference in which neural responses to stimulus sizes and stimulus orientations are modulated by intraregional lateral connections. We propose that these lateral connections may underlie the selective influence of GABA on visual perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human visual system, varies substantially across individuals. This interindividual variability in GABA level is linked to interindividual differences in many aspects of visual perception. However, the widespread influence of GABA raises the
Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M
Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.
Aline W. ede Borst
Full Text Available Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, animations, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the Uncanny Valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.
de Borst, Aline W; de Gelder, Beatrice
Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.
Full Text Available The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents.Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted.Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance.Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions.Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.
Antonia A Paschali
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.
Magklara, Eleni; Morrison, Val
Patient well-being on referral to surgery likely affects their surgical experience yet few studies examine pre-surgical correlates of well-being. Guided by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation and Social Cognitive theory, this study examined whether illness and emotional representations, general and domain self-efficacy were associated with pre-surgical well-being. The pre-surgical assessment of a three-wave prospective study is reported. Fifty-four hip and knee replacements patients (mean age = 69.33; SD = 8.57) were recruited in the pre-surgery educational clinic at a UK general hospital. Patients completed a questionnaire-pack including the Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Rehabilitation Outcome Scale, the Falls-Efficacy Scale, and the Short Form of Psychological Well-Being Index. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that above and beyond demographic and clinical characteristics, negative emotional representations were associated with lower psychological well-being while strong general self-efficacy beliefs were positively related to psychological well-being. Independent of demographic and clinical characteristics, joint replacement patients' psychological well-being was associated with their cognitions and emotional reactions to their condition before surgery. Early interventions could potentially target these modifiable factors to improve pre-surgical well-being in this group of patients, with potential for additional post-surgical benefit.
Liu, Min-Chieh; Aquilino, Steven A; Lund, Peter S; Vargas, Marcos A; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Gratton, David G; Qian, Fang
This study evaluated the relationship between instrumental measurements and subjective visual assessment of differences in dental porcelain translucency. Unshaded feldspathic porcelain was used with controlled amounts of tin oxide to create two groups of 12-mm diameter disks with incremental changes in opacity. Contrast ratio (CR = Yb/Yw) was determined with a spectrophotometer, and used as a measure of porcelain translucency (Group A = 0.20 to 0.40; Group B = 0.6-0.8). Within each group, there were 14 specimens with 11 CRs. Three observer groups (first year dental students, residents, faculty with >10 years of shade matching experience) were recruited to assess the translucency between porcelain disks under two lighting conditions (reflected light, transmitted light). Each subject's ability to distinguish between specimens of differing translucency was determined. Descriptive statistics and three-way ANOVA followed by a post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test were used to evaluate the translucency perception threshold (TPT) of subjects (alpha= 0.05). The overall mean TPT (DeltaC) was 0.07, while 50% of the subjects could perceive a 0.06 CR difference between porcelain specimens. Three-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in translucency perception among the observer groups (p or =10 years) significantly improved the ability to perceive differences in translucency; however, neither the viewing condition nor porcelain opacity affected the perceived translucency threshold.
Maas-van Schaaijk, N.M.
The aim of this thesis is to learn how pediatric psychological care for (Dutch) adolescents and their parents may be optimized. Psychological functioning in adolescents (specifically depression and behavior problems) and their parents (general and diabetes specific parenting stress) is studied while
Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W
Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences.
The psychological problems of the families of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected people, and of the health workers taking care of them, have been addressed in a few empirical studies and in several anecdotal reports and theoretical contributions. Apparently, HIV-1 infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are able to elicit a wide range of emotional reactions, from rejection and refusal to provide care to immersion in the infected person's needs and burnout. Since irrational fears and attitudes play an important role in conditioning these reactions, education may not be sufficient to change behaviour. Counselling sessions and mutual support groups are often the most appropriate contexts where fears and concerns can receive an individually tailored response, and where formal and informal caregivers can be helped to manage stress.
Herzberg, Judith T.
Human services educators and scholars maintain that they are teaching social change theory and skills that will allow students to engage in large-scale social change. A review of the literature, from a critical theory perspective, offered little evidence that social change is being taught in human services programs. In this collective case study,…
Taylor; Fuggle, P; Charman, T
The psychological adjustment of healthy siblings was investigated in relation to their attitudes and perceptions about their brother's or sister's chronic physical disorder, to their mothers' awareness of these attitudes and perceptions, and to three other maternal factors (maternal distress, maternal social support, and amount of care demanded by the physical disorder). Sixty-two well siblings and mothers of children with a range of chronic physical disorders completed standardised questionnaires. The majority of siblings did not appear to have adjustment problems, although the sample had slightly increased rates of emotional symptoms compared to the general population. Mothers rated well siblings as having more negative attitudes and perceptions about the physical disorder than reported by siblings themselves. A multiple regression analysis indicated that better sibling adjustment was associated with higher maternal awareness of their attitudes and perceptions. These findings support Varni and Wallander's (1998) model that emphasises the role of relationship and attitude variables in child adjustment to chronic physical disorder. The implications of these findings for clinical practice are discussed.
Full Text Available Introduction: The dental profession has been considered a stressful occupation. The origins of this stress may also lie in the process of dental education. The perception of stress is frequently influenced by one′s personal system of beliefs and attitudes. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between psychological well-being and perception of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 800 1-4 th year dental students. Information on demographics, social background, and health behaviors were collected. The psychological general well-being (PGWB index and the dental environment stress (DES questionnaire were used to measure PGWB and perceptions of stress, respectively. Multiple intergroup comparisons were carried out using ANOVA. Correlation analysis was done to find out relationship between PGWB and DES. Regression analysis to find out the strongest predictor of PGWB. P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in PGWB among different year of study. Female students had significantly lower PGWB scores and higher DES scores than male students. The stress differed among different year of study with highest stress in final year students in all domains except for clinical/preclinical training, which was highest among 1 st year students. Correlational analysis showed a negative relationship between PGWB and DES score. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that "workload," "patient treatment," "performance pressure" and "others" domains of stress were significant predictors of PGWB. Conclusion: This study revealed that the perception of stress is influenced by gender and health behaviors which in turn affect PGWB.
Moskell, Christine; Allred, Shorna Broussard
Community psychology (CP) research on the natural environment lacks a theoretical framework for analyzing the complex relationship between human systems and the natural world. We introduce other academic fields concerned with the interactions between humans and the natural environment, including environmental sociology and coupled human and natural systems. To demonstrate how the natural environment can be included within CP's ecological framework, we propose an ecological model of urban forest stewardship action. Although ecological models of behavior in CP have previously modeled health behaviors, we argue that these frameworks are also applicable to actions that positively influence the natural environment. We chose the environmental action of urban forest stewardship because cities across the United States are planting millions of trees and increased citizen participation in urban tree planting and stewardship will be needed to sustain the benefits provided by urban trees. We used the framework of an ecological model of behavior to illustrate multiple levels of factors that may promote or hinder involvement in urban forest stewardship actions. The implications of our model for the development of multi-level ecological interventions to foster stewardship actions are discussed, as well as directions for future research to further test and refine the model.
A V Gagarin
Full Text Available The article reveals the features of interspecific interaction “Human - Pet” in aspects of psychology and behaviorism. This direction is shown to be promising in the theoretical and applied aspects. This is significant for the study of individual social activity and human life, as well as social groups. The article identifies the promising areas of the research of such interaction: in the development of family and child-parent relations; in the asocial individual development under the influence of various factors (social and personal; in various directions of media development (social advertising on television and in print, in fiction and film; in socially-significant communicating in social networks (communication through video sharing, etc.. It is shown that this perspective is important for research in education and upbringing. We have come to the conclusion that the problems are of social significance because the direct and/or indirect human contact with natural objects contributes to the development of different spheres of his/her personality (cognitive, communicative, aesthetic, ethical, emotional, volitional.
Wada, Kenichi; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Nagashima, Miyuki; Oda, Junichiro; Tokushige, Kohko
The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of risk perception associated with nuclear power plants in the framework of the behavioral economics, such as prospect theory. Due to the bounded rationality of the people, the public tends to overestimate the risk of nuclear power, especially after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Social acceptance is an essential element for the nuclear power plants, but nuclear option is getting regarded as a risky choice. On the other hand, experts define and measure risk by the calculation of the probability of damage to the core as a result of sequences of accidents identified by the study. However, this approach also involves limitations to some extent. We explore a possible way to close the gap under in the by wider social context with consideration of risk trade-off among various risk factors, rather than focusing only on nuclear issue. (author)
Heberlein, Marianne T E; Turner, Dennis C; Manser, Marta B
Attending to the perception of others may help individuals gaining information from conspecifics, or help in competitive situations. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are attentive to humans' signals and their attentional state. We investigated whether dogs of different breed groups differ in their ability to pay attention to human's perception, first according to the genetic relatedness between dog breeds, and second according to working style differences. Once dogs had learned to leave forbidden food on the floor, they were confronted with 2 food items to which only they had unrestricted visual access. The owners saw either none or 1 food item through a transparent barrier. Our results showed that dogs pay attention to the perception of humans, whereby differences between breed groups became obvious. Within different genetic groups, ancient and hunting type dogs performed similarly, they were more attentive to their owners' perception than shepherd and the mastiff type dogs. When comparing dogs classified according to their working style, independent workers and family dogs were attentive to the owner's perception, while cooperative workers seemed not. The dogs' choice could not be explained by a general or training induced preference for eating behind an opaque screen, or by an influence of the owner's possible intention to prevent the dog from taking the food item he could see. Our study confirms that dogs are attentive/sensitive to human's perception, but genetic and working style differences among the breeds, as well as dog sport experiences explain part of the variation seen in their performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Potchter, Oded; Cohen, Pninit; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas
Over the past century, many research studies have been conducted in an attempt to define thermal conditions for humans in the outdoor environment and to grade thermal sensation. Consequently, a large number of indices have been proposed. The examination of human thermal indices by thermal subjective perception has become recently a methodical issue to confirm the accuracy, applicability and validation of human thermal indices. The aims of this study are: (a) to review studies containing both calculated human thermal conditions and subjective thermal perception in the outdoor environment (b) to identify the most used human thermal indices for evaluating human thermal perception (c) to examine the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions and (d) to compare between categories of thermal sensation in different climatic zones based on subjective perception and levels of thermal strain. A comprehensive literature review identified 110 peer-reviewed articles which investigated in-situ thermal conditions versus subjective thermal perception during 2001-2017. It seems that out of 165 human thermal indices that have been developed, only 4 (PET, PMV, UTCI, SET*) are widely in use for outdoor thermal perception studies. Examination of the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions for selective indices in different climatic zones shows that the range of the thermal comfort or dis-comfort is affected by the outdoor thermal environment. For the PET index, the "neutral" range for hot climates of 24-26°C is agreed by 95% of the studies where for cold climate, the "neutral" range of 15-20°C is agreed by 89% of the studies. For the UTCI, the "no thermal stress" category is common to all climates. The "no stress category" of 16-23°C is agreed by 80% of the case studies, while 100% of the case studies agreed that the range is between 18 and 23°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Miron, Anca M; McFadden, Susan H; Hermus, Nathan J; Buelow, Jennifer; Nazario, Amanda S; Seelman, Katarena
No empirical work has systematically explored perceptions of humanness of people with dementia and of older adults and the variables that could improve these perceptions. We thus investigated the role of contact and perspective taking in improving perceptions of humanness of these social groups. To do so, we developed a new concept, humanness standards, defined as the amount of evidence of ability impairment needed to conclude that elderly people and those with dementia have lost personhood. We used a cross-sectional survey design (n = 619) to assess participants' humanness standards and perceptions of uniquely human characteristics and human nature characteristics of two social groups (people with dementia and older adults). Half the participants (n = 311) completed a survey about people with dementia and half (n = 308) assessed older adults. People with dementia were perceived as possessing humanness characteristics to a lesser extent than were older adults. For both groups, contact predicted enhanced perceptions of humanness characteristics. Participants' degree of contact with individuals with dementia also predicted humanness standards, but only under low perspective-taking conditions. As predicted, for older adults, participants set the highest humanness impairment thresholds in the high contact/high perspective-taking condition. We conclude that while social programs that bring persons with dementia and other individuals in contact could change humanness standards and perceptions of humanness characteristics of people with dementia, in the case of elderly adults, the contact must be supplemented by variables that facilitate taking the perspective of the person.
Maas-van Schaaijk, N.M.
The aim of this thesis is to learn how pediatric psychological care for (Dutch) adolescents and their parents may be optimized. Psychological functioning in adolescents (specifically depression and behavior problems) and their parents (general and diabetes specific parenting stress) is studied while taking into account biological (gender, age, HbA1c) characteristics. How the adolescents internalize their experiences is studied by explicitly asking them to provide their representations about t...
Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal
Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive errors that can contribute to belief in pseudoscientific practices within school psychology and allied professions, (c) provide a list of 10 key warning signs of pseudoscience, illustrated by contemporary examples from school psychology and allied disciplines, and (d) offer 10 user-friendly prescriptions designed to encourage scientific thinking among school psychology practitioners and researchers. We argue that scientific thinking, although fallible, is ultimately school psychologists' best safeguard against a host of errors in thinking. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Miller, Gregory E.
The present report meta-analyzes more than 300 empirical articles describing a relationship between psychological stress and parameters of the immune system in human participants. Acute stressors (lasting minutes) were associated with potentially adaptive upregulation of some parameters of natural immunity and downregulation of some functions of…
Shiller, Robert J. (Yale)
In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.
Kreuzbauer, Robert; King, Dan; Basu, Shankha
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 144(4) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (see record 2015-33206-002). In the article the labels on the X-axis of Figure 1 "Remove Variance" and "Preserve Variance" should be switched.] Symbolic material objects such as art or certain artifacts (e.g., fine pottery, jewelry) share one common element: The combination of generating an expression, and the materialization of this expression in the object. This explains why people place a much greater value on handmade over machine-made objects, and originals over duplicates. We show that this mechanism occurs when a material object's symbolic property is salient and when the creator (artist or craftsman) is perceived to have agency control over the 1-to-1 materialized expression in the object. Coactivation of these 2 factors causes the object to be perceived as having high value because it is seen as the embodied representation of the creator's unique personal expression. In 6 experiments, subjects rated objects in various object categories, which varied on the type of object property (symbolic, functional, aesthetic), the production procedure (handmade, machine-made, analog, digital) and the origin of the symbolic information (person or software). The studies showed that the proposed mechanism applies to symbolic, but not to functional or aesthetic material objects. Furthermore, they show that this specific form of symbolic object valuation could not be explained by various other related psychological theories (e.g., uniqueness, scarcity, physical touching, creative performance). Our research provides a universal framework that identifies a core mechanism for explaining judgments of value for one of our most uniquely human symbolic object categories. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Human resource (HR) management is defined as the sum of activities employed by an organization to attract, develop, and retain people with the appropriate knowledge and skills for effectively and efficiently achieving organizational goals. An understanding of the HR practices in schools is important, as the assembly of a team of qualified and…
Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie
The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398
Solanch Consultant J.W. Whitlow Rutgers University Section 10.0 Effects of Environmental Stressors Colin Corbridge Institute of Sound Vibration...surrounding discs. Human Factors, 14, 139-148. 2. Drury , C, & Clement. M. (1978). The effect of area, density, and number of background charac- ters...nontargets are often difficult to distinguish. Key References * 1. Drury , C., & Clement, M. (1978). The effect of area, density, and number of
Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel
The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kalat, James W.
Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…
Full Text Available Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.
Watanabe, Takamitsu; Masuda, Naoki; Megumi, Fukuda; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint
Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behaviour remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behaviour underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fluctuating between three spatially distributed energy minimums: visual-area-dominant, frontal-area-dominant and intermediate states. Transitions between these energy minimums predicted behaviour, with participants whose brain activity tend to reflect the visual-area-dominant state exhibiting more stable perception and those whose activity transits to frontal-area-dominant states reporting more frequent perceptual switches. Critically, these brain activity dynamics are correlated with individual differences in grey matter volume of the corresponding brain areas. Thus, individual differences in the large-scale dynamics of brain activity link focal brain structure with bistable perception.
Halpern, Diane F
Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.
Greene, Nathan; McGovern, Katie
Findings from an online survey of 350 adults who experienced early parental death showed that current dispositional gratitude was positively correlated with psychological well-being and posttraumatic growth and negatively correlated with depression. Further, 281 participants produced textual responses indicating they could remember the time following their parent's death. Increases in gratitude attributable to the experience of losing a parent were reported by 79% of these participants. They associated their increased gratitude with a newfound belief that life is precious and with greater appreciation for loved ones. Direction of change in gratitude was associated with psychological well-being, posttraumatic growth, and depression.
