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Sample records for psychology associate dean

  1. New Associate Dean of the Cheung Kong MBA Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Professor Teng Bingsheng has taken the helm of the Cheung Kong MBA program and the new part-time Finance MBA program as the newly appointed associate dean. The Finance MBA is due to commence with the first intake enrollment this October, while the full-time 12-month MBA program is currently in the process of being expanded to become a dual-campus program with modules in both Shanghai and Beijing.

  2. Knox named Phoenix associate dean of faculty affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix has announced the appointment of nationally recognized physician-scientist Kenneth S. Knox, MD, as the associate dean of faculty affairs. Dr. Knox who has been at the University of Arizona-Tucson since 2008, will oversee the Faculty Affairs Office whose charge is to promote an engaged, diverse community of faculty and scholars that sustain a culture of engagement, professionalism and inclusion. He also will serve as director of research at the Banner Lung Institute. Dr. Knox is a pulmonologist known for his research in sarcoidosis, fungal diagnostics and immunologic lung disease. His work includes developing treatments for HIV, AIDS and valley fever. The division chief of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine in Tucson, Knox was responsible for dramatic growth. His accomplishments include increasing the number of clinical and basic science faculty from five to 30 and fellowship trainings from six to 20, rekindling …

  3. Dynamics and Dilemmas of the Associate and Assistant Dean Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Shirley A.; Coudret, Nadine A.

    1986-01-01

    The need for and importance of effective leadership in nursing education mandates that individual and institutional efforts be committed to reducing role ambiguity, conflict, and overload in the position of assistant dean, whose role is subject to multiple demands and involved with multiple administrative subsystems. (Author/MSE)

  4. The Educational Dean: An Examination of Behaviors Associated with Special Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Richard I.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The role of the dean in directing a federally funded change project (Dean's Grant project) in schools of education is examined. Categories of specific behaviors of deans include: (1) choreographic behavior; (2) resource allocation; (3) conflict negotiation; (4) advocacy and support behavior; and (5) communication. (JN)

  5. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  7. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  8. Tacita Dean - Print Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibolt Knudsen, Vibeke

    Teksten beskæftiger sig primært med Tacita Deans grafiske værk. Den indkredser forholdet mellem billedets autonomi på den ene side og på den anden side Deans konstante kredsen om fortælling og erindring, fiktion og realitet - forhold, som udfoldes serielt nærmest som et filmisk story board. Hun f...

  9. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    With millions of copies sold, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology...

  10. Faculty application of the American Psychological Association style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Gwen Goetz

    2009-10-01

    This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. American Psychological Association: Annual Report, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the 2008 annual reports from the various directorates and offices of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 2008, APA continued to work on initiatives, programs, and products that lend value to the member's psychology career, support the future of their discipline, and serve the public. APA's goal is to strengthen…

  12. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  13. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  14. The Creative Path: An Interview with Dean Keith Simonton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2011-01-01

    Dean Keith Simonton received his PhD from Harvard University and is currently Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Davis. His research program concentrates on the cognitive, personality, developmental, and sociocultural factors behind exceptional creativity, leadership, genius, and talent. In this interview,…

  15. Affirmative Action: A Dean's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Max D.; Wadlow, Joan K.

    1982-01-01

    Offers practical suggestions as to how the academic dean in a college or university can provide opportunities to women and minority faculty, even given current fiscal conditions. Discusses: (1) the screening and search process; (2) strategies for recruiting faculty; (3) strategies for coping with retrenchment; and (4) other strategies which…

  16. The Asian American Psychological Association: Parallels and Intersections with Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…

  17. The Asian American Psychological Association: Parallels and Intersections with Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…

  18. Report from the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, L D

    1989-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the difficult circumstances that the American Psychological Association (APA) and the mental health community are facing during the 1980s. While a great deal has been learned about mental health issues of older persons and research has demonstrated that they can benefit by appropriate services, the majority of elders needing mental health services are still not receiving them. Service, research and policy issues of concern to APA are discussed and several positive APA activities are noted.

  19. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  20. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  1. 2010 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…

  2. 2010 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…

  3. Dean flow fractionation of chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockin, Matt; Sant, Himanshu J.; Capecchi, Mario; Gale, Bruce K.

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to transfer intact mammalian chromosomes between cells have been attempted for more than 50 years with the consistent result being transfer of sub unit length pieces regardless of method. Inertial microfluidics is a new field that has shown much promise in addressing the fractionation of particles in the 2-20 μm size range (with unknown limits) and separations are based upon particles being carried by curving confined flows (within a spiral shaped, often rectangular flow chamber) and migrating to stable "equilibrium" positions of varying distance from a chamber wall depending on the balance of dean and lift forces. We fabricated spiral channels for inertial microfluidic separations using a standard soft lithography process. The concentration of chromosomes, small contaminant DNA and large cell debris in each outlets were evaluated using microscope (60X) and a flow cytometer. Using Dean Flow Fractionation, we were able to focus 4.5 times more chromosomes in outlet 2 compared to outlet 4 where most of the large debris is found. We recover 16% of the chromosomes in outlet #1- 50% in 2, 23% in 3 and 11% in 4. It should be noted that these estimates of recovery do not capture one piece of information- it actually may be that the chromosomes at each outlet are physically different and work needs to be done to verify this potential.

  4. Leadership Styles of Community College Academic Deans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypawka, William; Mallett, William; McFadden, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The future of the community college system will depend on sound leadership, and its success will rely on how well academic deans effectively direct their units. The study investigated the dean's leadership styles using Bolman and Deal's Leadership Orientation Instrument to discover their primary leadership frame with a focus on how data may be…

  5. 2005 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2005. The examples provided in this report are a small sampling of all that APA is doing to advance the discipline of psychology in an ever-changing world.

  6. Board and Deans of Amsterdam University, Netherlands

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    L. to r.: Dr Thomas Taylor, CERN IT Deputy Division Leader; Prof. Dymph C. van den Boom, Dean Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Professor in Empirical Thoretical Pedagogy; Prof. Jos Engelen, NIKHEF/University of Amsterdam, Dutch Delegate to the Scientific Policy Committee and Chairman of the LHC Committee; Prof. Jacob van der Gaag, Dean Faculty of Economic Science and Econometry, Professor in Developmenteconomy;Mr Jan van der Boon, CERN Director of Admnistration; Prof. Jan Robert Bausch, Dean Faculty of Dental Medicine, Professor in general Dentistry; Dr Sijbolt J. Noorda, President of the Board of the University of Amsterdam.

  7. The West Dean Archaeological Project: research and teaching in the Sussex Downs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005/2006 West Dean College and the associated West Dean Estate in West Sussex have provided the home for practical training of Institute of Archaeology students, for both the initiation ritual of the Experimental Archaeology Course (“Prim Tech” and for the field training courses undertaken at the end of the first year. It is also the location of a long-term research project, aimed at understanding human occupation and land use in this part of the South Downs from prehistory to the present day. In this article the authors describe the first two years of activity of the West Dean Archaeological Project.

  8. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  9. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  10. Relationships between Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and Counseling Psychology: Three New Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…

  11. The response of South African professional psychology associations to apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, L J

    1990-01-01

    Professional psychology associations in South Africa have overtly and covertly furthered the aims of apartheid. Guidance about the ethical obligations of psychologists in the South African context has been singularly lacking, and as a result blacks have not been attracted to the profession of psychology in sufficient numbers to administer to psychological needs of the client population. The political dimension of psychological practice in South Africa needs to be addressed directly so that healing strategies relevant to the burgeoning racial conflict in South Africa can be implemented.

  12. Psychological work characteristics, psychological workload and associated psychological and cognitive requirements of train drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were specific to train drivers: high emotional and mental demands, small amount of autonomy and skill discretion. No evidence of a high emotional workload, a high mental workload or short-term stress reactivity was found. In general, the drivers' fatigue complaints and recovery needs after work were comparable to that of other workers. However, severe sleepiness and high need for recovery did affect a substantial proportion of train drivers. The ability to stay aware, to anticipate, to remain attentive and to cope with fatigue are psychological and cognitive skills that are required to adequately and safely perform the train drivers' job. Including these requirements in periodic assessments of train drivers is recommended. A systematic literature search was performed, aimed at assessing the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers. Based on this information and interviews with experts, a list of psychological and cognitive requirements that needed to perform the train drivers’ job adequately and safely was proposed.

  13. Personality characteristics associated with psychological reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, C A; Dowd, E T

    2001-07-01

    This study compared six different personality disorders on level of psychological reactance. Eighty clients met criteria for inclusion in one of six personality disorder groups, including passive-aggressive, dependent, personality disorder NOS (not otherwise specified), no personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline. Instruments included the Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS) and the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Psychological Reactance (QMPR). Four one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted on the scales and subscales of the two reactance measures. All four ANOVAs were significant, although post hoc tests indicated significant differences only among the more extreme groups. The personality disorders were generally ordered on reactance level according to predictions derived from the theory of separation-individuation. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Motivation and job satisfaction of deans of schools of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, M L

    1991-01-01

    Factors influencing the job satisfaction of deans of schools of nursing were analyzed using the motivational theory of expectancy. A questionnaire was sent to 595 deans/directors of baccalaureate and higher degree schools of nursing accredited by the National League for Nursing. The three part questionnaire consisted of (1) Demographic data, (2) Motivation and Reward Scales, and (3) The Job Description Index. Significant relationships were found within each job satisfaction variable (P less than or equal to .05). The most significant and numerous relationships were found within the variable of pay or salary. Deans who had long tenure in their administrative positions and were associated with large universities and schools of nursing were also found to be statistically significant (P less than or equal to .05). A direct relationship between the scores on the Motivation and Reward Scale and the scores on the Job Description Index was supported. The individual and collective facets of job satisfaction were positively and significantly correlated (P less than or equal to .05) with motivation, providing support for the theoretical framework that proposes an interdependent relationship. Additional findings from regression analyses suggested that motivation is a significant predictor of job satisfaction.

  15. Dean Instability in Double-Curved Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Debus, J -D; Herrmann, H J

    2014-01-01

    We study the Dean instability in curved channels using the lattice Boltzmann model for generalized metrics. For this purpose, we first improve and validate the method by measuring the critical Dean number at the transition from laminar to vortex flow for a streamwise curved rectangular channel, obtaining very good agreement with the literature values. Taking advantage of the easy implementation of arbitrary metrics within our model, we study the fluid flow through a double-curved channel, using ellipsoidal coordinates, and study the transition to vortex flow in dependence of the two perpendicular curvature radii of the channel. We observe not only transitions to 2-cell vortex flow, but also to 4-cell and even 6-cell vortex flow, and we find that the critical Dean number at the transition to 2-cell vortex flow exhibits a minimum when the two curvature radii are approximately equal.

  16. Delayed psychological morbidity associated with snakebite envenoming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehan S Williams

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The psychological impact of snakebite on its victims, especially possible late effects, has not been systematically studied.To assess delayed somatic symptoms, depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and impairment in functioning, among snakebite victims.The study had qualitative and quantitative arms. In the quantitative arm, 88 persons who had systemic envenoming following snakebite from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka were randomly identified from an established research database and interviewed 12 to 48 months (mean 30 after the incident. Persons with no history of snakebite, matched for age, sex, geograpical location and occupation, acted as controls. A modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory, Post-Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale, Hopkins Somatic Symptoms Checklist, Sheehan Disability Inventory and a structured questionnaire were administered. In the qualitative arm, focus group discussions among snakebite victims explored common somatic symptoms attributed to envenoming.Previous snakebite victims (cases had more symptoms than controls as measured by the modified Beck Depression Scale (mean 19.1 Vs 14.4; p<0.001 and Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (38.9 vs. 28.2; p<0.001. 48 (54% cases met criteria for depressive disorder compared to 13 (15% controls. 19 (21.6% cases also met criteria for PTSD. 24 (27% claimed that the snakebite caused a negative change in their employment; nine (10.2% had stopped working and 15 (17% claimed residual physical disability. The themes identified in the qualitative arm included blindness, tooth decay, body aches, headaches, tiredness and weakness.Snakebite causes significant ongoing psychological morbidity, a complication not previously documented. The economic and social impacts of this problem need further investigation.

  17. Gender Differences in Resilience of Academic Deans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the difference in the levels of resilience characteristics between male and female deans within a state university system. Resilience is the ability to operate in a changing environment while consistently maintaining one's effectiveness. This quantitative study utilized the survey, Personal…

  18. Business School Deans on Student Academic Dishonesty: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bob S.; Weible, Rick J.; Olmosk, Kurt E.

    2010-01-01

    While students and, to a lesser extent, faculty have been surveyed about the student academic dishonesty issue, deans have been virtually ignored. This paper reports the results of an online survey of business school deans on the issue. Deans' perceptions of the level of student academic dishonesty in their schools were much lower than the levels…

  19. Business School Deans on Student Academic Dishonesty: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bob S.; Weible, Rick J.; Olmosk, Kurt E.

    2010-01-01

    While students and, to a lesser extent, faculty have been surveyed about the student academic dishonesty issue, deans have been virtually ignored. This paper reports the results of an online survey of business school deans on the issue. Deans' perceptions of the level of student academic dishonesty in their schools were much lower than the levels…

  20. Association of Sexual Revictimization with Sexuality and Psychological Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H.; Flitter, Jill M. Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice E.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In…

  1. Past and future American Psychological Association guidelines for statistical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finch, S; Thomason, N; Cumming, G

    2002-01-01

    We review the publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) since 1929 and document their advice for authors about statistical practice. Although the advice has been extended with each revision of the guidelines, it has largely focused on null hypothesis significance testing

  2. The American Psychological Association and detainee interrogations: unanswered questions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutheil, Thomas G; Pope, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    ... on psychologists rather than psychiatrists fits well with the American Psychological Association's stated belief in contributing to detainee interrogations to prevent terrorism. As the New York Times reported: Pentagon officials said ... they would try to use only psychologists, not psychiatrists, to help interrogators devise strategies to get informati...

  3. Past and future American Psychological Association guidelines for statistical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finch, S; Thomason, N; Cumming, G

    2002-01-01

    We review the publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) since 1929 and document their advice for authors about statistical practice. Although the advice has been extended with each revision of the guidelines, it has largely focused on null hypothesis significance testing

  4. Proceedings, Dean's Day 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanner, M.A.

    1999-03-01

    On January 14--15, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored Deans Day, a conference for the Deans of Engineering and other executive-level representatives from 29 invited universities. Through breakout sessions and a wrap-up discussion, university and Sandia participants identified activities to further develop their strategic relationships. The four primary activities are: (A) concentrate joint efforts on current and future research strengths and needs; (B) attract the best students (at all grade levels) to science and engineering; (C) promote awareness of the need for and work together to influence a national science and technology R and D policy; and (D) enable the universities and Sandia to be true allies, jointly pursuing research opportunities and funding from government agencies and industry.

  5. An Interview with Dean Howard Frank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Howard Frank was appointed dean of the University of Maryland's Robert H. Smith School of Business in 1997. He is widely recognized as a world-class information technology expert whose accomplishments include fundamental contributions to the development of the Intemet. Frank is also a prolific author, having written over 190 articles and chapters in books on technology and the management of technology. CIB had an intensive interview with him in Shanghai recently.

  6. [Psychological well-being and adolescence: associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pontes, Lívia Malta; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960) of adolescents (15-18 years). Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families with better economic status and higher maternal schooling. Adolescents who practiced a religion, did not smoke or consume alcohol, and wished to lose weight showed a higher level of psychological well-being, suggesting an interrelationship between health behaviors.

  7. The National Latina/o Psychological Association: Like a Phoenix Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Illes, Roseanne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the re-founding of the National Hispanic Psychological Association into the National Latina/o Psychological Association. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the National…

  8. The National Latina/o Psychological Association: Like a Phoenix Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Illes, Roseanne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the re-founding of the National Hispanic Psychological Association into the National Latina/o Psychological Association. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the National…

  9. 2012 Annual report of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Provides the 2012 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In 2012, APA celebrated its 120th anniversary. It has grown from its original 31 members to the largest association of psychologists in the United States and a worldwide leader within the discipline. This edition of the report introduces each directorate and office within APA and talks about their goals and objectives. the president of APA, Dr. Norman Anderson, also gives a brief report which updates you on the activities of the association during its 120th anniversary as the professional home for psychologists and an advocate for the discipline. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 12 April). ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognition, He

  12. Bringing Psychological Science to the Forefront of Educational Policy: Collaborative Efforts of the American Psychological Association's Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Stephen A.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Bassford, Maya; Smulson, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The following article details the work of the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education (CPSE). First, a brief history of the background and creation of the coalition is described. The article then details the projects, completed and ongoing, of the CPSE. Those projects include a Teacher…

  13. Characteristics of American Psychological Association Division 40 (clinical neuropsychology) Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Greene, Doug; Collins, K C

    2011-11-01

    Fellow status is an honor bestowed on American Psychological Association (APA) members who have made unusual and outstanding contributions to the field of psychology that have had a national impact. Thus far no studies have examined the characteristics of the individuals who have received this honor. This study examined publicly available data for 157 Division 40 Fellows. Fellows comprise 3.7% of the 4273 members of the division compared to 5.7% of the entire APA membership. Fellows are predominantly male (73%). All but two fellows had earned a Ph.D. with the average time since granting of the doctoral degree of 17.1 ± 6 years (median=16 years) with a range of 7-40 years post-degree. Slightly over half of the fellows hold board certification (53%) in the American Board of Professional Psychology. The largest group of fellows reports their primary employment currently as a university-affiliated medical setting (48%). These data serve to characterize current Division 40 Fellows for the field of neuropsychology and may provide useful information to assist prospective fellow applicants.

  14. Graduate Deans and Graduate Education: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David M.; Bowker, Lee H.

    The responsibility for graduate education and the power and authority structure among graduate deans, college or school deans, departments, and faculty were studied using a sample of 338 schools. Attention was directed to the following concerns: institutional characteristics that are related to the organization and administration of graduate…

  15. The Way Deans Run Their Faculties in Indonesian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Jenny; de Boer, Harry; Enders, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    Using the theory of reasoned action in combination with the Competing Values Framework of organizational leadership, our study examines how deans at Indonesian universities lead and manage their faculties. Based on a large-scale survey with responses from more than 200 Indonesian deans, the study empirically identifies a number of deanship styles:…

  16. The Way Deans Run Their Faculties in Indonesian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Jenny; de Boer, Harry; Enders, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    Using the theory of reasoned action in combination with the Competing Values Framework of organizational leadership, our study examines how deans at Indonesian universities lead and manage their faculties. Based on a large-scale survey with responses from more than 200 Indonesian deans, the study empirically identifies a number of deanship styles:…

  17. The Educational Crisis in the Preparation of Deans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armiger, Sister Bernadette

    1976-01-01

    Changes in the administrative roles of deans in baccalaureate nursing programs are discussed. These changes require a systematic preservice and inservice education to prepare deans of nursing for more effective practice. Some programs directed towards meeting this need are described briefly. (Author/EC)

  18. The theory of "liberal education for civic" by Everett Dean Martin

    OpenAIRE

    山田, まなみ

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine a theory of "liberal education for civic" by Everett Dean Martin (1880-1941). His ideas influenced the adult education concept of American Association for Adult Education which is the first national association of adult education in the United States. His concept of "liberal education for civic" intends to make people to acquire liberal mind and citizenship. This aproach is reflected the problems of the United States' community in early 20th century.

  19. Association of Personality Traits with Psychological Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Distress: A Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to find the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress

  20. What Every Department Chair Should Know about the Dean: Findings from Four National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Lee H.; Lynch, David M.

    Information about deans that may be helpful to department chairs is presented, based on the findings of four national surveys of deans. The surveys of social science, graduate, continuing education, and arts and sciences deans covered the deans' role in resource allocation to departments, teaching and research support for faculty, tenure and…

  1. Improving Informational Resources for Academic Deans and Chairpersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; England, Marijane E.

    1994-01-01

    Literature about the roles of college deans and department heads is reviewed, issues confronting these administrators are discussed, and their information needs are examined. A guide to the categories, types, and sources of useful information is provided. (MSE)

  2. Improving Informational Resources for Academic Deans and Chairpersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; England, Marijane E.

    1994-01-01

    Literature about the roles of college deans and department heads is reviewed, issues confronting these administrators are discussed, and their information needs are examined. A guide to the categories, types, and sources of useful information is provided. (MSE)

  3. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaygan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of

  4. Conference of the European Association of Psychology and Law (EAPL)

    OpenAIRE

    Dozortseva E.G.

    2014-01-01

    EAPL conference is held in Russia for the first time. The theme for 2014 is "Actual Problems of Legal Psychology. Victims and witnesses: from research to effective practice". Psychological characteristics of testimony, in particular, children's testimony, the possibility of recognition of lies and errors in the readings were in the focus of researchers at the dawn of the development of Legal Psychology as a science and remain relevant to this day. Currently in Russia, these topics are of part...

  5. Associations between psychological variables and pain in experimental pain models. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M S; Horjales-Araujo, E; Dahl, J B

    2015-10-01

    The association between pain and psychological characteristics has been widely debated. Thus, it remains unclear whether an individual's psychological profile influences a particular pain experience, or if previous pain experience contributes to a certain psychological profile. Translational studies performed in healthy volunteers may provide knowledge concerning psychological factors in healthy individuals as well as basic pain physiology. The aim of this review was to investigate whether psychological vulnerability or specific psychological variables in healthy volunteers are predictive of the level of pain following experimental pain models. A systematic search on the databases, PubMed, Embase, Cochcrane library, and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed during September 2014. All trials investigating the association between psychological variables and experimental pain in healthy volunteers were considered for inclusion. Twenty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 2637 healthy volunteers. The included trials investigated a total of 45 different psychological tests and 27 different types of pain models. The retrieved trials did not present a sufficiently homogenous group to perform meta-analysis. The collected results were diverse. A total of 16 trials suggested that psychological factors may predict the level of pain, seven studies found divergent results, and six studies found no significant association between psychological variables and experimental pain. Psychological factors may have predictive value when investigating experimental pain. However, due to substantial heterogeneity and methodological shortcomings of the published literature, firm conclusions are not possible. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygan, Maryam; Böger, Andreas; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. Methods Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms). Results ANOVA (analysis of variance) results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors. Conclusion Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. The findings are discussed in term of differential response bias in patients with versus without verified neuropathic sensory symptoms by clinical examination, medical tests, or underlying pathology of

  7. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  8. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  9. Psychological workload is associated with weight gain between 1993 and 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gamborg, M; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence...... who attained influence in job over the 6-y period. CONCLUSION: : Psychological workload, particularly both low and high busyness in job and low influence in job, was associated with higher 6-y weight gain among female Danish nurses....

  10. Psychological consequences of lymphoedema associated with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Olsen, Maja Halgren; Zinckernagel, Line

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective cohort study of women attending a rehabilitation course at the Dallund Rehabilitation Centre was to explore the emotional and psychological aspects of living with lymphoedema, expressed as psychological distress, poorer quality of life and poorer self...

  11. Racial and Ethnic Minority College Students' Stigma Associated with Seeking Psychological Help: Examining Psychocultural Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…

  12. Psychological disorders associated with rosacea: Analysis of unscripted comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah A. Cardwell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conditions affecting the face are particularly prone to causing psychological comorbidity; patients may be reluctant to inform their physician about their psychological distress. Unscripted comments could provide novel insight regarding the psychological impact of rosacea. Aim: To assess psychologically distressing aspects of rosacea reported in an informal medical setting. Methods: Random sample of 10% of 27,051 posts analyzed, 446 comments addressed psychological effects of rosacea. Comments analyzed for symptoms of depression, anxiety, low confidence/self-esteem, and aspects of rosacea which cause distress, including symptoms, lifestyle change and difficulty with treatments. Brand names were changed to generic equivalent. Results: Symptoms of depression (n = 44 and the desire to end life (n = 6 were mentioned, but no comments expounded on any suicide plan. Anxiousness (n = 7 and negative impact on confidence/self-esteem (n = 5 were mentioned. Symptoms, or clinical manifestations (n = 29, were the most frequently mentioned distress factor, followed by lifestyle change (n = 20. Patients also voiced difficulty with treatments (n = 15. Limitations: Online forums may provide patient perceptions that patients would not share with a doctor, but the sample may not be representative of all rosacea patients. Conclusions: Inquiring about psychological impact of rosacea might be helpful in identifying patients who would benefit from supportive psychological measures.

  13. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.

  14. Self-reported leadership styles of deans of baccalaureate and higher degree nursing programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a lack of attention in the discipline paid to developing strong academic leaders. It is widely acknowledged that the role of the dean has shifted dramatically over the past two decades, with an increasing emphasis on interaction with and accountability to external constituencies at the university, community, and national levels. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the self-reported leadership styles, behaviors, and experiences of deans of schools of nursing in the United States. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was sent to 655 deans who were members of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing; 344 returned completed surveys for a return rate of 52.5%. Scores on the transformational scale (n = 321; 20 items) ranged from 2.75 to 4.0, with a mean of 3.79; transactional scores ranged from 1.3 to 4.0, with a mean of 3.3 and mode of 3.5. The passive leadership component was lowest, with a range of 0 to 3.75, mean of 1.1, and mode of 1.0. The highest scores for each dean were then examined and compared across the three components. Seventy-seven percent of the deans' highest scores fell on the transformational, 21% on the transactional, and 2% on the passive-avoidant scale. There were no significant differences in the most commonly reported leadership behaviors by gender, ethnicity, or terminal degree. Deans of nursing, compared with over 3,000 other leaders who have completed the MLQ, ranked in the 80th percentile for self-reported transformative behaviors and outcomes effectiveness. The findings from this sample, who were predominantly female, are congruent with previous research on women leaders. Recommendations for future research leadership development programs are presented.

  15. Associations between psychological variables and pain in experimental pain models. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M S; Horjales-Araujo, E; Dahl, J B

    2015-01-01

    . Translational studies performed in healthy volunteers may provide knowledge concerning psychological factors in healthy individuals as well as basic pain physiology. The aim of this review was to investigate whether psychological vulnerability or specific psychological variables in healthy volunteers...... are predictive of the level of pain following experimental pain models. METHODS: A systematic search on the databases, PubMed, Embase, Cochcrane library, and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed during September 2014. All trials investigating the association between psychological variables and experimental pain...... a sufficiently homogenous group to perform meta-analysis. The collected results were diverse. A total of 16 trials suggested that psychological factors may predict the level of pain, seven studies found divergent results, and six studies found no significant association between psychological variables...

  16. Resilience is associated with low psychological distress in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaohong; Gao, Qingling; Li, Guopeng; Zou, Guiyuan; Liu, Chunqin; Kong, Linghua; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation (RT) is a significant life event; its subsequent challenges often lead to psychological distress, which substantially lowers patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to screen psychological distress and examine the relationships between resilience and psychological distress in RT recipients. Participants were 139 RT recipients from the RT follow-up clinic and ward in the departments of nephrology of three general hospitals in Jinan, China. They were assessed using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between resilience and psychological distress after adjusting for perceived social support. Fifty-nine (42.4%) RT recipients were considered as experiencing "psychological distress" (K10 score ≥ 22). Resilience was associated with psychological distress after controlling for perceived social support and sociodemographic variables: a one-point increase in resilience decreased the likelihood of having possible psychological distress (odds ratio=0.945, 95% confidence interval=0.914-0.976, Presilience was significantly associated with low psychological distress in RT recipients. Psychosocial interventions focused on resilience might provide useful approaches to overcome psychological distress in RT recipients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Association Between Psychological Distress and Decision Regret During Armed Conflict Among Hospital Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Bibi, Haim

    2016-09-01

    The association between psychological distress and decision regret during armed conflict among hospital personnel is of interest. The objective of this study was to learn of the association between psychological distress and decision regret during armed conflict. Data was collected from 178 hospital personnel in Barzilai Medical Center in Ashkelon, Israel during Operation Protective Edge. The survey was based on intranet data collection about: demographics, self-rated health, life satisfaction, psychological distress and decision regret. Among hospital personnel, having higher psychological distress and being young were associated with higher decision regret. This study adds to the existing knowledge by providing novel data about the association between psychological distress and decision regret among hospital personnel during armed conflict. This data opens a new venue of future research to other potentially detrimental factor on medical decision making and medical error done during crisis.

  18. Psychological Resources Are Independently Associated with Markers of Inflammation in a Middle-Aged Community Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Marteinsdottir, Ina; Ernerudh, Jan; Jonasson, Lena; Kristenson, Margareta; Garvin, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate possible independent associations of psychological resources with inflammatory markers, all linked with coronary heart disease (CHD). Method In a middle-aged general population (n = 944), psychological resources (coping, self-esteem, and sense of coherence (SOC)), a global measure of quality of life (Cantrils self-anchoring ladder, also called "ladder of life"), and psychological risk factors (hopelessness, vital exhaustion, and depressive symptoms) were used in linear re...

  19. Adult Son-Parent Relationships and Their Associations with Sons' Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Rosalind C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between quality of adult sons' experiences in current relationships with parents and sons' psychological distress among 285 sons. Sons who reported positive relationship with their mother or father also reported low psychological distress. Presence or absence of female siblings moderated association between both son-mother…

  20. Effects of an Interteaching Probe on Learning and Generalization of American Psychological Association (APA) Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Jonathan M.; Faas, Caitlin

    2017-01-01

    This study implemented the components of interteaching as a probe to teach American Psychological Association (APA) Style to undergraduate university students in a psychology research methods and statistics course. The interteaching method was compared to the traditional lecture-based approach between two sections of the course with the same…

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ELECTRONIC DEAN'S OFFICE USING PLATFORM MOODLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr A. Shcherbyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of information and communication technologies (ICT allows to more effectively and efficiently solve planning and organization tasks, as well as implementation and monitoring of educational process, which are usually handled by the dean's office. The article shows how the functions of electronic dean's office can be implemented in Moodle learning management system using public plugins. In particular, the methods for collection, processing and generalization of operational information about students’ performance are considered. A method of students’ enrollment is offered. The method uses the meta courses and cohorts mechanisms, which allow significantly reduce the amount of work for site administration.

  2. Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2011-08-01

    To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

  3. A systematic review of the psychological factors associated with returning to sport following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E

    2013-11-01

    Psychological factors have been shown to be associated with the recovery and rehabilitation period following sports injury, but less is known about the psychological response associated with returning to sport after injury. The aim of this review was to identify psychological factors associated with returning to sport following sports injury evaluated with the self-determination theory framework. Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from the earliest possible entry to March 2012. Quantitative studies were reviewed that included athletes who had sustained an athletic injury, reported the return to sport rate and measured at least one psychological variable. The risk of bias in each study was appraised with a quality checklist. Eleven studies that evaluated 983 athletes and 15 psychological factors were included for review. The three central elements of self-determination theory-autonomy, competence and relatedness were found to be related to returning to sport following injury. Positive psychological responses including motivation, confidence and low fear were associated with a greater likelihood of returning to the preinjury level of participation and returning to sport more quickly. Fear was a prominent emotional response at the time of returning to sport despite the fact that overall emotions became more positive as recovery and rehabilitation progressed. There is preliminary evidence that positive psychological responses are associated with a higher rate of returning to sport following athletic injury, and should be taken into account by clinicians during rehabilitation.

  4. Do motivations for using Facebook moderate the association between Facebook use and psychological well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R; Lonborg, Susan D

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users' motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.

  5. Do Motivations for Using Facebook Moderate the Association Between Facebook Use and Psychological Well-Being?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eRae

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g. time spent online and underlying motivations (e.g. making new friends of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users’ motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N=119, we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed for connection purposes (e.g. making new friends. We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g. anxiety and life satisfaction. The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.

  6. Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  7. Suicide among psychologists and a proposal for the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1989-02-01

    The response of the American Medical Association and of the American Psychiatric Association to suicide among their members is contrasted with the response of the American Psychological Association. It is suggested that an association should be concerned with suicide among its members and two proposals are suggested.

  8. Psychological factors are associated with subjective cognitive complaints 2 months post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsse, Britta; van Heugten, Caroline M; van Mierlo, Marloes L; Post, Marcel W M; de Kort, Paul L M; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which psychological factors are related to post-stroke subjective cognitive complaints, taking into account the influence of demographic and stroke-related characteristics, cognitive deficits and emotional problems. In this cross-sectional study, 350 patients were assessed at 2 months post-stroke, using the Checklist for Cognitive and Emotional consequences following stroke (CLCE-24) to identify cognitive complaints. Psychological factors were: proactive coping, passive coping, self-efficacy, optimism, pessimism, extraversion, and neuroticism. Associations between CLCE-24 cognition score and psychological factors, emotional problems (depressive symptoms and anxiety), cognitive deficits, and demographic and stroke characteristics were examined using Spearman correlations and multiple regression analyses. Results showed that 2 months post-stroke, 270 patients (68.4%) reported at least one cognitive complaint. Age, sex, presence of recurrent stroke(s), comorbidity, cognitive deficits, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and all psychological factors were significantly associated with the CLCE-24 cognition score in bivariate analyses. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychological factors explained 34.7% of the variance of cognitive complaints independently, and 8.5% (p psychological factors, proactive coping was independently associated with cognitive complaints (p cognitive complaints. Because cognitive complaints are common after stroke and are associated with psychological factors, it is important to focus on these factors in rehabilitation programmes.

  9. "Monsters'" Ink: How Walter Dean Myers Made "Frankenstein" Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Describes an effective but new twist on the use of young adult books as bridges to the classics. Considers how "Frankenstein" is a novel written for today. Aims for his students to see that literature can be a way to discuss important issues. Discusses how to bridge Walter Dean Myers' novel "Monster" to "Frankenstein." (SG)

  10. "Monsters'" Ink: How Walter Dean Myers Made "Frankenstein" Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Describes an effective but new twist on the use of young adult books as bridges to the classics. Considers how "Frankenstein" is a novel written for today. Aims for his students to see that literature can be a way to discuss important issues. Discusses how to bridge Walter Dean Myers' novel "Monster" to…

  11. Deans in German Universities: Goal Acceptance and Task Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholkmann, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study which explored how deans at German universities accept their new role as manager, and which factors influence the acceptance of this role. Within a framework referring to Locke and Latham's goal setting theory, the acceptance of operative goals implemented in the faculties served as an indicator of how well…

  12. The afterlife for retiring deans and other senior medical administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Richard L

    2008-11-01

    Career options for individuals leaving the administrative role as dean of a school of medicine or other senior administrative positions are considered. Options discussed include retirement and a variety of other positions both within schools of medicines and in other venues. Many opportunities exist for a challenging and fulfilling career path after leaving the role as a senior administrator in an academic medical center.

  13. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and negat......The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....

  14. Ethical principles of the American Psychological Association: an argument for philosophical and practical ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David Cruise

    1999-01-01

    Unlike the American Psychological Association (APA), the Canadian Psychological Association has adopted a code of ethics in which principles are organized in order of importance. The validity of this hierarchical organization has received some empirical and theoretical support. We conducted a theoretical analysis that revealed conceptual justification for a ranking of the 6 principles in the APA code. Such a ranking could assist psychologists in making more informed and consistent moral choices when confronted with ethical dilemmas that involve conflicts among principles.

  15. The Importance of Relationships in Deans' Perceptions of Fit: A Person-Environment Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.; Gmelch, Walter H.

    The perceptions of academic deans of environmental factors that predict their perceived fit at their institutions were studied. The dependent variable was the deans' level of agreement with the statement that the university was a good place to work, a statement operationalized as an indicator of perceived fit. Data were collected from 821 deans as…

  16. Distinguishing Mediational Models and Analyses in Clinical Psychology: Atemporal Associations Do Not Imply Causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, E Samuel; Cervone, Daniel; Bryant, Jessica; McKinney, Cliff; Liu, Richard T; Nadorff, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    A popular way to attempt to discern causality in clinical psychology is through mediation analysis. However, mediation analysis is sometimes applied to research questions in clinical psychology when inferring causality is impossible. This practice may soon increase with new, readily available, and easy-to-use statistical advances. Thus, we here provide a heuristic to remind clinical psychological scientists of the assumptions of mediation analyses. We describe recent statistical advances and unpack assumptions of causality in mediation, underscoring the importance of time in understanding mediational hypotheses and analyses in clinical psychology. Example analyses demonstrate that statistical mediation can occur despite theoretical mediation being improbable. We propose a delineation of mediational effects derived from cross-sectional designs into the terms temporal and atemporal associations to emphasize time in conceptualizing process models in clinical psychology. The general implications for mediational hypotheses and the temporal frameworks from within which they may be drawn are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Association between psychological distress and a sense of contribution to society in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozaki Kenichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, mental health promotion related to psychological distress in the workplace has become a great concern, and a focus of much research attention. However, a sense of contribution to society and sense of bonding with the workplace have not been examined in relation to psychological distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether these two factors are associated with psychological distress. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1137 full-time employees who worked in systems engineering, sales, or administration at a Japanese company. Participant's sense of contribution to society, sense of bonding with the workplace, psychological distress, and qualitative job stress (quantitative and qualitative workloads, job-control latitude, and support from supervisors, co-workers and family were assessed with a questionnaire. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine associations between psychological distress and sense of contribution to society and of bonding with the workplace. Results A high sense of contribution to society was significantly associated with a high sense of bonding with the workplace (Spearman's ρ = 0.47, p Conclusions Psychological distress in the workplace was associated with sense of contribution to society. Therefore, workplace mental health promotion should consider the workers' sense of contribution to society.

  18. Association of Sexual Intercourse with Psychological Suppression and Copying Modes for Vocational School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li WANG; Xiao-jin WANG; Xiao-wen TU; Chao-hua LOU; Er-sheng GAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of sex behavior with sexual related psychological suppression and coping modes among students in three vocational schools in Shanghai.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1368 grade one students from three vocational schools in a district of Shanghai,with Computer Assisted Self-Interview(CASI).The field work began in the April,2003 for a baseline survey,and completed in the December,2003.Data on students'sexual intercourse,sexual related psychological suppression and psychological coping modes,and communication with parents were collected and analyzed.Binary logistic regression was used to adjust the potential confounding factors.Results After controlling for demographic factors,adolescents with middle or high scores of active psychological coping strategies on sexual related events were less likely to have sexual intercourse(ORadj=0.48,95% CI=0.30-0.77 and ORadj=0.49,95%CI=0.30-0.83,respectively),while association between psychological suppression on sex related events and sexual intercourse was not statistically significant(ORadj=0.93,95%CI=0.63-1.37);sexual related psychological suppression and active coping modes were positively associated with adolescents'communicating with parents for 2-7 h/week about school things.but negatively associated with parents'open attitudes towards heterosexual contacts and talking sex related things with others.Conclusion Vocational school students with active psychological coping strategies on sexual related events were less likely to engage in sexual intercourse,so interventions focus on reducing unprotected sexual behaviors should target on psychological coping modes skills training.

  19. Association and Correlation between Temporomandibular Disorders and Psychological Factors in a Group of Dental Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Sood; Arun V Subramaniam; Tulsi Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels) in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated usi...

  20. Socio-demographic factors, behaviour and personality: associations with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Suzanne Helen; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Passey, Megan; Lyle, David; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Harris, Mark Ford

    2012-04-01

    Anxiety, psychological distress and personality may not be independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however they may contribute via their relationship with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. This study aimed to examine the association between psychological distress, risk behaviours and patient demographic characteristics in a sample of general practice patients aged 40-65 years with at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cross-sectional analytic study. Patients, randomly selected from general practice records, completed a questionnaire about their behavioural risk factors and psychological health as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial of a general practice based intervention to prevent chronic vascular disease. The Kessler Psychological Distress Score (K10) was the main outcome measure for the multilevel, multivariate analysis. Single-level bi-variate analysis demonstrated a significant association between higher K10 and middle age (p = 0.001), high neuroticism (p = 0), current smoking (p = 0), physical inactivity (p = 0.003) and low fruit and vegetable consumption (p = 0.008). Socioeconomic (SES) indicators of deprivation (employment and accommodation status) were also significantly associated with higher K10 (p = 0). No individual behavioural risk factor was associated with K10 on multilevel multivariate analysis; however indicators of low SES remained significant (p factors were considered, psychological distress was not associated with behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Other underlying factors, such as personality type and socioeconomic status, may be associated with both the behaviours and the distress.

  1. Depression and anxiety following psychosis: associations with mindfulness and psychological flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ross G; Gumley, Andrew I; McTaggart, Jacqueline; Rattrie, Lucy; McConville, Deirdre; Cleare, Seonaid; Mitchell, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Individuals experiencing psychosis can present with elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Research suggests that aspects of depression and anxiety may serve an avoidant function by limiting the processing of more distressing material. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy suggests that avoidance of aversive mental experiences contributes to psychological inflexibility. Depression and anxiety occurring in the context of psychosis have a limiting effect on quality of life. No research to date has investigated how levels of psychological flexibility and mindfulness are associated with depression and anxiety occurring following psychosis. This study investigated associations psychological flexibility and mindfulness had with depression and anxiety following psychosis. Thirty participants with psychosis were recruited by consecutive referral on the basis that they were experiencing emotional dysfunction following psychosis. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS) were used. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. The depression and anxiety subscales of the HADS both had significant correlations with psychological flexibility (as assessed by the AAQ-II) and aspects of mindfulness (as assessed by the KIMS). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that psychological flexibility, but not mindfulness, contributed significantly to models predicting 46% of variance in both depression and anxiety scores. Although aspects of mindfulness are associated with depression and anxiety following an episode of psychosis, psychological flexibility appears to account for a larger proportion of variance in depression and anxiety scores in this population.

  2. Association between Physical Activity and Perceived Psychological Stress in Adults in Bucaramanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Camila Ramírez Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased stress levels became a problem for the general population’s health. Research studies show that individuals engaging regular physical activity have a decreased percep­tion of psychological stress. The relationship between physical activity and perceived psychological stress has been suggested to vary across domains of physical activity and across population groups. Objective: To establish the association between physical activity and perceived psychological stress in adults living in neighborhoods of the 2nd and 3rd socio-economic strata of Bucaramanga. Materials and methods: This observational analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in a population of 502 adult residents in the city of Bucaramanga. Individuals were interviewed to obtain information about physical activity and their level of perceived psychological stress. Data analysis will account for socio-demographic and behavior patterns using linear regression models, and it was performed in stata® 11.0. Results: Meeting the physical activity recommendations was associated with a decrease in psychological stress levels in study participants (β = -1,90 IC 95 % -3,73 a -0,06; P = 0,043. Conclusions: Complying with the recommendations of physical activity was associated with a decrease in the psychological stress level in the participants, who had an average -1.9 points lower PSS score than those who do not comply.

  3. Leadership styles of business school deans and their perceived effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Ahlam Ali

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of philosophy and awarded by Brunel University Leadership as a concept has been an area of significance for several decades. While the contribution of research to leadership concept in the industry has been substantial the same cannot be claimed with regard to the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). There is a paucity of research studies in the context of HEIs, particularly in regard to business schools. Deans of business schools were...

  4. Officers, Boards, Committees, and Representatives of the American Psychological Association, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Council of Representatives is composed of the Board of Directors, the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) representative, division representatives, and state, provincial, and territorial association representatives. Then representatives for the current year, with terms of office, are listed in this article.

  5. Betrayal Trauma: Associations with Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma, or trauma perpetrated by someone with whom a victim is close, is strongly associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, few studies have examined associations between different forms of trauma and emotional and physical symptoms. The present study compared betrayal trauma to other forms…

  6. Different Approaches to Teaching the Mechanics of American Psychological Association Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Timothy M.; Spitzer, Tam M.

    2006-01-01

    Students have to learn two distinctly different tasks when writing research papers: a) creating and organizing prose, and b) formatting a manuscript according to the nuances and mechanics of a pre-determined format, such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Two studies examined different…

  7. Betrayal Trauma: Associations with Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma, or trauma perpetrated by someone with whom a victim is close, is strongly associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, few studies have examined associations between different forms of trauma and emotional and physical symptoms. The present study compared betrayal trauma to other forms…

  8. The association between maternal psychological stress and inflammatory cytokines in allergic young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Tsuji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have shown that psychological stress is linked to asthma prevalence. Parental psychological stress may potentially influence inflammatory responses in their allergic children. The purpose of this study is to clarify the association between maternal psychological status and inflammatory response of allergic young children.Methods. The study subjects were 152 young allergic children (median age: 13 months who had not shown any allergic symptoms in the past one month. mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory response genes IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-22 were quantified by qRT-PCR. Maternal psychological status was assessed by standardized questionnaires: the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D for depression and the Japanese Perceived Stress Scale (JPSS for perceived stress.Results. A significant positive association was observed between maternal CES-D scores and IL-6 mRNA expression in the children with asthma. The JPSS scores were also positively associated with IL-8 mRNA expression in asthmatic children and IL-6 mRNA expression in children with allergic rhinitis. Similar trends were observed among children positive for house dust mite-specific IgE, but these associations were not significant.Conclusion. This study supports the hypothesis that maternal psychological stress affects the inflammatory response in their allergic children.

  9. Associations between food insecurity and the severity of psychological distress among African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nickolas L; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B

    2017-01-31

    Little research exists on the association between food insecurity and mild to moderate psychological distress (MPD) among Black/African-Americans. In this study, we assess the relationship between food insecurity with and without hunger to that of both MPD and serious psychological distress (SPD) among this population. 2009 and 2011/2012 adult public-use data from African-American respondents of the California Health Interview Survey were utilized for this study (n = 4003). Descriptive statistics were utilized to identify prevalence of psychological distress among sociodemographic and mental-health associated variables. Bivariate analyses were conducted between these variables and psychological distress using survey-weighted chi-square analyses. To evaluate the association between psychological distress, our primary exposure variable of food security, and other variables, we utilized survey-weighted multinomial logistic regression. Prevalence of mild to MPD was higher among those reporting food insecurity while SPD was highest for those with food insecurity and hunger. Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrate that while MPD was significantly associated with food insecurity, Black/African-Americans with food insecurity and hunger displayed over sixfold odds of higher serious psychological distress, as compared to those living at or above 200% federal poverty level. Our findings add to this growing segment of the literature on psychological distress and food insecurity. Further focus should be placed on improving the efficacy and reach of both formal and informal food support networks to improve the collective health and well-being of poor Black/African-American communities.

  10. Socio-demographic Moderators of Associations Between Psychological Factors and Latinas' Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L G; Elder, J P; Haughton, J; Martinez, M E; Arredondo, E M

    2017-07-27

    This study tested whether socio-demographic factors moderated associations between psychological factors and Latinas' breast cancer screening behaviors. 222 churchgoing Latinas (40-65 years) in San Diego, CA completed surveys assessing socio-demographics (e.g., income and acculturation), psychological factors (e.g., perceived barriers to screening), and cancer screening behaviors. Multilevel models examined associations of socio-demographic and psychological factors (and their interactions) with adherence to annual mammography or clinical breast exam (CBE) screening. Although no main effects were found, there were moderation effects. Acculturation moderated associations between perceived barriers to screening and both screening outcomes, with inverse associations only among the high-acculturation group. Education moderated the relationship between perceived barriers to screening and CBE screening, with an inverse association only among the low-education group. Marital status moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and CBE screening, with an inverse association only among single/non-partnered participants. Interventions are needed targeting psychological barriers to breast cancer screening among Latinas.

  11. The Association of Psychological Empowerment and Job Burnout in Operational Staff of Tehran Emergency Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaniyoun, Aram; Shakeri, Khosro; Heidari, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Workers in social service professions are the first candidates for job burnout. The researchers believe this is due to daily exposure to stressful situations and lack of positive conditions in the workplace. It seems that psychological empowerment of staff can affect their job burnout. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment and job burnout in operational staff of emergency center. This was a descriptive correlational study. A total of 1100 operational staff of emergency center were evaluated, and of which, 285 persons were selected by simple random sampling method. Data were collected using Spritzer's psychological empowerment and Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaires. SPSS software, version 18, was used for data analysis along with descriptive analytical tests. The findings of this study revealed that the majority of units (46%) were in intermediate level in terms of empowerment. Similarly, the majority of cases had intermediate level (77.5%), and a minor percentage (8.4%) had low levels of job burnout. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there was a significant invert correlation between psychological empowerment and job burnout. This inverse and significant relationship was also observed between the four components of psychological empowerment (competence, self-determination, impact, and meaning) and job burnout. According to the results of the study, policy makers and health planners can take some measures in enhancing psychological empowerment to prevent problems associated with job burnout, by identifying stressors and strategies to deal with them.

  12. Synopsis of key persons, events, and associations in the history of Latino psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M; Olmedo, Esteban

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we present a brief synopsis of six early Latino psychologists, several key conferences, the establishment of research centers, and early efforts to create an association for Latino psychologists. Our chronology runs from approximately 1930 to 2000. This history is a firsthand account of how these early leaders, conferences, and efforts to bring Latinos and Latinas together served as a backdrop to current research and practice in Latino psychology. This history of individuals and events is also intertwined with the American Psychological Association and the National Institute of Mental Health and efforts by Latino psychologists to obtain the professional support necessary to lay down the roots of a Latino presence in psychology.

  13. Study of Association of Psychological Stress and Depression among Undergraduate Medical Students in Pondicherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Kittu, Rohan Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical education across the globe is perceived as being inherently stressful. Studies on psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety among medical students have found that these disorders are under diagnosed and under treated. In this background the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the magni-tude of depression and its association with stress among medical students. Methods: A Cross sectional study was undertaken among 235 medical students in a private medical college, Pondicherry. Tools similar to General Health Questionaire (GHQ-12 and Beck depression Inventory (BDI was used to screen psychological stress and depression respectively. Results: The prevalence of depression was 71% among medical students. Psychological stress was associated with depression. Conclusion: Emphasize should be laid on the importance of screening for depression of medical students on a regular basis for early detection and rendering appropriate intervention like group counseling, stress management training etc. to protect the future professionals.

  14. Association between psychological distress and cancer type in patients referred to a psycho-oncology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, C; Ismail, M F; Doherty, K; Bowler, A; Mohammad, M M; Cassidy, E M

    2017-06-09

    Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (?2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.

  15. Association between psychological distress and cancer type in patients referred to a psycho-oncology service

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavelle, C

    2017-06-01

    Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (χ2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.

  16. 2011 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    As we have throughout the association's history, we focused in 2011 on multiple initiatives--all designed to further, support, and communicate the important work that psychologists do. This year we had the benefit of APA's first-ever strategic plan as well as funding for the following seven initiatives that are specifically designed to execute the…

  17. Assessing bias against overweight individuals among nursing and psychology students: an implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Tabitha; Lampman, Claudia; Lupfer-Johnson, Gwen

    2012-12-01

    To determine the implicit or unconscious attitudes of Nursing and Psychology majors towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. Obesity is a leading health concern today, which impacts both physical and psychological health. Overweight individuals confront social biases in many aspects of their lives including health care. Examining the views of Nursing and Psychology students may reveal implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals that may lead to prejudiced behaviours. A mixed design experiment with one between-subjects variable (student major: Nursing or Psychology) and one within-subjects variable (condition: congruent or incongruent) was used to assess implicit attitudes in two convenience samples of Nursing and Psychology students. A computerised implicit association test was used to determine implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. A total of 90 students from Nursing (n= 45) and Psychology (n = 45) were recruited to complete an implicit association test. Reaction times in milliseconds between the congruent trials (stereotype consistent) and incongruent trials (stereotype inconsistent) were compared with determine adherence to social stereotypes or weight bias. A statistically significant implicit bias towards overweight individuals was detected in both subject groups and in both target settings (medical vs. non-medical). Stronger weight bias was found when the stimulus targets were female than male. Findings from this study expand understanding of the implicit attitudes and social biases of Nursing and Psychology students. The views held by these future healthcare professionals may negatively impact patient care. Providing education and support to overweight individuals is central to Nursing practice in a society struggling to manage obesity. Negative stereotypes or beliefs about these individuals may result in poor patient care. Therefore, nurses and other healthcare professionals

  18. Mediating effect of coping styles on the association between psychological capital and psychological distress among Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress.

  19. Using the Implicit Association Test as an Unconsciousness Raising Tool in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Flores, Abdiel J.; Didway, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01

    People are reluctant to admit they harbor implicit biases. Students (N = 68) from four social psychology courses completed an assignment designed to raise awareness about implicit biases. After completing an Implicit Association Test (IAT), students answered six essay questions, read two articles on the IAT, and answered five additional essay…

  20. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  1. Psychosis associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of psychosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia, and to characterize the associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Method: A cross-section

  2. Psychosis associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of psychosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia, and to characterize the associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Method: A

  3. Predicting College Students' Positive Psychology Associated Traits with Executive Functioning Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Seth

    2016-01-01

    More research is needed that investigates how positive psychology-associated traits are predicted by neurocognitive processes. Correspondingly, the purpose of this study was to ascertain how, and to what extent, four traits, namely, grit, optimism, positive affect, and life satisfaction were predicted by the executive functioning (EF) dimensions…

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  5. Association of social skills with psychological distress among female nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Ayako; Odagiri, Yuko; Ohya, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ayako; Hirohata, Kayoko; Kosugi, Shotaro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2011-01-01

    Nursing is a highly stressful occupation. Because nursing work involves interaction with patients and colleagues, competence in social skills may be a key issue in stress management among nurses. However, there are very few studies among nurses focused on social skills together with social support, both of which are important aspects of job stress. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between social skills and social support with job stressors, problem-solving coping, and psychological distress among Japanese nurses. Data from a self-administered questionnaire of 1,197 female nurses who worked for 5 general hospitals in Japan were analyzed. Covariance structure analysis with structural equation modeling techniques showed that social skills and social support were positively related to each other, while they were negatively associated with psychological distress and job stressors, and positively associated with problem-solving coping. Furthermore, the direct association between social skills and psychological distress was stronger than the association between social support and psychological distress. These findings suggested that improving not only social support at work but also individual social skills is important for nurses' mental health.

  6. Is the Nociceptive Blink Reflex Associated with Psychological Factors in Healthy Participants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Yuri; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the possible association between the nociceptive blink reflex (nBR) and various pain-related psychological measures: the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III (FPQ-III), the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ), the Somatosensory...

  7. Associations between assertiveness, psychological well-being, and self-esteem in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Klein, Daniel; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    This study explored the associations between adolescents assertive behavior, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,023 students (14.9 +/-.51; 47.6% boys). Two dimensions of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (distress and performance), 2 factors of the General Health

  8. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  9. Associations between assertiveness, psychological well-being, and self-esteem in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Klein, Daniel; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the associations between adolescents assertive behavior, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,023 students (14.9 +/-.51; 47.6% boys). Two dimensions of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (distress and performance), 2 factors of the General Health

  10. Predicting College Students' Positive Psychology Associated Traits with Executive Functioning Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Seth

    2016-01-01

    More research is needed that investigates how positive psychology-associated traits are predicted by neurocognitive processes. Correspondingly, the purpose of this study was to ascertain how, and to what extent, four traits, namely, grit, optimism, positive affect, and life satisfaction were predicted by the executive functioning (EF) dimensions…

  11. Associations between assertiveness, psychological well-being, and self-esteem in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Klein, Daniel; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the associations between adolescents assertive behavior, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,023 students (14.9 +/-.51; 47.6% boys). Two dimensions of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (distress and performance), 2 factors of the General Health

  12. Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…

  13. Is Psychological Testing Useful in Forensic Contexts that are Associated with Underreporting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Semel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The validity of self-report psychological test results in forensic contexts may be compromised as a result of examinee response style bias to over report or underreport psychological problems. This paper briefly discusses two forensic contexts associated with tendencies of examinees to underreport problems, i.e., child custody evaluations and juvenile delinquency evaluations for disposition. Despite the finding that most examinees in both of these populations obtain within normal limits scores on clinical scales, it is suggested that testing may be helpful in identifying potential problems in some segment of each of these forensic populations. This opinion is supported by findings in empirical studies.

  14. Attachment insecurity and psychological resources associated with adjustment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders.