Xu, Songhua; Hudson, Kathleen; Bradley, Yong; Daley, Brian J.; Frederick-Dyer, Katherine; Tourassi, Georgia
The majority of clinical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) studies disregard human perception subjectivity, aiming to duplicate the consensus expert assessment of the visual similarity on example cases. The purpose of our study is twofold: i) discern better the extent of human perception subjectivity when assessing the visual similarity of two images with similar semantic content, and (ii) explore the feasibility of personalized predictive modeling of visual similarity. We conducted a human observer study in which five observers of various expertise were shown ninety-nine triplets of mammographic masses with similar BI-RADS descriptors and were asked to select the two masses with the highest visual relevance. Pairwise agreement ranged between poor and fair among the five observers, as assessed by the kappa statistic. The observers' self-consistency rate was remarkably low, based on repeated questions where either the orientation or the presentation order of a mass was changed. Various machine learning algorithms were explored to determine whether they can predict each observer's personalized selection using textural features. Many algorithms performed with accuracy that exceeded each observer's self-consistency rate, as determined using a cross-validation scheme. This accuracy was statistically significantly higher than would be expected by chance alone (two-tailed p-value ranged between 0.001 and 0.01 for all five personalized models). The study confirmed that human perception subjectivity should be taken into account when developing CBIR-based medical applications.
Neumann, Annika; Frank, Daniel; Vondenhoff, Thomas; Schmitt, Robert
Haptic perception is regarded as a key component of customer appreciation and acceptance for various products. The prediction of customers’ haptic perception is of interest both during product development and production phases. This paper presents the results of a multivariate analysis between perceived roughness and texture related surface measurements, to examine whether perceived roughness can be accurately predicted using technical measurements. Studies have shown that standardized measurement parameters, such as the roughness coefficients (e.g. Rz or Ra), do not show a one-dimensional linear correlation with the human perception (of roughness). Thus, an alternative measurement method was compared to standard measurements of roughness, in regard to its capability of predicting perceived roughness through technical measurements. To estimate perceived roughness, an experimental study was conducted in which 102 subjects evaluated four sets of 12 different geometrical surface structures regarding their relative perceived roughness. The two different metrological procedures were examined in relation to their capability to predict the perceived roughness of the subjects stated within the study. The standardized measurements of the surface roughness were made using a structured light 3D-scanner. As an alternative method, surface induced vibrations were measured by a finger-like sensor during robot-controlled traverse over a surface. The presented findings provide a better understanding of the predictability of human haptic perception using technical measurements.
Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)
Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)
Clavel, B; Dupont, C; Perrotin, C; Barbier, A; Blaise Kopp, F; Gaucher, J; Branger, B; Winer, N; Lansac, J; Morin, X; Dubois, C; Deiber, M; Saliba, E; Rudigoz, R-C; Colin, C
To identify the defence mechanisms manifested by medical staff which could disturb the decision making, revealed by professionals of human science (PHS) in morbidity and mortality conferences (MMC). Application of two methods of psychological intervention in MMC, conducted between March 1st, 2009 and November 30, 2010, in 20 randomized maternity among five perinatal networks: the method of inter-active problem solving targeted at the functioning of the teams and the method for developing professional practice centred on individual. The data collection was realized during analyse of case in MMC, with note-taking by two pair PHS. The oral expressions of RMM' participant were secondarily re-written, analyzed and classed by theme. Fifty-four MMC were performed. The mechanisms of defence have been identified by PHS intervention in MMC: denial of situation, pact of denegation, rift and overprotection. They were be identified by two PHS intervention methods, this consolidates these results. This intervention began staff medical to transformation at different level, in particular to improve the capacity of cooperation. The identification of the mechanisms of defence in MMC enables staff medical to improve communication and quality relationship between healthcare professionals. This could constitute an actual factor of practices improvement. However, complementary studies must be performed to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hauck, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Engel, Andreas K
The understanding of cortical pain processing in humans has significantly improved since the development of modern neuroimaging techniques. Non-invasive electrophysiological approaches such as electro- and magnetoencephalography have proven to be helpful tools for the real-time investigation of neuronal signals and synchronous communication between cortical areas. In particular, time-frequency decomposition of signals recorded with these techniques seems to be a promising approach because different pain-related oscillatory changes can be observed within different frequency bands, which are likely to be linked to specific sensory and motor functions. In this review we discuss the latest evidence on pain-induced time-frequency signals and propose that changes in oscillatory activity reflect an essential communication mechanism in the brain that is modulated during pain processing. The importance of synchronization processes for normal and pathological pain processing, such as chronic pain states, is discussed.
Emotion carries crucial qualities of the human condition, representing one of the major challenges in artificial intelligence. Re-search in psychology and neuroscience in the past two to three decades has generated rich insights into the processes underlying human emotion. Cognition and emotion represent the two main pillars of the human psyche and human intelligence. While the hu-man cognitive system and cognitive brain has inspired and informed computer science and artificial intelligence, the future is ripe for the human emotion system to be integrated into artificial intelligence and robotic systems. Here, we review behavioral and neu-ral findings in human emotion perception, including facial emotion perception, olfactory emotion perception, multimodal emotion perception, and the time course of emotion perception. It is our hope that knowledge of how humans perceive emotion will help bring artificial intelligence strides closer to human intelligence.
Dodeler, V.; Tarquinio, C.
Research has been conducted to assess the extent to which the risk of losing one's home or seeing it damaged due to a mine cave-in influences an individual's state of health and, in particular, of anxiety. According to the results, persons living in such risky situations have higher anxiety scores than members of a control group. Furthermore, their perception of the environment apparently affects their anxiety: the individuals most affected have a deteriorated perception of their environment. This study draws attention to the key role played by networks of associations, where inhabitants feel they can obtain reliable information. (authors)
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany
The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…
Lilly, Julianna D.; Reed, Dianne
This study examined issues of psychological contract violation between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and school districts that serve them. As such, the sampling strategy was to focus on parents who were dissatisfied with the educational services their child was receiving from the school district so that the parents' "lived…
Blaker, N. M; Rompa, I.; Dessing, I. H.; Vriend, A. F.; Herschberg, C.; van Vugt, M.
Research suggests that tall individuals have an advantage over short individuals in terms of status, prestige, and leadership, though it is not clear why. Applying an evolutionary psychology perspective, we predicted that taller individuals are seen as more leader-like because they are perceived as
Mariwah, Simon; Drangert, Jan-Olof
Although human excreta contain the necessary nutrients for plant growth, local authorities in Ghana spend huge sums of money to dispose them as waste. Reusing excreta for agricultural purposes saves expenditure for chemical fertilizers, improves soil fertility, reduces poverty and ensures food security. People's attitudes and perceptions about excreta vary between cultures and even within specific cultures. This study aimed to explore attitudes and perceptions among a peri-urban agricultural community towards sanitized human excreta and its use. The study adopted an exploratory design and collected data from 154 randomly selected households using questionnaires and focus group discussions. It was found that there is a general negative attitude to fresh excreta and the handling of it. However, the residents accept that excreta can be used as fertilizer, but they are not willing to use it on their own crops or consume crops fertilized with excreta. The study recommends open discussions in the community for a successful implementation of ecological sanitation.
Grubov, Vadim V.; Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Kurovskaya, Maria K.; Pavlov, Alexey N.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.
In this report we studied human brain activity in the case of bistable visual perception. We proposed a new approach for quantitative characterization of this activity based on analysis of EEG oscillatory patterns and evoked potentials. Accordingly to theoretical background, obtained experimental EEG data and results of its analysis we studied a characteristics of brain activity during decision-making. Also we have shown that decisionmaking process has the special patterns on the EEG data.
BACKGROUND: Different complex systems behave in a similar way near their critical points of phase transitions which leads to an emergence of a universal scaling behaviour. Universality indirectly implies a long-range correlation between constituent subsystems. As the distributed correlated processing is a hallmark of higher complex cognition, I investigated a measure of universality in human brain during perception and mental imagery of complex real-life visual object like visual art. METHODO...
J. Debayle; J.-C. Pinoli
A new framework for image representation, processing, and analysis is introduced and exposed through practical applications. The proposed approach is called logarithmic adaptive neighborhood image processing (LANIP) since it is based on the logarithmic image processing (LIP) and on the general adaptive neighborhood image processing (GANIP) approaches, that allow several intensity and spatial properties of the human brightness perception to be mathematically modeled and operationalized, and c...
Full Text Available Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these explorative stops (ES during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: a between mean exploration time and duration of ES, b between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and c the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different experiments were used. The first two experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A and of common objects (B. In experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D and real (E sunken reliefs. Results: In each experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For experiment A: 329.50 ms, experiment B: 67.47 ms, experiment C: 189.92 ms, experiment D: 186.17 ms and experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.
Cantarero, Rodrigo; Potter, James
This study examines the quality of life of the elderly residents of two rural Nebraska towns, both having experienced a large increase in population. The study examines how the residents' perception of changes in the community affect their view of quality of life, and identifies determinants of psychological well-being for these elderly residents. The results are compared to the non-elderly residents of these two communities for purposes of contrast. A face-to-face survey of the residents addressed physical, social/cultural, economic, and service issues. Both correlation and regression were used to analyze the data. The quality of life of the elderly residents in our study, in terms of satisfaction with the various components of general well-being--home and neighborhood, accessibility and adequacy of services (including transportation), health and safety--were very positive or satisfactory; this applies equally to the non-elderly population, with the exception of access to public transportation.
Full Text Available This tutorial describes the necessary steps for designing and conducting a perception experiment in order to obtain design parameters for human–machine interactions. It is intended for engineers and product designers, which require design parameters not included in the current state of the art. Topics addressed are the preposition of hypotheses, the selection of parameters, psychophysical measurement procedures and the calculation of sample sizes. Relevant steps for data analysis from psychology and social sciences are applied to the engineering and design context and guidelines for reporting results are given. The required steps are illustrated with an example experiment assessing detection thresholds of damping parameters of haptic automotive rotary controls with regard to parameters like knob diameter and distraction. Results imply significant effects of knob diameter on both absolute and differential thresholds, but no effect of distraction, implying a good transferability of laboratory results to real-world applications.
Kim, Junsuk; Yeon, Jiwon; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil
Our previous human fMRI study found brain activations correlated with tactile stickiness perception using the uni-variate general linear model (GLM) (Yeon et al., 2017). Here, we conducted an in-depth investigation on neural correlates of sticky sensations by employing a multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) on the same dataset. In particular, we statistically compared multi-variate neural activities in response to the three groups of sticky stimuli: A supra-threshold group including a set of sticky stimuli that evoked vivid sticky perception; an infra-threshold group including another set of sticky stimuli that barely evoked sticky perception; and a sham group including acrylic stimuli with no physically sticky property. Searchlight MVPAs were performed to search for local activity patterns carrying neural information of stickiness perception. Similar to the uni-variate GLM results, significant multi-variate neural activity patterns were identified in postcentral gyrus, subcortical (basal ganglia and thalamus), and insula areas (insula and adjacent areas). Moreover, MVPAs revealed that activity patterns in posterior parietal cortex discriminated the perceptual intensities of stickiness, which was not present in the uni-variate analysis. Next, we applied a principal component analysis (PCA) to the voxel response patterns within identified clusters so as to find low-dimensional neural representations of stickiness intensities. Follow-up clustering analyses clearly showed separate neural grouping configurations between the Supra- and Infra-threshold groups. Interestingly, this neural categorization was in line with the perceptual grouping pattern obtained from the psychophysical data. Our findings thus suggest that different stickiness intensities would elicit distinct neural activity patterns in the human brain and may provide a neural basis for the perception and categorization of tactile stickiness. PMID:28936171
Coolbaugh, Crystal L.; Bush, Emily C.; Galenti, Elizabeth S.; Welch, E. Brian; Towse, Theodore F.
Cold exposure, a known stimulant of the thermogenic effects of brown adipose tissue (BAT), is the most widely used method to study BAT physiology in adult humans. Recently, individualized cooling has been recommended to standardize the physiological cold stress applied across participants, but critical experimental details remain unclear. The purpose of this work was to develop a detailed methodology for an individualized, perception-based protocol to investigate human physiological responses to cooling. Participants were wrapped in two water-circulating blankets and fitted with skin temperature probes to estimate BAT activity and peripheral vasoconstriction. We created a thermoesthesia graphical user interface (tGUI) to continuously record the subject's perception of cooling and shivering status during the cooling protocol. The protocol began with a 15 min thermoneutral phase followed by a series of 10 min cooling phases and concluded when sustained shivering (>1 min duration) occurred. Researchers used perception of cooling feedback (tGUI ratings) to manually adjust and personalize the water temperature at each cooling phase. Blanket water temperatures were recorded continuously during the protocol. Twelve volunteers (ages: 26.2 ± 1.4 years; 25% female) completed a feasibility study to evaluate the proposed protocol. Water temperature, perception of cooling, and shivering varied considerably across participants in response to cooling. Mean clavicle skin temperature, a surrogate measure of BAT activity, decreased (−0.99°C, 95% CI: −1.7 to −0.25°C, P = 0.16) after the cooling protocol, but an increase in supraclavicular skin temperature was observed in 4 participants. A strong positive correlation was also found between thermoesthesia and peripheral vasoconstriction (ρ = 0.84, P < 0.001). The proposed individualized, perception-based protocol therefore has potential to investigate the physiological responses to cold stress applied across populations with
Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Miller, Gregory E.
The present report meta-analyzes more than 300 empirical articles describing a relationship between psychological stress and parameters of the immune system in human participants. Acute stressors (lasting minutes) were associated with potentially adaptive upregulation of some parameters of natural immunity and downregulation of some functions of specific immunity. Brief naturalistic stressors (such as exams) tended to suppress cellular immunity while preserving humoral immunity. Chronic stres...
Full Text Available The baby schema concept was originally proposed as a set of infantile traits with high appeal for humans, subsequently shown to elicit caretaking behavior and to affect cuteness perception and attentional processes. However, it is unclear whether the response to the baby schema may be extended to the human-animal bond context. Moreover, questions remain as to whether the cute response is constant and persistent or whether it changes with development. In the present study we parametrically manipulated the baby schema in images of humans, dogs and cats. We analyzed responses of 3-6-year-old children, using both explicit (i.e. cuteness ratings and implicit (i.e. eye gaze patterns measures. By means of eye-tracking, we assessed children’s preferential attention to images varying only for the degree of baby schema and explored participants’ fixation patterns during a cuteness task. For comparative purposes, cuteness ratings were also obtained in a sample of adults. Overall our results show that the response to an infantile facial configuration emerges early during development. In children, the baby schema affects both cuteness perception and gaze allocation to infantile stimuli and to specific facial features, an effect not simply limited to human faces. In line with previous research, results confirm human positive appraisal towards animals and inform both educational and therapeutic interventions involving pets, helping to minimize risk factors (e.g. dog bites.
S Era Dutta
Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a disease and a global public health problem. Suicidology has come to become a topic of study for intervention and research. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT] system has remained a prime area of investigation. The neurons and platelets display structural and functional similarities. Ninety-nine percent of 5HT is contained in platelets, which shares similar 5HT uptake and release mechanisms with 5HT neurons. Aims: This study aims to study human self-destructive behavior (HSDB. Objectives: Exploring the biological (serotonin levels in platelets and psychological aspects (impulsivity of attempted suicide or HSDB. Settings and Design: Thirty-one patients, above the age of 18 years, with a recent history of HSDB, were studied and given an International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis, after a detailed interview. Subjects and Methods: For the platelet 5HT estimation, blood samples were collected, and enzyme immunometric assay carried out. Detailed assessment of the impulsivity was done by the 25-item structured diagnostic interview for borderlines by Zanarini et al. Statistical Analysis Used: We obtained both categorical and continuous data. Chi-square test, Fisher's test, Student's t-test, and Pearson's product moment correlation were used. Results: Female subjects outnumbered males by 2:1. Major depression, adjustment disorder, personality disorder were predominant diagnoses. The mean platelet serotonin concentration for males = 57.3 ng/ml, that of females = 56.05 ng/ml (P > 0.05. Platelet 5HT levels were found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity scores (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Platelet serotonin levels in our study sample were quite low when compared with those reported in published literature. Low serotonin levels were inversely related to impulsivity, but only in males.
Salami, Temilola; Gordon, Mollie; Coverdale, John; Nguyen, Phuong T
Human trafficking is a major public health concern that brings about deleterious psychological consequences and sequelae. Although a number of risk and protective factors for the health consequences of human trafficking victims have been identified, there is a dearth of information in the area of treatment. Specifically, we found no articles comparing the different components of prevailing trauma treatment strategies, and the potential usefulness of these strategies in the treatment of human trafficking victims. To this end, we compared and contrasted the different therapeutic treatments typically implemented with victims of trauma (including domestic violence victims and torture victims), and discussed how the different components of these treatments may or may not be helpful for human trafficking victims. We assessed the impact of these treatments on the psychological consequences of trauma and, in particular on posttraumatic stress disorder. We also assessed the potential usefulness of these treatments with co-occurring problems such as substance use, psychosis, dissociation, and other mood and anxiety disorders. On the basis of the prevailing research, we highlighted cognitive therapies as being preferred in addressing the needs of human trafficking victims. Mental health providers who work with human trafficking victims should become aware of and practiced in the use of cognitive therapeutic approaches in treating this population. Efficacy and effectiveness studies are needed to validate our recommendations.
Lametti, Daniel R.; Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Neufeld, Emily; Shiller, Douglas M.