  15. Negotiating Uncertainty: Jamaican Small Farmers’ Adaptation and Coping Strategies, Before and After Hurricanes—A Case Study of Hurricane Dean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Campbell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Jamaica has been seriously affected by a number of extreme meteorological events. The one discussed here, Hurricane Dean, passed along the south coast of the island in August 2007, damaging crops and disrupting livelihood activities for many small-scale farmers. This study is based on detailed ethnographic research in the southern coastal region of St. Elizabeth parish during the passage of Hurricane Dean, and explores the ways in which small farmers negotiate the stressors associated with hurricane events. The study employed a mix methods approach based on a survey of 282 farming households. The paper documents coping strategies employed by farmers in the immediate period of Hurricane Dean to reduce damage to their farming systems, and highlights the positive correlation between farmers’ perceptions of hurricanes and degree of damage to local farming systems. In addition, through an analysis of socio-economic and environmental data, the paper provides an understanding of the determinants of adaptive capacity and strategy among farmers in the area. The study indicated that despite high levels of vulnerability, farmers have achieved successful coping and adaptation at the farm level.

  16. Associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological distress: results from a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, A.; Rohrmann, S; Vandeleur, C.L.; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Eichholzer, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies observed associations of various aspects of diet with mental health, but little is known about the relationship between following the 5-a-day recommendation for fruit and vegetables consumption and mental health. Thus, we examined the associations of the Swiss daily recommended fruit and vegetable intake with psychological distress. METHODS: Data from 20,220 individuals aged 15+ years from the 2012 Swiss Health Survey were analyzed. The recommended portions of f...

  17. Chronic neck pain : An epidemiological, psychological and SPECT study with emphasis on whiplash-associated disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Chronic neck pain, a common cause of disability, seems to be the result of several interacting mechanisms. In addition to degenerative and inflammatory changes and trauma, psychological and psychosocial factors are also involved. One common type of trauma associated with chronic neck pain is whiplash injury; this sometimes results in whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), a controversial condition with largely unknown pathogenetic mechanisms. We studied the prevalence of chronic neck pain of tra...

  18. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Barefoot, John; Brummett, Berverly H.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all m...... metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress....

  19. Direct and indirect aggression and victimization in adolescents - associations with the development of psychological difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Daukantaité, Daiva; Wångby-Lundh, Margit

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established that direct and indirect forms of aggression differ in their association with gender and type of psychological difficulties. One purpose of the present study was to test if the same applies to direct and indirect victimization. A second purpose was to study these associations not only cross-sectionally (as in most previous research) but also longitudinally. A third purpose was to test the hypotheses that there are prospective bidirectional associations not only between victimization and psychological difficulties (which has been shown in previous research), but also between aggression and psychological difficulties, and that direct and indirect forms of aggression and victimization show different associations with different types of psychological difficulties. The participants were a community sample of all students in two grades of regular school in a Swedish municipality who answered questionnaires as part of a two-wave longitudinal study with a one-year interval. The participants were 13-15 years old, and there were longitudinal data on 893 students, which represented 85% of all students. The cross-sectional associations were primarily tested by semi-partial correlations, and the longitudinal associations by hierarchical multiple regression. The results corroborated the meaningfulness of differentiating not only between direct and indirect aggression but also between direct and indirect victimization. Boys reported being more victim to direct aggression, whereas girls reported being more victim to indirect aggression. Direct aggression predicted increased conduct problems in boys, whereas indirect aggression predicted increased conduct problems in girls, and conduct problems reciprocally predicted increased direct and indirect aggression. Indirect victimization showed prospective bidirectional associations with emotional symptoms and conduct problems, suggesting the potential development of vicious cycles of escalating problems

  20. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  1. Contentment Duration Mediates the Associations between Anxious Attachment Style and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Man; Hou, Wai Kai

    2017-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the emotional processes underlying the association between adult attachment styles and psychological distress. This study aims to examine the role of contentment in terms of intensity and duration in the positive associations between anxious and avoidant attachment styles and psychological distress. A sample of 284 Chinese university students completed a self-reported questionnaire on attachment styles, intensity and duration of contentment, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that duration of contentment mediated the positive associations of anxious attachment style with anxiety symptoms [β = 0.05, p = 0.004; BC 95% CI (0.02,0.11)] and depressive symptoms [β = 0.04, p = 0.03; BC 95% CI (0.003,0.09)], model fit: χ2(259) = 455.06, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.95, TLI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.07. Participants with higher anxious attachment style were more likely to report shorter duration of contentment, which was, in turn, associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. The results suggest a positive emotional pathway underlying the association between anxious attachment style and psychological distress. Implications based on the findings are discussed. PMID:28275363

  2. Happiness is best kept stable: positive emotion variability is associated with poorer psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, June; Kogan, Aleksandr; Quoidbach, Jordi; Mauss, Iris B

    2013-02-01

    Positive emotion has been shown to be associated with adaptive outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological health. However, research has largely focused on overall levels of positive emotion with less attention paid to how variable versus stable it is across time. We thus examined the psychological health correlates of positive emotion variability versus stability across 2 distinct studies, populations, and scientifically validated approaches for quantifying variability in emotion across time. Study 1 used a daily experience approach in a U.S. community sample (N = 244) to examine positive emotion variability across 2 weeks (macrolevel). Study 2 adopted a daily reconstruction method in a French adult sample (N = 2,391) to examine variability within 1 day (microlevel). Greater macro- and microlevel variability in positive emotion was associated with worse psychological health, including lower well-being and life satisfaction and greater depression and anxiety (Study 1), and lower daily satisfaction, life satisfaction, and happiness (Study 2). Taken together, these findings support the notion that positive emotion variability plays an important and incremental role in psychological health above and beyond overall levels of happiness, and that too much variability might be maladaptive.

  3. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: a critique of policy and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-29

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  4. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Martha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs, as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  5. Psychological contents and social effects associated to peripheral facial paralysis: a speech-language approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Mabile Francine Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The peripheral facial paralysis (PFP results from the reduction or interruption of the axonal transport to the seventh cranial nerve resulting in complete or partial paralysis of the facial movements. The facial deformity and limitation of movements, besides affecting the aesthetics and functionality, can significantly interfere with interpersonal communication. Objective: Investigate the psychological contents and other social effects associated to PFP in adult subjects, performing a comparative analysis in three groups of subjects with PFP: at flaccid, recovery and sequel phases. Method: Quantitative and qualitative research. 16 adult subjects, from both sexes, aging between 43 and 88 years old, with PFP. Procedure: Open interviews with subjects. The material was recorded in audio and video, literally transcribed, systematized through categorical and statistical analysis. Results: The subjects bearing sequels presented higher statistical significance of psychological contents and social effects associated to PFP. Followed, respectively, by those that were on flaccid and recovery phases. The results suggest that the speech-language therapist, besides performing functional and aesthetical rehabilitation with the subject with PFP, needs to be aware of psychological and social aspects that may be involved, in order to evaluate and seek to reduce the degree of psychological distress and promote the social adjustment of these patients. Conclusion: The biopsychosocial approach to patients with PFP revealed a wide and significant range of subjective contents that warrant new studies that may contribute to the effectiveness of the speech-language clinical method to approach this medical condition.

  6. Mental toughness in sport: motivational antecedents and associations with performance and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John W; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Mallett, Cliff J; Mallet, Cliff J

    2014-06-01

    We argue that basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) offers impetus to the value of mental toughness as a mechanism for optimizing human functioning. We hypothesized that psychological needs satisfaction (thwarting) would be associated with higher (lower) levels of mental toughness, positive affect, and performance and lower (higher) levels of negative affect. We also expected that mental toughness would be associated with higher levels of positive affect and performance and lower levels of negative affect. Further, we predicted that coaching environments would be related to mental toughness indirectly through psychological needs and that psychological needs would indirectly relate with performance and affect through mental toughness. Adolescent cross-country runners (136 male and 85 female, M(age) = 14.36) completed questionnaires pertaining to BPNT variables, mental toughness, and affect. Race times were also collected. Our findings supported our hypotheses. We concluded that BPNT is generative in understanding some of the antecedents and consequences of mental toughness and is a novel framework useful for understanding mental toughness.

  7. Association of psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, and management among patients with erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri HZ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,2 Nurul Diyana Mat Sanusi,1 Azad Hassan Abdul Razack,3 Raymond Mark1 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Clinical Investigation Center, University of Malaya Medical Centre, 3Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED is one of the most common health problems in men. ED can significantly affect a man’s psychological well-being and overall health. Purpose: To investigate the association of psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, and management among ED patients. Patients and methods: A total of 93 patients with an age range from 31 to 81 years who have undergone treatment for ED were included in this study. Results: It was found that the feeling of blame (P=0.001, guilt (P=0.001, anger or bitterness (P=0.001, depression (P=0.001, feeling like a failure (P=0.001, and the feeling of letting down a partner during intercourse (P=0.001 were significantly associated with ED. Age was also found to be significantly associated with patients’ psychological scale (P=0.004. In addition, the majority of patients in this study practice the right method of administration of ED therapy. However, no significant correlation was found between patients’ knowledge of ED therapy and demographic characteristics. Conclusion: This study concluded that ED does affect psychological well-being of people. In addition, patient’s knowledge about ED and its management is also crucial in ensuring that the patient achieves optimal therapeutic outcomes from ED therapy. Keywords: erectile dysfunction, psychological factors, patients’ knowledge, management

  8. Differences in caregivers' psychological distress and associated factors by care recipients' gender and kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Noboru; Horiguchi, Kazuko

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we examined the level of psychological distress of Japanese caregivers according to various combinations of the gender of care recipients and the kinship of caregivers (spouse, son, daughter, or daughter-in-law). Furthermore, we explored the associated factors that could exacerbate or alleviate psychological distress. We utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design and implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey with a two-stage stratified sample of community-dwelling caregivers of frail elderly persons throughout Japan. We surveyed 1279 caregiving families, and 1020 questionnaires were completed by primary caregivers (response rate: 79.8%), with 945 respondents providing data on the Japanese version of the Kessler 6 psychological distress scale (K6). Caregivers' K6 scores varied significantly by care recipients' gender and their relationship with the caregiver. K6 scores were significantly higher among daughters-in-law caring for fathers-in-law than among daughters-in-law caring for mothers-in-law, wives caring for husbands, or daughters or sons caring for mothers. 'Negative influence of caregiving' and 'anxious about continuing caregiving' were factors that commonly exacerbated caregivers' psychological distress. Further analyses involving interactions indicated that the effects of 'anxious about continuing caregiving' and 'personal growth through caregiving' on the psychological distress of daughters-in-law varied by care recipients' gender as did the effects of an alleviating factor, 'keeping their own pace', on daughters. Psychological distress levels among family caregivers, as well as exacerbating and alleviating factors, varied depending on the gender and kinship of care recipients.

  9. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Kingston

    Full Text Available Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development.Articles were included if: a they were observational studies published in English; b the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline (January, 1990-March, 2014. We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form.Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes.Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.

  10. The Importance of Academic Deans' Interpersonal/Negotiating Skills as Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepner, Shelley B.; Henk, William A.; Clark Johnson, Virginia; Lovell, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Four academic deans investigated when and how they used interpersonal/negotiating skills to function effectively in their positions. For two full weeks, the deans coded their on-the-job interactions during scheduled meetings, informal meetings, spontaneous encounters/meetings, telephone calls, and select email. Analyses revealed that the…

  11. College of Business Deans' Views on Undeserved Authorships in Business Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Edgar J.; English, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    The deans of all 440 AACSB accredited colleges of business were surveyed regarding their views on undeserved authorship in business journals and the impact of such authorships upon the faculty reward system. One hundred and twenty-five deans responded to a questionnaire on the topic. Eighty percent of the respondents indicated that they were aware…

  12. Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction: The EQ Relationship for Deans of U.S. Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine if a positive relationship existed between Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction for deans of business schools. A secondary purpose was to determine which Emotional Quotient (EQ) competencies were most important for satisfied deans and how these competencies assisted processes related to…

  13. Leadership Orientations and Conflict Management Styles of Academic Deans in Masters Degree Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimencu, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that academic deans follow the human relations and structural perspectives in conflict management (Feltner & Goodsell, 1972). However, the position of an academic dean has been described to have undertones that are more political and social than hierarchical and technical. Hence, the current study evaluated the role of…

  14. Headache disorders in children and adolescents: their association with psychological, behavioral, and socio-environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Gassmann, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    This cross-sectional study on a randomly drawn population sample of children and adolescents (n = 3399; aged 9 to 15) aimed at the assessment of patterns of associations between psychosocial variables and primary headache disorders like migraine (MIG) or tension-type headache. A headache-free group served as a control. Data on headache and psychological trait variables (eg, internalizing symptoms), behavioral factors (eg, physical activities), and socio-environmental factors (eg, life events) were gathered by questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with headache types (MIG, tension-type, and non-classifiable headache) as dependent variables. The pattern of correlations was largely congruent between the headache disorders. Associations were closest regarding maladaptive psychological traits (in particular internalizing symptoms with an odds ratio > 4 regarding MIG) compared with socio-environmental factors and particularly the behavioral factors. Unfavorable psychological traits and socio-environmental strains demonstrated distinctly stronger associations with MIG than tension-type headache and explained more variance in the occurrence of pediatric headache disorders than parental headache. Sex-specific analyses showed similarities as well as differences regarding the correlations, and in general, the associations were stronger in girls than boys. A common path model as posited by several researchers in the field may explain the parallelism in biopsychosocial vulnerability regarding the different headache disorders. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  15. Factors associated with psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel

    We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies.

  16. What are sleep-related experiences? Associations with transliminality, psychological distress, and life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2009-12-01

    Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526-535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep-related experiences (SREs), altered-consciousness tendencies (i.e., dissociation and transliminality), psychological distress, childhood maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect), and life stress in young adults. Both types of SREs (general SREs and lucid dreaming) were found to be distinguishable from altered-consciousness tendencies. Transliminality emerged as a longitudinal predictor of both general SREs and lucid dreams. Psychological distress and an increase in life stress predicted an increase in general SREs over a 3-month interval. We conclude that transliminality is a general altered-consciousness trait that accounts for some of the individual differences in sleep-related experiences, and that general sleep experiences are an outcome of psychological distress and life stress.

  17. Collusion, torture, and inequality: Understanding the actions of the American Psychological Association as institutional betrayal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jennifer M; Smith, Carly P; Gobin, Robyn L; Tang, Shin Shin; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    The Hoffman Report (Hoffman et al., 2015) documented devastating information about the American Psychological Association (APA) and the profession of psychology in the United States, prompting a public apology and a formal commitment by APA to correct its mistakes (APA, 2015). In the current article, we utilize betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1997), including betrayal blindness (e.g., Freyd, 1996; Tang, 2015) and institutional betrayal (Smith & Freyd, 2014b), to understand and learn from APA's behaviors. We further situate this discussion in the context of inequality, both within APA and in American society generally. We detail how the impact of APA's institutional betrayals extended beyond the organization, its members, and the psychology profession, highlighting the potential for disproportionate harm to minorities, including those who were tortured; Muslims, Middle Easterners, Afghans, and non-Americans who were not tortured; and other minority individuals (Gómez, 2015d). Acknowledging, understanding, and addressing its institutional betrayals offers APA the opportunity to take meaningful corrective and preventive measures. We propose several institutional reparations, including making concrete changes with transparency and conducting self-assessments to inform further needed changes (Freyd & Birrell, 2013). By engaging in institutional courage, APA has the potential to grow into an ethical governing body that fulfills its mission to "advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives" (APA, 2016).

  18. Association of Psychological Characteristics and Functional Dyspepsia Treatment Outcome: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caihua

    2016-01-01

    This study was to investigate the association of psychological characteristics and functional dyspepsia treatment outcome. 109 patients who met the criteria for FD were enrolled. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL90), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to measure personality, psychological symptoms, and sleep quality in our patients. Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) was used to assess dyspeptic symptoms at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment. The LDQ scores change after therapy, and the degraded rate of LDQ was used to assess the prognosis of patients. Logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of the personality, psychological symptoms, and sleep quality on the prognosis of patients. Our result revealed that poor sleep quality (OR = 7.68, 95% CI 1.83–32.25) and bad marriage status (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10–1.36) had the negative effect on the prognosis of FD, while extroversion in personality traits (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.76–0.96) had positive effect on the prognosis of FD. We should pay attention to the sleep quality, the personality, and the marriage status of FD patients; psychological intervention may have benefit in refractory FD. PMID:27547220

  19. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD. Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ihlebæk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism

  20. Study of Association of Psychological Stress and Depression among Undergraduate Medical Students in Pondicherry

    OpenAIRE

    Devi Kittu, Rohan Patil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical education across the globe is perceived as being inherently stressful. Studies on psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety among medical students have found that these disorders are under diagnosed and under treated. In this background the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the magni-tude of depression and its association with stress among medical students. Methods: A Cross sectional study was undertaken among 235 medical st...

  1. Mental health quality assurance. Development of the American Psychological Association/CHAMPUS program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L H; Stricker, G

    1983-09-01

    In this article, quality assurance efforts in the field of mental health are discussed, especially concerning the reviews of outpatient clinical services. The recently established American Psychological Association APA/CHAMPUS program is described in detail, a national program of peer review that is illustrative of the major conceptual and professional issues inherent in the mental health quality assurance process. Throughout the article, comparisons are made between quality assurance in the medicine and mental health fields.

  2. Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Xu, Xin; Wu, Hui; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background As a specific male occupational group, underground coal miners have been commonly found to have a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. It is of urgent need to explore some factors that could be intervened to reduce smoking from personal or internal perspective. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of psychological capital (PsyCap), demographic and occupational factors with smoking among Chinese underground coal miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey w...

  3. Sexual dysfunctions and psychological disorders associated with type IIIa chronic prostatitis: a clinical survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Mu-Qiong; Long, Ling-Li; Xie, Wen-Lin; Chen, Sai; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Luo, Can-Qiao; Deng, Li-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a frequent prostate-related complaint, impacts negatively on quality of life and is mostly of unclear etiology. Increasing attention has been paid to the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in CP patients; however, the impact of specific types of CP and the correlation of sexual dysfunctions with psychological disorders associated with CP are not well understood. Type IIIa CP is characterized by chronic pelvic pain, urination symptoms and white blood cells in expressed prostatic secretion, but free of bacterial infection. A population of 600 type IIIa CP patients were randomly selected and 40 normal man were included as the control group. Queries were conducted by urologists. The National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Symptom Checklist 90-R were used to evaluate the symptoms and severity of prostatitis, erectile dysfunctions and psychological problems, respectively. Scores of ejaculatory pain and premature ejaculation were also collected. Our study revealed that sexual dysfunctions are frequently associated with this specific type of CP. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and ejaculatory pain was 19, 30 and 30 %, respectively. A variety of psychological problems exist among type IIIa CP patients, including depression, anxiety, somatization, obsessive-compulsive and interpersonal sensitivity. In particular, the severity of erectile dysfunctions, but not premature ejaculation and ejaculatory pain, correlated significantly with depression and anxiety. Our data indicate that a moderate level of sexual dysfunctions exists among the type IIIa CP patients, and highlight the association of depression and anxiety with erectile dysfunction in CP patients, suggestting that special attention should be paid to these psychological issues in clinical treatments of the prostatitis symptoms and the associated erectile dysfunctions.

  4. Psychological and Family Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation in Pre-Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas i Poch, Ferran; Canals Sans, Josepa; Gras Pérez, María Eugenia; Ros, Claudia; Domènech, Edelmira

    2002-01-01

    To assess the psychological and family factors associated with suicidal ideation in preadolescent children, we studied a sample of 361 students, average age 9 years old. Two groups were formed, on the basis of the presence (n = 34) or absence (n = 44) of suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the Children’s Depression Inventory and the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, and perceived family environment were compared in both th...

  5. A point-by-point analysis of performance in a fencing match: psychological processes associated with winning and losing streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to revisit the complex nature of serial dependency of performance during a match, examining the prospective associations between psychological processes and subsequent performance at the within-person level of analysis, and explore whether psychological processes are associated with the likelihood of winning series of points. A process-oriented sequential approach was used with 16 elite fencers during a simulated competition. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that serial dependency of performance fluctuates within a match. Results of a Bayesian multilevel structural equation model showed that prior performance subsequently influenced psychological processes. Although psychological processes did not predict performance in the subsequent point, successive winnings were associated with higher perceived control and task-oriented coping and lower negative affectivity compared with both losing streaks and nonstreaks. Overall, serial dependencies of performance are nonstationary during a match whereas psychological processes significantly differ in episodes of winning after winning versus losing after losing.

  6. BRIDGE OVER TROUBLED WATERS? THE MOST "CENTRAL" MEMBERS OF PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY ASSOCIATIONS CA. 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D; Heidari, Crystal; Chiacchia, Daniel; Martin, Shane M

    2016-07-01

    There are many different ways to assess the significance of historical figures. Often we look at the influence of their writings, or at the important offices they held with disciplinary institutions such as universities, journals, and scholarly societies. In this study, however, we took a novel approach: we took the complete memberships, ca. 1900, of four organizations-the American Psychological Association, the Western Philosophical Association, the American Philosophical Association, and the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology-and visualized them as a network. We then identified individuals who "bridged" between two or more of these groups and considered what might be termed their "centrality" to the psychological-philosophical community of their time. First, we examined these figures qualitatively, briefly describing their lives and careers. Then we approached the problem mathematically, considering several alternative technical realizations of "centrality" and then explaining our reasons for choosing eigenvector centrality as the best for our purposes. We found a great deal of overlap among the results of the qualitative and quantitative approaches, but also some telling differences. J. Mark Baldwin, Edward Buchner, Christine Ladd Franklin, and Frank Thilly consistently emerged as highly central figures. Some more marginal figures such as Max Meyer, and Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, Edward A. Pace, Edward H. Griffin played interesting roles as well. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Academic misconduct: responses from deans and nurse educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, P A

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe what deans/chairs and faculty in baccalaureate nursing programs perceive as academic misconduct among students. Subjects were asked to describe a positive and negative incident that reflected student cheating and/or plagiarizing and to describe the setting where the incident occurred. Various types of cheating and plagiarism were described by the subjects as occurring in the classroom setting. In the clinical setting, incidents of false documentation and faked home visits were reported. Results of this study support the need for a clearer understanding among students of what constitutes plagiarism. Students who become involved in academic misconduct need to be identified early and policies must be developed that will assist administrators and faculty in dealing with these issues.

  8. Association of Psychological Disorders with Extra-intestinal Symptoms in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mirbagher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraintestinal symptoms are common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. In the present study, we determined the relationship between psychological disorders and extraintestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Methods: Adult patients with IBS referred to 4 gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan, Iran, completed the irritable bowel severity scoring system, extraintestinal symptoms scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: The patients included 113 females and 45 males with mean age of 34.8 ± 11.1 years. Cumulative frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was 3.3 ± 2.4 (0 to 10. Anxiety and depression were present in 79.7% and 54.4% of the patients, respectively. Frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was correlated with anxiety and depression (r = 0.289 to 0.531, IBS severity (r = 0.373 to 0.505, and quality of life (r = -0.317 to -0.398. Severity of IBS was independently associated with extraintestinal digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = 0.248. Female gender, education level, and anxiety were independently associated with extraintestinal non-digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = -0.225 to 0.260. Severity of IBS and frequency of non-digestive symptoms were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.494 and -0.218. After controlling for psychological factors, IBS severity and depression were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.435 and -0.318. Conclusion: Extraintestinal symptoms and psychological disorders are common in patients with IBS and impact their quality of life. Psychological disorders are associated with extraintestinal symptoms, especially non-digestive symptoms. These results highlight the need for an integrated biopsychosocial approach to the management of IBS patients with physical and mental comorbidities.

  9. Food insecurity in adults with mood disorders: prevalence estimates and associations with nutritional and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Karen M; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2015-01-01

    Because little is known about food insecurity in people with mental health conditions, we investigated relationships among food insecurity, nutrient intakes, and psychological functioning in adults with mood disorders. Data from a study of adults randomly selected from the membership list of the Mood Disorder Association of British Columbia (n = 97), Canada, were analyzed. Food insecurity status was based on validated screening questions asking if in the past 12 months did the participant, due to a lack of money, worry about or not have enough food to eat. Nutrient intakes were derived from 3-day food records and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Psychological functioning measures included Global Assessment of Functioning, Hamilton Depression scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale. Using binomial tests of two proportions, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Poisson regression we examined: (1) food insecurity prevalence between the study respondents and a general population sample from the British Columbia Nutrition Survey (BCNS; n = 1,823); (2) differences in nutrient intakes based on food insecurity status; and (3) associations of food insecurity and psychological functioning using bivariate and Poisson regression statistics. In comparison to the general population (BCNS), food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in the adults with mood disorders (7.3% in BCNS vs 36.1%; p food-insecure had lower median intakes of carbohydrates and vitamin C (p food insecurity had protein, folate, and zinc intakes below the DRI benchmark of potential inadequacy (p food insecurity and mania symptoms (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.37, 95% CI 1.49-3.75, p Food insecurity is associated with both nutritional and psychological health in adults with mood disorders. Investigation of interventions aimed at food security and income can help establish its role in enhancing mental health.

  10. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  11. A 10-year survey of US deans: trends, challenges, and mentoring in prosthodontics. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Brian M; Munoz, Deborah M; Donoff, R Bruce; Kinnunen, Taru; Wright, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Part 2 of this survey reports on the 2009 survey findings distributed to the deans of US dental schools. A national, electronic survey of 58 dental school deans was distributed by e-mail to evaluate an interest in specialty training, an interest in specialty training in prosthodontics, faculty shortage issues, predoctoral curriculum in prosthodontics, ideology regarding dental specialties, and the administrative position of prosthodontics within the schools. The survey data were transferred to an online spreadsheet program for statistical analysis (Key Survey, Inc. http://www.keysurvey.com, Braintree, MA). The opinions of dental school deans were viewed as legitimate indicators of change within predoctoral and postdoctoral prosthodontic education. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistica Version 9.1 (Statsoft, Tulsa, OK). Of the 58 deans, 42 deans responded, for a 72.4% response rate. Twenty-three deans reported an increase in the number of students seeking specialty training after dental school. Only three deans reported a decrease in those seeking specialty training. In the 2009 survey, 45% the deans responded that there was an increased interest in prosthodontics. One or more open faculty positions in prosthodontics existed at 24 (59%) of the dental schools, and 30 (71%) offered at least one incentive or a variety of incentives to recruit faculty. The 2009 respondents to the deans' survey revealed predoctoral student exposure to prosthodontists was high, and exposure to advanced education in prosthodontics students was low. A survey of internal school programs that might have an impact on an increased interest in prosthodontics revealed the presence of a predoctoral mentoring program for prosthodontics in 36 (88%) of the institutions. The clinical curriculum included treatment of a variety of cases including complex cases as defined by a diagnostic classification system. The 2009 survey respondents reported an increase in the number of schools where

  12. Dispositional Mindfulness in People with HIV: Associations with Psychological and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, J T; Duncan, L G; Moran, P J; Acree, M; Epel, E S; Kemeny, M E; Hecht, F M; Folkman, S

    2015-11-01

    We used a Stress and Coping model to examine the association of dispositional mindfulness, defined as the tendency to intentionally bring nonjudgmental attention and awareness to one's experience in the present moment, with psychological and physical health in adults with HIV. Data were collected at baseline of a randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). Four facets of mindfulness (acting with attention/awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, observing, and describing) were examined as correlates of appraisal, positive and negative affect, coping, and indicators of psychological well-being and physical health. We found that mindfulness was inversely related to depression, stress appraisal, and negative affect, and positively related to positive affect. Mindfulness was also inversely related to escape/avoidance and self-blame forms of coping. Mediational analyses indicate that perceived stress and negative affect were the most consistent mediators of the association of mindfulness and psychological well-being. The findings from this paper contribute to a growing understanding of the potential adaptive role of mindfulness in people living with the stress of serious illness.

  13. Long-term adolescent multi-site musculoskeletal pain is associated with psychological distress and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Juha; Eskola, Pasi J; Ohtonen, Hanni-Rosa; Paananen, Markus; Jokelainen, Jari; Timonen, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Karppinen, Jaro

    2017-02-01

    Although several studies have shown that adolescent musculoskeletal pain is associated with psychological problems in a cross-sectional setting, the associations of long-term musculoskeletal pain with psychological distress and anxiety are not known. The study included 1773 adolescents belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. They received a postal questionnaire at the age of 16years and a follow-up questionnaire two years later. The first inquiry contained questions about the sites of musculoskeletal pain; the second had the same pain questions, along with measures of distress and anxiety. Risk ratios (RR) were assessed by log-linear regression analysis. Multi-site musculoskeletal pain (in ≥2 body locations) at both 16 and 18years was common, reported by 53% of girls and 30% of boys. Multi-site pain at both ages, compared to those with multi-site pain neither at 16 nor 18years, was associated with psychological distress at the age of 18 among both girls (RR 1.8 95% CI 1.2-2.7) and boys (RR 3.5 95% CI 2.1-5.9). For anxiety, the corresponding relative risks were 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.2) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.4-2.3), respectively. For short-term multi-site pain (prevalent only at the age of 16 or 18), these relative risks were between 0.8 and 2.3. Adolescents with long-term multi-site pain have higher levels of distress and anxiety than those without or with only short-term multi-site pain. Associations were found in both genders, but the relationship between pain and distress was more pronounced among boys. The associations had modest effect strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proximity Begins with a Smile, But Which One? Associating Non-duchenne Smiles with Higher Psychological Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogodistov, Yevgen; Dost, Florian

    2017-01-01

    This study reveals that Duchenne (genuine) and non-Duchenne (non-genuine, polite) smiles are implicitly associated with psychological proximity and distance, respectively. These findings link two extensive research streams from human communication and psychology. Interestingly, extant construal-level theory research suggests the link may work as smiles signaling either a benign situation or politeness, resulting in conflicting predictions for the association between smile type and psychological distance. The current study uses implicit association tests to reveal theoretically and empirically consistent non-Duchenne-smile-distance and Duchenne-smile-proximity associations for all four types of psychological distance: temporal, spatial, social, and hypothetical. Practically, the results suggest several useful applications of non-Duchenne smiles in human communication contexts.

  15. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: Associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Lei, Ulrikke

    2008-01-01

    The subjective dimensions of pruritus and their associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life were explored in a sample of 40 psoriasis patients. The patients completed a scale with descriptors from the Structured Itch Questionnaire together with measures of depression, distress...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality....

  16. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R.; Zachariae, C.O.; Lei, U.

    2008-01-01

    The subjective dimensions of pruritus and their associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life were explored in a sample of 40 psoriasis patients. The patients completed a scale with descriptors from the Structured Itch Questionnaire together with measures of depression, distress...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  17. Eating behavior and psychological profile: associations between daughters with distinct eating disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María

    2017-09-06

    Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.

  18. Social, Psychological, and Environmental-Structural Factors Associated with Tobacco Experimentation among Adolescents in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Qiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.

  19. Association between Childhood Dental Experiences and Dental Fear among Dental, Psychology and Mathematics Undergraduates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnia M. Serra-Negra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001 and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05 for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001, Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001. The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01. Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose.

  20. Common mental disorders and psychological distress in systemic lupus erythematosus are not associated with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarpa, E; Babul, M; Calderón, J; González, M; Martínez, M E; Bravo-Zehnder, M; Henríquez, C; Jacobelli, S; González, A; Massardo, L

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is controversial: variations have been reported in frequency, diagnostic assays, associations with disease activity, autoantibodies, and contributing social factors. Eighty-three consecutive non-selected Chilean patients with SLE were evaluated for: (i) 26 common mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-plus); (ii) psychological suffering measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); (iii) ACR 1999 neuropsychiatric (NP)SLE criteria; (iv) SLE disease activity (SLEDAI-2K); (v) cumulative damage (SLICC/ACR); and (vi) anti-ribosomal P antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoassay and immunoblot. Psychiatric diagnoses occurred in 44.6% of patients; the most frequent (21.7%) was major depressive episode (MDE). No association with lupus activity was observed in patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis or MDE or psychological suffering. ACR 1999 NPSLE criteria were present in 42.2% of patients, the majority corresponding to mood (28.9%) or anxiety disorders (15.6%). Suicidal risk was present in 9.6% of patients. Anti-ribosomal P antibodies (13.3%) were not associated with DSM-IV diagnosis. Severe psychiatric disorders in SLE are common and not associated with disease activity.

  1. Association Between Food Insecurity and Serious Psychological Distress Among Hispanic Adults Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sis-Medina, Reacheal Connie; Reyes, Alexa; Becerra, Monideepa B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Food insecurity has been associated with negative health outcomes, but the relationship between psychological distress and food insecurity among ethnic minorities has not been extensively examined in the literature. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether low food security and very low food security were significantly associated with past month serious psychological distress (SPD) among Hispanic adults living in poverty. Methods We studied 10,966 Hispanic respondents to the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011–2012 whose income was below 200% of the federal poverty level. The relationship between food insecurity and SPD was evaluated by using survey-weighted univariate and logistic regression analyses. Results Nearly 30% of the study population had low food security and 13% had very low food security. Low food security and very low food security were associated with 1.99 and 4.43 odds of past month SPD, respectively, and perceived low neighborhood safety was related to 1.47 odds of past month SPD. Conclusions We found that food insecurity was prevalent among Hispanic people living in poverty and was significantly associated with past month SPD. These results demonstrate the need for further targeted public health efforts, such as community gardens led by promotores, faith-based initiatives, and initiatives to reduce barriers to participation in food-assistance programs. PMID:26605706

  2. [Online Health Services for the Prevention of Stress-associated Psychological Impairments at the Workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hofe, I; Latza, U; Lönnfors, S; Muckelbauer, R

    2016-04-14

    Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of online health services for the prevention of stress-associated psychological impairments at the workplace. Methods: The databases EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO were systematically searched for English, French and German references. Included were RCTs that examined the influence of online health services on stress-associated impairment in adult employees at the workplace. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist was used for quality appraisal. Results: Out of 5 632 identified references, 13 RCTs were included in this study. The intervention approaches included movement and relaxation exercises, imparting of knowledge, cognitive-behavioral/social-behavioral interventions, risk communication, health coaching, mindfulness training, and career identity training. In 4 RCTs among mainly white collar employees, the interventions led to improvements in stress-associated outcomes (2 RCTs of high, one of medium and one of low quality level). 9 further RCTs (5 of them of a medium and 4 of a low quality level) did not show a beneficial intervention effect. Conclusion: There are effective health services for the prevention of stress-associated psychological impairments at the workplace. A final conclusion on the kind of intervention that is effective cannot be drawn due to the limited number of RCTs using various intervention approaches. Interventions of at least 12 weeks and a combination of multiple approaches were more often effective.

  3. BURNOUT SYNDROME AND ITS ASSOCIATION TO PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN NURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA M. NOVOA GÓMEZ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aim was to evaluate the Burnout syndrome and its association to psychological profile and quality of lifein nurses from urgency, oncology and neonatology services at a third level hospital in Bogotá city. The research pertainsto the investigation group in Psychology and Health of the Psychology Faculty at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.It is a non-experimental research within a correlational descriptive design. The instruments used were the Catell’s 16Personality Factors Inventory (16PF, the Maslash Burnout Inventory (MBI, a semi-structured interview and anobservational register. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation. Additionally, multivariatecovariance analysis (MANCOVA and Pearson correlation were used in special cases. SSPS programme was used for thisdata analysis. Results showed that the Burnout syndrome was not present in the evaluated nurses but they had somesymptoms, like emotional tiredness and depersonalisation; personality factors as impulsive-prudent, confident-jealousand dominant-submisive were found as predictors of occupational performance.

  4. The South Pacific in the works of Robert Dean Frisbie

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    Nataša Potočnik

    2001-12-01

    In Tahiti he had ambitious writing plans but after four years of living in Tahiti, he left his plantation and sailed to the Cook Islands. He spent the rest of his life in the Cook Islands and married a local girl Ngatokorua. His new happiness gave him the inspiration to write. 29 sketches appeared in the United States in 1929, collected by The Century Company under the title of The Book of Puka-Puka. His second book My Tahiti, a book of memories, was published in 1937. After the death of Ropati 's beloved wife his goals were to bring up his children. But by this time Frisbie was seriously ill. The family left Puka-Puka and settled down on the uninhabited atoll of Suwarrow. Later on they lived on Rarotonga and Samoa where Frisbie was medically treated. Robert Dean Frisbie died of tetanus in Rarotonga on November 18, 1948. Frisbie wrote in a vivid, graceful style. His characters and particularly the atoll of Puka-Puka are memorably depicted. Gifted with a feeling for language and a sense of humor, he was able to capture on paper the charm, beauty, and serenity of life of the small islands in the South Pacific without exaggerating the stereotypical idyllic context and as such Frisbie's contribution to South Pacific literature went far deeper than that of many writers who have passed through the Pacific and wrote about their experiences. Frisbie's first book The Book of Puka-Puka was published in New York in 1929. It is the most endearing and the most original of his works. It was written during his lifetime on the atoll Puka-Puka in the Cook Islands. It is a collection of 29 short stories, episodic and expressively narrative in style. This is an account of life on Puka-Puka that criticizes European and American commercialism and aggressiveness, and presents the themes of the praise of isolation, the castigation of missionaries, and the commendation of Polynesian economic collectivism and sexual freedom. At the same time, the book presents a portrait of Frisbie himself

  5. Activity Diversity and Its Associations With Psychological Well-Being Across Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Koffer, Rachel E; Sprague, Briana N; Charles, Susan T; Ram, Nilam; Almeida, David M

    2016-09-12

    This study examined age-related cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between activity diversity and four dimensions of well-being: psychological well-being, depression, positive affect, and negative affect. Activity diversity was defined as the breadth and evenness of participation in seven daily activities including paid work, time with children, doing chores, leisure, physical activities, formal volunteering, and giving informal help to others. Participants from the National Survey of Daily Experiences (N = 793, M age = 46.71, SD ag = 12.48) provided data during two 8-day measurement bursts approximately 10 years apart. Older adults (age = 60-74 years) who engaged in more diverse activities reported higher psychological well-being than older adults who engaged in less diverse activities; an association not significant among middle-aged adults (age = 35-59 years), and in the opposite direction for younger individuals (age = 24-34 years). Longitudinally, increased activity diversity over 10 years was marginally associated with increases in positive affect. Compared with younger individuals who increased activity diversity, older adults who increased activity diversity reported smaller decreases in psychological well-being, greater increases in positive affect, and greater decreases in negative affect. Our findings suggest that activity diversity may play an important role in older adults' concurrent well-being and also in their long-term longitudinal improvements of well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress.

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    Sofia I Iqbal Kring

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress. METHODS: Obese young men (n = 475, BMI ≥ 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected control group (n = 709 identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits. RESULTS: The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17], waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17] in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87], serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91] and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08] in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41] and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I; OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85] in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men. CONCLUSION: The

  7. Psychological trauma associated with the World Trade Center attacks and its effect on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Stephanie Mulherin; Berkowitz, Gertrud S; Wolff, Mary S; Yehuda, Rachel

    2005-09-01

    The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 was a source of enormous psychological trauma that may have consequences for the health of pregnant women and their fetuses. In this report, we describe the impact of extreme trauma on the birth outcomes of women highly exposed to the WTC. We enrolled 187 women who were pregnant and living or working within close proximity to the WTC on 11 September. Among women with singleton pregnancies, 52 completed at least one psychological assessment prior to delivery. In adjusted multivariable models, both post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) and moderate depression were associated with longer gestational durations, although only PTSS was associated with decrements in infant head circumference at birth (beta=-0.07, SE=0.03, P=0.01). The impact of stress resulting from extreme trauma may be different from that which results from ordinary life experiences, particularly with respect to cortisol production. As prenatal PTSS was associated with decrements in head circumference, this may influence subsequent neurocognitive development. Long-term follow-up of infants exposed to extreme trauma in utero is needed to evaluate the persistence of these effects.

  8. Linkages between insomnia and suicidality: prospective associations, high-risk subgroups and possible psychological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Tang, Nicole K Y

    2014-04-01

    Insomnia can be lethal, increasing the risk of suicide and accidental death by overdose. In this review we present a synthesis of the literature investigating the insomnia-suicide link and the psychological mechanisms underpinning the association. Specifically, we review the findings of prospective epidemiological studies demonstrating the insomnia-suicide link in adult and adolescent community populations. Robust associations between insomnia and suicide are observed in clinically depressed and anxious populations, and there are indications across a number of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that these linkages are attributable to a disrupted sleep pattern, dysfunctional beliefs about sleep and nightmares, independent of depression and anxiety symptoms. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and chronic pain (CP) are highlighted as high-risk subgroups given the elevated rates of insomnia and suicidality in both conditions. Aside from the influence of comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms, emerging evidence has identified impulsivity and emotional dysregulation as possible mechanisms driving the insomnia-suicide link in BPD, and catastrophizing and the sense of defeat/entrapment as potential cognitive pathways through which insomnia aggravates suicidality in CP. Screening for, and interventions that tackle, insomnia and these associated psychological mechanisms, offer a novel avenue for reducing suicidality across a range of clinical and non-clinical populations.

  9. Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2011-10-01

    In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (β = 0.074, p parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.

  10. Brief report: Association between psychological sense of school membership and mental health among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors.

  11. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745): master satirist, eccentric dean and frustrated lover.

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    Carter, Richard

    2007-08-01

    Jonathan Swift, Irish author and poet, became an Anglican Dean with a macabre interest in medicine. He wrote 'Verses on the Death of Dr Swift' predicting how his death would be received in Dublin and London.

  12. Selecting a Dean of Faculty through a Partially Democratic Process to Improve Health Programs: Short Communication

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    Ali E. Oskouei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dean of Faculties is normally selected by the Chancellor of Universities. The democratic way of selecting a dean of faculties is an innovative procedure that first happened in 2013 at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. A brief survey of the faculties revealed that there were some disadvantages of this procedure. An insufficient number of candidates, obligation in nomination in some cases, casting ballots only by faculty members, and lack of future and strategic plans by candidates are some deficits in the process that brought some risk to the faculties and sometimes unrest to TUMS. These risks made the process more dangerous than it used to be previously, when we used more traditional ways of selecting a dean of faculty. In order to prevent possible risks to the faculty and university, we offer some suggestions to make the ground ready for democratic practices in selecting a dean of faculty.

  13. A survey of deans: trends, challenges, and mentoring in prosthodontics. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert F; Dunlop, Ryan A; Kim, Frances M; Weber, Hans Peter; Donoff, R Bruce

    2008-02-01

    This study consists of two parts. Part 1, a survey of program directors, was conducted to examine current trends in advanced education in prosthodontics in the United States. Part 2 reports on the findings of a survey distributed to the deans of US dental schools to evaluate their observations of trends in prosthodontic education. A national, electronic survey of 55 dental school deans was distributed by e-mail to evaluate an interest in specialty training, an interest in specialization in prosthodontics, faculty shortages, programs to address faculty shortages, predoctoral curriculum in prosthodontics, opinions regarding dental specialties, and the administrative position of prosthodontics within the schools. Of the 55 deans, 44 deans responded, an 80% response rate. Only five deans reported a decrease in the number of students seeking specialty training after dental school. The remaining 39 deans reported a large increase, slight increase, or no change in those seeking specialty training. In 29.6% of the deans' responses, an increased interest in prosthodontics was reported, whereas 16 deans reported no change in the level of interest. One or more open faculty positions in prosthodontics existed at 29 dental schools, and 28 schools offered at least one incentive or a variety of incentives to recruit faculty. The respondents to the deans' survey revealed predoctoral student exposure to prosthodontists was high, and exposure to postgraduate prosthodontics students was low. A survey of internal school programs that might have an impact on an increased interest in prosthodontics revealed the presence of a predoctoral mentoring program for prosthodontics in 80% of the institutions. The clinical curriculum included treatment of a variety of cases, including complex cases as defined by a diagnostic classification system. The response to whether dental specialties should be combined or remain individual provided some interesting data. Only 40.9% of the deans responded

  14. Association between maternal psychological status and fetal hemodynamic circulation in late pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jing; Yang Ruifen; Ma Xiaodong; Xia Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence reported of maternal depression from the first to the third trimester was 7.4%,12.8%,12.0% respectively,which implies that around one-tenth of pregnant women suffer from psychological disorder during the whole pregnancy.It is assumed that during pregnancy the maternal-fetal circulation unit is also affected by maternal psychological status.The aim of this study is to explore the association between maternal psychological status and fetal dynamic blood flow circulation during pregnancy.Methods We recruited 102 singleton low risk pregnant women between 30 to 33 gestational weeks.The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) was used to assess maternal psychological status.Ultrasound Doppler was used to measure blood flow changes in maternal-fetal circulation.Pulsatility index (PI) value was measured in umbilical artery (UA),fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and maternal uterine arteries (UTA).Peak systolic velocity (PSV) was measured in MCA and velocity was measured in umbilical vein (UV).Statistical analysis was performed with standard nonparametric MannWhitney U tests.Two-tailed P values <0.05 were considered statistical significance.Results Of the 102 pregnant women,12 patients show high levels of poor mental health.Women with poor mental health have higher umbilical artery PI values than good mental health patients (P=0.020).A higher MCA PI value is found in poor mental health patients but this does not reach statistical significance (P=0.053).Women with hostility show lower placental scores (P=0.030).Women with somatization demonstrate higher values in UA PI,MCA PI and MCA PSV (P=0.049,0.030 and 0.035 respectively).A higher MCA PSV value is also found in phobic anxiety patients (P=0.046).Conclusions Poor mental health during pregnancy is found to have an adverse effect on maternal-fetal circulation.Umbilical artery and fetal cerebral circulation are more sensitive and affected by maternal psychological disorder.

  15. Are the criteria of Tabar and Dean still relevant to radial scar?

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    Boute, Veronique [Department of Senology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France); Goyat, Isabelle [Department of Senology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France); Denoux, Yves [Department of Pathology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France); Lacroix, Joelle [Department of Senology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France); Marie, Brigitte [Department of Senology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France); Michels, Jean-J. [Department of Pathology, Centre Francois Baclesse, 14076 Caen, Cedex 5 (France)]. E-mail: michels@baclesse.fr

    2006-11-15

    Objective: Aschoff's center of proliferation (ACP), poses significant problems of differential diagnosis both in imagery and histology with infiltrating carcinoma. Up to now the criteria of Tabar and Dean (classical criteria) are considered as diagnostically relevant. Material: A retrospective study of 113 cases, enabled us to study their clinical, radiological and histological aspects. Results: The ACP is a subclinical and seldom palpable entity (12%). The radiological signs of ACP are quite variable. The classical criteria lack specificity and are observed only in 48% of our stellate images. Whereas the frequency of microcalcifications is high (58.5% of the cases), their presence and their type are not predictive of an associated malignancy. The echographic diagnosis of ACP could be made in 55% of the cases but the echographic semiology lacked specificity. We noticed an associated atypical epithelial hyperplasia in 28.5% of the cases, intraductal or lobular in situ carcinoma in 9% and/or a ductal invasive carcinoma in 2% of the cases. Neither tumor size, age of the patients, nor any radiological signs were predictive of such an association. Conclusions: The classical criteria are not completely reliable and are observed only in half of our stellate images, whereas microcalcifications are often present but are not predictive of an associated malignancy.

  16. Associations of sense of coherence with psychological distress and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Thiago H; Andreoulakis, Elias; Alves, Gilberto S; Miranda, Hesley L L; Braga, Lúcia L B C; Hyphantis, Thomas; Carvalho, André F

    2015-06-07

    To investigate the relationship between sense of coherence, psychological distress and health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This cross-sectional study enrolled a consecutive sample of 147 IBD (aged 45.1 ± 14.1 years; 57.1% female) patients recruited from a tertiary gastroenterology service. Sixty-four participants met diagnostic criteria for Crohn's disease, while eighty-three patients had ulcerative colitis. Socio-demographic data (education, age, race, gender, gross monthly income and marital status), disease-related variables (illness activity, relapse rate in past 2 years, history of surgery and time since diagnosis), sense of coherence (Antonovsky's SOC scale), psychological distress symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; WHOQOL-Bref) were assessed. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to identify factors that are independently associated with psychological distress and HRQoL in patients with IBD and to provide indications for possible moderating or mediating effects. In addition, formal moderation and mediation analyses (Sobel tests) were performed to confirm potential moderators/mediators of the relationship between SOC, psychological distress symptoms and HRQoL. Lower SOC scores (std beta= -0.504; P < 0.001), female gender (std beta = 0.176; P = 0.021) and White race (std beta = 0.164; P = 0.033) were independently associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, while lower levels of SOC (std beta = -0.438; P < 0.001) and higher relapse rate (std beta = 0.161; P = 0.033) were independently associated with more severe anxiety symptoms. A significant interaction between time since diagnosis and SOC was found with regard to the severity of depressive or anxiety symptoms, as the interaction term (time since diagnosis X SOC) had beta coefficients of -0.191 (P = 0.009) and -0.172 (P = 0.026), respectively. Lower levels of anxiety symptoms (std beta = -0

  17. Development and evolution of convective bursts in WRF simulations of hurricanes Dean (2007) and Bill (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Andrew Todd

    Understanding and predicting the inner-core structure and intensity change of tropical cyclones (TCs) remains one of the biggest challenges in tropical meteorology. This study addresses this challenge by investigating the formation, structure, and intensity changes resulting from localized strong updrafts in TCs known as convective bursts (CBs). The evolution of CBs are analyzed in high-resolution simulations of two hurricanes (Dean 2007 and Bill 2009) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The simulations are able to capture the observed track and peak intensity of the TCs. With Dean, there is a slight lag between the simulated intensification and actual intensification, and the extreme rate of RI is not fully captured. However, the cycle of intensification, weakening, and re-intensification observed in both TCs is captured in the simulations, and appears to be due to a combination of internal dynamics and the surrounding environmental conditions. CBs are identified based on the 99th percentile of eyewall vertical velocity (over the layer from z = 6-12 km) in each simulation (8.4 m s-1 for Dean, 5.4 m s-1 for Bill). The highest density of CBs is found in the downshear-left quadrant, consistent with prior studies. The structure of the CBs is analyzed by comparing r-z composites of azimuths with CBs and azimuths without CBs, using composite figures and statistical comparisons. The CB composites show stronger radial inflow in the lowest 0-2 km, and stronger radial outflow from the eye to the eyewall in the 2-4 km layer. The CB composites also have stronger low-level vorticity than the non-CBs, potentially due to eyewall mesovortices. The analysis of individual CBs also confirms the importance of the eye-eyewall exchange in CB development, potentially by providing buoyancy, as parcel trajectories show that many parcels are flung outward from the eye and rapidly ascend in the CBs, with as much as 500 J/kg of CAPE along the parcel path. In addition, the

  18. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in an Alzheimer's disease case successfully treated with natural medicine: association with gonadotropins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Tomihisa; Okamoto, Hideki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacotherapies for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are limited; novel agents for the symptoms are still needed. Herein, we report the case of an 80-year-old male patient with Alzheimer's disease whose severe agitation, insomnia and sexual delusions were successfully treated with a traditional natural Japanese (Kampo) medicine, keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to. We found that administrating keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to increased his serum luteinizing hormone level, which could be inversely associated with his behavioural and psychological symptoms. This report suggests that keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to is a possible alternative treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, especially sexual delusions.

  19. Exercise and social support are associated with psychological distress outcomes in a population of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Joanna E; Lawlor, Brian A

    2012-09-01

    Exercise reduces the likelihood of psychological distress, but this may be due to incidental socializing. We gathered information on exercise, social support and three aspects of psychological distress from 583 community-dwelling older adults. Exercise and social support from friends were both associated with lower scores of depression, anxiety and perceived stress. For infrequent exercisers, having a low level of social support indicated higher levels of depression, whereas for frequent exercisers, having a low level of social support did not affect depression levels. Both exercise and social support have roles in regulating psychological well-being in older populations and exercisers are less susceptible to effects of low social support on depression.

  20. The Prevalence of Compassion Fatigue among Veterinary Students in Australia and the Associated Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Michelle L; Andrews, Jena R; Brand, Conor; Hazel, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and other characteristics such as mindfulness and mental health stigma have not been investigated in veterinary students. The aims of this study were twofold: first to determine the prevalence of compassion, satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress among Australian veterinary students and second to investigate the association between these factors and self-stigma, coping, empathy, and mindfulness. A cross-sectional online survey consisting of demographic questions and four validated psychological measures sampled 828 students, with a response rate of 31% (255/828). We obtained a usable sample of completed surveys from 193 of 828 (23%) veterinary students from six of the seven Australian veterinary schools. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations between the psychological predictors and the outcome variables. Approximately 30% of veterinary students were at high risk of burnout, 24% were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress, and 21% reported low compassion satisfaction. High empathic concern, low personal distress, female gender, and employment history at a veterinary clinic were associated with high compassion satisfaction. High dysfunctional coping, low nonjudgmental and acting-with-awareness mindfulness, and lack of previous employment at a veterinary clinic were associated with high burnout. High dysfunctional coping, low acting-with-awareness mindfulness, high self-stigma, and high personal distress were associated with high secondary traumatic stress. As a result of these findings, certain emotional characteristics can be identified as targets for intervention to minimize the frequency and potentially negative impact of compassion fatigue and burnout in veterinary students.

  1. Association and Correlation between Temporomandibular Disorders and Psychological Factors in a Group of Dental Undergraduate Students

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    Divya Sood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire (modified version of Helkimo’s anamnestic index. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess of levels of anxiety (HADSa and depression (HADSd in the dental undergraduate students. Results: Onbasisof the TMD anamnestic index, 74% of students were TMD free. 24.5% of subjects presented with mild degree of TMD and only 1.5% of subjects presented with moderate degree of TMD. According to the results obtained from HADSa, 35.3% of subjects presented with mild anxiety level, 13.8% with moderate anxiety level, and only 1.3% with severe anxiety level. According to the results obtained from HADSd, 10.3% of subjects presented with mild depression level and only 2.3% with moderate depression level. A definite association between TMD degree and Anxiety level (HADSa was found. A definite association between TMD degree and Depression level (HADSd was found. Therewas significant association between TMD degree and occlusion. Conclusions: On the basis of anamnestic index, this study revealed a 26% TMD prevalence in the dental undergraduate students included in the study; majority of cases being of mild degree. Both anxiety and depression were found to be associated with TMD degree/severity. Both anxiety and depression are weakly correlated with TMD in the present study.

  2. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI.

  3. The association between idiopathic environmental intolerance and psychological distress, and the influence of social support and recent major life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Signe; Rasmussen, Alice; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether the association is confounded by social support and major life events. Methods Data were collected by postal questionnaires; other results from...... Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, and the second included individuals who had been diagnosed with environmental intolerance (n = 136). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted with four IEI-related domains, i.e., mucosal and CNS symptoms, chemical intolerances and social...... consequences, as the dependent variables, and psychological distress, social support and major life events as the independent variables. Results Our study confirmed positive and statistically significant associations between psychological distress and IEI. The associations remained statistically significant...

  4. From the American Psychological Association to the American Psychology Association--An Organization for Psychologists or for the Discipline? 2007 Annual Report of the APA Policy and Planning Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Each year, the American Psychological Association's Policy and Planning Board takes the pulse of the Association and the discipline as a whole and writes a report that represents the Board's best appraisal of a fundamental policy. Our main objective, however, is not simply to assess the current situation but to look forward on behalf of the…

  5. Developing Student Critical Thinking Skills through Teaching Psychology: An Interview with Claudio S. Hutz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Tucker, Sherri

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Claudio S. Hutz, who is dean of Instituto de Psicologia at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre, Brazil, where he has been teaching psychology since 1977. Discusses topics such as teaching psychology in Brazil and developing critical thinking skills. (CMK)

  6. Developing Student Critical Thinking Skills through Teaching Psychology: An Interview with Claudio S. Hutz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Tucker, Sherri

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Claudio S. Hutz, who is dean of Instituto de Psicologia at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre, Brazil, where he has been teaching psychology since 1977. Discusses topics such as teaching psychology in Brazil and developing critical thinking skills. (CMK)

  7. Association of anxiety, depression, and psychological distress in people with and without functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Adibi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of FD is less in males than females, but psychological links were stronger in males. Thus, it is essential to consider and detect the psychological distress in these patients.