Recent studies of human speech motor learning suggest that learning is accompanied by changes in auditory perception. But what drives the perceptual change? Is it a consequence of changes in the motor system? Or is it a result of sensory inflow during learning? Here, subjects participated in a speech motor-learning task involving adaptation to altered auditory feedback and they were subsequently tested for perceptual change. In two separate experiments, involving two different auditory perceptual continua, we show that changes in the speech motor system that accompany learning drive changes in auditory speech perception. Specifically, we obtained changes in speech perception when adaptation to altered auditory feedback led to speech production that fell into the phonetic range of the speech perceptual tests. However, a similar change in perception was not observed when the auditory feedback that subjects' received during learning fell into the phonetic range of the perceptual tests. This indicates that the central motor outflow associated with vocal sensorimotor adaptation drives changes to the perceptual classification of speech sounds. PMID:25080594
W Tecumseh eFitch
Full Text Available This paper outlines a cognitive and comparative perspective on human rhythmic cognition that emphasizes a key distinction between pulse perception and meter perception. Pulse perception involves the extraction of a regular pulse or 'tactus' from a stream of events. Meter perception involves grouping of events into hierarchical trees with differing levels of 'strength', or perceptual prominence. I argue that metrically-structured rhythms are required to either perform or move appropriately to music (e.g. to dance. Rhythms, from this metrical perspective, constitute 'trees in time'. Rhythmic syntax represents a neglected form of musical syntax, and warrants more thorough neuroscientific investigation. The recent literature on animal entrainment clearly demonstrates the capacity to extract the pulse from rhythmic music, and to entrain periodic movements to this pulse, in several parrot species and a California sea lion, and a more limited ability to do so in one chimpanzee. However, the ability of these or other species to infer hierarchical rhythmic trees remains, for the most part, unexplored (with some apparent negative results from macaques. The results from this new animal comparative research, combined with new methods to explore rhythmic cognition neurally, provide exciting new routes for understanding not just rhythmic cognition, but hierarchical cognition more generally, from a biological and neural perspective.
Saaroni, Hadas; Pearlmutter, David; Hatuka, Tali
This study looks at the interrelation of human-biometeorological conditions, physiological thermal stress and subjective thermal perception in the design and use of a new waterfront park in Tel-Aviv, Israel. Our initial assumption was that the park's design would embody a comprehensive response to the area's ever-increasing heat stress and water shortage. However, almost half of it is covered by grass lawns, irrigated with fresh water, while the remaining area is mainly covered with concrete paving, with minimal shading and sparse trees. We hypothesized that stressful thermal conditions would prevail in the park in the summer season and would be expressed in a high discomfort perception of its users. Thermo-physiological stress conditions in a typical summer month were compared with the subjective comfort perceptions of pedestrians surveyed in the park. It was found that even during mid-day hours, the level of thermal stress tends to be relatively mild, owing largely to the strong sea breeze and despite the high intensity of solar radiation. Moreover, it appears that the largely favorable perception of comfort among individuals may also result from socio-cultural aspects related to their satisfaction with the park's aesthetic attractiveness and in fact its very existence. Adaptive planning is proposed for such vulnerable regions, which are expected to experience further aggravation in thermal comfort due to global as well as localized warming trends.
Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse
Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rogalsky, Corianne; Love, Tracy; Driscoll, David; Anderson, Steven W.; Hickok, Gregory
The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque has led to a resurrection of motor theories of speech perception. Although the majority of lesion and functional imaging studies have associated perception with the temporal lobes, it has also been proposed that the ‘human mirror system’, which prominently includes Broca’s area, is the neurophysiological substrate of speech perception. Although numerous studies have demonstrated a tight link between sensory and motor speech processes, few have directly assessed the critical prediction of mirror neuron theories of speech perception, namely that damage to the human mirror system should cause severe deficits in speech perception. The present study measured speech perception abilities of patients with lesions involving motor regions in the left posterior frontal lobe and/or inferior parietal lobule (i.e., the proposed human ‘mirror system’). Performance was at or near ceiling in patients with fronto-parietal lesions. It is only when the lesion encroaches on auditory regions in the temporal lobe that perceptual deficits are evident. This suggests that ‘mirror system’ damage does not disrupt speech perception, but rather that auditory systems are the primary substrate for speech perception. PMID:21207313
Wood, N J; Munot, S; Sheridan, E; Duffy, S R
Screening programs can reduce the burden of disease, however, they can be associated with raised levels of anxiety. The risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer is increased in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). There is no prospective evidence to support screening for gynecological disease in HNPCC, however, current recommendations include the use of ultrasound and endometrial biopsy. This study assesses the impact of screening for gynecological cancer on self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, and perceptions of health. Women from HNPCC families attending gynecological screening (n = 26) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the ShortForm36v2 questionnaires prior to screening with transvaginal ultrasound, outpatient/office hysteroscopy, endometrial biopsy, and ovarian tumor marker assessment (CA125). The same questionnaires were completed at 3 and 6 months following screening (15/26). Women in HNPCC families attending for gynecological screening did not have excess symptoms of anxiety or depression at baseline in subjective comparison to other populations. The process of screening and false positive screening results had no significant impact on symptoms of anxiety and depression or perceptions of health. We conclude that within the limitations of analysis in this small study group, screening for gynecological disease in HNPCC does not appear to be associated with any psychological morbidity.
SHAHIMI, Farnaz; HEAVEN, Patrick; CIARROCHI, Joseph
Background This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck?s psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. Methods: The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Po...
Rocío Aliaga Isla
Full Text Available Perceiving business opportunities is an important part of entrepreneurship. This study analyzes how immigrants’ general and specific human capital influences their likelihood of perceiving business opportunities. Analysis focuses on comparison between a group of immigrants and a group of Spanish citizens. Data from the 2008 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM was used. Logistic regression was used to analyze data. Results revealed that both immigrants’ and Spanish citizens’ human capital such as education is not significant to perceiving opportunities. Much to the contrary: the impact of specific human capital on perceiving opportunities is in general significant to both groups. This research reveals which specific types of human capital are relevant in the process of perceiving opportunities amongst immigrants. This paper is a novelty because it introduces a theoretical approach to the perception of opportunities within the universe of new businesses established by immigrants in Spain.
Long, Elizabeth; Dowdell, Elizabeth B
Human trafficking is estimated to surpass the drug trade as the leading illegal industry in the world. According to a recent study, over 87.8% of trafficking survivors came into contact with a healthcare professional while they were enslaved and were not identified as a victim of human trafficking. The aims of this study are to understand the perceptions of emergency nurses about human trafficking, victims of violence, and prostitution. A qualitative, descriptive study using a semi-structured interview approach was done with ten registered nurses in a large, urban Emergency Department in the northeastern U.S. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; thematic analysis was performed. Six themes emerged from the interviews including, "human trafficking exists in the patient population" yet no nurse has screened or treated a victim; human trafficking victims are perceived to be "young, female, and foreign born"; all of the emergency nurses reported having worked with or screened a victim of violence; victims of violence were viewed as patients who present as "sad and grieving"; prostitutes are seen as "hard and tough"; and emergency nurses did not have education on human trafficking victims' needs or resources. Emergency nurses should be more aware about victims of human trafficking. The media portrayal of human trafficking victims had influenced the nurses' perceptions of this population. Victims of violence are perceived to be very different from prostitutes, but there is a desire for education about violence as well as information about specific resources open to victims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The birth of a child with a cleft lip, whether or not in association with a cleft palate, is a traumatic event for parents. This prospective, multidisciplinary and multi-centre study aims to explore the perceptions and feelings of parents in the year following the birth of their child, and to analyse parent–child relationships. Four inclusion centres have been selected, differing as to the date of the first surgical intervention, between birth and six months. The aim is to compare results, also distinguishing the subgroups of parents who were given the diagnosis in utero and those who were not. Methods/Design The main hypothesis is that the longer the time-lapse before the first surgical intervention, the more likely are the psychological perceptions of the parents to affect the harmonious development of their child. Parents and children are seen twice, when the child is 4 months (T0 and when the child is one year old (T1. At these two times, the psychological state of the child and his/her relational abilities are assessed by a specially trained professional, and self-administered questionnaires measuring factors liable to affect child–parent relationships are issued to the parents. The Alarme Détresse BéBé score for the child and the Parenting Stress Index score for the parents, measured when the child reaches one year, will be used as the main criteria to compare children with early surgery to children with late surgery, and those where the diagnosis was obtained prior to birth with those receiving it at birth. Discussion The mental and psychological dimensions relating to the abnormality and its correction will be analysed for the parents (the importance of prenatal diagnosis, relational development with the child, self-image, quality of life and also, for the first time, for the child (distress, withdrawal. In an ethical perspective, the different time lapses until surgery in the different protocols and their
Grollemund, Bruno; Guedeney, Antoine; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Picard, Arnaud; Soupre, Véronique; Pellerin, Philippe; Simon, Etienne; Velten, Michel; Dissaux, Caroline; Kauffmann, Isabelle; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine; Danion-Grilliat, Anne
The birth of a child with a cleft lip, whether or not in association with a cleft palate, is a traumatic event for parents. This prospective, multidisciplinary and multi-centre study aims to explore the perceptions and feelings of parents in the year following the birth of their child, and to analyse parent-child relationships. Four inclusion centres have been selected, differing as to the date of the first surgical intervention, between birth and six months. The aim is to compare results, also distinguishing the subgroups of parents who were given the diagnosis in utero and those who were not. The main hypothesis is that the longer the time-lapse before the first surgical intervention, the more likely are the psychological perceptions of the parents to affect the harmonious development of their child. Parents and children are seen twice, when the child is 4 months (T0) and when the child is one year old (T1). At these two times, the psychological state of the child and his/her relational abilities are assessed by a specially trained professional, and self-administered questionnaires measuring factors liable to affect child-parent relationships are issued to the parents. The Alarme Détresse BéBé score for the child and the Parenting Stress Index score for the parents, measured when the child reaches one year, will be used as the main criteria to compare children with early surgery to children with late surgery, and those where the diagnosis was obtained prior to birth with those receiving it at birth. The mental and psychological dimensions relating to the abnormality and its correction will be analysed for the parents (the importance of prenatal diagnosis, relational development with the child, self-image, quality of life) and also, for the first time, for the child (distress, withdrawal). In an ethical perspective, the different time lapses until surgery in the different protocols and their effects will be analysed, so as to serve as a reference for improving
Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane
Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…
Lochy, Aliette; de Heering, Adélaïde; Rossion, Bruno
The developmental origins of human adults' right hemispheric specialization for face perception remain unclear. On the one hand, infant studies have shown a right hemispheric advantage for face perception. On the other hand, it has been proposed that the adult right hemispheric lateralization for face perception slowly emerges during childhood due to reading acquisition, which increases left lateralized posterior responses to competing written material (e.g., visual letters and words). Since methodological approaches used in infant and children typically differ when their face capabilities are explored, resolving this issue has been difficult. Here we tested 5-year-old preschoolers varying in their level of visual letter knowledge with the same fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) paradigm leading to strongly right lateralized electrophysiological occipito-temporal face-selective responses in 4- to 6-month-old infants (de Heering and Rossion, 2015). Children's face-selective response was quantitatively larger and differed in scalp topography from infants', but did not differ across hemispheres. There was a small positive correlation between preschoolers' letter knowledge and a non-normalized index of right hemispheric specialization for faces. These observations show that previous discrepant results in the literature reflect a genuine nonlinear development of the neural processes underlying face perception and are not merely due to methodological differences across age groups. We discuss several factors that could contribute to the adult right hemispheric lateralization for faces, such as myelination of the corpus callosum and reading acquisition. Our findings point to the value of FPVS coupled with electroencephalography to assess specialized face perception processes throughout development with the same methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barbosa, Ana Isabel Veloso
The concept of psychological capital (PsyCap) has been a great focus of interest and curiosity from academics and practitioners. The principal purpose of the present research is to study the relevance of PsyCap and its influence in employees’ attitudes, behaviors and performance. This investigation also aims to understand the importance of an authentic leader (leaders with power to influence their followers and to develop their capabilities) and the impact that the leader’s PsyCap may have on...
Smith, Tara D; Maton, Kenneth I
Demographic trends suggest increasing numbers of multiple racial heritage students attending U.S. campuses and universities, a change reflected within psychology. However, there is little empirical investigation into the educational experiences and needs of multiracials. The current study (the second in a series of studies to use data from a national survey of psychology graduate and undergraduate students) compared 2 multiracial groups, Asian American/European American and Latino/a/European Americans, with their single-heritage counterparts on several variables of interest-academic supports and barriers, linkage between barriers faced and ethnicity, and perceived cultural diversity. Results indicated that multiracial groups reported more of a link between academic barriers experienced and their ethnicity than European American students, but less of a link than their monoracial minority peers. No differences between groups were found related to academic supports, academic barriers, and perceived cultural diversity. Study limitations, future research, and implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The human corneal endothelium can be observed with two types of microscopes: classical optical microscope for ex-vivo imaging, and specular optical microscope for in-vivo imaging. The quality of the cornea is correlated to the endothelial cell density and morphometry. Automatic methods to analyze the human corneal endothelium images are still not totally efficient. Image analysis methods that focus only on cell contours do not give good results in presence of noise and of bad conditions of acquisition. More elaborated methods introduce regional informations in order to performthe cell contours completion, thus implementing the duality contour-region. Their good performance can be explained by their connections with several basic principles of human visual perception (Gestalt Theory and Marr's computational theory.
Gandarias, Juan M; Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; García-Cerezo, Alfonso J
The use of tactile perception can help first response robotic teams in disaster scenarios, where visibility conditions are often reduced due to the presence of dust, mud, or smoke, distinguishing human limbs from other objects with similar shapes. Here, the integration of the tactile sensor in adaptive grippers is evaluated, measuring the performance of an object recognition task based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) using a flexible sensor mounted in adaptive grippers. A total of 15 classes with 50 tactile images each were trained, including human body parts and common environment objects, in semi-rigid and flexible adaptive grippers based on the fin ray effect. The classifier was compared against the rigid configuration and a support vector machine classifier (SVM). Finally, a two-level output network has been proposed to provide both object-type recognition and human/non-human classification. Sensors in adaptive grippers have a higher number of non-null tactels (up to 37% more), with a lower mean of pressure values (up to 72% less) than when using a rigid sensor, with a softer grip, which is needed in physical human-robot interaction (pHRI). A semi-rigid implementation with 95.13% object recognition rate was chosen, even though the human/non-human classification had better results (98.78%) with a rigid sensor.
Mongia, Puneet Kumar; Sharma, R. K.
In this study the principal focus is to examine the influence of psychological stress (both positive and negative stress) on the human articulation and to determine the vocal tract transfer function of an individual using inverse filtering technique. Both of these analyses are carried out by estimating various voice parameters. The outcomes of the analysis of psychological stress indicate that all the voice parameters are affected due to the influence of stress on humans. About 35 out of 51 p...
Zhang, Hao; Reardon, Christopher; Parker, Lynne E
The ability to perceive humans is an essential requirement for safe and efficient human-robot interaction. In real-world applications, the need for a robot to interact in real time with multiple humans in a dynamic, 3-D environment presents a significant challenge. The recent availability of commercial color-depth cameras allow for the creation of a system that makes use of the depth dimension, thus enabling a robot to observe its environment and perceive in the 3-D space. Here we present a system for 3-D multiple human perception in real time from a moving robot equipped with a color-depth camera and a consumer-grade computer. Our approach reduces computation time to achieve real-time performance through a unique combination of new ideas and established techniques. We remove the ground and ceiling planes from the 3-D point cloud input to separate candidate point clusters. We introduce the novel information concept, depth of interest, which we use to identify candidates for detection, and that avoids the computationally expensive scanning-window methods of other approaches. We utilize a cascade of detectors to distinguish humans from objects, in which we make intelligent reuse of intermediary features in successive detectors to improve computation. Because of the high computational cost of some methods, we represent our candidate tracking algorithm with a decision directed acyclic graph, which allows us to use the most computationally intense techniques only where necessary. We detail the successful implementation of our novel approach on a mobile robot and examine its performance in scenarios with real-world challenges, including occlusion, robot motion, nonupright humans, humans leaving and reentering the field of view (i.e., the reidentification challenge), human-object and human-human interaction. We conclude with the observation that the incorporation of the depth information, together with the use of modern techniques in new ways, we are able to create an
Full Text Available The extent to which human speech perception evolved by taking advantage of predispositions and pre-existing features of vertebrate auditory and cognitive systems remains a central question in the evolution of speech. This paper reviews asymmetries in vowel perception, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization in non-human animals – topics that have not been thoroughly discussed in relation to the abilities of non-human animals, but are nonetheless important aspects of vocal perception. Throughout this paper we demonstrate that addressing these issues in non-human animals is relevant and worthwhile because many non-human animals must deal with similar issues in their natural environment. That is, they must also discriminate between similar-sounding vocalizations, determine signaler identity from vocalizations, and resolve signaler-dependent variation in vocalizations from conspecifics. Overall, we find that, although plausible, the current evidence is insufficiently strong to conclude that directional asymmetries in vowel perception are specific to humans, or that non-human animals can use voice characteristics to recognize human individuals. However, we do find some indication that non-human animals can normalize speaker differences. Accordingly, we identify avenues for future research that would greatly improve and advance our understanding of these topics.
Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Jurilj, Verena; Gruber, Thomas; Vocks, Silja
In cognitive neuroscience, interest in the neuronal basis underlying the processing of human bodies is steadily increasing. Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, it is assumed that the processing of pictures of human bodies is anchored in a network of specialized brain areas comprising the extrastriate and the fusiform body area (EBA, FBA). An alternative to examine the dynamics within these networks is electroencephalography, more specifically so-called steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs). In SSVEP tasks, a visual stimulus is presented repetitively at a predefined flickering rate and typically elicits a continuous oscillatory brain response at this frequency. This brain response is characterized by an excellent signal-to-noise ratio-a major advantage for source reconstructions. The main goal of present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of this method to study human body perception. To that end, we presented pictures of bodies and contrasted the resulting SSVEPs to two control conditions, i.e., non-objects and pictures of everyday objects (chairs). We found specific SSVEPs amplitude differences between bodies and both control conditions. Source reconstructions localized the SSVEP generators to a network of temporal, occipital and parietal areas. Interestingly, only body perception resulted in activity differences in middle temporal and lateral occipitotemporal areas, most likely reflecting the EBA/FBA.
Full Text Available To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain.
Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus
The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization") seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition) or not (Neutral condition). In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC). Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.
Full Text Available The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization" seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition or not (Neutral condition. In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC. Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.
Rogers, J.T.; Bates, D.V.
The central concern in this Symposium is with risk to human health and life. Health risk includes the possibility of deaths (mortality), either immediate or delayed, and less severe health effects due to injury and illness (morbidity). Risk is defined as the product of the magnitude and the probability so that where it may be expressed quantitatively it is stated in units of harm per unit time (e.g. deaths per year or deaths per year per million of population). The 15 papers presented at this conference discuss the measurement, analysis perception, and management of risk. Six papers judged to be in scope were indexed for INIS
Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Kien, Vu Duy; Bao Giang, Kim; Van Minh, Hoang; Wright, Pamela
The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs) were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively). About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of the people may help policy makers to develop and implement effective
Do Thi Thanh Toan
Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. Design: We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. Results: The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively. About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Conclusions: The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of
Kotsis, Konstantinos; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Tsifetaki, Niki; Drosos, Alexandros A; Carvalho, André F; Hyphantis, Thomas
Notwithstanding that psychological distress and illness perceptions are important in determining outcomes in rheumatic diseases, few studies investigated these variables in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). We aimed to compare illness perceptions and psychological distress in patients with pSS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to test whether their associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are similar in these groups of patients. In 57 patients with pSS, 75 with SLE and 199 with RA, we administered the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Symptom Check-List and the Brief-Illness Perception Questionnaire to assess psychological variables and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short-Form to assess HRQoL. Hierarchical regression models determined the associations of psychological variables with HRQoL after adjusting for demographic variables and clinical parameters. The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) was 24.6 % in pSS, 29.3 % in SLE and 25.1 % in RA. Patients with pSS showed little understanding of their disease (comprehensibility) and attributed more symptoms to their illness (identity) compared with the other groups of patients. Illness perceptions and depressive symptoms were independently associated with physical HRQoL in a similar pattern in all three groups. In pSS, however, the patients' worries about the consequences of their illness was a stronger correlate of physical HRQoL than pain. These findings indicate that psychological factors are important correlates of HRQoL in these disease groups and encourage the design of psycho-educational therapies targeting disease-related cognitions in pSS in an attempt to improve patient's physical HRQoL.
Murtaza, Babar; Berrichi, Meryem; Bennamar, Chahid; Tordjmann, Thierry; Djeziri, Fatima Z; Hichami, Aziz; Leemput, Julia; Belarbi, Meriem; Ozdener, Hakan; Khan, Naim A
Zizyphin, isolated from Zizyphus sps. leaf extracts, has been shown to modulate sugar taste perception, and the palatability of a sweet solution is increased by the addition of fatty acids. We, therefore, studied whether zizyphin also modulates fat taste perception. Zizyphin was purified from edible fruit of Zizyphus lotus L. Zizyphin-induced increases in [Ca 2+ ]i in human taste bud cells (hTBC). Zizyphin shared the endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ pool and also recruited, in part, Ca 2+ from extracellular environment via the opening of store-operated Ca 2+ channels. Zizyphin exerted additive actions on linoleic acid (LA)-induced increases in [Ca 2+ ]i in these cells, indicating that zizyphin does not exert its action via fatty acid receptors. However, zizyphin seemed to exert, at least in part, its action via bile acid receptor Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 in hTBC. In behavioural tests, mice exhibited preference for both LA and zizyphin. Interestingly, zizyphin increased the preference for a solution containing-LA. This study is the first evidence of the modulation of fat taste perception by zizyphin at the cellular level in hTBC. Our study might be helpful for considering the synthesis of zizyphin analogues as 'taste modifiers' with a potential in the management of obesity and lipid-mediated disorders. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.
Full Text Available On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10 in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.
Benschop, R. J.; Brosschot, J. F.; Godaert, G. L.; de Smet, M. B.; Geenen, R.; Olff, M.; Heijnen, C. J.; Ballieux, R. E.
This study deals with the effect of chronic stress on physiological responsiveness to an acute psychological stressor in male high school teachers. Chronic stress was operationalized as the self-reported number of everyday problems. Twenty-seven subjects reporting extremely low or high numbers of
Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus
The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states (“humanization”) seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim’s perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition) or not (Neutral condition). In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons’ lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC). Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others’ perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more “human-like” persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions. PMID:23082194
Mérly Luane Vargas Nascimento
Full Text Available The issues of violence and human rights, although not recent, have complex determinations and conditions, so that evoke iterant discussions in the field of human sciences, as well as challenge the professionals from different areas of knowledge whose search tools and strategies to deal with the different social demands outlined from them. The objective of this paper is to discuss some concepts and issues that unfold from that, specifically with regard to the provision of scientific and professional field of psychology. Thus, some considerations about the social and conceptual definitions given to violence and human rights are made, for, from that, better situate the demand addressed to psychologist as well as to enable critical reflection on this demand and make a few observations about its answering.
Gore, Meredith L; Kahler, Jessica S
This research aims to foster discourse about the extent to which gender is important to consider within the context of participatory approaches for biological conservation. Our objectives are to: (1) gender-disaggregate data about stakeholders' risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict (HWC) in a participatory conservation context, and (2) highlight insights from characterizing gendered similarities and differences in the way people think about HWC-related risks. Two communal conservancies in Caprivi, Namibia served as case study sites. We analyzed data from focus groups (n = 2) to create gendered concept maps about risks to wildlife and livelihoods and any associations of those risks with HWC, and semi-structured interviews (n = 76; men = 38, women = 38) to measure explicit risk attitudes associated with HWC. Concept maps indicated some divergent perceptions in how groups characterized risks to wildlife and livelihoods; however, not only were identified risks to wildlife (e.g., pollution, hunting) dissimilar in some instances, descriptions of risks varied as well. Study groups reported similar risk perceptions associated with HWC with the exception of worry associated with HWC effects on local livelihoods. Gendered differences in risk perceptions may signal different priorities or incentives to participate in efforts to resolve HWC-related risks. Thus, although shared goals and interests may seem to be an obvious reason for cooperative wildlife management, it is not always obvious that management goals are shared. Opportunity exists to move beyond thinking about gender as an explanatory variable for understanding how different groups think about participating in conservation activities.
Meredith L Gore
Full Text Available This research aims to foster discourse about the extent to which gender is important to consider within the context of participatory approaches for biological conservation. Our objectives are to: (1 gender-disaggregate data about stakeholders' risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict (HWC in a participatory conservation context, and (2 highlight insights from characterizing gendered similarities and differences in the way people think about HWC-related risks. Two communal conservancies in Caprivi, Namibia served as case study sites. We analyzed data from focus groups (n = 2 to create gendered concept maps about risks to wildlife and livelihoods and any associations of those risks with HWC, and semi-structured interviews (n = 76; men = 38, women = 38 to measure explicit risk attitudes associated with HWC. Concept maps indicated some divergent perceptions in how groups characterized risks to wildlife and livelihoods; however, not only were identified risks to wildlife (e.g., pollution, hunting dissimilar in some instances, descriptions of risks varied as well. Study groups reported similar risk perceptions associated with HWC with the exception of worry associated with HWC effects on local livelihoods. Gendered differences in risk perceptions may signal different priorities or incentives to participate in efforts to resolve HWC-related risks. Thus, although shared goals and interests may seem to be an obvious reason for cooperative wildlife management, it is not always obvious that management goals are shared. Opportunity exists to move beyond thinking about gender as an explanatory variable for understanding how different groups think about participating in conservation activities.
Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus
The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization") seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional ...
Full Text Available Most of the research on the risk for minors to become victims of human trafficking or commercial sexual exploitation up till recently focused on socioeconomic, psychosocial and demographic factors. As findings suggest, these characteristics have different impact across different cultures, regions, etc., thus scholars are starting to raise the question on their differen timpact on individual level. They notice that, in the presence of particular combination of characteristics, adolescent girls do not always become victims of commercial sexual exploitation, and some girls who are considered to be victims do not see themselves as victims of sexual exploitation. The aim of this article is to systematically overview psychological factors found through research, that are associated with the risk of becoming a victim of human trafficking. The systematic review focuses on commercial sexual exploitation of minors, particularly, girls, as the most prevalent form of human trafficking. Criteria for article selection include language of the article, the scope and methodology of the research done, sex of the participants of the research, age of being trafficked, and nature of risk factors analysed in the article. Final analysis comprised of six articles. The results show that risk of becoming victim of commercial sexual exploitation is linked with such psychological factors as low self-esteem, denigration of sexual self and others, dysfunctional attachment models, learned maladaptive problem solving strategies, and post-traumatic stress disorder, lack of reflecting abilities, etc. These psychological characteristics may emerge after traumatic experiences such as loss, sexual abuse in childhood, multiple placements in foster care or maltreatment of the child, and later lead into risky behaviours like running away from homes, living on the streets, which increase risk of their exploitation. Results and future research suggestions are discussed.
Review: Carlos Kölbl (2004. Geschichtsbewußtsein im Jugendalter. Grundzüge einer Entwicklungspsychologie historischer Sinnbildung [Historical Consciousness in Adolescence. Groundwork for a Psychology of the Development of Historical Perceptiveness
Full Text Available This book contains an empirical study of adolescents' historical perceptiveness and thus offers evidence contrary to the common stereotype that adolescents possess little, if any, consciousness of the past. A range of perception-forming models can be constructed and these can collectively be seen to represent a modern and postmodern historical consciousness. Using the methods of Grounded Theory, the author presents the reader with new perspectives on documented group interviews from the perspective of developmental/psychological hermeneutics according to WYGOTSKI and also takes into account adolescents' historical self-portraits. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802320
Panorgias, Athanasios; Kulikowski, Janus J; Parry, Neil R A; McKeefry, Declan J; Murray, Ian J
Typical daylight extends from blue (morning sky) to orangey red (evening sky) and is represented mathematically as the Daylight Locus in color space. In this study, we investigate the impact of this daylight variation on human color vision. Thirty-eight color normal human observers performed an asymmetric color match in the near peripheral visual field. Unique hues were identified using a naming paradigm. The observers' performance for matching was almost perfectly coincident with the Daylight Locus but declined markedly in other regions. Interobserver variability reached a conspicuous minimum adjacent to the Daylight Locus and was maximal in the red and yellowish-green regions. In the naming task, unique blue and yellow were virtually coincident with the Daylight Locus. The results suggest that the mechanisms of color perception mediated by the phylogenetically older (blue-yellow) color pathway have been strongly influenced by the different phases of daylight.
Isaeva E. A.
Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that knowledge dividing the usual, unusual, transient and transcendental depends on human perception of the world (macro or micro and depends too on the inclusion of human consciousness in the system. For the analysis of this problem the idea of "Schrodinger’s cat" is employed. Transient and transcendental knowledge of the state of Schrodinger’s cat corresponds to the case when the observer’s consciousness is included in the system. Here it is possible to speak about the latent parameters of the sub quantum world of which Einstein was convinced. Knowledge of the unusual state of Schrodinger’s cat, simultaneously alive and dead, corresponds to a case of the open micro world. The usual knowledge of the state of Schrodinger’s cat (alive or dead corresponds to a case of the open macrocosm. Each world separately divides the objective and illusory.
de Oliveira Camillo, Simone; Lúcia da Silva, Ana; Jefferson do Nascimento, Alan
This study aimed to identify and interpret the perceptions presented by undergraduate students of a Nursing course after internship in Mental Health. Twelve nursing undergraduate students at the Nursing School of ABC Foundation - Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed. These interviews using a semi-structure script were performed and recorded in August 2004. Through Content Analysis, thematic modality, four categories were identified, 1. mental health: providing understanding of the other; 2. respect for the human being: the importance of listening, 3. mental health: contributing for a contextualized view of the patient and 4. nursing graduation: undesirable "signs and symptoms" of the profession. The analysis and the discussion of these categories suggest the possibility of teaching based on the human condition. Thus, we support the idea of new research been carried out, considering that the Mental Health discipline must be valued in the Political and Pedagogical projects of the Nursing Undergraduate Courses.
Vicente Caballero de la Torre
Full Text Available This paper presents the origin of the issue of empathy in the History of Ideas and its importance in economics, as well as its revitalization. It concludes that it is not the study of empathy, so fashionable today, but the study of decision making the place where Economics can find the nature of emotions in relation to human behavior. This nature is its power to inhibit behavior. The study of repentance is itself more interesting and helpful for the economy than the study of empathy. Finally, the institutional approach is presented as the best in order to understand the issues related to economic human behavior
Crespo-Bojorque, Paola; Toro, Juan M
Traditionally, physical features in musical chords have been proposed to be at the root of consonance perception. Alternatively, recent studies suggest that different types of experience modulate some perceptual foundations for musical sounds. The present study tested whether the mechanisms involved in the perception of consonance are present in an animal with no extensive experience with harmonic stimuli and a relatively limited vocal repertoire. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate consonant from dissonant chords and tested to explore whether they could generalize such discrimination to novel chords. In Experiment 2, we tested if rats could discriminate between chords differing only in their interval ratios and generalize them to different octaves. To contrast the observed pattern of results, human adults were tested with the same stimuli in Experiment 3. Rats successfully discriminated across chords in both experiments, but they did not generalize to novel items in either Experiment 1 or Experiment 2. On the contrary, humans not only discriminated among both consonance-dissonance categories, and among sets of interval ratios, they also generalized their responses to novel items. These results suggest that experience with harmonic sounds may be required for the construction of categories among stimuli varying in frequency ratios. However, the discriminative capacity observed in rats suggests that at least some components of auditory processing needed to distinguish chords based on their interval ratios are shared across species. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Hao, Fei; Chen, Li-Juan; Lu, Wei; Song, Ai-Guo
In this study, a recall experiment and a recognition experiment were designed to assess the human wrist's short-term memory characteristics of tactile perception on vibration intensity, by using a novel homemade vibrotactile display device based on the spatiotemporal combination vibration of multiple micro vibration motors as a test device. Based on the obtained experimental data, the short-term memory span, recognition accuracy and reaction time of vibration intensity were analyzed. From the experimental results, some important conclusions can be made: (1) The average short-term memory span of tactile perception on vibration intensity is 3 ± 1 items; (2) The greater difference between two adjacent discrete intensities of vibrotactile stimulation is defined, the better average short-term memory span human wrist gets; (3) There is an obvious difference of the average short-term memory span on vibration intensity between the male and female; (4) The mechanism of information extraction in short-term memory of vibrotactile display is to traverse the scanning process by comparison; (5) The recognition accuracy and reaction time performance of vibrotactile display compares unfavourably with that of visual and auditory. The results from this study are important for designing vibrotactile display coding scheme.
Md Shamimul Islam
Full Text Available Human Resource Management is getting focused day by day for ensuring and sustaining organizational success. HRIS (Human Resource Information System is a prevailing HR tool coupled with contemporary innovation of information system. HRIS is defined as the information system to collect, store, process and retrieve HR information to seamlessly help organization achieve strategic objectives. For installation of HRIS, commitment, decision and action of management are inevitable. This study aims at unveiling implicit perception of management regarding performance of HRIS towards organizational objectives in three perspectives such as “Operational Efficiency (OE”, “Managerial Effectiveness (ME” and “Strategic Finesse (SF”. 54% and 57% respondents respectively agree that HRIS enhances OE and ensures ME. On the other hand, 70% respondents underline HRIS as SF. However, the hypothesis results showed that management perception toward HRIS performance is independent of experience, gender and education of managerial people but associated with organizational origin either Bangladeshi or foreign. Thus it is concluded that foreign companies are advanced to adopt contemporary tools whereas Bangladeshi firms are averse or endeavor to assimilate laggardly. The findings open the door for future research why Bangladeshi firms respond at late.
Chernetckaia, E.D.; Belyh, T.
To ensure the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants, since 1982 the laboratories of psycho-physiological support (LPPS) started being established at Russian NPPs. The methodological background for this was later summarised. The LPPS’ activity and professional development of LPPS specialists are currently supported by the scientific methodological centre “Psycho-Physiological Support of Professional Personnel Reliability” (PPSPPR) of Rosatom Central Institute for Continuing Education and Training (ROSATOMCICE& T). The present paper gives the outlines of the main LPPS tasks performed by above mentioned organizations at Russian NPPs: • psycho-physiological examination of candidates and employees (PFE); • psychological and physiological support of workers (PPS); • socio-psychological aspects of safety culture; • psycho-pedagogical support of the educational process.
Molder, te H.F.M.
Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus
Wahbeh, Helané; Calabrese, Carlo; Zwickey, Heather
Binaural beat technology (BBT) products are sold internationally as personal development and health improvement tools. Producers suggest benefit from regular listening to binaural beats including reduced stress and anxiety, and increased focus, concentration, motivation, confidence, and depth in meditation. Binaural beats are auditory brainstem responses that originate in the superior olivary nucleus as a result of different frequency auditory stimuli provided to each ear. Listeners to binaural beat "hear" a beat at a frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the applied tones. The objectives of this pilot study were to gather preliminary data on psychologic and physiologic effects of 60 days daily use of BBT for hypothesis generation and to assess compliance, feasibility, and safety for future studies. Uncontrolled pilot study. Eight healthy adults participated in the study. Participants listened to a CD with delta (0-4 Hz) binaural beat frequencies daily for 60 days. Psychologic and physiological data were collected before and after a 60-day intervention. PSYCHOLOGIC: Depression (Beck Depression Inventory-2), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), mood (Profile of Mood States), absorption (Tellegen Absorption Scale) and quality of Life (World Health Organization-Quality of Life Inventory). PHYSIOLOGICAL: Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, weight, blood pressure, high sensitivity C-reactive protein. There was a decrease in trait anxiety (p = 0.004), an increase in quality of life (p = 0.03), and a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 (p = 0.01) and dopamine (p = 0.02) observed between pre- and postintervention measurements. Binaural beat technology may exhibit positive effect on self-reported psychologic measures, especially anxiety. Further research is warranted to explore the effects on anxiety using a larger, randomized and controlled trial.
Mentovich, Avital; Huq, Aziz; Cerf, Moran
The U.S. Supreme Court has increasingly expanded the scope of constitutional rights granted to corporations and other collective entities. Although this tendency receives widespread public and media attention, little empirical research examines how people ascribe rights, commonly thought to belong to natural persons, to corporations. This article explores this issue in 3 studies focusing on different rights (religious liberty, privacy, and free speech). We examined participants' willingness to grant a given right while manipulating the type of entity at stake (from small businesses, to larger corporations, to for-profit and nonprofit companies), and the identity of the right holder (from employees, to owners, to the company itself as a separate entity). We further examined the role of political ideology in perceptions of rights. Results indicated a significant decline in the degree of recognition of entities' rights (the company itself) in comparison to natural persons' rights (owners and employees). Results also demonstrated an effect of the type of entity at stake: Larger, for-profit businesses were less likely to be viewed as rights holders compared with nonprofit entities. Although both tendencies persisted across the ideological spectrum, ideological differences emerged in the relations between corporate and individual rights: these were positively related among conservatives but negatively related among liberals. Finally, we found that the desire to protect citizens (compared with businesses) underlies individuals' willingness to grant rights to companies. These findings show that people (rather than corporations) are more appropriate recipients of rights, and can explain public backlash to judicial expansions of corporate rights. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.
Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…
Sergei A. Isaichev
Full Text Available Background. To assess the structure of inter-ethnic attitudes and the risks of ethnoreligious tension, psychologists mostly use questionnaires, interviews, subjective scaling, content analysis, and special tests. One possible approach to increasing the validity and reliability of these explicit methods is the use of the registration of psychophysiological indicators while a recipient completes the questionnaire or test forms. Objective. The results of a pilot psychophysiological research are presented, which focus on the study of human psycho-emotional states during socio-psychological testing to identify attitudes in the field of interethnic and interfaith relations. Design. The essence of the applied experimental approach is to control the functional (psycho-emotional state of a respondent using the registration of complex psychophysiological (physiological and behavioral responses in the process of completing the socio-psychological questionnaire. Results. It was shown that the rhythmic brain activity (ratio of the power indexes of alpha and beta rhythms, the amplitude of the systolic wave (photoplethysmogram (ASW PhPG and the magnitude (length of the ‘circumflex line of the Galvanic Skin Response’ (GSR-L may be the complex of indicators that possess sufficiently high selective sensitivity to differentiate nonspecific reactions of the human nervous system to personally important (emotiogenic, stressful questions in the questionnaire. Conclusion. The proposed approach may help to identify stressful (emotiogenic issues (questions in socio-psychological tests and questionnaires that are of the greatest interest to the subject and, as a result, most adequately reflect individual and population attitudes in the field of social relations.
Edward W. Younkins
Full Text Available This article presents a skeleton of a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It is an exploratory attempt to construct an understanding from various disciplines and to integrate them into a clear, consistent, coherent, and systematic whole. Holding that there are essential interconnections among objective ideas, the article specifically emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated into a paradigm of human flourishing and happiness based on the nature of man and the world. Such a paradigm will help people to understand the world and to survive and flourish in it. It is hoped that the paradigm will grow and evolve as scholars engage, question, critique, interpret, and extend its ideas. Our goal is to have a paradigm that accords with reality and there is always more to learn from reality.
Full Text Available The Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDT provides a technological alternative for the challenging environments found in Amazonia, and has the advantage of not consuming water. To verify its viability, however, it is necessary to understand user behavior in relation to the use of the toilet’s byproducts. The objective of the present study was to evaluate farmer’s perceptions of the use of human urine as a fertilizer for agricultural crops in the Central Amazon. We interviewed 73 smallholder farmers from a rural village in Tefé County and in the municipal farmers market of Tefé. It was verified that 12% of farmers have knowledge of the use of human urine in agriculture, and that more than a third consider it possible to use urine in their gardens and fields. However, more than half did not consider the possibility of using urine, manifesting concerns about crop development and doubts regarding the efficacy of its use as a fertilizer. The informants believed that crops watered with urine would be adequate for human consumption. It is possible to conclude that human urine has the potential to be used in agriculture in the study region and we understand that dry toilets should not be taken as the only alternative for sanitation in Amazonia.
The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.
Ainsworth, Ben; Marshall, Jemma E.; Meron, Daniel; Baldwin, David S.; Chadwick, Paul; Munafò, Marcus R.; Garner, Matthew
Inhalation of 7.5% carbon dioxide increases anxiety and autonomic arousal and provides a novel experimental model of anxiety with which to evaluate pharmacological and psychological treatments for anxiety. To date several psychotropic drugs including benzodiazepines, SSRIs and SNRIs have been evaluated using the 7.5% CO2 model; however, it has yet to be used to evaluate psychological interventions. We compared the effects of two core psychological components of mindfulness-meditation (open monitoring and focused attention) against general relaxation, on subjective, autonomic and neuropsychological outcomes in the 7.5% CO2 experimental model. 32 healthy screened adults were randomized to complete 10 min of guided open monitoring, focused attention or relaxation, immediately before inhaling 7.5% CO2 for 20 min. During CO2-challenge participants completed an eye-tracking measure of attention control and selective attention. Measures of subjective anxiety, blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and immediately following intervention and CO2-challenge. OM and FA practice reduced subjective feelings of anxiety during 20-min inhalation of 7.5% CO2 compared to relaxation control. OM practice produced a strong anxiolytic effect, whereas the effect of FA was more modest. Anxiolytic OM and FA effects occurred in the absence of group differences in autonomic arousal and eye-movement measures of attention. Our findings are consistent with neuropsychological models of mindfulness-meditation that propose OM and FA activate prefrontal mechanisms that support emotion regulation during periods of anxiety and physiological hyper-arousal. Our findings complement those from pharmacological treatment studies, further supporting the use of CO2 challenge to evaluate future therapeutic interventions for anxiety. PMID:25765144
Mukherjee, Trishna; Battifarano, Matthew; Simoncini, Claudio; Osborne, Leslie C
Are sensory estimates formed centrally in the brain and then shared between perceptual and motor pathways or is centrally represented sensory activity decoded independently to drive awareness and action? Questions about the brain's information flow pose a challenge because systems-level estimates of environmental signals are only accessible indirectly as behavior. Assessing whether sensory estimates are shared between perceptual and motor circuits requires comparing perceptual reports with motor behavior arising from the same sensory activity. Extrastriate visual cortex both mediates the perception of visual motion and provides the visual inputs for behaviors such as smooth pursuit eye movements. Pursuit has been a valuable testing ground for theories of sensory information processing because the neural circuits and physiological response properties of motion-responsive cortical areas are well studied, sensory estimates of visual motion signals are formed quickly, and the initiation of pursuit is closely coupled to sensory estimates of target motion. Here, we analyzed variability in visually driven smooth pursuit and perceptual reports of target direction and speed in human subjects while we manipulated the signal-to-noise level of motion estimates. Comparable levels of variability throughout viewing time and across conditions provide evidence for shared noise sources in the perception and action pathways arising from a common sensory estimate. We found that conditions that create poor, low-gain pursuit create a discrepancy between the precision of perception and that of pursuit. Differences in pursuit gain arising from differences in optic flow strength in the stimulus reconcile much of the controversy on this topic. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358515-16$15.00/0.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TRPA1 ion channels are involved in nociception and are also excited by pungent odorous substances. Based on reported associations of TRPA1 genetics with increased sensitivity to thermal pain stimuli, we therefore hypothesized that this association also exists for increased olfactory sensitivity. METHODS: Olfactory function and nociception was compared between carriers (n = 38 and non-carriers (n = 43 of TRPA1 variant rs11988795 G>A, a variant known to enhance cold pain perception. Olfactory function was quantified by assessing the odor threshold, odor discrimination and odor identification, and by applying 200-ms pulses of H2S intranasal. Nociception was assessed by measuring pain thresholds to experimental nociceptive stimuli (blunt pressure, electrical stimuli, cold and heat stimuli, and 200-ms intranasal pulses of CO2. RESULTS: Among the 11 subjects with moderate hyposmia, carriers of the minor A allele (n = 2 were underrepresented (34 carriers among the 70 normosmic subjects; p = 0.049. Moreover, carriers of the A allele discriminated odors significantly better than non-carriers (13.1±1.5 versus 12.3±1.6 correct discriminations and indicated a higher intensity of the H2S stimuli (29.2±13.2 versus 21±12.8 mm VAS, p = 0.006, which, however, could not be excluded to have involved a trigeminal component during stimulation. Finally, the increased sensitivity to thermal pain could be reproduced. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are in line with a previous association of a human TRPA1 variant with nociceptive parameters and extend the association to the perception of odorants. However, this addresses mainly those stimulants that involve a trigeminal component whereas a pure olfactory effect may remain disputable. Nevertheless, findings suggest that future TRPA1 modulating drugs may modify the perception of odorants.
Brand, Andrew; Bradley, Michael T
Confidence interval ( CI) widths were calculated for reported Cohen's d standardized effect sizes and examined in two automated surveys of published psychological literature. The first survey reviewed 1,902 articles from Psychological Science. The second survey reviewed a total of 5,169 articles from across the following four APA journals: Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, and Developmental Psychology. The median CI width for d was greater than 1 in both surveys. Hence, CI widths were, as Cohen (1994) speculated, embarrassingly large. Additional exploratory analyses revealed that CI widths varied across psychological research areas and that CI widths were not discernably decreasing over time. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed along with ways of reducing the CI widths and thus improving precision of effect size estimation.
C. DE W. van Wyk
Full Text Available The central question to be examined revolved around an analysis of the perceptions of Human Resources Practitioners regarding their role and responsibility in the management of HIV/AIDS in industry. A convenience sample of HR Practitioners was used in a cross-sectional design. A questionnaire measuring the constructs of managing HIV/AIDS in industry, as well as a biographical questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire proved to be reliable. A Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0,82 and 0,71 was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results indicated that HR Practitioners experienced and perceived significant differences with regard to the implementation of their companies’ policy formation and -implementation, training needs of managers and employees, mentoring/ coaching -approaches and other AIDS-related issues in terms of their perceptions regarding the management of HIV/AIDS. The findings revealed a gap of knowledge on managing HIV/AIDS existing among HR Practitioners at all levels. While some HR Practitioners had a detailed knowledge of the disease and its prevention, others were ignorant about it, but agreed that the management of HIV/AIDS can be seen as an integral part of their daily role and responsibility in industry. Recommendations were proposed for future research, policy making and practice in the area of HIV/AIDS and the management thereof.
Smythe, Gayle; Hughes, Diane
Speech pathology students enrolled in a lecture-based gross human anatomy program completed two out of nine topics in self-directed mode. Student performance in quizzes was compared for the two modes, and the students completed questionnaires on their perceptions of the self-directed mode of delivery. Students performed as well in the first self-directed topic as they did in lecture-based material, but performance declined significantly on the second self-directed topic. Correlations showed that students who performed well in lecture-based topics also performed well on self-directed topics. The major issues that arose in the student questionnaires were primarily related to the amount of content in the topics and the length of time required for completion. We conclude that there is a strong need for appropriate design of distance education materials to reflect student perceptions of length, content, and time investment, and more importantly that there is a need to ensure extensive communication and support of students studying in distance education/self-directed modes for the first time.
Kwang, Ng Beng; Yee, Choy Mun; Shan, Lim Pei; Teik, Chew Kah; Chandralega, Kampan Nirmala; Abdul Kadir, Abdul Karim
To evaluate the knowledge, perception and attitudes towards human papilloma virus (HPV) among pre-university students in Malaysia. In this cross sectional study, between November 2013 to March 2014, in a public university, a convenient sampling method was used. A total of 716 respondents were recruited and interviewed with a set of standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, perception and attitudes towards HPV and predictor variables associated with level of knowledge. Almost half (48.9%) of the respondents scored less than 5 and were categorised as having poor knowledge. Three hundred and twelve (43.6%) respondents had moderate knowledge and only 54 (7.5%) respondents exhibited good knowledge with the score of 11 and above. Only 142 (20%) students perceived themselves to be vulnerable to HPV infection though 560 (78.2%) students thought that HPV infection is a serious disease. Perceived benefits and desire to be vaccinated were significantly associated with gender (p=0.000) and knowledge of HPV vaccine and cervical cancer (p=0.000). The level of knowledge regarding HPV among the pre-university students was low. However, student intention for vaccination increased with increasing level of knowledge. Thus, efforts to improve knowledge and awareness should be prioritised to increase uptake of the HPV vaccination programme and hence reduce morbidity and mortality from consequences of HPV infection, including cervical carcinoma.
Solomon, Paul R.
Describes a psychology course in which magical illusions were used for teaching the principles of sensation and perception. Students read psychological, philosophical, historical, and magical literature on illusion, performed a magical illusion, and analyzed the illusion in terms of the psychological principles involved. (Author/KC)
Full Text Available In day-to-day life concrete become a compulsory material in the construction field as to make it a real concern among researchers for producing concrete with improved properties. Biological method is one of the new methods to improve concrete properties. Although, much research about biological concrete has been carried out, but till now nobody has not studied for the psychological effects of using a house or offices made up of biological concrete. The aim of this study is to investigate and find out the person's opinion about staying in a house or offices made up of biological concrete. In this study, a questionnaire containing eight questions was prepared and distributed among 21 persons in Malaysia University of Technology including students, academic and non-academic staffs among which few of them was an expert in the field of biological concrete and others did not have any knowledge about the bioconcrete. Finally, the results obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed. The results showed that 81% of participants in this study would like to stay in a house or office made up of biological concrete. However, 38% of participants believe that staying in a house or office made of biological concrete can cause health related problems. The current research paper can be considered significant for architects and civil engineers to have the insight to look into the psychological aspects of using biological concrete for various applications in the field of construction.
Draught is defined as an unwanted local cooling of the human body caused by air movement. Air velocity and temperature are the main characteristics of air movement in rooms. Characteristics of instantaneous air velocity and temperature records previously measured in ventilated indoor spaces were analyzed. Air velocity and temperature fluctuated randomly. The amplitude and frequency of the fluctuations changed over time. Air movements around the human body were measured with a three-dimensional laser Doppler amemometer. A new parameter, equivalent frequency, was defined as an integral single parameter for describing the frequency characteristics of air velocity. The equivalent frequency of a randomly fluctuating velocity is defined as the frequency of sinusoidal velocity fluctuations with the same ratio of the standard deviation of acceleration to the standard deviation of air velocity as in the random velocity fluctuations. The equivalent frequencies of numerous instantaneous air-velocity records measured in ventilated space were analysed. The equivalent frequency of an airflow in an indoor space was found to be 0.1 to 2 Hz. The equivalent frequencies of most of the airflows were between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. The relation between equivalent frequency and mean air velocity and standard deviation was established. Experiments were performed to identify the impact of the equivalent frequency on the human perception of draught. Forty subjects (20 women and 20 men) were subjected to airflows from behind with mean air velocities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s, with equivalent frequencies from 0 to 1 Hz at an air temperature of 20 deg. C. In this human-subject experimental study the frequency was found to have a significant impact on draught sensation. Subjects were more sensitive to airflow at an equivalent frequency between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. A mathematical model for the simulation of draught was established and a computer program was developed for simulating the draught. The program
Full Text Available Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour “human colour” or “skin colour”. This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two schools in the Western Cape, investigated Grade 3 learners’ attitudes and perceptions regarding race and skin colour through art processes and discussion. The aim was to promote critical engagement with race in Foundation Phase educational contexts. Suggestions include changing the language used to describe skin colour, just recognition and representation of races in educational resources and the promotion of critical citizenship education. This research indicates the need to create practical curriculum guidelines to discuss race issues in the South African classroom.