  8. Renormalized dynamics of the Dean-Kawasaki model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidhoodi, Neeta; Das, Shankar P.

    2015-07-01

    We study the model of a supercooled liquid for which the equation of motion for the coarse-grained density ρ (x ,t ) is the nonlinear diffusion equation originally proposed by Dean and Kawasaki, respectively, for Brownian and Newtonian dynamics of fluid particles. Using a Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) field theory we study the renormalization of the dynamics in a self-consistent form in terms of the so-called self-energy matrix Σ . The appropriate model for the renormalized dynamics involves an extended set of field variables {ρ ,θ } , linked through a nonlinear constraint. The latter incorporates, in a nonperturbative manner, the effects of an infinite number of density nonlinearities in the dynamics. We show that the contributing element of Σ which renormalizes the bare diffusion constant D0 to DR is same as that proposed by Kawasaki and Miyazima [Z. Phys. B Condens. Matter 103, 423 (1997), 10.1007/s002570050396]. DR sharply decreases with increasing density. We consider the likelihood of a ergodic-nonergodic (ENE) transition in the model beyond a critical point. The transition is characterized by the long-time limit of the density correlation freezing at a nonzero value. From our analysis we identify an element of Σ which arises from the above-mentioned nonlinear constraint and is key to the viability of the ENE transition. If this self-energy would be zero, then the model supports a sharp ENE transition with DR=0 as predicted by Kawasaki and Miyazima. With the full model having nonzero value for this self-energy, the density autocorrelation function decays to zero in the long-time limit. Hence the ENE transition is not supported in the model.

  9. Renormalized dynamics of the Dean-Kawasaki model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidhoodi, Neeta; Das, Shankar P

    2015-07-01

    We study the model of a supercooled liquid for which the equation of motion for the coarse-grained density ρ(x,t) is the nonlinear diffusion equation originally proposed by Dean and Kawasaki, respectively, for Brownian and Newtonian dynamics of fluid particles. Using a Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) field theory we study the renormalization of the dynamics in a self-consistent form in terms of the so-called self-energy matrix Σ. The appropriate model for the renormalized dynamics involves an extended set of field variables {ρ,θ}, linked through a nonlinear constraint. The latter incorporates, in a nonperturbative manner, the effects of an infinite number of density nonlinearities in the dynamics. We show that the contributing element of Σ which renormalizes the bare diffusion constant D(0) to D(R) is same as that proposed by Kawasaki and Miyazima [Z. Phys. B Condens. Matter 103, 423 (1997)]. D(R) sharply decreases with increasing density. We consider the likelihood of a ergodic-nonergodic (ENE) transition in the model beyond a critical point. The transition is characterized by the long-time limit of the density correlation freezing at a nonzero value. From our analysis we identify an element of Σ which arises from the above-mentioned nonlinear constraint and is key to the viability of the ENE transition. If this self-energy would be zero, then the model supports a sharp ENE transition with D(R)=0 as predicted by Kawasaki and Miyazima. With the full model having nonzero value for this self-energy, the density autocorrelation function decays to zero in the long-time limit. Hence the ENE transition is not supported in the model.

  10. Evidence of the Association Between Psychology and Tissue and Organ Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J D A; Ariente, L C; Roza, B A; Mucci, S

    2016-09-01

    The addition of psychologists to organ transplant teams is still new in Brazil. In seeking the efficient performance of this professional, the knowledge of the scientific production and the development of research in the area is fundamental. In this sense, this study aims to survey the Brazilian scientific research that has investigated the psychologic aspects involved in tissue and organ transplantation. A literature narrative review was performed with the use of the "Transplante AND Psicologia" descriptors in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the CAPES Journal Portal. Fifty-three articles were found, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria: publications dating from 2000 to 2014 and the main topic of interest of the studies being quality of life, followed by organ donation. The instruments used most frequently were interviews developed by the researchers and the SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire. Recent Brazilian studies on the association between psychology and transplantation are still scarce, possibly because of the recent addition of psychologists to transplantation teams. Therefore, it is suggested that more scientific research is made in the area and that the objects of study are more varied, to ensure adequacy of the psychologist to meet the specific demands of organ and tissue transplantation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association Between Psychological Stress and Stimulation of Inflammatory Responses in Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash MousaviJazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Based on the evidence regarding the relationship between inflammatory processes and stress responses, the present study investigated the association between psychological stress and elevation of inflammatory mediators related to periodontal disease in adult patients.Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 50 patients including 25 patients with chronic periodontitis and 25 cases with aggressive periodontitis. Twenty-five healthy subjects without any evidence of periodontal disorder were also randomly selected as the control group. The clinical parameters including plaque index (PI, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PPD and clinical attachment loss (CAL were recorded and GCF samples were collected for analysis of GCF contents of IL-6 and IL-1β levels. The Kettle stress questionnaire was also used to determine stress severity.Results: IL-1β was significantly higher, but IL-6 was only slightly higher(marginal p-value=0.058The median score of stress was higher in aggressive periodontitis than the chronic disorder and also in the two periodontal disease groups than the healthy subjects. Among studied clinical parameters, CAL and PPD were positively correlated with the GCF IL-1β level. No significant correlations were found between clinical parameters and GCF IL-6 level. There were strong positive relationships between stress severity and in both aggressive and chronic periodontitis; however stress did not influence GCF contents of IL-6.Conclusion: Psychological stress has a pivotal role in the stimulation of inflammatory processes via IL-1β increase in aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

  12. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.

  13. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegard M. Schuller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.

  14. Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P R; Schlinker, P J; Over, R

    1996-06-01

    Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling were identified through factor analysis of ratings provided by 172 bowlers (87 males, 85 females) across a range of current averages (a measure based on recent performance in competition). Skilled bowlers (current average of 170 pins or more) differed significantly from less skilled bowlers (current average of less than 135 pins) on seven component skills. They demonstrated greater mental toughness, a higher degree of planning and evaluation, greater consistency, more interest in improvement, less use of luck attributions, more confidence in equipment and technique, and greater competitiveness. Since men and women of the same overall standard (current average) have similar component skill profiles, ten-pin bowling is a gender-neutral sport. Older bowlers (45-79 years) matched by current average with younger bowlers (16-30 years) differed significantly on only one component, level of commitment. We discuss several contexts for use of the three self-report assessment scales (measures of psychological skills, psychomotor skills and involvement in bowling) developed in this study.

  15. [Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: brief review of the main associated psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, I; Pérez-Marín, M; Montoya-Castilla, I

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a widespread chronic disease among children and adolescents. Diagnosis and evolution usually involves a significant burden on the patient, and their families must change various aspects of their lifestyle to fulfill the demands of treatment. This study aims to identify the main psychological, family, and adjustment to illness features of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM1 and, in particular to highlight the associated psychopathological factors. The methodology involved a systematic literature search in the main scientific databases. Due to the biopsychosocial impact of DM1 usually assumed in the life of the child and family, and how it may compromise the quality of life and emotional well-being of both, different studies have agreed on the importance of identifying the set of psychological factors involved in healthy adjustment to illness in the child and adolescent with DM1. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological distress and quality of life associated with genetic testing for breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley Wilder; Dougall, Angela Liegey; Posluszny, Donna M; Somers, Tamara J; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Baum, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    This study investigated short- and long-term psychological outcomes associated with BRCA1/2 genetic testing in women with a personal or family history of breast cancer. Participants included 126 women considering genetic testing. Questionnaires were administered prior to testing, one week, three and six months after result disclosure. Results indicated no systematic effects of testing based on personal cancer history. Mutation carriers and women who elected not to be tested reported greater perceived risk and intrusive and avoidant thoughts at follow-up time points than did women who received negative (uninformative) or variant results. Mutation carriers reported more distress at the three-month follow-up but by six months the effects of test result on distress dissipated and groups were comparable. Cluster analyses identified two groups of individuals based on distress at baseline; these groups were used to predict psychological outcomes after testing. Distress remained constant in both groups: those who were high at baseline remained high and those who were low remained low. Test results did not moderate this effect. Results suggest that genetic testing for BRCA1/2 does not increase distress or have deleterious effects on quality of life over the long term. However, sub-groups of women may report more distress over time. These data indicate the need for more targeted counseling to individuals who report high levels of distress when considering genetic testing.

  17. Polytraumatization in an adult national sample and its association with psychological distress and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris; Dahlstöm, Örjan; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported experiences of potential childhood traumas and polytraumatization, and to find cut-off values for different kinds of potential traumatic events in a national representative sample of adults in Sweden. In addition, to analyse the association between polytraumatization and both psychological distress and global self-esteem. A web-based survey - containing SCL-25 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Linköping Difficult Life Events Scale - Adult - was sent out to a nationally reprative sample and 5062 people chose to participate in the study. Results showed that almost everyone (97%) has experienced at least one potential traumatic event and that polytraumatization (the 10% of the participants with most reported traumas) was significantly (Z = 12.57, P self-esteem. Gender differences were significant (Z = 8.44, P self-esteem were largest for women with experience of polytraumatization in the age group 18-25 (r = 0.48). There was almost linear increase in psychological distress and linear decrease in self-esteem with increasing number of traumatic events experienced. Experience of polytrauma can be considered an important factor to take into account in psychiatric settings as well.

  18. Orofacial esthetics and dental anxiety: associations with oral and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Blomkvist, Klas; Wide Boman, Ulla

    2014-11-01

    Severe dental anxiety (DA) is associated with both oral health and psychosocial consequences in what has been described as a vicious circle of DA. The aim of this study was to investigate self-rated orofacial esthetics in patients with DA and its relationship to psychological and oral health. A consecutive sample of 152 adult patients who were referred or self-referred to a specialized dental anxiety clinic filled out the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) as well as measurements on DA, self-rated oral health and general anxiety and depression. Clinical measures of dental status were also obtained. Compared with the general population, patients with DA had lower ratings of satisfaction on all aspects of their orofacial esthetics, which included the teeth, gingiva, mouth and face, as well as a global orofacial assessment. Furthermore, the perception of the orofacial appearance was related both to dental status and self-rated oral health, as well as to general anxiety and depression. The level of dissatisfaction with the orofacial appearance was similar for both genders, but women reported more regular dental care and better dental status. The results of this study clearly show less satisfaction with dental and facial appearance in patients with DA, and that the self-rating of orofacial esthetics is related to both oral and psychological health. The OES can be used to assess orofacial esthetics in patients with DA.

  19. Frequent Use of Social Networking Sites Is Associated with Poor Psychological Functioning Among Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Lewis, Rosamund F

    2015-07-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have gained substantial popularity among youth in recent years. However, the relationship between the use of these Web-based platforms and mental health problems in children and adolescents is unclear. This study investigated the association between time spent on SNSs and unmet need for mental health support, poor self-rated mental health, and reports of psychological distress and suicidal ideation in a representative sample of middle and high school children in Ottawa, Canada. Data for this study were based on 753 students (55% female; Mage=14.1 years) in grades 7-12 derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between mental health variables and time spent using SNSs. Overall, 25.2% of students reported using SNSs for more than 2 hours every day, 54.3% reported using SNSs for 2 hours or less every day, and 20.5% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Students who reported unmet need for mental health support were more likely to report using SNSs for more than 2 hours every day than those with no identified unmet need for mental health support. Daily SNS use of more than 2 hours was also independently associated with poor self-rating of mental health and experiences of high levels of psychological distress and suicidal ideation. The findings suggest that students with poor mental health may be greater users of SNSs. These results indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on SNSs in order to provide support to youth.

  20. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  1. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  2. Thought Suppression is Associated with Psychological Distress in Homebound Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Andrew J.; Gum, Amber; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2014-01-01

    Background Engaging in thought suppression as a coping mechanism has been associated with higher rates of anxiety and depressive disorders in younger adults. Homebound older adults are a population of elders experiencing poor health and high levels of depression and anxiety. It is unclear the extent to which psychological factors, such as thought suppression, are associated with distress, given that their health and disability status may be more salient. The aim of this study was to investigate thought suppression in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms in homebound older adults. Methods Participants (N = 142) were clients of home-based case management services delivered by aging service agencies in Florida. Participants were administered a research interview that included the White Bear Suppression Inventory, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnosis (SCID), Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), and Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (3MS). Case managers provided standard assessments containing functional and health status of the participant. Results After controlling for physical health and cognitive functioning, thought suppression was significantly associated with higher likelihood of clinically significant somatic, depressive, and anxiety symptoms on the BSI-18. Thought suppression was also associated with meeting criteria for a SCID depressive or adjustment disorder. Engaging in thought suppression was associated with worse mental health in this sample of homebound older adults even after taking into account physical health, disability, and cognitive functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest the need to develop and test interventions that may address thought suppression as a coping mechanism. PMID:22170756

  3. Reasons why adolescents and young adults have sex: associations with psychological characteristics and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Laura H; Shih, Mei-Chiung; de Moor, Carl; Shrier, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations of psychological characteristics and sexual behavior with types of reasons for episodes of sexual intercourse among youth. After completing a baseline assessment, 62 adolescents (47 female) used a handheld computer to report when they had sex as soon as possible after the event as well as in response to random signals. Youth indicated for each sex event the main reason, categorized as intimacy/desire, external, affect management, and other; analyses were restricted to sex with a main partner (234 events). Baseline sexual behavior was not related to reasons for sex. Higher anxiety was associated with external reasons for sex; younger age and lower self-esteem were associated with affect management reasons. Female youth with higher impulsiveness reported more external reasons and fewer intimacy/desire reasons. Among male youth, lower self-esteem was associated with intimacy/desire reasons, but lower depression was associated with affect management reasons. These findings may aid health care providers and researchers in understanding the differences in young people's motivations for sex.

  4. Psychological diagnostics in the talent development program of the German Soccer Association: A stepwise procedure to examine the relevance of personality characteristics in talented soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Feichtinger, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Sport psychological training and coaching has become increasingly relevant in the context of youth promotion programs in soccer. Likewise, numerous sport psychologists are integrated into support frameworks at clubs and associations. Scientifically sound diagnostics of personality characteristics can be regarded as an important foundation for the optimization of such sport psychological work. The present dissertation examined the relevance of psychological personality characteristics in talen...

  5. Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Parental Psychological Control and Relational Aggression in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Caitlin R; Abaied, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    When studying factors that may heighten risk for relational aggression in youth, it is important to consider characteristics of both the individual and their environment. This research examined the associations between parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression in emerging adults in college. Given that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation may underlie differences between reactive and proactive aggression and has been shown to moderate the effects of parenting on youth development, the moderating role of SNS reactivity [indexed by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR)] was also examined. Emerging adults (N = 180; 77.2 % female) self-reported on perceptions of parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression. SCLR was assessed in response to an interpersonal laboratory challenge task. Parental psychological control was positively associated with reactive relational aggression only for emerging adults who exhibited high SCLR. Parental psychological control was positively associated with proactive relational aggression only among emerging adults who showed low SCLR. This study extends previous research on parenting and aggression and suggests that parental psychological control is differentially associated with reactive versus proactive relational aggression, depending on emerging adults' SCLR to interpersonal stress.

  6. Internet use among older adults: association with health needs, psychological capital, and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M

    2013-05-16

    Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults' computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults' health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. This study examined (1) whether older adults' health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others' homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, Pshopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the odds of using the

  7. Internet Use Among Older Adults: Association With Health Needs, Psychological Capital, and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0

  8. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of

  9. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective

  10. Is there an independent association between burnout and increased allostatic load? Testing the contribution of psychological distress and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Ahola, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Pirkola, Sami

    2016-08-01

    Burnout has been suggested to be related to depression. We examined the relationship between burnout and allostatic load, and whether this association is independent of psychological distress and depression. We measured burnout psychological distress, depression, and allostatic load in 3283 participants. Higher burnout (β = 0.06, p =0.003) and cynicism (β = 0.03, p = 0.031) and decreased professional efficacy (β = 0.03, p = 0.007) were related to higher allostatic load independent of age, sex, education, occupation and psychological distress. Depression, however, explained 60 percent of the association. Burnout is related to higher allostatic load, and this association partly overlaps with co-occurring depression.

  11. Are the American Psychological Association's Detainee Interrogation Policies Ethical and Effective?: Key Claims, Documents, and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    After 9-11, the United States began interrogating detainees at settings such as Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo. The American Psychological Association (APA) supported psychologists' involvement in interrogations, adopted formal policies, and made an array of public assurances. This article's purpose is to highlight key APA decisions, policies, procedures, documents, and public statements in urgent need of rethinking and to suggest questions that may be useful in a serious assessment, such as, "However well intended, were APA's interrogation policies ethically sound?"; "Were they valid, realistic, and able to achieve their purpose?"; "Were other approaches available that would address interrogation issues more directly, comprehensively, and actively, that were more ethically and scientifically based, and that would have had a greater likelihood of success?"; and "Should APA continue to endorse its post-9-11 detainee interrogation policies?"

  12. Age Differences in the Association of Severe Psychological Distress and Behavioral Factors with Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the risk factors of serious psychological distress (SPD and behavioral factors for heart disease separately stratified as young (18–44 years, middle aged (45–64 years, and elderly (65 years or older. A total of 3,540 adults with heart disease and 37,703 controls were selected from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential undercoverage and nonresponse biases. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of the factors with heart disease at different ages. The prevalence of SPD was 8% in cases and 4% in controls, respectively. For young adults, SPD and higher federal poverty level (FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease while for middle-aged adults, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, and unemployment were associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In addition, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, unemployment, White, and lower FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease in elderly. Our findings indicate that risk factors for heart disease vary across all ages. Intervention strategies that target risk reduction of heart disease may be tailored accordingly.

  13. Association of hair iron levels with creativity and psychological variables related to creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M.; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Previous studies have suggested an association between creativity and the dopaminergic system, and that physical activity facilitates creativity. Iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and physical activity. Here, we newly investigated the associations between hair iron levels and creativity, dopamine-related traits and states [novelty seeking, extraversion, and vigor (motivational state)], as well as the physical activity level. In the present study, we addressed this issue by performing a hair mineral analysis to determine iron levels and a behavioral creativity test of divergent thinking and related psychological measures among young adults (254 men, 88 women; mean age 20.79 ± 2.03 years). Iron levels did not show any significant association with creativity but displayed significant positive associations with novelty seeking, extraversion, and physical activity level. These results may be partly congruent with the notion that iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and imply that iron is important for traits and physical activity, which facilitate creativity. Future interventional or longitudinal studies are warranted to identify any causal effects. PMID:24385960

  14. Posttraumatic Psychological Symptoms are Associated with Reduced Inhibitory Control, not General Executive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; McCulloch, Bay; Rosenblatt, Andrew; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2015-05-01

    Although there is mounting evidence that greater PTSD symptoms are associated with reduced executive functioning, it is not fully understood whether this association is more global or specific to certain executive function subdomains, such as inhibitory control. We investigated the generality of the association between PTSD symptoms and executive function by administering a broad battery of sensitive executive functioning tasks to a cohort of returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with varying PTSD symptoms. Only tasks related to inhibitory control explained significant variance in PTSD symptoms as well as symptoms of depression, while measures of working memory, measures of switching, and measures simultaneously assessing multiple executive function subdomains did not. Notably, the two inhibitory control measures that showed the highest correlation with PTSD and depressive symptoms, measures of response inhibition and distractor suppression, explained independent variance. These findings suggest that greater posttraumatic psychological symptoms are not associated with a general decline in executive functioning but rather are more specifically related to stopping automatic responses and resisting internal and external distractions.

  15. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. RESULTS: 547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. CONCLUSIONS: Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  16. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvane Saneei

    Full Text Available Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population.In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was applied to screen for anxiety and depression.After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27 and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15, compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88 and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81 compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16 and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12 than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87 than those with a non-healthy diet.We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.

  17. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. Methods In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01–0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47–0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48–0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10–0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08–0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. Conclusion We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders. PMID:26771311

  18. Socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with psychological distress 1 and 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Olsson, Erik; Hursti, Timo; Lundh, Marie Høyer; Johansson, Birgitta

    2016-09-01

    A large group of women (20-30 %) report psychological distress shortly after breast cancer diagnosis, and some experience continued or increased symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with sustained psychological distress in this patient group. Women with breast cancer (n = 833) completed self-report questionnaires regarding socio-demographic and clinical variables shortly after (T1) and 3 years after diagnosis (T2) while data on illness severity were collected from a quality register. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28 %) at T1 and 231 (28 %) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14 %) women at T1 and 92 (11 %) at T2. Despite non-significant differences in mean scores over time, 91 (15 %) participants reported increased anxiety symptoms and 47 (7 %) reported increased depressive symptoms. Poor financial situation, lack of social support, previous psychiatric treatment, and high levels of fatigue were associated with both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Reporting high levels of fatigue was the variable most strongly associated with increased psychological distress over time. Most participants reported decreased psychological distress over time, but there were subgroups of women who experienced sustained or increased symptoms of anxiety or depression. Participants with poor financial status, previous psychological problems, or high levels of fatigue may be at increased risk of psychological distress. Such individuals may benefit most from psychosocial interventions.

  19. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Burnout among Bank Employees in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xirui Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank

  20. The mediating role of psychological capital on the association between occupational stress and job burnout among bank employees in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui

    2015-03-10

    Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.

  1. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  2. International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology. European Regional Conference: Cognitive Development and Learning from Kindergarten to University. Program and Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hessels, Marco G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts and program of the 2012 European Regional Conference "Cognitive development and learning from kindergarten to university" of the International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology.

  3. International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology. European Regional Conference: Cognitive Development and Learning from Kindergarten to University. Program and Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hessels, Marco G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts and program of the 2012 European Regional Conference "Cognitive development and learning from kindergarten to university" of the International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology.

  4. Different types of exposure to the 2004 tsunami are associated with different levels of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Lars; Michélsen, Hans; Schulman, Abbe; Backheden, Magnus

    2008-10-01

    The impact of traumatic exposure on psychological distress and posttraumatic stress was investigated at 14 months through self-report in 1,505 Swedish tourists who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Exposure, differentiated in single and multiple types, was associated with different levels of impaired mental health measured by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Additionally, having sole exposure to subjective life threat brought about specific psychological effects. Some demographic factors are associated with outcome on either the GHQ or the IES-R. Identifying specific types of exposure of disaster survivors may be a way to identify individuals who could be screened for psychological ill health at a later point in time.

  5. Higher levels of psychological distress are associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes during 18 year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Herr, Raphael; Zijlstra, Wobbe P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews have shown that depression is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is limited evidence for general psychological distress to be associated with incident diabetes. The aim of the present study was to test whether persons who report higher levels...... of psychological distress are a risk factor for the development of diabetes during an 18 year follow up period. This association may be potentially mediated by low energy level and impaired health status....... of psychological distress are at increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes during 18 years follow up, adjusted for confounders. METHODS: A prospective analysis using data from 9,514 participants (41 years, SD=14; 44% men) of the British Household Panel Survey. The General Health Questionnaire 12 item version...

  6. Efficacy of Acupuncture for Psychological Symptoms Associated with Opioid Addiction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Boyuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review systematically assessed the clinical evidence for and against acupuncture as a treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The database was accessed from MEDLINE and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. We included all randomized clinical trials published in Chinese and English regardless of their controls. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan software, version 5.2. We conducted a literature search of 16 databases from their inception to January 2014. Four studies from Western countries did not report any clinical gains in the treatment of psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. 10 of 12 studies from China have reported positive findings regarding the use of acupuncture to treat the psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The methodological quality of the included studies was poor. The meta-analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between the treatment group and the control group for anxiety and depression associated with opioid addiction, although groups did not differ on opioid craving. This review and meta-analysis could not confirm that acupuncture was an effective treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. However, considering the potential of acupuncture demonstrated in the included studies, further rigorous randomized controlled trials with long followup are warranted.

  7. Association Between Resilience and Family Member Psychologic Symptoms in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, Peter D; Lynch, Ylinne; Mealer, Meredith; Moss, Marc

    2016-08-01

    There are increased rates of depression, anxiety, and stress disorders in families of critically ill patients. Interventions directed at family members may help their ability to cope with this stress. Specifically, resilience is a teachable psychologic construct describing a person's ability to adapt to traumatic situations. Resilience can inherently assist individuals to diminish adverse psychologic outcomes. Consequently, we determined the relationship between resilience and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and acute stress in family members of critically ill patients. This is a cross-sectional study. Three medical ICUs were screened by study staff. Family members of ICU patients admitted for greater than 48 hours were approached for enrollment. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale was used to stratify family members as resilient or nonresilient. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and Family Satisfaction in the ICU were collected prior to ICU discharge to measure symptoms of depression, anxiety, and acute stress, as well as satisfaction with care. One-hundred and seventy family members were enrolled. Seventy-eight family members were resilient. Resilient family members had fewer symptoms of anxiety (14.2% vs 43.6%; p Resilient family members were more satisfied with care in the ICU (76.7 vs 70.8; p = 0.008). Resilience remained independently associated with these outcomes after adjusting for family member age and gender, as well as the patient's need for mechanical ventilation. When caring for the critically ill, resilient family members have fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety, and acute stress. Resilient families were generally better satisfied with the care delivered. These data suggest that interventions aimed at increasing resilience may improve a family member's experience in the ICU.

  8. Psychological flexibility and catastrophizing as associated change mechanisms during online Acceptance & Commitment Therapy for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Fox, Jean-Paul; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2015-11-01

    The underlying mechanisms of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic pain need further clarification. The role of, and associations between, pain-related psychological flexibility (PF) and pain catastrophizing (PC) were examined during a randomized controlled trial on internet-based Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT) for chronic pain. We assessed (1) the unique and combined indirect effects of PF and PC on outcomes, and (2) the causality of relations between PF, PC and the primary outcome pain interference in daily life (MPI) during ACT. A total of 238 pain sufferers were allocated to either ACT, a control condition on Expressive Writing, or a waiting list condition. Non-parametric cross-product of coefficients mediational analyses and cross-lagged panel designs were applied. Compared to control conditions, both baseline to post-intervention changes in PF and PC seemed to uniquely mediate baseline to three-month follow-up changes in pain interference and psychological distress. Only PF mediated changes in pain intensity. Indirect effects were twice as large for PF (κ2 = .09-.19) than for PC (κ² PCS = .05-.10). Further assessment of changes during ACT showed, however, that only PF, and not PC, predicted subsequent changes in MPI, while early and late changes in both PF and PC predicted later changes in each other. In conclusion, only PF functioned as a direct, causal working mechanism during ACT, with larger indirect effects that occurred earlier than changes in PC. Additionally, PC may function as an indirect mechanism of change during ACT for chronic pain via its direct influence on PF.

  9. Association between socioeconomic and psychological experiences of parents with children on Leukemia treatment in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyne Anyango Okumu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The survival rate for children with leukemia has increased dramatically since the late 1990s; treatment effects of the disease can be extremely stressful for families. Research on psychological and socioeconomic effects of leukemia treatment had been conducted in Western countries, but little is known within Africa including Kenya. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 62 out of 72 parents of children undergoing leukemia treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data were collected between May and August 2015 using structured questionnaires while qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions. This manuscript is based on quantitative data which were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Psychological distress index was created by counting the number of psychological experiences reported by respondents. Kendall's tau-b was used to test the association between the psychological distress index and socioeconomic characteristics; P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The respondents experienced anxiety, shock, and fatigue. Spending a higher proportion of family's income was associated with higher psychological distress index (P = 0.009. The economic challenge led to significantly heightened tension in the family (P = 0.021. Conclusions: Financial challenge is a major cause of psychological distress thus needs for financial support through collaboration with government institutions, for example, NHIF, development agencies, and nongovernment organization who can contribute toward the treatment cost. Need to decentralize effective leukemia treatment centers. Psychological support and counseling should be done to alleviate tension. The nurse needs to be empathetic when caring for the child and family as well as to apply the ethical principles of justice and beneficence so that the child gets the best care despite the financial challenge.