Witterseh, Thomas; Wargocki, Pawel; Fang, Lei
The objective of the present study was to investigate human perception and SBS symptoms when people are exposed simultaneously to different levels of air pollution and ventilation noise. The air quality in an office was modified by placing or removing a carpet and the background noise level...... of the occupants were recorded throughout the exposure period. During occupation, the subjects performed simulated office work. The results show that elevated air pollution and noise in an office can interact and negatively affect office workers by increasing the prevalence of SBS symptoms. A moderate increase...... was modified by playing a recording of ventilation noise. Thirty female subjects, six at a time, occupied the office for 4.4 hours. The subjects assessed the air quality, the noise, and the indoor environment upon entering the office and on six occasions during occupation. Furthermore, SBS symptoms...
Chen, Haiwen; Russell, Richard; Nakayama, Ken; Livingstone, Margaret
Adaptation can shift what individuals identify to be a prototypical or attractive face. Past work suggests that low-level shape adaptation can affect high-level face processing but is position dependent. Adaptation to distorted images of faces can also affect face processing but only within sub-categories of faces, such as gender, age, and race/ethnicity. This study assesses whether there is a representation of face that is specific to faces (as opposed to all shapes) but general to all kinds of faces (as opposed to subcategories) by testing whether adaptation to one type of face can affect perception of another. Participants were shown cartoon videos containing faces with abnormally large eyes. Using animated videos allowed us to simulate naturalistic exposure and avoid positional shape adaptation. Results suggest that adaptation to cartoon faces with large eyes shifts preferences for human faces toward larger eyes, supporting the existence of general face representations. PMID:20465173
Gor, Beverly J; Chilton, Janice A; Camingue, Pamela T; Hajek, Richard A
Cervical cancer is a major health disparity among Asian Americans, with cervical cancer rates of Vietnamese women being significantly higher than for the general US female population and low screening rates reported for Asian American females. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with young Vietnamese, Filipino, and Korean adults (ages 18-29) to collect information on knowledge, perceptions and sources of information regarding cervical cancer, Pap tests and the human papillomavirus. 16 Korean, 18 Vietnamese, and 18 Filipino (50% female) adults participated in the study. Many participants had never heard of HPV, cervical cancer and Pap testing. Cervical cancer screening rates were low for Korean and Vietnamese females and were influenced by moral beliefs and lack of awareness. Culturally relevant education materials that consider specific Asian ethnicity and language are needed to increase awareness of cervical cancer, Pap testing, and HPV among Asian American young adults.
Sing, Kong-Wah; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wan, Tao; Lee, Ping-Shin; Li, Zong-Xu; Chen, Xing; Wang, Yun-Yu; Wilson, John-James
Urbanization requires the conversion of natural land cover to cover with human-constructed elements and is considered a major threat to biodiversity. Bee populations, globally, are under threat; however, the effect of rapid urban expansion in Southeast Asia on bee diversity has not been investigated. Given the pressing issues of bee conservation and urbanization in Southeast Asia, coupled with complex factors surrounding human-bee coexistence, we investigated bee diversity and human perceptions of bees in four megacities. We sampled bees and conducted questionnaires at three different site types in each megacity: a botanical garden, central business district, and peripheral suburban areas. Overall, the mean species richness and abundance of bees were significantly higher in peripheral suburban areas than central business districts; however, there were no significant differences in the mean species richness and abundance between botanical gardens and peripheral suburban areas or botanical gardens and central business districts. Urban residents were unlikely to have seen bees but agreed that bees have a right to exist in their natural environment. Residents who did notice and interact with bees, even though being stung, were more likely to have positive opinions towards the presence of bees in cities.
Nsonwu, Maura Busch; Welch-Brewer, Chiquitia; Heffron, Laurie Cook; Lemke, Melinda A.; Busch-Armendariz, Noel; Sulley, Caitlin; Cook, Sharon Warren; Lewis, Mary; Watson, Elizabeth; Moore, Wayne; Li, Jilan
Objective: This study sought to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a tool designed to assess social work students' knowledge of and perceptions and attitudes toward human trafficking. To achieve this aim, the Perceptions, Knowledge, and Attitudes toward Human Trafficking Questionnaire (PKA-HTQ) was developed and its psychometric…
Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.
Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.
Full Text Available Economic programs aimed at improving education in Latin America have failed to deliver the promised results. The assumption that improving primary and secondary education will contribute to the eradication of poverty has discarded that the culture of marginalized social groups reduces the effectiveness of such endeavor. We explore the psychological aspects of culture –the beliefs, values, and meaning systems of any cultural group. We highlight how families living in poverty perceive schooling and its supposed benefits. These attitudes are transmitted to children in the socialization process. Another prevalent problem is the high proportion of adolescents who drop out of school. We look for an explanation in their internal representations of schoolwork and their motivation for doing it. We conclude that cultural beliefs should be taken into account in the planning of educational programs to aid children and adolescents from poor neighborhoods. They must be adapted to the cultural world of recipient groups.
Palinkas, Lawrence A.
Psychosocial adaptation to isolated and confined environments exhibits 4 distinct characteristics. First, it is seasonal: Variations in mood are associated with the altered diurnal cycle and psychological segmentation of the mission. Second, it is situational: Concurrent measures of personality, interpersonal needs, and coping styles are better predictors of mood and performance than are predeployment measures. Third, it is social: Members of expeditions with low social coherence report significantly more depression, anxiety, and anger than individuals belonging to expeditions with high social coherence. Fourth, it is salutogenic: Depressed mood is inversely associated with the severity of the physical environment of the station, and the winter-over experience is associated with reduced subsequent rates of hospital admissions, suggesting positive benefits for individuals seeking challenging experiences.
Kai, Joe; Hedges, Clive
OBJECTIVES: To promote community participation in exploring perceptions of psychological distress amongst Pakistani and Bangladeshi people, in order to develop appropriate services. DESIGN: Training and facilitation of resident community members (as community project workers), to define and conduct qualitative research involving semistructured interviews in their own communities, informing primary care led commissioning and service decision making. Setting A socio-economically disadvantaged inner-city locality in the UK. Participants One-hundred and four South Asian people (49 of Pakistani and 55 of Bangladeshi origin), interviewed by 13 resident community members. RESULTS: All community project workers completed training leading to a National Vocational Qualification, and successfully executed the research. Most study respondents located their main sources of stress within pervasive experience of racism and socio-economic disadvantage. They were positive about 'talking' and neutral listening as helpful, but sought strategies beyond non-directive counselling services that embraced practical welfare advice and social support. The roles of primary health care professionals were believed to be restricted to physical ill health rather than personal distress. The importance of professionals' sex, age, ethnicity and social status were emphasized as affecting open communication. Practical recommendations for the re-orientation and provision of services were generated and implemented in response to the findings, through dialogue with a primary care commissioning group, Health and Local Authority, and voluntary agencies. CONCLUSIONS: The work illustrates the feasibility and value of a community participation approach to research and service development in addressing a challenging and neglected area of minority ethnic health need. It offers one model for generating responsive service change in the context of current health policy in the UK, whilst also imparting skills and
Full Text Available Animal spirits*. How human psychology drives the economy and why it matters for global capitalism helps us understand how the economic systems operate on the economic theory crisis background. The message of the book is recognizing the importance of irrationality factors in formulating the economic theory. The paper calls for reconsidering the economy fundamentals and principles, presenting a new way of understanding the significant economic phenomena that standard economic science cannot explain or accurately interpret. In this respect, a new way to revolutionize the economic thinking which might change the approach of the economic crises, unemployment, poverty, economic fluctuations and the like, is open. * The “animal spirits” collocation (coming from Latin spiritus animalis, where animus pertains to the soul or means to animate refers to that nervous fluid presently covering the psychological and emotional motivation factors. In a broad sense, the animal spirits refer to vivacity, to the natural state of a healthy animal, acting as an intermediary between the body and soul. In an economic context, Keynes speaks about the people’s strength and vitality determining them to make bold decisions and to invest money, effort and time in business initiatives. From an economic perspective, the animal spirits cover an element of anxiety and inconsistency present in the economy, the people’s unusual ambiguity and insecurity which sometimes paralyse them, while otherwise stimulate them overcome fear and hesitation.
The present thesis deals with the impact of polluted air from building materials and personal computers on human perception, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of office work. These effects have been studies in a series of experiments that are described in two different chapters...
Byrne, Bruce; Guy, Richard
This article describes student perceptions and outcomes in relation to the use of a novel interteaching approach. The study sample (n = 260) was taken from a large human physiology class, which included both first- and second-year students. However, unlike the first-year students, the second-year students had significant prior knowledge, having…
O'Horo, Neal O.
The purpose of this quantitative survey study was to test the Leontief input/output theory relating the input of IT certification to the output of the English-speaking U.S. human resource professional perceived IT professional job performance. Participants (N = 104) rated their perceptions of IT certified vs. non-IT certified professionals' job…
Daniel E Lieberman
Full Text Available Since flavor derives from the synthesis of taste, somatosensation and smell, one of the most important factors in the ability to perceive flavor is retronasal olfaction in which volatile compounds pass from the oral cavity through the pharynx to the olfactory epithelium. Retronasal olfaction has been documented in both humans and rodents, but appears less effective in rodents than orthonasal olfaction because expired air does not come into as much contact with the sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium as inspired air [1,2]. Detailed comparisons of retronasal airflow patterns among different species have not been conducted, but several lines of evidence lead to the hypothesis that retronasal airflow may be specially enhanced in humans because of four derived features of the human head and neck that evolved at different stages because of selection for functions other than olfaction . If so, then human flavor perception capabilities may be more derived than is commonly appreciated, and perhaps played a role in selecting for the evolution of cooking. The first derived adaptation that aids human retronasal olfaction is the absence of the transverse lamina, a horizontal shelf of bone that partitions the olfactory chamber of the nasal fossa from the more inferior respiratory passage. This lamina, which is present in most mammals, was lost during the evolution of monkeys (haplorhines from more primitive primates (strepsirhines as part of a reorganization of the nasal cavity. The function of the transverse lamina has not been tested but it probably aids orthonasal olfaction by trapping inspired air in the olfactory region. Loss of the transverse lamina is commonly interpreted to be one of several trade-offs in primate evolution that favored vision over olfaction , but it likely benefits retronasal olfaction by permitting a direct pathway for expired air to flow towards the olfactory epithelium. A second derived adaptation present in humans is
Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.
Work at NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) has demonstrated the need for increased consideration of psychological factors in the design of computer displays for the WATR mission control center. These factors include color perception, memory load, and cognitive processing abilities. A review of relevant work in the human factors psychology area is provided to demonstrate the need for this awareness. The information provided should be relevant in control room settings where computerized displays are being used.
Full Text Available The modern business world is characterized by dynamic, changing markets and continuous technological advance. This article focuses on an issue related to a definition of the meaning of a man and his location in an organization that works in conditions of globalization. Certainly, the meaning of human as the source of knowledge in the development of organization is not a new subject. Knowledge is intrinsically linked to people and enables them to act. Modern organizations base their theory on the knowledge they can exploit to improve the competence of the employee, his loyalty and commitment to the company which aims at the competitive predominance. The identification of knowledge is necessary for the effective implementation of knowledge management system. Above all, presented theoretical analysis pinpoints mainly on discussing a mans role and psychological contract in managing the knowledge.
Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin; Fischmeister, Florian Ph. S.; Grabner, Günther; Bauer, Herbert; Trattnig, Siegfried
Analogous to the evolution of biological sensor-systems, the progress in “medical sensor-systems”, i.e., diagnostic procedures, is paradigmatically described. Outstanding highlights of this progress are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), which enable non-invasive, in vivo acquisition of morphological, functional, and metabolic information from the human body with unsurpassed quality. Recent achievements in high and ultra-high field MR (at 3 and 7 Tesla) are described, and representative research applications in Medicine and Psychology in Austria are discussed. Finally, an overview of current and prospective research in multi-modal imaging, potential clinical applications, as well as current limitations and challenges is given. PMID:22219684
Full Text Available This article examines the search for Truth and the journey of existence as explained metaphorically in the works of Farid ud-Din Attar by blending Sufi understanding and a contemporary psychological perspective. It attempts to associate and review people’s characteristics, life styles, cognitive structures, existential journeys, and processes of self-realization through the Sufi views in Attar’s stories. The Valleys of Quest, Love, Understanding, Independence and Detachment, Unity, Astonishment and Bewilderment, and Deprivation and Death that occur in Mantiq al-Tayr (The Conference of the Birds are basically accepted through interpretation as the stages of human desires along with the characteristics that are required to transition from these valleys. This research also benefitted by interpreting other works by Attar, the Ilahi- Nama (Book of God and Asrar-Nama (Book of Mysteries.
Skinner, T. C.
Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...
Iza Husna Mohamad Hashim
Full Text Available Tactile sensation is one type of valuable feedback in evaluating a product. Conventionally, sensory evaluation is used to get direct subjective responses from the consumers, in order to improve the product’s quality. However, this method is a time-consuming and costly process. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel tactile evaluation system that can give tactile feedback from a sensor’s output. The main concept of this system is hierarchically layering the tactile sensation, which is inspired by the flow of human perception. The tactile sensation is classified from low-order of tactile sensation (LTS to high-order of tactile sensation (HTS, and also to preference. Here, LTS will be correlated with physical measures. Furthermore, the physical measures that are used to correlate with LTS are selected based on four main aspects of haptic information (roughness, compliance, coldness, and slipperiness, which are perceived through human tactile sensors. By using statistical analysis, the correlation between each hierarchy was obtained, and the preference was derived in terms of physical measures. A verification test was conducted by using unknown samples to determine the reliability of the system. The results showed that the system developed was capable of estimating preference with an accuracy of approximately 80%.
Hashim, Iza Husna Mohamad; Kumamoto, Shogo; Takemura, Kenjiro; Maeno, Takashi; Okuda, Shin; Mori, Yukio
Tactile sensation is one type of valuable feedback in evaluating a product. Conventionally, sensory evaluation is used to get direct subjective responses from the consumers, in order to improve the product's quality. However, this method is a time-consuming and costly process. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel tactile evaluation system that can give tactile feedback from a sensor's output. The main concept of this system is hierarchically layering the tactile sensation, which is inspired by the flow of human perception. The tactile sensation is classified from low-order of tactile sensation (LTS) to high-order of tactile sensation (HTS), and also to preference. Here, LTS will be correlated with physical measures. Furthermore, the physical measures that are used to correlate with LTS are selected based on four main aspects of haptic information (roughness, compliance, coldness, and slipperiness), which are perceived through human tactile sensors. By using statistical analysis, the correlation between each hierarchy was obtained, and the preference was derived in terms of physical measures. A verification test was conducted by using unknown samples to determine the reliability of the system. The results showed that the system developed was capable of estimating preference with an accuracy of approximately 80%.
Full Text Available Although symmetry may be important for understanding the selection of form in art over the historical period, this preference may have originally stemmed from certain basic perceptual mechanism that initially arose during prehistory. The first signs of an awareness to symmetry can be found in the archaeological record with the arrival of Acheulean handaxes, especially those dating from 500,000 years ago onwards, which are typified by a prodigious bilateral symmetry. As handaxes represent the earliest material record of an interest in symmetry by the human lineage, they provide a privileged means of understanding why this kind of form came to be valued by later human groups, particularly in relation to “art”. Although still controversial, the preference for symmetry at such an early date has been linked to various aspects of perception relating to enduring evolutionary factors. In this regard, it will be demonstrated how the preference for symmetrical Acheulean tools arose out of long standing perceptual correlates relating to ecological factors that predated the arrival of hominins.
Laura V Cuaya
Full Text Available Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.
Shean, Glenn D
It is the thesis of this paper that differences in philosophical assumptions about the subject matter and treatment methods of psychotherapy have contributed to disagreements about the external validity of empirically supported therapies (ESTs). These differences are evident in the theories that are the basis for both the design and interpretation of recent psychotherapy efficacy studies. The natural science model, as applied to psychotherapy outcome research, transforms the constitutive features of the study subject in a reciprocal manner so that problems, treatments, and indicators of effectiveness are limited to what can be directly observed. Meaning-based approaches to therapy emphasize processes and changes that do not lend themselves to experimental study. Hermeneutic philosophy provides a supplemental model to establishing validity in those instances where outcome indicators do not lend themselves to direct observation and measurement and require "deep" interpretation. Hermeneutics allows for a broadening of psychological study that allows one to establish a form of validity that is applicable when constructs do not refer to things that literally "exist" in nature. From a hermeneutic perspective the changes that occur in meaning-based therapies must be understood and evaluated on the manner in which they are applied to new situations, the logical ordering and harmony of the parts with the theoretical whole, and the capability of convincing experts and patients that the interpretation can stand up against other ways of understanding. Adoption of this approach often is necessary to competently evaluate the effectiveness of meaning-based therapies.
Hughes, Claretha; Lusk, Stephanie L.; Strause, Stephanie
All employees within the workplace must be treated fairly and equitably including those with disabilities who may require accommodations that serve to increase access to and maintenance of competitive employment. Human Resource Development (HRD) researchers and practitioners have experience in accommodating employees with disabilities but are now…
Palinkas, Lawrence A.
Reviews lessons learned from research in Antarctica with relevance to understanding human behavior in other isolated and confined environments. Outlines four distinct characteristics of psychosocial adaptation to such environments and discusses some of the benefits for individuals seeking challenging experiences. (Contains references.) (SLD)
Arnold, J.; Randall, R.; Patterson, F.; Silvester, J.; Robertson, I.; Cooper, C.; Burnes, B.; Swailes, S.; Harris, D.; Axtell, C.; den Hartog, D.
The fifth edition of this market-leading textbook retains its popular blend of theory, research and examples. Substantially revised and updated with extensive new material that reflects contemporary research and debate, the book offers an accessible and fascinating examination of human behaviour in
Kottke, Janet L.; Shoenfelt, Elizabeth L.; Stone, Nancy J.
An informational brochure was created to assist students and faculty unfamiliar with the industrial-organizational (IO) and human factors (HF) disciplines. The brochure highlights the content of these two professions, presents advice for undergraduates to prepare for admission to IO and HF graduate programs, provides sources of IO and HF…
Eastwick, Paul W.
Evolutionary psychologists explore the adaptive function of traits and behaviors that characterize modern Homo sapiens. However, evolutionary psychologists have yet to incorporate the phylogenetic relationship between modern Homo sapiens and humans' hominid and pongid relatives (both living and extinct) into their theorizing. By considering the…
Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Damith; Vlachos, Evgenios
The human perception of cognitive robots as social depends on many factors, including those that do not necessarily pertain to a robot’s cognitive functioning. Experience Design offers a useful framework for evaluating when participants interact with robots as products or tools and when they regard...... them as social actors. This study describes a between-participants experiment conducted at a science museum, where visitors were invited to play a game of noughts and crosses with a Baxter robot. The goal is to foster meaningful interactions that promote engagement between the human and robot...... in a museum context. Using an Experience Design framework, we tested the robot in three different conditions to better understand which factors contribute to the perception of robots as social. The experiment also outlines best practices for conducting human-robot interaction research in museum exhibitions...
This paper examines the theory that breastfed and bottlefed infants are psychological equivalents. There are 2 patterns of breastfeeding most often encountered, unrestricted and token breastfeedings. There are maternal differences between those who breastfeed and those who do not. The initial experience of breastfeeding is culturally dependent. A mother who practices unretricted breastfeeding is receiving sustained stimulation to her nipples and experiences a generalized body response. Likewise such a breastfeeding mother experiences other long-term psychophysiologic reactions such as lactation amenorrhea and changes in hormonal balance. Breastfeeding women are often interested in a quick return to sexual intercourse and display a more general attitude towards men. A mother's personality and her ability to adjust to life situations often varies with the choice of feeding. 1 study found that mothers who breastfed displayed significantly less neuroticism than those who did not. Breastfeeding behavior appears to be sensitive to even minor variations in the social milieu. The type of breastfeeding practiced is likewise a significant variable for the infant. The initial feeding of an unrestricted breastfed infant is usually smooth unlike the situation for the token breastfed. Both feeding patterns involve assuagement of hunger needs but are dependent on social setting. For the breastfed infant, comfort as well as nourishment are presented with the mother as part of the package. These 2 experiences are often split in bottlefed and token breastfed infants. The 2 sucking patterns resemble each other superficially and the breastfed infant seems to develop more interest in sucking. Different activity levels manifest themselves by the 3rd day postpartum with the breastfed showing a greater propensity toward activity. Intelligence scores are also related to feeding patterns, with those exclusively breastfed for 4-9 months displaying the highest scores in relation to their age.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...
Rosen, Brittany L; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L
Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional practice regarding the HPV vaccine. We used a cross-sectional design by recruiting members from the National Association of School Nurses. All participants (N = 505) were e-mailed a survey designed for this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) tested direct and indirect effects. Overall, school nurses had knowledge about HPV and the vaccine, and positive attitudes toward the vaccine. They had less-than-enthusiastic perceptions of their role as opinion leaders regarding the vaccine and implemented few activities related to providing vaccine information. The model revealed a good fit (χ(2)=20.238 [df=8, prole as opinion leaders. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Pérez-Muñoz, Alfonso; Chacón, Fernando; Martínez Arias, Rosario
Poverty is a social problem, entailing not only an economical perspective but above all a human and social issue. Poverty is promoted, justified and maintained by unique individuals and groups by means of our own attitudes, interests and behavior, as well as with our social structures and social relationships. From this interactive, psychosocial and sociostructural perspective, and also considering poverty as a denial of basic human rights (UNDP, 1998), we carried out a study with the primary objective to design and verify an Explanatory Model of Poverty. This research may helps to increase the validity of diagnostics and the effectiveness of interventions. Most of the hypotheses were accepted during the analysis and verification of the Model (p poverty including its effects, processes and causes; (b) the need for everybody to accept the social responsibility in the prevention and solution to poverty; and (c) the need to conduct longitudinal interventions with scientific methodology and social participation.
李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源
A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.
Can modular psychological concepts like affect and emotion be assigned to a distinct subset of regional neural circuits?. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.
Fehr, Thorsten; Herrmann, Manfred
The proposed Quartet Theory of Human Emotions by Koelsch and co-workers  adumbrates evidence from various scientific sources to integrate and assign the psychological concepts of 'affect' and 'emotion' to four brain circuits or to four neuronal core systems for affect-processing in the brain. The authors differentiate between affect and emotion and assign several facultative, or to say modular, psychological domains and principles of information processing, such as learning and memory, antecedents of affective activity, emotion satiation, cognitive complexity, subjective quality feelings, degree of conscious appraisal, to different affect systems. Furthermore, they relate orbito-frontal brain structures to moral affects as uniquely human, and the hippocampus to attachment-related affects. An additional feature of the theory describes 'emotional effector-systems' for motor-related processes (e.g., emotion-related actions), physiological arousal, attention and memory that are assumed to be cross-linked with the four proposed affect systems. Thus, higher principles of emotional information processing, but also modular affect-related issues, such as moral and attachment related affects, are thought to be handled by these four different physiological sub-systems that are on the other side assumed to be highly interwoven at both physiological and functional levels. The authors also state that the proposed sub-systems have many features in common, such as the selection and modulation of biological processes related to behaviour, perception, attention and memory. The latter aspect challenges an ongoing discussion about the mind-body problem: To which degree do the proposed sub-systems 'sufficiently' cover the processing of complex modular or facultative emotional/affective and/or cognitive phenomena? There are current models and scientific positions that almost completely reject the idea that modular psychological phenomena are handled by a distinct selection of
Aggarwal, Upasana; Bhargava, Shivganesh
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise literature on the role of human resource practices (HRP) in shaping employee psychological contract (PC). Based on this review, a conceptual framework for examining the relationship between HRP and PC and their impact on employee attitudes as well as behaviour has been put forward for…
VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle
The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.
Blomstedt, Bob; And Others
Several concepts detailed in Gestalt psychology/therapy appear to have a close relationship with many concepts being applied in bilingual education. The primary contribution of Gestalt psychology to learning theory in the U.S. is an emphasis on perception and reintegration of relationships within an organized whole. To the teacher this means that…
Jumeno, Desto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi
Escalation of task demands and time pressures tends to make a worker run into work stress, which leads to mental fatigue and depression. The mental fatigue can be reduced when attention capacity is restored. Nature can serve as a source of fascination which can restore the attention capacity. People bring plants indoors so they can experience nature in their workplace. The stress and fatigue are also affected by air temperatures. The increase or decrease of temperatures from the comfort zone may induce the stress and fatigue. The objective of this study is to investigate the intervention of using foliage plants placed inside a building at different air temperature levels. The effects of foliage plants on human stress and fatigue were measured by human physiological responses such as heart rate, amylase level, electroencephalography (EEG), and the secondary task-reaction time. Several different tasks, namely typing, math and logical sequences are included in the investigation of these studies. Fifteen subjects, with the age ranged from 22 to 38 years old have participated in the study using within subject design. From the study, it is revealed that the presence of foliage plants at several temperatures have different effects on meditation, secondary task reaction time and typing accuracy. This study also revealed that the presence of plants on several types of tasks has different effects of attention which are useful for increasing work performance.
Borckardt, Jeffrey J.; Linder, Katie; Ricci, Raffaella; Li, Xingbao; Anderson, Berry; Arana, Ashley; Nahas, Ziad; Amassian, Vahe; Long, James; George, Mark S.; Sackeim, Harold A.
Background Focal Electrically-Administered Therapy (FEAT) is a new method of transcranial electrical stimulation capable of focal modulation of cerebral activity. Other than invasive studies in animals and examination of motor output in humans, there are limited possibilities for establishing basic principles about how variation in stimulus parameters impact on patterns of intracortical stimulation. This study used a simpler paradigm, and evaluated the effects of different stimulation parameters on subjective perception of the quality and location of scalp pain. Methods In two studies, 19 subjects were randomly stimulated over the left forehead, varying the anode-cathode arrangement, the intensity of stimulation, the electrode size and placement, and whether the current flow was unidirectional or bidirectional. Subjects rated the location of the sensation, and its quality. Results The perceived center of stimulation moved toward the cathode, regardless of placement. This shift in subjective sensation was more prominent when the electricity was unidirectional. Additionally, more intense stimulation, as well as stimulation with a smaller electrode, caused greater perceived pain. Unidirectional stimulation was rated more painful when traveling from a large anode to a small cathode and less painful when traveling from a small anode to a large cathode. Finally, participants were more likely to perceive the electrical stimulation as moving towards a specific direction when the intensity was high than when it was low. Conclusions The intensity and location of sensations can be manipulated by varying the intensity, current direction, or geometry of electrodes. PMID:19092677
Iliopoulos, Fivos; Nierhaus, Till; Villringer, Arno
Although noise is usually considered to be harmful for signal detection and information transmission, stochastic resonance (SR) describes the counterintuitive phenomenon of noise enhancing the detection and transmission of weak input signals. In mammalian sensory systems, SR-related phenomena may arise both in the peripheral and the central nervous system. Here, we investigate behavioral SR effects of subliminal electrical noise stimulation on the perception of somatosensory stimuli in humans. We compare the likelihood to detect near-threshold pulses of different intensities applied on the left index finger during presence vs. absence of subliminal noise on the same or an adjacent finger. We show that (low-pass) noise can enhance signal detection when applied on the same finger. This enhancement is strong for near-threshold pulses below the 50% detection threshold and becomes stronger when near-threshold pulses are applied as brief trains. The effect reverses at pulse intensities above threshold, especially when noise is replaced by subliminal sinusoidal stimulation, arguing for a peripheral direct current addition. Unfiltered noise applied on longer pulses enhances detection of all pulse intensities. Noise applied to an adjacent finger has two opposing effects: an inhibiting effect (presumably due to lateral inhibition) and an enhancing effect (most likely due to SR in the central nervous system). In summary, we demonstrate that subliminal noise can significantly modulate detection performance of near-threshold stimuli. Our results indicate SR effects in the peripheral and central nervous system.
Schumann, Frank; O’Regan, J. Kevin
Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level. We convey head orientation to geomagnetic North, a reliable spatial relation not normally sensed by humans, by mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds via head-related transfer functions. We demonstrate rapid and long-lasting integration into the perception of self-rotation. Short training with amplified or reduced rotation gain in the magnetic signal can expand or compress the perceived extent of vestibular self-rotation, even with the magnetic signal absent in the test. We argue that it is the reliability of the magnetic signal that allows vestibular spatial recalibration, and the coding scheme mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds that permits fast integration. Hence we propose that contingency-mimetic feedback has great potential for creating sensory augmentation devices that achieve fast and genuinely perceptual experiences. PMID:28195187
Emanuelle Caires Dias Araújo Nunes
Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate professors' perceptions about their experiences in the teaching-learning process of nursing care in relation to dying. This is a descriptive-exploratory, qualitative research, delimited by data saturation, was carried out with 11 nursing professors from three higher education institutions. Data collection involved the drawing-text theme technique and a semi-structured interview. Analysis used the technique of collective subject discourse. The results identified three categories: How I would like to take care in the context of finitude - my challenge; Challenging fragilities in the teaching of nurses in the context of care concerned with death and dying; Strategies to compensate or promote more substantial nurse training related to care in finitude. We conclude that the graduation of the nurses studied did not satisfactorily develop the necessary skills and abilities to deal with human death and dying. This study infers the need of permanent education to support transformations in this area.
Tain, Monica; Schwartzstein, Richard; Friedland, Bernard; Park, Sang E
The aim of this study was to determine the use and perceived utility of various learning resources available during the first-year Integrated Human Physiology course at the dental and medical schools at Harvard University. Dental and medical students of the Class of 2018 were surveyed anonymously online in 2015 regarding their use of 29 learning resources in this combined course. The learning resources had been grouped into four categories to discern frequency of use and perceived usefulness among the categories. The survey was distributed to 169 students, and 73 responded for a response rate of 43.2%. There was no significant difference among the learning resource categories in frequency of use; however, there was a statistically significant difference among categories in students' perceptions of usefulness. No correlation was found between frequency of use and perceived usefulness of each category. Students seemingly were not choosing the most useful resources for them. These results suggest that, in the current educational environment, where new technologies and self-directed learning are highly sought after, there remains a need for instructor-guided learning.
Crone, M. M.
This year the Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery at Skidmore College is showing an exhibit about the human perception of stars, accompanied by a catalog, a speaker series, and an outreach program. The exhibit includes historical documents and atlases as well as work by a variety of artists and scientists. A Very Liquid Heaven opened with a performance of George Crumb's musical piece Makrokosmos III surrounded by original dance, theater, and video art. The title of the exhibit is inspired by Rene Descartes' 1644 text Principles of Philosophy, where he describes the earth as "surrounded on all sides by a very liquid heaven." Although Isaac Newton's laws of mechanics and gravity later discredited his specific hypothesis, in a sense Descartes was correct: astronomy has indeed revealed stars not as hard, fixed objects, but as pulsing plasmas, and interstellar space not as a pure void, but as diffuse clouds of atoms and molecules. This exhibit is made possible with support from Beverly P. and R. Lawrence St. Clair, the Nathalie Potter Voorhees '45 Memorial fund, and the Friends of the Tang.
Ma, R.; Jones, J. M.
With the renewed interest in nuclear power and the possibility of constructing new reactors within the next decade in the U.S., there are several challenges for the regulators, designers, and vendors. One challenge is to ensure that Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is involved, and correctly applied in the life-cycle design of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). As an important part of the effort, people would ask: 'is the system-design engineer effectively incorporating HFE in the NPPs design?' The present study examines the sagacity of Instrumentation and Control design engineers on issues relating to awareness, attitude, and application of HFE in NPP design. A questionnaire was developed and distributed, focusing on the perceptions and attitudes of the design engineers. The responses revealed that, while the participants had a relatively high positive attitude about HFE, their awareness and application of HFE were moderate. The results also showed that senior engineers applied HFE more frequently in their design work than young engineers. This study provides some preliminary results and implications for improved HFE education and application in NPP design. (authors)
Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi
Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.
The aim of the study is to develop a method of computer aided constructing conical perspective of an architectural object, which is close to human perception. The conical perspective considered in the paper is a central projection onto a projection surface being a conical rotary surface or a fragment of it. Whereas, the centre of projection is a stationary point or a point moving on a circular path. The graphical mapping results of the perspective representation is realized directly on an unrolled flat projection surface. The projective relation between a range of points on a line and the perspective image of the same range of points received on a cylindrical projection surface permitted to derive formulas for drawing perspective. Next, the analytical algorithms for drawing perspective image of a straight line passing through any two points were formulated. It enabled drawing a perspective wireframe image of a given 3D object. The use of the moving view point as well as the application of the changeable base elements of perspective as the variables in the algorithms enable drawing conical perspective from different viewing positions. Due to this fact, the perspective drawing method is universal. The algorithms are formulated and tested in Mathcad Professional software, but can be implemented in AutoCAD and majority of computer graphical packages, which makes drawing a perspective image more efficient and easier. The presented conical perspective representation, and the convenient method of its mapping directly on the flat unrolled surface can find application for numerous advertisement and art presentations.
Christianson, Monica; Eriksson, Carola
To explore midwives' perceptions regarding virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions', and how these practices can be debated from a gender perspective. An international group of 266 midwives answered an open-ended question in a Web survey. The great majority came from the Western world, among them, the majority were from Europe. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged: misogynistic practices that cement the gender order, which revealed how the respondents viewed virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions'; raising public awareness and combatting practices that demean women, which were suggested as strategies by which to combat these practices; and promoting agency in women and providing culturally sensitive care, which were considered to improve health care encounters. Virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions' are elements of patriarchy, whereby violence and control are employed to subordinate women. To counter these practices, macro and micro-level activities are needed to expand women's human rights in the private and the public spheres. Political activism, international debates, collaboration between sectors such as health care and law-makers may lead to increased gender equality. A women-centred approach whereby women are empowered with agency will make women more capable of combatting virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'.
Martinez, Aleix; Du, Shichuan
aid in studies of human perception, social interactions and disorders.