  10. Psychological Distress Mediates the Association between Food Insecurity and Suboptimal Sleep Quality in Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Chhabra, Jyoti; Osborn, Chandra Y; Wagner, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Evidence increasingly indicates that poor sleep quality is a major public health concern. Household food insecurity (HFI) disproportionately affects Latinos and is a novel risk factor for poor sleep quality. Psychological distress may be a potential mechanism through which HFI affects sleep quality. Sleep, food insecurity, and distress are linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the relations between HFI, psychological distress, and sleep quality and tested whether psychological distress mediates the relation between HFI and sleep in people with diabetes mellitus. Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 121) who completed baseline assessments for the CALMS-D (Community Health Workers Assisting Latinos Manage Stress and Diabetes) stress management intervention trial completed the US Household Food Security Survey, and measures of depressive symptoms [Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8)], anxiety symptoms [Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-short], diabetes distress [Problem Areas in Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID-5)], and sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Psychological distress was operationalized with the PHQ-8, PROMIS-short, and PAID-5 scales. We used unadjusted and adjusted indirect effect tests with bias-corrected bootstrapped 95% CIs on 10,000 samples to test both relations between variables and potential mediation. Mean age was 61 y, 74% were women, and 67% were food insecure. Experiencing HFI was associated with both greater psychological distress and worse sleep quality (P diabetes mellitus distress (adjusted R(2): 0.60, 95% CI: 0.11, 1.32) each mediated the relation between HFI and worse sleep quality with and without adjustment for age, education, income, marital status, and employment status. Household food insecurity is a common and potent household stressor that is associated with suboptimal sleep quality through psychological distress. Efforts to improve food security and

  11. Association between Socioeconomic and Psychological Experiences of Parents with Children on Leukemia Treatment in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Roselyne Anyango; Muiva, Margret; Wagoro, Miriam; Abdallah, Fatmah; Oweya, Erick

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The survival rate for children with leukemia has increased dramatically since the late 1990s; treatment effects of the disease can be extremely stressful for families. Research on psychological and socioeconomic effects of leukemia treatment had been conducted in Western countries, but little is known within Africa including Kenya. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 62 out of 72 parents of children undergoing leukemia treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data were collected between May and August 2015 using structured questionnaires while qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions. This manuscript is based on quantitative data which were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Psychological distress index was created by counting the number of psychological experiences reported by respondents. Kendall's tau-b was used to test the association between the psychological distress index and socioeconomic characteristics; P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The respondents experienced anxiety, shock, and fatigue. Spending a higher proportion of family's income was associated with higher psychological distress index (P = 0.009). The economic challenge led to significantly heightened tension in the family (P = 0.021). Conclusions: Financial challenge is a major cause of psychological distress thus needs for financial support through collaboration with government institutions, for example, NHIF, development agencies, and nongovernment organization who can contribute toward the treatment cost. Need to decentralize effective leukemia treatment centers. Psychological support and counseling should be done to alleviate tension. The nurse needs to be empathetic when caring for the child and family as well as to apply the ethical principles of justice and beneficence so that the child gets the best care despite the financial challenge. PMID:28217728

  12. Association between psychological measures and brain natriuretic peptide in heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Corline; Spindler, Helle; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2012-01-01

    psychological markers using a prospective study design with repeated NT-proBNP measurements. Design: The sample comprised 94 outpatients with systolic HF (80% men; mean age=62.2±9.32). The psychological markers (i.e., anxiety, depression and Type D personality), assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression...... these findings and examine whether psychological risk markers are independent predictors of prognosis in HF or an artifact that may be attributed to other biological or behavioral mechanisms....

  13. Allied health deans' and program directors' perspectives of specialized accreditation effectiveness and reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sarah S; Morrone, Anastasia S; Gable, Karen E

    2004-01-01

    Criticisms, calls for change, and recommendations for specialized accreditation improvement have been made by individuals or groups external to the daily operations of allied health educational programs, frequently as opinion pieces or articles lacking a research foundation. While there is a great deal of concern related to specialized accreditation, little input has been provided from those within, and integral to, allied health educational programs affected by specialized accreditation standards. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of selected allied health deans and program directors regarding specialized accreditation effectiveness and reform. Survey research was used to study perspectives of allied health deans and program directors located in four-year colleges and universities and in academic health centers and medical schools. Surveys were mailed to program directors offering-programs in clinical laboratory sciences and medical technology, nuclear medicine technology, occupational therapy, physical therapy, radiation therapy, and radiography. Simultaneously, allied health deans located within these institutions were surveyed. A total of 773 surveys were mailed and 424 valid responses were received, yielding a response rate of 55%. The results affirmed the role of accreditation as an effective system for assuring quality in higher education. The role of specialized accreditation in improving the quality of allied health programs was clearly articulated by the respondents. Respondents voiced strong opposition to governmental or state-level requirements for accountability and emphasized the vital role of peer evaluators. Significant differences in deans' and program directors' perspectives related to specialized accreditation were evident. Whereas deans and program directors agreed with the purposes of specialized accreditation, they expressed less support for the process and effectiveness, and critique and reform, of specialized

  14. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Nondisclosure as Mediators of the Association between Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E.; Bryant, Fred B.; Boustani, Maya M.; Tyler, Donald; McIntosh, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: African American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and for psychological symptoms, but there has been little investigation of mediating processes that might explain this association. Objectives: This study tested the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent…

  15. Psychological factors associated with the intention to choose for risk-reducing mastectomy in family cancer clinic attendees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, C M G; Oosterwijk, J C; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; van Asperen, C J; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, I A; de Vries, J; Mourits, M J E; Henneman, L; Timmermans, D R M; de Bock, G H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Women seeking counseling because of familial breast cancer occurrence face difficult decisions, such as whether and when to opt for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in case of BRCA1/2 mutation. Only limited research has been done to identify the psychological factors associated with the de

  16. Psychological factors associated with the intention to choose for risk-reducing mastectomy in family cancer clinic attendees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, C M G; Oosterwijk, J C; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; van Asperen, C J; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, I A; de Vries, J; Mourits, M J E; Henneman, L; Timmermans, D R M; de Bock, G H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women seeking counseling because of familial breast cancer occurrence face difficult decisions, such as whether and when to opt for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in case of BRCA1/2 mutation. Only limited research has been done to identify the psychological factors associated with the de

  17. Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van; Wijer, A. de; Genderen, F.R. van; Graaf, Y.D. van; Helders, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Schmitt MA, van Meeteren NL, de Wijer A, van Genderen FR, van der Graaf Y, Helders PJ: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009;88:231-238. Objectives: To examine the relative

  18. Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van; Wijer, A. de; Genderen, F.R. van; Graaf, Y.D. van; Helders, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Schmitt MA, van Meeteren NL, de Wijer A, van Genderen FR, van der Graaf Y, Helders PJ: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009;88:231-238. Objectives: To examine the relative

  19. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merma Molina, Gladys; Peña Alfaro, Hilda; Peña Alfaro González, Silvia Rosa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the "American Psychological Association" (APA). The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific…

  20. Narrating Psychological Distress: Associations between Cross-Clausal Integration and Mental Health Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinken, Jorg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna; Butler, Lisa; Skinner, T. Chas

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress…

  1. Coping Mediates the Association of Mindfulness with Psychological Stress, Affect, and Depression Among Smokers Preparing to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cao, Yumei; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Marcus, Marianne T.; Li, Yisheng; Wetter, David W.

    2017-01-01

    It is not surprising that smoking abstinence rates are low given that smoking cessation is associated with increases in negative affect and stress that can persist for months. Mindfulness is one factor that has been broadly linked with enhanced emotional regulation. This study examined baseline associations of self-reported trait mindfulness with psychological stress, negative affect, positive affect, and depression among 158 smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment trial. Several coping dimensions were evaluated as potential mediators of these associations. Results indicated that mindfulness was negatively associated with psychological stress, negative affect and depression, and positively associated with positive affect. Furthermore, the use of relaxation as a coping strategy independently mediated the association of mindfulness with psychological stress, positive affect, and depression. The robust and consistent pattern that emerged suggests that greater mindfulness may facilitate cessation and attenuate vulnerability to relapse among smokers preparing for cessation. Furthermore, relaxation appears to be a key mechanism underlying these associations. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT00297479. PMID:28191263

  2. Psychology and culturology: A means of cooperating and problems associated with cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaks L.A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the main potential aspects of cooperation between psychology and culturology, which are connected through their mutual determination of the psyche (psychic reality and culture. The paper acknowledges the key importance of the cultural-historical traditions initiated by Lev Vygotsky and his successors as well as the idea that their potential has yet to be realized by contemporary psychology. A new vision of culture is given to culturology (in comparison with traditional cultural studies and its significance in conducting modern psychological research: a novel problematization of psychology’s subject matter and its methodological support. Different aspects of the psyche’s cultural determination, the experience with cultural psychology (historical psychology in researching historical mental types (“Annals school” are reviewed alongside with the role of culture knowledge in analyzing the psychological results of this determination. The consistency of culture and its components represented and internalized by mental structures is announced as a fundamental cultural basis of psychological research. The return influence of psychological phenomena on culture’s various aspects, as well as related cultural and psychological problems, are determined by the fundamental place and role of the psyche in any given cultural system as well as the contradictions that exist between a culture and the psyche. All this requires further examination. One of the most vital contemporary challenges facing psychology is the problem of the mental peculiarities of the consciousness, which can be principally explained in terms of a consistent culturological approach. Interrelationships between the psyche’s properties and conscious cultural functions are shown through example of aesthetic attitude.

  3. Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji

    2014-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style.

  4. Psychological quality of life and its association with academic employability skills among newly-registered students from three European faculties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Ion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses; the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses; and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi, Romania (F3, mainly vocational/professional courses. Method Students who redoubled or who had studied at other universities were excluded. 355 newly-registered first-year students (145 from F1, 125 from F2, and 85 from F3 were invited to complete an online questionnaire (in French, German, English or Romanian covering socioeconomic data, the AES scale and the QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment subscales as measured with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life short-form (WHOQoL-BREF questionnaire. Analyses included multiple regressions with interactions. Results QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment' scores were highest in F1 (Luxembourg, and the QoL-psychological score in F2 (Belgium was the lower. AES score was higher in F1 than in F3 (Romania. A positive link was found between QoL-psychological and AES for F1 (correlation coefficient 0.29, p Conclusions Psychological quality of life is associated with acquisition of skills that increase employability from the faculties offering vocational/applied/professional courses in Luxembourg and Romania, but not their academically orientated Belgian counterparts. In the context of developing a European Higher Educational Area, these measurements are major indicators that can be used as a guide to promoting programs geared towards counseling, improvement of the social environment, and services to assist with university work and facilitate

  5. Should title lengths really adhere to the American Psychological Association's twelve word limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Robert M; Dillner, Kari M

    2016-04-01

    The publication manual for the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that title lengths do not exceed 12 words, yet journals do not prevent longer titles. Here, we examined title lengths in APA journals to see how many exceeded the APA's suggested limit. First, we conducted a systematic analysis of 235 articles in the current issues of 23 APA journals. A total of 52% of titles were more than 12 words long. Second, we examined articles from APA journals that were at least 50 years old to examine whether title lengths have changed over time. Our results suggested that the average title lengths have indeed increased with time. One of 2 courses should be taken. Perhaps science is becoming more complex that longer titles are needed in order to convey the primary message to the reader. If this is the case, then the APA's word limit should be increased. On the other hand, however, maybe editor and reviewers should try to enforce the current word limit to force writers to be succinct. Either way, editors should make their preferences clear so that the trend for longer titles does not continue unchecked.

  6. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Lambert, Sharon F; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.

  7. Peer review of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Experimental studies of the American Psychological Association/CHAMPUS program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L H; Pizzirusso, D

    1982-12-01

    Two factorial experiments examined the effects of reviewer theoretical orientation, documented treatment progress, and patient concurrence data on the peer review of clinical treatment reports that described long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy with a depressed, female outpatient. The experiments employed an unobtrusive methodology; peer reviewers believed that their evaluations would affect the disposition of actual mental health insurance claims. Subjects (n = 105) were American Psychological Association/Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS) peer reviewers of a psychodynamic, behavioral, or eclectic theoretical orientation. The psychodynamic reviewers, compared with the behavioral and eclectic reviewers, were more positive in their ratings of treatment and more generous in their future care reimbursement recommendations. Additionally, the data demonstrated that APA/CHAMPUS peer review was sensitive to reported treatment progress, and that reviewers of diverse orientations were equally responsive to documented progress in psychodynamic psychotherapy. The patient concurrence manipulation had little effect on the dependent measures. Implications for mental health quality assurance programs are discussed.

  8. Explaining the Association between Early Adversity and Young Adults' Diabetes Outcomes: Physiological, Psychological, and Behavioral Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Bae, Dayoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2017-01-31

    Previous studies have documented that early adversity increases young adults' risk for diabetes resulting in morbidity and comorbidity with adverse health conditions. However, less is known about how inter-related physiological (e.g., body mass index [BMI]), psychological (e.g., depressive symptoms), and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior) link early adversity to young adults' diabetes outcomes, although these mechanisms appear to stem from early stressful experiences. The current study tested the patterning of these longitudinal pathways leading to young adults' diabetes using a nationally representative sample of 13,286 adolescents (54% female) over a period of 13 years. The findings indicated that early adversity contributed to elevated BMI, depressive symptoms, and stress-related health behaviors. The impact of these linking mechanisms on hierarchical diabetes outcomes (i.e., prediabetes and diabetes) remained significant after taking their associations with each other into account, showing that these mechanisms operate concurrently. The findings emphasize the importance of early detection for risk factors of young adults' diabetes in order to minimize their detrimental health effects.

  9. Behavioral and Psychological Factors Associated with 12-Month Weight Change in a Physical Activity Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Napolitano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.

  10. Causal reasoning versus associative learning: A useful dichotomy or a strawman battle in comparative psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The debate about whether or not one could/should ascribe reasoning abilities to animals has deep historical roots and seems very up-to-date in the light of the immense body of new empirical data originating from various species and research paradigms. Associative learning (AL) seems to be a ubiquitous low-level contender for any cognitive interpretation of animal behavior, mostly because of the assumed mechanistic simplicity and phylogenetic prevalence. However, the implicit assumption that AL is simple and therefore the most parsimonious mechanism to describe seemingly complex behavior can and must be questioned on various grounds. Using recent empirical findings with chimpanzees as an example, I argue that at times inferential reasoning might be the most likely candidate to account for performance differences between experimental and control conditions. Finally, a general conclusion drawn from the current debate(s) in the field of comparative psychology could be that a dichotomist battle of 2 conceptual camps-each of which is lacking a clear and homogeneous theoretical framework-is a scientific deadlock. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Association of genetic and psychological factors with persistent pain after cosmetic thoracic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimova V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Violeta Dimova,1–3 Jörn Lötsch,3 Kathrin Hühne,4 Andreas Winterpacht,4 Michael Heesen,5 Andreas Parthum,1,2 Peter G Weber,6 Roman Carbon,6 Norbert Griessinger,2 Reinhard Sittl,2 Stefan Lautenbacher1 1Physiological Psychology, Otto-Friedrich University Bamberg, 2Pain Center, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, 3Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 4Department of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany; 5Department of Anaesthesia, Kantonsspital Baden, Baden, Switzerland; 6Department of Pediatric Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany Abstract: The genetic control of pain has been repeatedly demonstrated in human association studies. In the present study, we assessed the relative contribution of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pain-related genes, such as cathechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT, fatty acid amino hydrolase gene (FAAH, transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 gene (TRPV1, and δ-opioid receptor gene (OPRD1, for postsurgical pain chronification. Ninety preoperatively pain-free male patients were assigned to good or poor outcome groups according to their intensity or disability score assessed at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after funnel chest correction. The genetic effects were compared with those of two psychological predictors, the attentional bias toward positive words (dot-probe task and the self-reported pain vigilance (Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [PVAQ], which were already shown to be the best predictors for pain intensity and disability at 6 months after surgery in the same sample, respectively. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant effects of any of the genetic predictors up to the end point of survival time at 1 year after surgery. Adding the genetics to the prediction by the attentional bias to positive words for pain intensity and the PVAQ for pain disability, again

  12. The Association Between Medical Treatment of Physical Diseases and Psychological Distress After the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Shichigahama Health Promotion Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Tsuchiya, Naho; Tsuji, Ichiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2015-08-01

    Physical disease patients are known to experience high levels of psychological distress. This study examined the association between the medical treatment of physical diseases and psychological distress in the coastal area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Using cross-sectional data, we studied 3032 individuals aged ≥40 years who lived in Shichigahama, Miyagi, Japan. We examined the associations between 8 medical treatments for physical diseases and psychological distress, defined as Kessler Psychological Distress scale score ≥13 of 24 points. To investigate the associations, we performed multiple logistic regression analyses. There were statistically significant associations between psychological distress and medical treatments for myocardial infarction/angina pectoris (odds ratio [OR]=1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.0-3.0) and liver disease (OR=3.1, 95% CI=1.0-7.7). The other 4 medical treatments for physical diseases had ORs of 1.3 or higher and were positively associated with psychological distress: cancer, hyperlipidemia, kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. The degree of damage to homes did not affect the association between most of the medical treatments for physical diseases and psychological distress. In the disaster area, most of the medical treatments for physical diseases had positive associations with psychological distress, irrespective of the degree of damage to homes.

  13. Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. PMID:22924900

  14. Suicidal Behavior Among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in Medical Care in Estonia and Factors Associated with Receiving Psychological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-09-24

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.

  15. Strategies Deans and Vice-Presidents Can Use to Enhance Teaching in Their Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Lee H.; Lynch, David M.

    Four strategies that deans and vice-presidents can use to enhance teaching are suggested. The first strategy is to seek out and fund teaching support activities that are the state of the art in each discipline. The second is to reward professors for excellence in teaching more than for excellence in research. Third, administrators should develop…

  16. Academic Libraries and High-Impact Practices for Student Retention: Library Deans' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies on retention have highlighted the role of student engagement in influencing students' withdrawal decisions. This study seeks to address how academic libraries affect student retention by examining the perception of academic library deans or directors on the alignment between library services and resources with ten nationally…

  17. A Profile of Deans of Schools and Colleges of Journalism and Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Dennis J.; Applegate, Edd

    2001-01-01

    Considers how many people hire persons whose backgrounds reflect their own training and experience. Looks at the backgrounds of those persons that hold the title of "dean" at ACEJMC(Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications)-accredited colleges and schools of journalism and mass communication. Provides a solid baseline…

  18. Reflections on Dean Truman Pierce as Educator, Boss, Mentor and Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J. Foster

    2012-01-01

    The author was invited to submit a reflective piece relative to his relationships with Dean Truman Pierce over the years to be presented on "The 30th Anniversary Celebration of the Truman Pierce Institute" at Auburn University. It was included in the program for the event.

  19. "Bridge over Troubled Water": Phenomenologizing Filipino College Deans' Ethical Dilemmas in Academic Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catacutan, Maria Rosario G.; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2016-01-01

    This phenomenological study intends to capture and describe Filipino college deans' lived experiences of ethical dilemmas as they carry out their work as administrators. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews and following Collaizzi's method, data was collected and subjected to cool and warm analyses yielding a set of themes and sub-themes that…

  20. Faculty Career Planning: Report from the Board of Deans, University of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    In response to various budgetary and educational considerations the Board of Deans of the University of Washington made a detailed analysis of the mix of tenure and non-tenure faculty in each department, school and college; projecting for the next decade, on the basis of various assumptions with respect to resignation, termination, retirements,…

  1. Perceived Leadership Soft Skills and Trustworthiness of Deans in Three Malaysian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Keow Ngang; Ariratana, Wallapha; Treputharan, Saowanee

    2013-01-01

    Soft skills comprised both rational and emotional elements, becoming a new focus on leadership, as behavior displayed during interaction with other individuals will affect effective interaction outcomes. This study aimed to examine the leadership soft skills of deans in public universities of Malaysia. This survey designed research was performed…

  2. Ethical Decision-Making in Academic Administration: A Qualitative Study of College Deans' Ethical Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catacutan, Maria Rosario G.; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical decision-making in school administration has received considerable attention in educational leadership literature. However, most research has focused on principals working in secondary school settings while studies that explore ethical reasoning processes of academic deans have been significantly few. This qualitative study aims to…

  3. Leading Schools of Education in the Context of Academic Capitalism: Deans' Responses to State Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    State education policy changes have contributed to a reduced interest in teaching and a decreased enrollment in education degree programs in North Carolina, USA. Pressure to cut budgets and generate revenue has added to a climate of academic capitalism influencing the ways in which deans lead schools of education. The purpose of this mixed-methods…

  4. Leading the Way: The Role of Presidents and Academic Deans in Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, J. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    The concept of actively leading constituents, internal and external, is second nature to many university administrators in most areas, except one: fundraising. For many university presidents and academic deans, it's a part of the job that is not well defined or well understood. They know there is an expectation that private funds will flow into…

  5. The Role and Value of Global Business Research: Perspective of a Business School Dean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this article is two-fold. First, it looks at business research in general, in various countries, as a task that the dean wants to have faculty members pursue, to attain goals such as accreditation and ranking with organizations such as the "AACSB," "Equis," the "Financial Times," and "US News &…

  6. Business Schools and Resources Constraints: A Task for Deans or Magicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Fernando A.; Avolio, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges that face the deans of many business schools is obtaining funding for their academic operations and research to sustain world-class educational quality. Business schools raise resources in their own way, but ways of financing strongly vary when comparing educational institutions among world regions. The purpose of this…

  7. Perceived Leadership Soft Skills and Trustworthiness of Deans in Three Malaysian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Keow Ngang; Ariratana, Wallapha; Treputharan, Saowanee

    2013-01-01

    Soft skills comprised both rational and emotional elements, becoming a new focus on leadership, as behavior displayed during interaction with other individuals will affect effective interaction outcomes. This study aimed to examine the leadership soft skills of deans in public universities of Malaysia. This survey designed research was performed…

  8. A repertoire of leadership attributes: an international study of deans of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Lesley; Cross, Wendy; Jackson, Debra; Daly, John

    2015-04-01

    To determine which characteristics of academic leadership are perceived to be necessary for nursing deans to be successful. Effective leadership is essential for the continued growth of the discipline. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 30 deans (academics in universities who headed a nursing faculty and degree programmes) was conducted in three countries--Canada, England and Australia. The conversations were analysed for leadership attributes. Sixty personal and positional attributes were nominated by the participants. Of these, the most frequent attribute was 'having vision'. Personal attributes included: passion, patience, courage, facilitating, sharing and being supportive. Positional attributes included: communication, faculty development, role modelling, good management and promoting nursing. Both positional and personal aspects of academic leadership are important to assist in developing a succession plan and education for new deans. It is important that talented people are recognised as potential leaders of the future. These future leaders should be given every chance to grow and develop through exposure to opportunities to develop skills and the attributes necessary for effective deanship. Strategic mentoring could prove to be useful in developing and supporting the growth of future deans of nursing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Threads in Our Cultural Fabric: A Conversation with Walter Dean Myers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Roger

    1994-01-01

    Presents an interview with Walter Dean Myers, the 1994 recipient of the Margaret A. Edwards Award for his novels depicting African American teenagers in urban America. Highlights include black stereotypes; writing from a black point of view; writing about a culture that's not your own; and readers identifying with characters. (LRW)

  10. Leading Schools of Education in the Context of Academic Capitalism: Deans' Responses to State Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    State education policy changes have contributed to a reduced interest in teaching and a decreased enrollment in education degree programs in North Carolina, USA. Pressure to cut budgets and generate revenue has added to a climate of academic capitalism influencing the ways in which deans lead schools of education. The purpose of this mixed-methods…

  11. Financial and psychological risk attitudes associated with two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nicotine receptor (CHRNA4 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Roe

    Full Text Available With recent advances in understanding of the neuroscience of risk taking, attention is now turning to genetic factors that may contribute to individual heterogeneity in risk attitudes. In this paper we test for genetic associations with risk attitude measures derived from both the psychology and economics literature. To develop a long-term prospective study, we first evaluate both types of risk attitudes and find that the economic and psychological measures are poorly correlated, suggesting that different genetic factors may underlie human response to risk faced in different behavioral domains. We then examine polymorphisms in a spectrum of candidate genes that affect neurotransmitter systems influencing dopamine regulation or are thought to be associated with risk attitudes or impulsive disorders. Analysis of the genotyping data identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the gene encoding the alpha 4 nicotine receptor (CHRNA4, rs4603829 and rs4522666 that are significantly associated with harm avoidance, a risk attitude measurement drawn from the psychology literature. Novelty seeking, another risk attitude measure from the psychology literature, is associated with several COMT (catechol-O-methyl transferase SNPs while economic risk attitude measures are associated with several VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter SNPs, but the significance of these associations did not withstand statistical adjustment for multiple testing and requires larger cohorts. These exploratory results provide a starting point for understanding the genetic basis of risk attitudes by considering the range of methods available for measuring risk attitudes and by searching beyond the traditional direct focus on dopamine and serotonin receptor and transporter genes.

  12. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....

  13. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...

  14. Do motivations for using Facebook moderate the association between Facebook use and psychological well-being?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory...

  15. A white dean and black physicians at the epicenter of the civil rights movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deShazo, Richard D; Smith, Robert; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin

    2014-06-01

    Robert Q. Marston, MD, a gregarious Rhodes and Markel Scholar, native Virginian, and well-connected National Institutes of Health-trained medical scientist found himself the new dean and hospital director of a promising academic medical center at age 38. It was 1961 and the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) in Jackson was, unknown to him, about to be at the geographic center of the struggle for African American civil rights. That struggle would entangle UMMC in a national search for social justice and change the course of American history and American medicine. Shortly after his arrival, the new dean received and refused a written request from the Secretary of the Mississippi Chapter of the National Medical Association (NMA) to make educational venues at the segregated medical center available to black physicians. The same year, UMMC became the primary medical provider for sick and injured Freedom Riders, sit-in and demonstration participants, and others who breached the racial divide defined by the state's feared Sovereignty Commission. That divide was violently enforced by collaboration among law enforcement, Citizens' Councils, and the Ku Klux Klan. The crescendo of the civil rights struggle that attended Marston's arrival included a deadly riot following James Meredith's integration of the Ole Miss campus in Oxford in 1962, the death of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Field Secretary Medgar Evers at UMMC in 1963, a national controversy over UMMC's role in the autopsies of 3 civil rights workers murdered in Neshoba County, an attempt at limited compliance to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and a federal civil rights complaint against UMMC by the NAACP Legal and Educational Fund in 1965. That complaint noted that UMMC was out of compliance with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and seriously threatened its federal funding and academic operations. Marston developed a compliance strategy that included the hiring

  16. Relationships between Drug Company Representatives and Medical Students: Medical School Policies and Attitudes of Student Affairs Deans and Third-Year Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierles, Frederick; Brodkey, Amy; Cleary, Lynn; McCurdy, Frederick A.; Mintz, Matthew; Frank, Julia; Lynn, Deborah Joanne; Chao, Jason; Morgenstern, Bruce; Shore, William; Woodard, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors sought to ascertain the details of medical school policies about relationships between drug companies and medical students as well as student affairs deans' attitudes about these interactions. Methods: In 2005, the authors surveyed deans and student affairs deans at all U.S. medical schools and asked whether their schools…

  17. Associations between psychological factors and the effect of home-based physical exercise in women with chronic neck and shoulder pain

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exercise is often used in the treatment of chronic neck and shoulder muscle pain. It is likely that psychological aspects have an impact on the results of exercise-based treatments. Objectives: (1) To examine the associations between psychological factors and the effect of a home-based physical exercise intervention. (2) To examine differences in psychological factors at baseline between (a) subjects who continued in the trial and those who did not and (b) subjects who completed t...

  18. Psychological Resources are Associated with Reduced Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease. An 8-Year Follow-up of a Community-Based Swedish Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Oskar; Garvin, Peter; Jonasson, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Kristenson, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of studies have provided clear evidence for a link between the risk of coronary heart disease and psychological risk factors. Much less attention has been given to the potential protective effect of psychological resources. Purpose The major aim of this study was to investigate the independent association between psychological resources and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in an 8-year follow-up study of a Swedish community-based cohort. Methods The cohort c...

  19. Association of psychological distress and work psychosocial factors with self-reported musculoskeletal pain among secondary school teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri, E. N.; Moy, F. M.; Hoe, V. C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role. Objectives To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP) in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP. Results The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 45.2%, 50.9%) and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9%) respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75), high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57), low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43), low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Conclusions Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work

  20. Psychological wellbeing and posttraumatic stress associated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in young adults with genetic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; Sarina, Tanya; Kasparian, Nadine; Semsarian, Christopher

    2013-10-09

    Sudden cardiac death is a tragic complication of a number of genetic heart diseases. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy plays an important role in prevention of sudden death. The psychological consequences of ICD therapy in young people with genetic heart disease are poorly understood. This study sought to better understand psychological wellbeing and identify symptoms of posttraumatic stress in young people who had experienced an ICD shock. Eligible patients (ICD implanted over 12 months prior) with an inherited cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmogenic disorder, enrolled in the Australian Genetic Heart Disease Registry were included. Ninety patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Those patients who had an ICD shock (n=31) also completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R). While the mean HADS-Anxiety and IES-R scores were within the normal range in the total group (n=90), a significant subgroup reported symptoms of anxiety (38%), depression (17%) and posttraumatic stress (31%) indicative of the potential need for referral to clinical care. Overall, greater psychological distress in ICD patients was associated with female gender, a history of syncope, other comorbid medical conditions, and reporting of other distressing events (i.e., ICD complications). In those with an ICD shock, higher posttraumatic stress scores were associated with female gender and longer time to first shock. Patients with genetic heart diseases can experience psychological difficulties, including anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress, related to ICD implantation and subsequent shocks. This signals the importance of offering patients access to targeted interventions, including psychological care and support. © 2013.

  1. An Initial Exploration of the Association between Psychological Distress and Sedentary Behaviour in First Year Undergraduates. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Graham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available University students are reported to have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than the general population. Consequently, research surrounding factors that may contribute to poor mental health of students is imperative in order to identify interventions for this at-risk population. Previous research has determined that sedentary behaviour is associated with physical health, with an emerging focus on the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health. As the role of student consists of primarily sedentary behaviours such as reading, writing and computer use, the relationship between these activities and student mental wellbeing is particularly relevant. The presentation reported on the findings of study conducted on a sample of first year undergraduates and their reported levels of psychological distress and use of time. The findings highlight the diverse and demanding lifestyles of today’s student and the need for further research into student mental well-being.

  2. Associations between psychological distress and the most concerning present personal problems among working-age men in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koji; Eguchi, Hisashi; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Okahisa, Jun; Smith, Derek R

    2015-03-31

    Personal problems are known to influence mental health among workers. The current study investigated the most concerning present personal problems which have the greatest impact on psychological distress among working-age Japanese men, rather than issues relating to work tasks or duties. We obtained data from the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The original survey interviewed 289,363 households in 5,150 randomly selected municipalities of Japan, from which 228,664 households agreed to participate. We analyzed the data pertaining to men who were 20 to 59 years of age and the head of a family. The questionnaire included occupation, employment status, the most concerning present personal problems, and a measure of psychological distress (the Kessler 6 scale). Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to delineate the association between present personal problems and psychological distress. A total of 76,950 males were included in the analysis, 27.7% of whom reported some type of psychological distress. Statistical analysis revealed that psychological distress was associated with bullying and harassment (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.05, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.50-2.56), divorce (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.53-2.26), concerns about one's purpose in life (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.59-1.88), personal relationships with family members (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.37-1.60), personal relationships with others (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.29-1.48), own diseases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.15-1.33), and financial difficulties (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.12-1.20); when compared with problems related to work tasks or duties. Several personal factors appear to have a greater impact on the mental health of Japanese men of working age, when compared to the influence of work tasks or duties. Asking workers directly about the problems that most concern them in life might help better identify those in need psychological support

  3. Association of psychological risk factors and acute myocardial infarction in China: the INTER-HEART China study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; LI Wei; Koon Teo; WANG Xing-yu; LIU Li-sheng; Salim Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Background Most data about psychological factors relating to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained from studies carried out in western countries. Results from small descriptive cross-sectional studies in China were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between psychological risk factors and AMI among the Chinese population with a large-scale case-control study.Methods This study was part of the INTER-HEART China study, itself part of the large international INTER-HEART study of cardiovascular risk factors. In this case-control study, 2909 cases and 2947 controls were recruited from 17 cities.Psychological stress, negative life events, depression and controllability of life circumstances were assessed.Results Cases reported more psychological stress at home or work and odds ratios (ORs) were 3.2 (95% CI 2.1-4.9)for permanent stress and 2.1 (95% CI 1.5-2.8) for several periods of stress respectively. More cases experienced depression compared with controls (19.6% vs. 9.3%) and ORs were 2.2 (95% CI 1.9-2.6). Subjects with 1, 2 and 3 or more depressive symptoms had increased risk of AMI by 2.1, 2.2 and 2.6 fold, respectively, i.e., more depressive symptoms were associated with higher risks of AMI (P for trend <0.0001). Women had a greater risk of AMI from depression (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.2-4.0) compared to men (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6-2.4), P for interaction =0.0364. Negative life events in subjects were associated with increased risk of AMI, OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.0) for one event and 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4) for two or more events. High levels of controllability of life circumstances reduced the risk for AMI (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.7-1 .0).Conclusions Several psychological factors were closely associated with increased AMI risk among Chinese population.Psychological stress had a greater AMI risk in men but depression was more significant among women.

  4. Psychological processes underlying the association between childhood trauma and psychosis in daily life:an experience sampling study

    OpenAIRE

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte Emily Juliette; Valmaggia, Lucia Rita; Kempton, Matthew; Calem, Maria De Almeida Ribeiro; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Hubbard, Kathryn Mary Frances; Dazzan, Paola; Beards, Stephanie Frances Richmond; Fisher, Helen; Mills, John Gregory; McGuire, Philip; Craig, Tom K.J; Garety, Philippa Anne; Van Os, Johannas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. Method: We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure str...

  5. Chronic neck pain. An epidemiological, psychological and SPECT study with emphasis on whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Michel

    2006-02-01

    Chronic neck pain, a common cause of disability, seems to be the result of several interacting mechanisms. In addition to degenerative and inflammatory changes and trauma, psychological and psychosocial factors are also involved. One common type of trauma associated with chronic neck pain is whiplash injury; this sometimes results in whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), a controversial condition with largely unknown pathogenetic mechanisms. We studied the prevalence of chronic neck pain of traumatic and non-traumatic origin and compared the prevalence of, sociodemographic data, self-perceived health, workload and chronic low-back pain in these groups. In a ready-made questionnaire (MONICA study), we added questions about cervical spine and low-back complaints. 6,000 (72%) completed a self-administered questionnaire. 43% reported neck pain: 48% of women and 38% of men. Women of working age had more neck pain than retired women, a phenomenon not seen in men. 19% of the studied population suffered from chronic neck pain and it was more frequent in women. A history of neck trauma was common in those with chronic neck pain. Those with a history of neck trauma perceived their health worse and were more often on sick-leave. About 50% of those with traumatic and non-traumatic chronic neck pain also had chronic low-back pain. We assessed the subjective and objective neuropsychological functioning in 42 patients with chronic neck pain, 21 with a whiplash trauma, and 21 without previous neck trauma. Despite cognitive complaints, the WAD patients had normal neuropsychological functioning, but the WAD group especially had deviant MMPI results-indicating impaired coping ability and somatization. WAD patients had no alterations in cerebral blood-flow pattern, as measured by rCBF-SPECT and SPM analysis, compared to healthy controls. This contrasts with the non-traumatic group with chronic neck pain, which showed marked blood-flow changes. The blood-flow changes in the non

  6. In Systemic Sclerosis, Anxiety and Depression Assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale Are Independently Associated with Disability and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV, hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening, global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT. Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (. HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (. By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (, RSES (, and MHISS total score (, together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (, COPE-NIV SA (, COPE-NIV SS (, FACIT-F (, and MHISS mouth opening (, explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.

  7. A prospective study on the association between caregiver psychological symptomatology and symptom clusters of pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shane Shucheng; Kletter, Hilit; Wong, Yukwal; Carrion, Victor G

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of caregiver psychological symptoms on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in traumatized children. One-hundred eleven children and caretakers were assessed in this study. Children (N = 59) with a history of exposure to interpersonal violence were evaluated for reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal symptom clusters using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA). The 52 primary caregivers were evaluated using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) on 9 domains of psychological symptomatology: anxiety, depression, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, paranoid ideation, phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and somatization. At 14-month follow-up, 45 of the children were re-evaluated with the CAPS-CA. Caregiver psychological symptoms in the domains of anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and paranoid ideation were associated with less improvement in total pediatric PTSD symptoms. Analysis of PTSD symptoms by cluster showed that greater caregiver symptomatology in the domains of anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were associated with less improvement in the hyperarousal symptom cluster. These results suggest caregiver symptomatology may be specifically associated with hyperarousal symptoms in pediatric trauma.

  8. Moderating effects of salivary testosterone levels on associations between job demand and psychological stress response in Japanese medical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Miwa, Machiko; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-06-10

    Levels of job stress have been shown to be inversely associated with testosterone levels, but some inconsistent results have been documented. We investigated the moderating effects of testosterone levels on associations between job stress-factors and psychological stress responses in Japanese medical workers. The participants were 63 medical staff (20 males and 43 women; mean age: 30.6 years; SD=7.3) in Okayama, Japan. Their job-stress levels and psychological stress responses were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires, and their salivary testosterone collected. Multiple regression analyses showed that job demand was positively associated with stress responses in men and women. An interaction between testosterone and support from colleagues had a significant effect on depression and anxiety for women. In women with lower testosterone levels, a reducing effect of support from colleagues on depression and anxiety was intensified. In women with higher testosterone levels, depression and anxiety levels were identical regardless of support from colleagues. Testosterone may function as a moderator between perceived work environment and psychological stress responses for female medical workers.

  9. Emotion reactivity and regulation are associated with psychological functioning following the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sarah R; Fitzgerald, Erin J; Urry, Heather L

    2014-04-01

    Frequent and successful use of cognitive reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy that involves rethinking the meaning of an emotional event in order to change one's emotional response, has been linked in everyday life to positive outcomes such as higher well-being. Whether we should expect this association to be maintained in a strong, temporally and spatially close emotional context is an unexplored question that might have important implications for our understanding of emotion regulation and its relations to psychological functioning. In this study of members of the U. S. Embassy Tokyo community in the months following the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis in Japan, self-reported use of cognitive reappraisal was not related to psychological functioning, but demonstrated success using cognitive reappraisal to decrease feelings of unpleasantness in response to disaster-related pictures on a performance-based task was associated with fewer symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Moreover, emotional reactivity to these pictures was associated with greater symptomatology. These results suggest that situational intensity may be an important moderator of reappraisal and psychological functioning relationships.

  10. 5HTT is associated with the phenotype psychological flexibility: results from a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Andrew T; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hamm, Alfons; Höfler, Michael; Alpers, Georg W; Kircher, Tilo; Ströhle, Andreas; Lang, Thomas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Deckert, Jürgen; Reif, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Adaption to changing environments is evolutionarily advantageous. Studies that link genetic and phenotypic expression of flexible adjustment to one's context are largely lacking. In this study, we tested the importance of psychological flexibility, or goal-related context sensitivity, in an interaction between psychotherapy outcome for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG) and a genetic polymorphism. Given the established role of the 5HTT-LPR polymorphism in behavioral flexibility, we tested whether this polymorphism (short group vs. long group) impacted therapy response as a function of various endophenotypes (i.e., psychological flexibility, panic, agoraphobic avoidance, and anxiety sensitivity). Patients with PD/AG were recruited from a large multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial on cognitive-behavioral therapy. Pre- to post-treatment changes by 5HTT polymorphism were analyzed. 5HTT polymorphism status differentiated pre- to post-treatment changes in the endophenotype psychological flexibility (effect size difference d = 0.4, p < 0.05), but none of the specific symptom-related endophenotypes consistently for both the intent-to-treat sample (n = 228) and the treatment completers (n = 194). Based on the consistency of these findings with existing theory on behavioral flexibility, the specificity of the results across phenotypes, and the consistency of results across analyses (i.e., completer and intent to treat), we conclude that 5HTT polymorphism and the endophenotype psychological flexibility are important variables for the treatment of PD/AG. The endophenotype psychological flexibility may help bridge genetic and psychological literatures. Despite the limitation of the post hoc nature of these analyses, further study is clearly warranted.

  11. Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent bullying may be a key driver of interest in cosmetic surgery. This study examined the extent of such interest and whether any effect was sex-specific, and examined psychological functioning as a potential mechanism through which bullying involvement may lead to a wish for cosmetic surgery. A two-stage design was used. In the first stage, 2782 adolescents (aged 11 to 16 years) were screened for bullying involvement using self-reports and peer nominations. In the second stage, 752 adolescents who were bullies, victims, bully-victims, or uninvolved in bullying reported their desire for cosmetic surgery. Psychological functioning was constructed as a composite of self-esteem and emotional problems (assessed at stage 1) and body-esteem scores (assessed at stage 2). Adolescents involved in bullying in any role were significantly more interested in cosmetic surgery than uninvolved adolescents. Desire for cosmetic surgery was greatest in adolescents who were bullied (victims and bully-victims) and girls. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in girls, but sex did not interact with bullying role. Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. In contrast, desire for cosmetic surgery in bullies was not related to psychological functioning, which was in the normal range. Bullying victimization is related to poor psychological functioning, and both are related to a greater desire for cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and may want to include a short screening questionnaire for a history of peer victimization.

  12. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Certified Athletic Trainers' Perceptions of the Benefits of Sport Psychology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Martin, Scott B.; Wrisberg, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. Objective:  To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Design:  Quantitative study. Setting:  A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Results:  Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P emotion, improving coping techniques, and building confidence (ie, confidence in returning to sport and building confidence). Chi-square analyses indicated that female ATs' ratings of perceived benefits were higher (P ≤ .001) than those of male ATs, and the ratings of ATs who were likely to encourage the use of SPCs were higher (P ≤ .001) than those who were unlikely to encourage SPC service use. Conclusions:  Athletic trainers in our study who had previous positive SPC experiences were most likely to use SPCs and their services during the injury-rehabilitation process. Possible implications are offered for how ATs interested in sport psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured

  13. The 2002 Revision of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Rosemary; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Jacob, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct has been recently revised. The organization of the code changed, and the language was made more specific. A number of points relevant to school psychology are explicitly stated in the code. A clear advantage of including these items in the code is the assistance to school psychologists…

  14. Trajectories of Discrimination across Adolescence: Associations with Academic, Psychological, and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Diane; Del Toro, Juan; Harding, Jessica F.; Way, Niobe; Rarick, Jason R. D.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample…

  15. Psychological and Organizational Variables Associated with Workplace Learning in Small and Medium Manufacturing Businesses in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Se-Yeon; Na, Seung-Il

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between workplace learning and psychological variables, such as learning competency, motivation, curiosity, self-esteem and locus of control, and organizational variables, such as centralization of power, formality, merit system and communication. The studied population consisted entirely…

  16. Propranolol treatment of infantile hemangioma is not associated with psychological problems at 7 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moyakine, A.V.; Spillekom-van Koulil, S.; Vleuten, C.J.M. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concern has been raised about the potential long-term effects of propranolol treatment for infantile hemangioma (IH). OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess psychologic (social, emotional, behavioral, and executive) functioning in children treated with propranolol for IH. METHODS: Twenty-seven

  17. Psychological and Organizational Variables Associated with Workplace Learning in Small and Medium Manufacturing Businesses in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Se-Yeon; Na, Seung-Il

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between workplace learning and psychological variables, such as learning competency, motivation, curiosity, self-esteem and locus of control, and organizational variables, such as centralization of power, formality, merit system and communication. The studied population consisted entirely…

  18. Trajectories of ethnic-racial discrimination among ethnically diverse early adolescents: associations with psychological and social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed.

  19. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in tuberculosis patients in public primary care clinics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltzer Karl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress has been rarely investigated among tuberculosis patients in low-resource settings despite the fact that mental ill health has far-reaching consequences for the health outcome of tuberculosis (TB patients. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress as a proxy for common mental disorders among tuberculosis (TB patients in South Africa, where over 60 % of the TB patients are co-infected with HIV. Methods We interviewed 4900 tuberculosis public primary care patients within one month of initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment for the presence of psychological distress using the Kessler-10 item scale (K-10, and identified predictors of distress using multiple logistic regressions. The Kessler scale contains items associated with anxiety and depression. Data on socio-demographic variables, health status, alcohol and tobacco use and adherence to anti-TB drugs and anti-retroviral therapy (ART were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Using a cut off score of ≥28 and ≥16 on the K-10, 32.9 % and 81 % of tuberculosis patients had symptoms of distress, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.85, lower formal education (OR = 0.77; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.91, poverty (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI = 1.57-2.31 and not married, separated, divorced or widowed (OR = 0.74; 95 % CI = 0.62-0.87 were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥28, and older age (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.69, lower formal education (OR = 0.55; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.71, poverty (OR = 2.02; 95 % CI = 1.50-2.70 and being HIV positive (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.74 were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥16. In the final model mental illness co-morbidity (hazardous or harmful alcohol use and non-adherence to anti-TB medication and/or antiretroviral therapy were not

  20. Maternal Psychological Control and Its Association with Mother and Child Perceptions of Adolescent Adjustment: More Evidence on the Strength of Shared Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Olivia M; Laursen, Brett; Guimond, Fanny A; Hartl, Amy C; Denner, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Mothers and adolescents hold distinct albeit correlated views of their relationship and of one another. The present study focuses on disentangling these independent views. Concurrent associations between maternal psychological control and children's adjustment are examined at two time points in order to identify the degree to which associations reflect (a) views that are shared by mothers and adolescents, and (b) views that are unique to mothers and adolescents. A total of 123 (56 % female) U.S. Latino/a adolescents (M = 10.4 years old at the outset) and their mothers reported on maternal psychological control, children's conduct problems, and children's anxiety, twice within a 5-month period. Data were collected at the close of primary school when the adolescents were in grade 5 and again at the beginning of middle school, when they were in grade 6. Results from conventional correlations indicated that mother- and adolescent-reports yielded similar associations between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment. Common fate model analyses partitioned results into variance shared across mother and adolescent reports and variance unique to mother and adolescent reports. Results differed for anxiety and conduct problems. Shared views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with heightened child conduct problems; there were no associations unique to either reporter. In contrast, unique reporter views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with child anxiety; there were no associations involving shared views. Although mother- and adolescent-reports agree that maternal psychological control is correlated with children's adjustment, there is considerable divergence in results when associations are partitioned according to shared and unique reporter views. Associations between maternal psychological control and children's anxiety are more apt to be inflated by same-reporter variance bias than are

  1. The mediating and moderating effects of workplace social capital on the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2014-01-01

    Our current study investigated how workplace social capital (WSC) mediates and moderates the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers. We collected cross-sectional data (N=9,350) from a baseline survey of an occupational Japanese cohort study. We focused on individual WSC and considered job demands/control, effort/reward, and two types (i.e., procedural and interactional) of organizational justice as work-characteristic variables. We defined psychological distress as a score of ≥5 on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6 scale). Multivariate logistic regression analyses predicted a binary variable of psychological distress by individual WSC and adverse work characteristics, adjusting for individual-level covariates. Individual WSC mediated the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress in almost all model specifications. Additionally, individual WSC moderated the associations of psychological distress with high job demands, high effort, and low interactional justice when we used a high WSC cutoff point. In contrast, individual WSC did not moderate such interactions with low job control, reward, or procedural justice. We concluded that individual WSC mediated the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers while selectively moderating their associations at high levels of WSC.

  2. Associations of Psychological Well-Being With Carotid Intima Media Thickness in African American and White Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Leila; Karavolos, Kelly; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lewis, Tené T; Matthews, Karen A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Powell, Lynda H

    2016-05-01

    The present cross-sectional study aimed to a) examine associations between measures of psychological well-being, specifically life satisfaction and life engagement, and intima media thickness, a subclinical marker of atherosclerosis; b) investigate if the interaction of psychological well-being and life events correlated with intima media thickness; and c) explore these relationships across race. A sample of 485 women (38% African American and 62% white; mean [standard deviation] age = 50.2 [2.9] years) underwent ultrasonography to assess carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT). The women completed self-report measures of life satisfaction, life engagement, and life events. Average (standard deviation) IMT was 0.666 (0.10) mm. Life satisfaction showed a significant, independent, inverse relationship with IMT, after controlling for demographic, behavioral, psychological, and cardiovascular covariates (β = -0.105, p = .039), such that each 1-point higher life satisfaction score was correlated with a significant 0.008-mm lower level of mean IMT. No significant association was seen between life events and IMT (r = 0.05, p = .32), and life satisfaction did not interact with life events on IMT (β = -0.036, p = .46). No significant interaction between life satisfaction and race on IMT was observed (β = 0.068, p = .37). In contrast to life satisfaction, life engagement was not a significant correlate of IMT (r = -0.07, p = .12). Life satisfaction, a measure of psychological well-being, is an important independent correlate of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged women.

  3. Residential exposure to visible blue space (but not green space) associated with lower psychological distress in a capital city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutsford, Daniel; Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Reitsma, Femke

    2016-05-01

    As urbanisation escalates globally, urban neighbourhood features which may improve physical and mental health are of growing importance. Using a cross-sectional survey of adults and the application of novel geospatial techniques, this study investigated whether increased visibility of nature (green and blue space) was associated with lower psychological distress (K10 scores), in the capital city of Wellington, New Zealand. To validate, we also tested whether visibility of blue space was associated missing teeth in the same sample. Cluster robust, linear regression models were fitted to test the association between visibility of nature and K10 scores, adjusted for age, sex, personal income, neighbourhood population density, housing quality, crime and deprivation. Higher levels of blue space visibility were associated with lower psychological distress (β=-0.28, p<0.001). Importantly, blue space visibility was not significantly associated with tooth loss. Further research is needed to confirm whether increased visibility of blue space could promote mental well-being and reduce distress in other cities.

  4. Association of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and psychological stress measures in women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Kristina E; Konkle-Parker, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is a known immunomodulator. In individuals with HIV, depression, the most common manifestation of increased psychological stress, can affect immune function with lower CD4+ T cell counts correlating with higher levels of depression. It is unknown how other forms of psychological stress can impact immune markers in people living with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine how CD4+ T cell subpopulations correlated with different forms of psychological stress. We recruited 50 HIV-positive women as part of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We assessed perceived stress, worry, acute anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression through self-report questionnaires and CD4+ T cell subpopulations using flow cytometry. Our sample was 96% African-American with a mean ± SD age and body mass index of 42 ± 8.8 years and 36.6 ± 11.5 kg/m(2), respectively. The mean ± SD scores on the psychological measures were as follows: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), 16.5 ± 6.4; Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), 47.7 ± 13.8; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State (STAIS), 39.1 ± 12.3; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait (STAIT), 40.2 ± 11.4; Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 15.6 ± 11.4. The mean + SD values for the immune parameters were as follows: regulatory T cells (Treg), 1.25% ± 0.7; T helper 1 (Th1), 14.9% ± 6.1; T helper 2 (Th2), 3.8% ± 2; Th1/Th2 ratio, 4.6 ± 3; and CD4+ T cell count (cells/mm(3)), 493 ± 251. Treg levels positively correlated with PSS, STAIS, and STAIT. CD4+ T cell count negatively correlated with PSS, PSWQ, STAIS, STAIT, and CES-D. These data suggest that immune function may be impacted by various forms of psychological stress in HIV-positive women. Interventions that target stress reduction may be useful in improving immune parameters and quality of life.

  5. An Integral Part of the Frederick Community—Michael Dean | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    For more than 30 years, Michael Dean, Ph.D., has been an integral part of the NCI at Frederick community. In addition to studying several different aspects of genomics and cancer research, he has worked with the Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program and also volunteered his time with Mission of Mercy, a community-based organization providing free healthcare and free prescription medications to the uninsured and under-insured.

  6. Business school deans assess the current state of the IS academic field

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Hugh J.; Sousa, Rui Dinis; Junglas, Iris

    2000-01-01

    Fourteen deans of business schools were interviewed to obtain their assessment of the current state of the IS field in terms of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats facing the discipline. Their observations are organized into nine categories: (1) interaction with the business community, (2) demand for IS courses, (3) identity of the IS field, (4) cross disciplinary nature of the field, (5) research rigor versus relevance, (6) competitors to IS, (7) cost of information tech...

  7. Continuous particle separation in spiral microchannels using Dean flows and differential migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Ali Asgar S; Kuntaegowdanahalli, Sathyakumar S; Papautsky, Ian

    2008-11-01

    Microparticle separation and concentration based on size has become indispensable in many biomedical and environmental applications. In this paper we describe a passive microfluidic device with spiral microchannel geometry for complete separation of particles. The design takes advantage of the inertial lift and viscous drag forces acting on particles of various sizes to achieve differential migration, and hence separation, of microparticles. The dominant inertial forces and the Dean rotation force due to the spiral microchannel geometry cause the larger particles to occupy a single equilibrium position near the inner microchannel wall. The smaller particles migrate to the outer half of the channel under the influence of Dean forces resulting in the formation of two distinct particle streams which are collected in two separate outputs. This is the first demonstration that takes advantage of the dual role of Dean forces for focusing larger particles in a single equilibrium position and transposing the smaller particles from the inner half to the outer half of the microchannel cross-section. The 5-loop spiral microchannel 100 microm wide and 50 microm high was used to successfully demonstrate a complete separation of 7.32 microm and 1.9 microm particles at Dean number De = 0.47. Analytical analysis supporting the experiments and models is also presented. The simple planar structure of the separator offers simple fabrication and makes it ideal for integration with on-chip microfluidic systems, such as micro total analysis systems (muTAS) or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) for continuous filtration and separation applications.

  8. An Integral Part of the Frederick Community—Michael Dean | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    For more than 30 years, Michael Dean, Ph.D., has been an integral part of the NCI at Frederick community. In addition to studying several different aspects of genomics and cancer research, he has worked with the Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program and also volunteered his time with Mission of Mercy, a community-based organization providing free healthcare and free prescription medications to the uninsured and under-insured.

  9. Prostate specific antigen testing is associated with men's psychological and physical health and their healthcare utilisation in a nationally representative sample: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flahavan, Evelyn M; Drummond, Frances J; Bennett, Kathleen; Barron, Thomas I; Sharp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ...) testing in primary care. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between PSA testing and the psychological and physical health, and healthcare utilisation of men in a population where PSA testing is widespread...

  10. Ageism and body esteem: associations with psychological well-being among late middle-aged African American and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Natalie J

    2015-03-01

    Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals' self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism's associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Ageism and Body Esteem: Associations With Psychological Well-Being Among Late Middle-Aged African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801

  12. Association of Psychological Factors to Alcohol Consumption Behavior among U.S. College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Oladunni Oluwoye; Salam Khan; Jacob Oluwoye; Russell J. Fricano; Earl M. Gooding; Joan Fobbs-Wilson; Jitendra Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    This study explores college students’ alcohol consumption behavior and evaluates theeffect of different psychological factors on consumption patterns. Randomly selectedstudents from two different universities completed surveys with perceived scales for stress,self esteem and anxiety and an alcohol consumption questionnaire. Non-parametricanalyses suggests that low self esteem, higher stress and anxiety level and younger ageincrease the likelihood of drinking alcohol. These findings were consi...