Karin J H Verweij
Full Text Available Across animal species, offspring of closely related mates exhibit lower fitness, a phenomenon called inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression in humans is less well understood because mating between close relatives is generally rare and stigmatised, confounding investigation of its effect on fitness-relevant traits. Recently, the availability of high-density genotype data has enabled quantification of variation in distant inbreeding in 'outbred' human populations, but the low variance of inbreeding detected from genetic data in most outbred populations means large samples are required to test effects, and only a few traits have yet been studied. However, it is likely that isolated populations, or those with a small effective population size, have higher variation in inbreeding and therefore require smaller sample sizes to detect inbreeding effects. With a small effective population size and low immigration, Northern Finland is such a population. We make use of a sample of ∼5,500 'unrelated' individuals in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort 1966 with known genotypes and measured phenotypes across a range of fitness-relevant physical and psychological traits, including birth length and adult height, body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, heart rate, grip strength, educational attainment, income, marital status, handedness, health, and schizotypal features. We find significant associations in the predicted direction between individuals' inbreeding coefficient (measured by proportion of the genome in runs of homozygosity and eight of the 18 traits investigated, significantly more than the one or two expected by chance. These results are consistent with inbreeding depression effects on a range of human traits, but further research is needed to replicate and test alternative explanations for these effects.
Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... case studies that are community-based and inter/intra-cultural on human behaviour, ... education, health, religion, business, tourism, counselling and psychology.
Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...... culture and time into investigations; and what cultural psychology can contribute to our understanding of imagination, art, language and self-other relations....
Ghous Mohd Tarmizi
Full Text Available Main causes of accident is due to driver itself that is influenced by their bad attitude while driving. Human attitude is closely related to the human psychology. Apart from that, spiritual aspect also influence human attitude. Hence, this study carried out to improve driver safety using a new approach through psychology and spiritual factors. Objectives of this study are to identify then analyze factors of psychological and spiritual that contribute towards safety driving. A self-administered questionnaire were distributed among 256 respondents from various type of background. An analysis descriptive statistics show demographic and experience of respondents. Chi-square analysis showed only education level and traffic summon are significant to safety driving. Furthermore, correlation analysis shows psychological factors has strong linear relationship on attitude of drivers towards safety driving while spiritual factor, the perception of the spiritual and practices, both have a strong relationship to safety driving. Regression analysis demonstrates boths psychological and spiritual factors have strong evidence and significant relationship with safety driving. Thus, it can be identified that spiritual psychological factors encourage drivers to drive more safely and reduce road accidents. Therefore, this study propose useful guidelines to related agencies in order to enhance safety among drivers to be able drive safely on the road.
Hou, Baoyue; Chen, Fei
In recent years, with the increase of intensity of coal mining, a great number of major accidents happen frequently, the reason mostly due to human factors, but human's unsafely behavior are affected by insecurity mental control. In order to reduce accidents, and to improve safety management, with the help of application security psychology, we analyse the cause of insecurity psychological factors from human perception, from personality development, from motivation incentive, from reward and punishment mechanism, and from security aspects of mental training , and put forward countermeasures to promote coal mine safety production,and to provide information for coal mining to improve the level of safety management.
Rosen, Brittany L.; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L.
Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional…
Pergamenshchik, L.A.; Furmanov, I.A.; Mejkshane, T.V.; Sazonov, S.S.
The modern social psychological situation in the Republic of Belarus is stipulated not only political and economic crisis, but also by occurring ecological and industrial accidents. Such processes are characteristic for many countries of the world. At the having suffered population a number of the common symptoms of social and psychological discomforts are observed. On a conference the following questions were discussed: theoretical problems of adaptation and social psychological rehabilitation of the having suffered population; an experience of psychological diagnostic researches in the contaminated zones; models of influence of low dozes of radiation on the children and adult psychics; an experience of researches of mental states in a post catastrophe period; sex and age feature of adaptation of the schoolboys to the stress factors; a technology of a psychological aid in a post catastrophe period; an experience of establishment and work of a consulting network of the psychological aid in the contaminated and clean regions; an experience of the individual and group psychological aid to the having suffered population; organisational problems of work of the psychological aid centres at children's gardens, schools, sanitation establishments; preparation of the experts for the psychological aid to the having suffered population
Full Text Available Studies of olfactory perception and about the way humans interact with, and perceive food and beverages require appropriate olfactory devices. Moreover, small size, and portable interfaces are needed within the context of Human Computer Interaction (HCI, to enrich and complete the design of different mediated experiences. In this paper, the authors tested a new portable olfactory device for the orthonasal administration of smells. The main aim was to verify if the experience generated by the odors delivered through such device can affect people's taste perception. Once established that people could perceive odors using the olfactory device, a group of participants was asked to taste two different types of food (Experiment 1 and three types of beverages (Experiment 2 and to evaluate them on a number of perceptual-dimensions (such as pleasantness, freshness, sweetness, saltiness, and bitterness. The participants could taste the food and the beverage without the presence of additional olfactory stimuli, or under conditions where olfactory stimuli (the smell of chocolate or citrus were also presented using the device. The results showed that the participants' evaluation of food and beverages was significantly modulated by the concurrently presented odors. The experimental results suggest that: (1 the device is effective in controlling the delivery of odors to human participants without the complexity of management that often affect larger odors delivery systems; (2 odors administered by means of such device can have an effects on food and beverage perception, without the need to change their chemical properties.
Alm, Ole; Witterseh, Thomas; Clausen, Geo
Human perception of simultaneous exposure to combinations of three different levels of operative temperature, low-frequency ventilation noise and indoor air pollution (27 combinations) was studied in climate chambers. The operative temperatures studied were: 26.0 deg.C, 27.6 deg.C and 29.6 deg.......C, and the sound pressure levels were: 45 dB(A), 48 dB(A) and 51 dB(A). The air pollution corresponding to these three levels of perceived air quality (at 26 deg.C) was: 1.1 decipol (dp), 2.4 dp and 4.5 dp. A 1 deg.C change in operative temperature had the same impact on the human perception of the overall...... conditions as a change of 3.8 dB(A) in sound pressure level or a change of 7 dp in air pollution (at 26 deg.C). The percentage of dissatisfied with the perceived air quality increased with increasing temperature. An elevated temperature had a dominant impact on the human perception of the indoor environment...
B. F. Skinner is perhaps 2nd only to Freud among the most publicly identifiable psychological figures of the last century. This article reviews the popular press coverage of Skinner between 1934 and 1990 to examine how radical behaviorism was interpreted, portrayed, and received by psychology's public. Reactions to Skinner were often skeptical or condemnatory. It is suggested that some members of the public had difficulty accepting his views because of the disparities between the philosophy of radical behaviorism and the phenomenology of everyday experience. Furthermore, Skinner's status as a psychological expert was inextricably linked to the public's perception of his credibility not only as a scientist but also as a human being.
Full Text Available This work points to the articulations between the fundamentals of cultural-historical psychology and the historical-critical pedagogy, in regard the issue of content that should compose the curriculum. The correct organization of the teaching process by the teacher, through scientific knowledge, as well as the appropriation of classic content, by students, promotes mental development to raise the development of higher psychological functions at their highest possibilities. Thus, we affirm the cultural-historical psychology and the historical-critical pedagogy align themselves both with regard to the Marxist perspective of socialist revolution, as in respect to concept of formation of individuality and the role of schooling in human emancipation.
Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan
The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…
Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.
Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's
Bagshaw, Andrew T M; Horwood, L John; Fergusson, David M; Gemmell, Neil J; Kennedy, Martin A
The genetic and environmental influences on human personality and behaviour are a complex matter of ongoing debate. Accumulating evidence indicates that short tandem repeats (STRs) in regulatory regions are good candidates to explain heritability not accessed by genome-wide association studies. We tested for associations between the genotypes of four selected repeats and 18 traits relating to personality, behaviour, cognitive ability and mental health in a well-studied longitudinal birth cohort (n = 458-589) using one way analysis of variance. The repeats were a highly conserved poly-AC microsatellite in the upstream promoter region of the T-box brain 1 (TBR1) gene and three previously studied STRs in the activating enhancer-binding protein 2-beta (AP2-β) and androgen receptor (AR) genes. Where significance was found we used multiple regression to assess the influence of confounding factors. Carriers of the shorter, most common, allele of the AR gene's GGN microsatellite polymorphism had fewer anxiety-related symptoms, which was consistent with previous studies, but in our study this was not significant following Bonferroni correction. No associations with two repeats in the AP2-β gene withstood this correction. A novel finding was that carriers of the minor allele of the TBR1 AC microsatellite were at higher risk of conduct problems in childhood at age 7-9 (p = 0.0007, which did pass Bonferroni correction). Including maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) in models controlling for potentially confounding influences showed that an interaction between TBR1 genotype and MSDP was a significant predictor of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence (p behaviour up to age 25 years (p ≤ 0.02). This interaction remained significant after controlling for possible confounders including maternal age at birth, socio-economic status and education, and offspring birth weight. The potential functional importance of the TBR1 gene's promoter microsatellite
Why have material world of daily life and material objects in their conventional features or to say it in other words, why have the mundane world and mundane objects, in which the human beings live and children come to, encounter, experience and develop through, received so little attention from psychologists thus remaining a blind spot in mainstream developmental psychology? Certainly the object has not been totally forgotten (e.g. Piaget's constructivist paradigm) but it has been considered as theoretically determined by the categories of understanding (cf. Kant), and considered as a key to understanding the world in its physical properties by the infant. But the material world and the material objects that are used for everyday purposes (i.e. pragmatically) belonging to material culture, have been totally neglected by developmental psychologists. Reacting to the Kantian agenda of developmental psychology but also to heterodox non developmentalist thinkers such as Gibson who is a growing source of inspiration for developmental psychologists today, we challenge the taken-for-granted mundane world, arguing for the importance of material objects related to material culture in psychological development during the prelinguistic period. On the basis of recent research in early development grounded in the Vygotskian paradigm, we discuss this issue through Marxist Anthropology, Material Culture Studies and Phenomenology. As a consequence we advocate for a material-cultural turn in psychological development in order to place the issue of material world and material objects in their pragmatic and semiotic features on the agenda of developmental psychology.
Shapiro, Raquel; Shapiro, Ronald G.
This workshop presents a collection of demonstrations of various psychological concepts. It provides a technique to increase people's interest in the field of psychology and to teach some basic principles about psychology for use on a daily basis. The workshop covers sensation; perception; learning; memory; responding; thinking; interference;…
Full Text Available Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC, a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, dorsal premotor cortex (PMd, primary motor cortex (M1 and the supplementary motor area (SMA, showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1 ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2 early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.
van Boxtel, Jeroen J A
It is not yet known whether attention and consciousness operate through similar or largely different mechanisms. Visual processing mechanisms are routinely characterized by measuring contrast response functions (CRFs). In this report, behavioral CRFs were obtained in humans (both males and females) by measuring afterimage durations over the entire range of inducer stimulus contrasts to reveal visual mechanisms behind attention and consciousness. Deviations relative to the standard CRF, i.e., gain functions, describe the strength of signal enhancement, which were assessed for both changes due to attentional task and conscious perception. It was found that attention displayed a response-gain function, whereas consciousness displayed a contrast-gain function. Through model comparisons, which only included contrast-gain modulations, both contrast-gain and response-gain effects can be explained with a two-level normalization model, in which consciousness affects only the first level and attention affects only the second level. These results demonstrate that attention and consciousness can effectively show different gain functions because they operate through different signal enhancement mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The relationship between attention and consciousness is still debated. Mapping contrast response functions (CRFs) has allowed (neuro)scientists to gain important insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of visual processing. Here, the influence of both attention and consciousness on these functions were measured and they displayed a strong dissociation. First, attention lowered CRFs, whereas consciousness raised them. Second, attention manifests itself as a response-gain function, whereas consciousness manifests itself as a contrast-gain function. Extensive model comparisons show that these results are best explained in a two-level normalization model in which consciousness affects only the first level, whereas attention affects only the second level
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Al-Jashamy, Karim; Chen, Robert
The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions and opinions of young women about human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and associated barriers. This qualitative in-depth interview study was conducted in January 2010 with 30 university students from different faculties, i.e.:International Medical School (IMS), Faculty of Health and Life Sciences (FHLS), Faculty of Business Management and Professional Studies (FBMP) and Faculty of Information Sciences and Engineering (FISE) of the Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam, Malaysia. After consent was obtained from all participants, the interviewer wrote down the conversations during the interview sessions. The data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually. The majority of participants 25 (83%) had heard about cervical cancer, while 16 (53.3%) have never heard of HPV. Only five participants (17%) mentioned that HPV is the cause of cervical cancer. Ten participants (33.3%) did not know any causes. The majority 16 (53.3%) did not know the mode of HPV transmission. The majority of participants 22 (73.3%) mentioned that they had not been vaccinated against HPV. Out of 22, 16 (53.3%) agreed to be vaccinated in the future to protect themselves from cervical cancer and five (17%) participants mentioned they are not willing because of the uncertain safety of the available vaccines and their side effects. This study showed relatively poor knowledge about HPV and its vaccines, pointing to urgency of educational campaigns aimed at students in the public and government universities to promote HPV vaccination among this highly eligible population.
Singhal, Anthony; Monaco, Simona; Kaufman, Liam D; Culham, Jody C
Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC) at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), primary motor cortex (M1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1) ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2) early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.
Wittmann, Marc; Carter, Olivia; Hasler, Felix; Cahn, B Rael; Grimberg, Ulrike; Spring, Philipp; Hell, Daniel; Flohr, Hans; Vollenweider, Franz X
Hallucinogenic psilocybin is known to alter the subjective experience of time. However, there is no study that systematically investigated objective measures of time perception under psilocybin. Therefore, we studied dose-dependent effects of the serotonin (5-HT)2A/1A receptor agonist psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) on temporal processing, employing tasks of temporal reproduction, sensorimotor synchronization and tapping tempo. To control for cognitive and subjective changes, we assessed spatial working memory and conscious experience. Twelve healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, medium (115 microg/kg), and high (250 microg/kg) dose conditions, in a double-blind experimental design. Psilocybin was found to significantly impair subjects' ability to (1) reproduce interval durations longer than 2.5 sec, (2) to synchronize to inter-beat intervals longer than 2 sec and (3) caused subjects to be slower in their preferred tapping rate. These objective effects on timing performance were accompanied by working-memory deficits and subjective changes in conscious state, namely increased reports of 'depersonalization' and 'derealization' phenomena including disturbances in subjective 'time sense.' Our study is the first to systematically assess the impact of psilocybin on timing performance on standardized measures of temporal processing. Results indicate that the serotonin system is selectively involved in duration processing of intervals longer than 2 to 3 seconds and in the voluntary control of the speed of movement. We speculate that psilocybin's selective disruption of longer intervals is likely to be a product of interactions with cognitive dimensions of temporal processing -presumably via 5-HT2A receptor stimulation.
Weiss, Thomas W; Zimet, Gregory D; Rosenthal, Susan L; Brenneman, Susan K; Klein, Jonathan D
We assessed U.S. physicians' attitudes and perceptions regarding potential human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of males. We surveyed a random sample of 2,714 pediatricians and family practitioners identified in administrative claims of a U.S. health plan as HPV vaccinators of females; 595 pediatricians and 499 family practitioners participated. Most physicians would recommend HPV vaccination to males aged 11-12 (63.9%), 13-18 (93.4%), and 19-26 (92.7%) years. Physicians agreed that males should be vaccinated to prevent them from getting genital and anal warts (52.9% strongly and 36.0% somewhat) and to protect females from cervical cancer (75.3% strongly and 20.8% somewhat). Physicians agreed that an HPV vaccine recommendation for males would increase opportunities to discuss sexual health with adolescent male patients (58.7% strongly, 35.3% somewhat). Most did not strongly agree (15.4% strongly, 45.4% somewhat) that parents of adolescent male patients would be interested in HPV vaccination for males, that a gender-neutral HPV vaccine recommendation would increase acceptance by adolescent females and their parents (19.6% strongly, 42.0% somewhat), or that a gender-neutral recommendation would improve current female vaccination rates (10.4% strongly, 26.0% somewhat). Physicians who currently vaccinate females against HPV supported the concept of vaccinating males for its benefits for both sexes. They agreed that a gender-neutral HPV vaccination recommendation would be appropriate with regard to public health and believed that it would increase opportunities for sexual health discussions, but were less sure that such a recommendation would change patient or parental attitudes toward HPV vaccination or improve current HPV vaccination efforts. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greffrath, Wolfgang; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef
For the neurophysiological examination of nociceptive pathways, contact-heat evoked potentials (contact-heat EPs) are elicited by repetitive brief noxious heat stimuli. Suppression of heat responses in primary nociceptive neurons during repetitive stimulation has been shown in animal models in vivo and in vitro. We now investigated whether heat pain and contact-heat EPs in humans display equivalent signs of habituation. Heat pain and EPs were elicited in 16 volunteers with a contact thermode (30 degrees Cs(-1)). Heat pulses at three intensities (pain threshold, moderate noxious and maximum available) were applied to the right forearm either by moving the thermode after each pulse to variable locations or when fixed to one location (inter-stimulus intervals 8-10s). Contact-heat EPs consisted of an early negativity in temporal leads (N1), followed by a biphasic response at the vertex (N2-P2). Pain ratings and contact-heat EPs (N1 and N2-P2 components) displayed significant temperature dependence. N2-P2 correlated positively with ratings. With stimulation at variable locations, both measures slowly decreased with time constants tau of 2 min (ratings) and 12 min (EPs). With stimulation at a fixed location, habituation was much faster for both, ratings (tau=10s) and EPs (tau=33 s). As a consequence, both measures were significantly reduced (pheat pain perception and contact-heat EPs display signs of rapid habituation when stimulation is restricted to a fixed location and thus, reflect fatigue of peripheral nociceptive neurons. Habituation within the central nervous system is slower and less pronounced.
Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA
Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.