  13. Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health.

  14. The associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms and the demographic, psychological, and social moderators in Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms and the moderators in 5,027 Taiwanese adolescents. The associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms on the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T) were examined using logistic regression analysis. The moderating effects of demographic (gender and age), psychological (problematic alcohol use, severe depressive symptoms, and low self-esteem), and social factors (bullying victimization, and low family function) on the associations were examined. Adolescents who had anxiety symptoms were more likely to have suicidal ideation and attempt than those who did not have anxiety symptoms. Bullying victimization had a moderating effect on the association between suicidal ideation and anxiety symptoms. Assessment of suicidal ideation and attempt should be routine practice among adolescents who present with anxiety symptoms.

  15. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  16. Personal health promotion at US medical schools: a quantitative study and qualitative description of deans' and students' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon Lisa K

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior literature has shown that physicians with healthy personal habits are more likely to encourage patients to adopt similar habits. However, despite the possibility that promoting medical student health might therefore efficiently improve patient outcomes, no one has studied whether such promotion happens in medical school. We therefore wished to describe both typical and outstanding personal health promotion environments experienced by students in U.S. medical schools. Methods We collected information through four different modalities: a literature review, written surveys of medical school deans and students, student and dean focus groups, and site visits at and interviews with medical schools with reportedly outstanding student health promotion programs. Results We found strong correlations between deans' and students' perceptions of their schools' health promotion environments, including consistent support of the idea of schools' encouraging healthy student behaviors, with less consistent follow-through by schools on this concept. Though students seemed to have thought little about the relationships between their own personal and clinical health promotion practices, deans felt strongly that faculty members should model healthy behaviors. Conclusions Deans' support of the relationship between physicians' personal and clinical health practices, and concern about their institutions' acting on this relationship augurs well for the role of student health promotion in the future of medical education. Deans seem to understand their students' health environment, and believe it could and should be improved; if this is acted on, it could create important positive changes in medical education and in disease prevention.

  17. Psychological symptoms and associated risk factors in Chinese freshmen: a three-year follow-up study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qi; HUANG Yue-qin; LIU Zhao-rui; WANG Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background The first year of attending university induces a stressful experience for many college students.The experience exposes these students to challenging circumstances and raises expectations,which consequently increases the risk of psychiatric disorders and may exacerbate pre-existing problems.This study was designed to explore the risk factors of psychological symptoms among freshmen in China.Methods A three-year follow-up study was designed in a sample of Chinese college freshmen.To set up the baseline interviews,subjects from 25 high schools in Beijing were interviewed during the first year in high school.Three years later,we followed up with the 1547 students from 15 of the previously-selected 25 high schools after they had entered universities.Association between potential risk factors and the occurrence of psychological symptoms measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 was evaluated in unconditional logistic regression models with Wald test.Results Among the 1547 interviewed college freshmen in the study,120 students (7.8%) manifested at least one psychological symptom.Personality dysfunction (OR=3.655,95% Cl 1.967-6.793),parental rejection (OR=2.619,95% Cl 1.544-4.442),age > 20 (OR=2.578,95% Cl 1.227-5.418),disfavored university (OR=2.054,95% Cl 1.376-3.066),nonfirst-choice academic major (OR=1.887,95% Cl 1.255-2.837) and no orientation (OR=1.739,95% Cl 1.025-2.951) were determined to be the risk factors of psychological symptoms among the college freshmen in China.Conclusions Psychological symptoms of college freshmen are associated with personality traits,parental rearing behavior and study environment.Therefore,it is important to pay attention to changes in mental health as students enter or decide on colleges and increase education geared towards mental health issues for students in high school and universities in China.

  18. Developing a brief depression screen and identifying associations with comorbid physical and psychological illness in Australian Gulf War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Dean P; Sim, Malcolm R; Clarke, David M; Forbes, Andrew B; Ikin, Jillian F; Kelsall, Helen L

    2015-12-01

    Major depression occurs frequently in veterans, and is associated with comorbid psychological and physical disorders and poorer quality of life. Depression can be difficult to detect in primary care, while lengthy assessment instruments can deter use. Our study aimed to develop a brief depression screen that could be used by veterans and caregivers, and then to compare the association between the brief screen and comorbidities and quality of life with that of a longer instrument. Our dataset comprised 1204 male Royal Australian Navy veterans of the 1990/91 Gulf War. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), health-related quality of life by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), major depression and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses such as posttraumatic disorder (PTSD) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) criteria. Comorbid physical illnesses including musculoskeletal disorders, chronic fatigue and diabetes were examined. A brief depression screen of three key self-reported symptoms was identified. Veterans with major depression present according to the screen were over four times more likely to have multisymptom illness or PTSD, and almost twice as likely to have musculoskeletal disorders. Having depression according to the brief screen and having at least one other physical or psychological condition was associated with poorer quality of life. Similar results were obtained for a longer screen based on all GHQ-12 items. A 3 item depression screen performed as well as a 12 item one in identifying major depression, comorbid physical and psychological illness and poorer quality of life in veterans. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mediating Role of Psychological Resources on the Association Between Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Current Health in the Community Adult Population of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chiemi; Kawakami, Norito; Umeda, Maki

    2015-12-01

    The majority of studies on the role of psychological resources linking childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult health have been conducted in Western countries. Empirical evidence for mediation effects of psychological resources is currently lacking in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of psychological resources (mastery and sense of coherence [SOC]) on the association between childhood SES and current health. Analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data (1,497 men and 1,764 women) from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood Study (J-SHINE) in Tokyo. Psychological resources (mastery and SOC), childhood SES (parents' education and perceived childhood SES), and current health of adults (psychological distress measured by K6 and self-rated health) were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Mastery and SOC significantly and independently mediated the association between childhood SES and current health in the total sample after adjusting for age, gender, and respondent education, regardless of type of SES or health outcome indicators. Similar mediation effects were observed for both men and women. A few gender differences were observed; specifically, SOC significantly mediated the association between parents' education and current health only among women, and it mediated the association between perceived childhood SES and current health only among men. Overall, the findings underscore the importance of the mediating role of psychological resources in the association between childhood SES and current health.

  20. Associations between attachment-related symptoms and later psychological problems among international adoptees: results from the FinAdo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Raaska, Hanna; Sinkkonen, Jari; Mäkipää, Sanna; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2015-02-01

    We examined the associations between attachment-related symptoms (symptoms of reactive attachment disorder (RAD), symptoms of disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED), and clinging) and later psychological problems among international adoptees. The study population comprised internationally adopted children (591 boys and 768 girls, 6-15 years) from the ongoing Finnish Adoption (FinAdo) study. Data were gathered with self-administered questionnaires both from adoptive parents and from adoptees aged over 9 years. Attachment-related symptoms were measured using of a short (8-item) questionnaire and later behavioral/emotional problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Five to Fifteen (FTF) scale for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. RAD and DSED symptom subscales were associated with an increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems and ADHD. Especially the mixed type of attachment-related symptoms was strongly associated with later emotional and behavioral problems.

  1. Mixed-grade rejection and its association with overt aggression, relational aggression, anxious-withdrawal, and psychological maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the associations between mixed-grade rejection (rejection by peers in a different school grade), anxious-withdrawal, aggression, and psychological adjustment in a middle school setting. Participants were 181 seventh-grade and 180 eighth-grade students (M age = 13.20 years, SD = 0.68 years) who completed peer nomination and self-report measures in their classes. Analyses indicated that in general, same- and mixed-grade rejection were related to overt and relational aggression, but neither type was related to anxious-withdrawal. Mixed-grade rejection was associated uniquely and negatively with self-esteem for seventh-grade boys, while increasing the loneliness associated with anxious-withdrawal. The results suggest that school-wide models of peer relations may be promising for understanding the ways in which different peer contexts contribute to adjustment in middle school settings.

  2. Association of Psychological Factors to Alcohol Consumption Behavior among U.S. College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladunni Oluwoye

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores college students’ alcohol consumption behavior and evaluates theeffect of different psychological factors on consumption patterns. Randomly selectedstudents from two different universities completed surveys with perceived scales for stress,self esteem and anxiety and an alcohol consumption questionnaire. Non-parametricanalyses suggests that low self esteem, higher stress and anxiety level and younger ageincrease the likelihood of drinking alcohol. These findings were consistent between bothuniversities. These findings have important implications for the selection of appropriateinterventional strategies and health education among college populations.

  3. Association of depressive symptomology and psychological trauma with diabetes control among older American Indian women: Does social support matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R Turner; Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L

    2017-04-01

    Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0-8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3-7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7-9.1 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)] and 6months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7-7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2-7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6-9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants' social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical and audiologic characteristics of patients with sensorineural tinnitus and its association with psychological aspects: an analytic retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Swiahb, Jamil Nasser; Hwang, Eul Seung; Kong, Ji Sun; Kim, Woo Jin; Yeo, Sang Won; Park, Shi Nae

    2016-12-01

    This study was performed to analyze clinical and audiologic characteristics of sensorineural tinnitus and to investigate the associating factors reflecting psychological aspects of stress and depression of the patients. This is a retrospective analytical study conducted in a tinnitus clinic of a tertiary referral center of a university hospital. The medical records of 216 patients suffering from sensorineural tinnitus were thoroughly evaluated to determine correlations between clinical and audiological characteristics, including age, sex, predisposing or etiologic factors, hearing levels up to extended high frequencies, and tinnitus severity. Psychological aspects of stress and depression were also evaluated and analyzed to seek the associations with tinnitus severity. All data were stored in our database bank and were statistically analyzed. Our study subjects showed a slight male predominance. The highest percentage of tinnitus was found in patients of 60-80 years old. Only 32.5 % of tinnitus patients were subjectively aware of their hearing loss, whereas 73 % of subjects had hearing deficits in some frequencies in their audiogram. Hearing impairments were of the low-frequency sensorineural type in 18.2 % of patients and were limited to the high frequencies in 77.9 % of patients. Tinnitus was unilateral in 51 % of patients and had a tonal nature in 45 % of patients. In total, 45.8 % of patients with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss had high-pitched tinnitus. There were significant correlations between tinnitus severity, loudness and annoyance. Correlations with THI (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) and Beck depression index scores were also found. Sensorineural tinnitus was related with hearing loss in some frequencies nevertheless of patients' own awareness of hearing loss. Loudness and annoyance of tinnitus seems to be two important factors reflecting psychological problems of patients' stress and depression.

  5. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: association with colon motility, bowel symptoms, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, M; Kanazawa, M; Palsson, O S; Chitkara, D K; Gangarosa, L M; Drossman, D A; Whitehead, W E

    2008-09-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although the issue is still under debate. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SIBO in those with IBS and its association with colonic motility, bowel symptoms and psychological distress. Sucrose hydrogen and methane breath tests were performed in 158 IBS patients and 34 healthy controls (HC). Thresholds for pain and urgency were tested by barostat in the descending colon. The motility index (MI) was calculated as the average area under the curve for all phasic contractions. Questionnaires assessed psychological distress, IBS symptom severity (IBS-SS), IBS quality of life (IBS-QOL) and self-reported bowel symptoms. Fifty-two of 158 (32.9%) IBS patients had abnormal breath tests compared with six of 34 (17.9%) HC (chi(2) = 0.079). SIBO (SIBO+) and non-SIBO (SIBO-) patients did not differ in the prevalence of IBS subtypes, IBS-SS, IBS-QOL and psychological distress variables. IBS patients had a greater post-distension increase in MI than HC, but there was no difference between SIBO+ and SIBO- patients. Predominant methane producers had higher urge thresholds (28.4 vs 18.3, P < 0.05) and higher baseline MI (461 vs 301.45, P < 0.05) than SIBO- IBS patients, and they reported more 'hard or lumpy stools' when compared with predominant hydrogen producers (P < 0.05) and SIBO- IBS patients (P < 0.05). SIBO is unlikely to contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of IBS. Methane production is associated with constipation.

  6. Classic psychedelic use is associated with reduced psychological distress and suicidality in the United States adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Peter S; Thorne, Christopher B; Clark, C Brendan; Coombs, David W; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-03-01

    Mental health problems are endemic across the globe, and suicide, a strong corollary of poor mental health, is a leading cause of death. Classic psychedelic use may occasion lasting improvements in mental health, but the effects of classic psychedelic use on suicidality are unknown. We evaluated the relationships of classic psychedelic use with psychological distress and suicidality among over 190,000 USA adult respondents pooled from the last five available years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2008-2012) while controlling for a range of covariates. Lifetime classic psychedelic use was associated with a significantly reduced odds of past month psychological distress (weighted odds ratio (OR)=0.81 (0.72-0.91)), past year suicidal thinking (weighted OR=0.86 (0.78-0.94)), past year suicidal planning (weighted OR=0.71 (0.54-0.94)), and past year suicide attempt (weighted OR=0.64 (0.46-0.89)), whereas lifetime illicit use of other drugs was largely associated with an increased likelihood of these outcomes. These findings indicate that classic psychedelics may hold promise in the prevention of suicide, supporting the view that classic psychedelics' most highly restricted legal status should be reconsidered to facilitate scientific study, and suggesting that more extensive clinical research with classic psychedelics is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The association between discrimination and depressive symptoms among older African Americans: the role of psychological and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Sarah B; James, Bryan D; Yu, Lei; Cothran, Fawn; Barnes, Lisa L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Several studies have demonstrated a link between perceived discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups, yet most have focused on younger or middle-aged African Americans and little is known about factors that may moderate the relationship. Participants were 487 older African Americans (60-98 years old) enrolled in the Minority Aging Research Study. Discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological and social resources were assessed via interview using validated measures. Ordinal logistic regression models were used to assess (1) the main relationship between discrimination and depression and (2) resilience, purpose in life, social isolation, and social networks as potential moderators of this relationship. In models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income, perceived discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.31; p social isolation, or social networks (all ps ≤ .05). Findings provide support for accumulating evidence on the adverse mental health effects of discrimination among older African Americans. Because the association was not modified by psychological or social factors, these findings do not support a role for a buffering effect of resources on discrimination and depressive symptoms. Further studies are needed to examine a wider range of coping resources among older adults.

  8. Psychological stress has no association with salivary levels of β-defensin 2 and β-defensin 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Lilibeth Ferraz de Brito Penna; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Cortelli, José Roberto; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; de Campos, Maria Valéria Costa; Cogo, Karina; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Franco, Gilson Cesar Nobre

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that stress can predispose an individual to the development of periodontal disease, but the exact biological mechanism is unknown. Considering that psychological stress can down-regulate the production of β-defensins (antimicrobial peptides produced in the oral cavity), the aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between stress and salivary levels of β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and β-defensin 3 (HBD-3). For this purpose, seventy five volunteers, classified as periodontally healthy, were submitted to a psychological evaluation using a validated questionnaire (Questionnaire of Lipp-ISS). Following analysis of the questionnaires, the subjects were divided in two groups (Group A: Absence of stress and Group B: Presence of stress). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected and the concentration of total protein was determined using the BCA method, and the concentrations of HBD-2 and HBD-3 were determined by ELISA. The levels of total protein did not show a statistically significant difference between the groups. Analyses of HBD-2 and HBD-3 concentrations indicate that the stress condition was not associated with the levels of either peptide in saliva (P=0.3664 for HBD-2 and P=0.3608 for HBD-3). In periodontally healthy subjects, HBD-2 and HBD-3 levels are not influenced by stress. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement. PMID:28168198

  10. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  11. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  12. Mediating effect of stress on the association between early trauma and psychological distress in Korean college students: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Noh, D; Park, S I

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? Despite the increase of studies into the predictors of psychological distress, few have attempted to address the mediation of stress in the relationship between early trauma and psychological distress. What does this paper add to existing knowledge? In this study, college students with trauma exposure before the age of 18 years reported high levels of college life stress and psychological distress. In addition, of the subcategories of early trauma, emotional abuse was most highly correlated with current stress and psychological distress. This paper confirmed the partial mediating effect of stress between early trauma and psychological distress among Korean college students. In other words, this study found a direct effect of early trauma on current psychological distress and an indirect effect of early trauma on psychological distress mediated through life stress. What are the implications for practice? Early trauma and stress should be considered when developing interventions for college students' mental health, although individuals with trauma exposure have difficulties disclosing their traumatic event. Therefore, we suggest that stress management may be easier to apply and more effective in promoting college students' mental health than trauma-focused interventions. Research has shown that early trauma and stress may affect current psychological distress. However, few studies have attempted to address the mediation of stress between early trauma and psychological distress. This cross-sectional observational study aimed to examine the mediating effects of stress on the association between early trauma and psychological distress in Korean college students. Participants included 216 college students (51.4% male) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing early trauma, college life stress, and psychological distress. Early trauma, stress, and psychological distress were significantly correlated. Of the subcategories of early

  13. The Avalon Gardens Men's Association: A Community Health Psychology Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Mark B

    2002-05-01

    This article follows the development and progress of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's 'Healthy and Safe Communities' initiative as it was implemented by a community empowerment organization during a four-year community revitalization project in the aftermath of the Los Angeles riots. The author explores practical aspects of Community Health Psychology through assessing the ways in which its organizing principles were manifest in community-wide processes of individual and community change in one low-income housing project in South Central Los Angeles called Avalon Gardens. Specifically highlighted is how a group of African American and Latino men in the community created a group forum that helped foster, support and sustain an empowerment process that supported health promotion, health consciousness and significant health improvement in the community.

  14. Alcohol use disorders and the Division 12 Task Force of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrady, B S

    2000-09-01

    The Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures promulgated guidelines to identify treatments with empirical support for effectiveness. No treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence was rated as efficacious; 4 treatments for other drug use disorders were rated "probably efficacious." The alcohol treatment research community has questioned why alcohol treatments with strong empirical support are not in the task force's list. This article presents results of the application of task force standards to 13 major psychosocial alcohol treatments viewed as having strong empirical support. Brief intervention and relapse prevention met task force criteria for "efficacious" treatments. However, in 1996, when the task force last published a list of empirically supported treatments (D. L. Chambless et al., 1996), there were insufficient published studies meeting task force criteria for these 2 treatments. Motivational enhancement met criteria to be rated "probably efficacious."

  15. [Vegetarianism and veganism lifestyle: Motivation and psychological dimensions associated with selective diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sasha; Dorard, Géraldine

    2016-09-01

    Vegetarianism is a food consumption pattern. Vegetarianism, at large, includes several diets depending on exclusion's degree (partial or total) of animal products (meat or dairy). Among them we distinguish, according to the restriction order, flexitarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, vegan food, raw food and fruit diets. These three last modes can extend to a lifestyle called veganism, which is defined as the lack of use of animal products in daily life (cosmetics, clothing, materials, etc.). This diversity can be explained by individual, psychological and motivational characteristics. Main reasons reported by individuals who have undertaken this feeding method are health and ethics. We observe differences in behaviors, attitudes and reactions about animals, disgust and justification of each diet vs. others' diets especially the omnivorous diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Prospective associations between cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress and change in physical disability in a large community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C; Der, Geoff; Shipton, Deborah; Benzeval, Michaela

    2011-09-01

    Exaggerated haemodynamic reactions to acute psychological stress have been implicated in cardiovascular disease outcomes, while lower reactions have been considered benign. This study examined, in a large cohort, the prospective associations between stress reactivity and physical disability. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured at rest and in response to a stress task. Physical disability was assessed using the OPCS survey of disability at baseline and five years later. Heart rate reactivity was negatively associated with change in physical disability over time, such that those with lower heart rate reactivity were more likely to deteriorate over the following five years. These effects remained significant following adjustment for a number of confounding variables. These data give further support to the recent argument that for some health outcomes, lower or blunted cardiovascular stress reactivity is not necessarily protective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological Status and Associated Factors among Korean Cancer Survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min

    2016-07-01

    It is important to assess psychological distress after a diagnosis for cancer survivors, a population with a high risk for psychological distress. The aim of this study is to assess psychological distress among cancer survivors and to clarify the associated factors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires administered to 1,163 cancer survivors and 49,243 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012). We identified the adjusted rates for psychological distress and assessed factors associated with this kind of distress using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted rate of psychological distress than the general population. The current depressive symptom rate for cancer survivors was 16.69%, and the adjusted rate for history of depression in cancer survivors was 15.61%. The adjusted rate for higher level of stress was 25.51% in cancer survivors. Among the cancer survivors, younger subjects, female subjects, and those with limited social support were more prone to psychological distress. In addition, current smokers or risky drinkers, those with chronic diseases, and those with a poor self-perception of their health status were also identified as a high-risk group for psychological distress. As the number of cancer survivors has increased, the importance of assessing psychological distress after a cancer diagnosis should be emphasized among all cancer survivors. Further, psychological supportive care interventions for cancer survivors are needed to improve the survival rate and improve their quality of life.

  18. Injuries and Traumatic Psychological Exposures Associated with the South Napa Earthquake - California, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, Kathleen R; Dobson, Christine B; Henn, Jennifer B; Acosta, Meileen; Smorodinsky, Svetlana; Wilken, Jason A; Barreau, Tracy; Schreiber, Merritt; Windham, Gayle C; Materna, Barbara L; Roisman, Rachel

    2015-09-11

    On August 24, 2014, at 3:20 a.m., a magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck California, with its epicenter in Napa County (1). The earthquake was the largest to affect the San Francisco Bay area in 25 years and caused significant damage in Napa and Solano counties, including widespread power outages, five residential fires, and damage to roadways, waterlines, and 1,600 buildings (2). Two deaths resulted (2). On August 25, Napa County Public Health asked the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) for assistance in assessing postdisaster health effects, including earthquake-related injuries and effects on mental health. On September 23, Solano County Public Health requested similar assistance. A household-level Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) was conducted for these counties in two cities (Napa, 3 weeks after the earthquake, and Vallejo, 6 weeks after the earthquake). Among households reporting injuries, a substantial proportion (48% in Napa and 37% in western Vallejo) reported that the injuries occurred during the cleanup period, suggesting that increased messaging on safety precautions after a disaster might be needed. One fifth of respondents overall (27% in Napa and 9% in western Vallejo) reported one or more traumatic psychological exposures in their households. These findings were used by Napa County Mental Health to guide immediate-term mental health resource allocations and to conduct public training sessions and education campaigns to support persons with mental health risks following the earthquake. In addition, to promote community resilience and future earthquake preparedness, Napa County Public Health subsequently conducted community events on the earthquake anniversary and provided outreach workers with psychological first aid training.

  19. Psychological rumination and recovery from work in intensive care professionals: associations with stress, burnout, depression and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevala, Tushna; Pavey, Louisa; Chelidoni, Olga; Chang, Nai-Feng; Creagh-Brown, Ben; Cox, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The work demands of critical care can be a major cause of stress in intensive care unit (ICU) professionals and lead to poor health outcomes. In the process of recovery from work, psychological rumination is considered to be an important mediating variable in the relationship between work demands and health outcomes. This study aimed to extend our knowledge of the process by which ICU stressors and differing rumination styles are associated with burnout, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity among ICU professionals. Ninety-six healthcare professionals (58 doctors and 38 nurses) who work in ICUs in the UK completed a questionnaire on ICU-related stressors, burnout, work-related rumination, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity. Significant associations between ICU stressors, affective rumination, burnout, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity were found. Longer working hours were also related to increased ICU stressors. Affective rumination (but not problem-solving pondering or distraction detachment) mediated the relationship between ICU stressors, burnout, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity, such that increased ICU stressors, and greater affective rumination, were associated with greater burnout, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity. No moderating effects were observed. Longer working hours were associated with increased ICU stressors, and increased ICU stressors conferred greater burnout, depression and risk of psychiatric morbidity via increased affective rumination. The importance of screening healthcare practitioners within intensive care for depression, burnout and psychiatric morbidity has been highlighted. Future research should evaluate psychological interventions which target rumination style and could be made available to those at highest risk. The efficacy and cost effectiveness of delivering these interventions should also be considered.

  20. Associations of Pass-Fail Outcomes with Psychological Health of First-Year Medical Students in a Malaysian Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad S. B. Yusoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The demanding and intense environment of medical training can create excessive pressures on medical students that eventually lead to unfavorable consequences, either at a personal or professional level. These consequences can include poor academic performance and impaired cognitive ability. This study was designed to explore associations between pass-fail outcome and psychological health parameters (i.e. stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a cohort of first-year medical students in a Malaysian medical school. The depression anxiety stress scale 21-item assessment (DASS-21 was administered to them right after the final paper of the first-year final examination. Their final examination outcomes (i.e. pass or fail were traced by using their student identity code (ID through the Universiti Sains Malaysia academic office. Results: A total of 194 (98.0% of medical students responded to the DASS-21. An independent t-test showed that students who passed had significantly lower stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms than those who failed the first-year final examination (P <0.05. Those who experienced moderate to high stress were at 2.43 times higher risk for failing the examination than those who experienced normal to mild stress. Conclusion: Medical students whofailed in the final examination had higher psychological distress than those who passed the examination. Those who experienced high stress levels were more likely to fail than those who did not. Reducing the psychological distress of medical students prior to examination may help them to perform better in the examination.

  1. Dean W. Edward Sell–Our Dedicated Law Review Advisor and Unwavering Support

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew E. Shames; Theodore A. Schroeder; Ira S. Nathenson; Bradley J. Martineau; Matthew H. Hawes; Shanda N. Hastings; Michele Sherretta

    2004-01-01

    Towards the end of my second year of law school, as I began to learn the ropes of my new position as Editor-in-Chief, I had several opportunities to sit down and talk with Dean Sell about the upcoming year. Although I never was a student of his in the classroom, I looked forward to working with the Law Review’s most senior faculty advisor. We discussed all sorts of ideas, large and small, for how to improve the Law Review. I looked on as he learned how to use a digital camera. I got to ...

  2. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  3. The association of perceived abuse and discrimination after September 11, 2001, with psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Heisler, Michele

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post-September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post-September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived post-September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans.

  4. Psychological distress and associated factors among the attendees of traditional healing practices in Jinja and Iganga districts, Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okello Elialilia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems are a major public health concern worldwide. Evidence shows that African communities, including Uganda, use both modern and traditional healing systems. There is limited literature about the magnitude of psychological distress and associated factors among attendees of traditional healing practices. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among attendees of traditional healing practices in two districts in Uganda. Methods Face-to-face interviews with the Lusoga version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 were carried out with 400 patients over the age of 18 years attending traditional healing in Iganga and Jinja districts in Eastern Uganda. Patients were recruited consecutively in all the traditional healers' shrines that could be visited in the area. Persons with 6 or more positive responses to the SRQ were identified as having psychological distress. Prevalence was estimated and odds ratios of having psychological distress were obtained with multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 387 questionnaire responses were analyzed. The prevalence of psychological distress in connection with attendance at the traditional healers' shrines was 65.1%. Having a co-wife and having more than four children were significantly associated with psyclogical distress. Among the socioeconomic indicators, lack of food and having debts were significantly associated with psychological distress. The distressed group was more likely to need explanations for ill health. Those who visited both the healer and a health unit were less likely to be distressed. Conclusion This study provides evidence that a substantial proportion of attendees of traditional healing practices suffer from psychological distress. Associated factors include poverty, number of children, polygamy, reason for visiting the healer and use of both traditional healing and biomedical health units

  5. Are Family, Neighbourhood and School Social Capital Associated with Psychological Distress Among Lithuanian High-School Students? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Novak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine associations between family, neighborhood and school social capital with psychological distress among Lithuanian adolescents 14-18 years of age. Participants were 1863 high-school students (51.4% females, aged 14-18 years in the 2015/2016 school year. Psychological distress was dependent, while social capital domains independent variables. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations of family, neighborhood and school social capital on the risk of high psychological distress. Psychological distress was measured by the Kessler-6 scale. Adjusting for gender, body mass index, self-perceived socioeconomic status, self-rated health and physical activity, high family social capital (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.50, high neighborhood trust (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.63, high vertical school trust (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.52 to 0.88, high horizontal school trust (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.58 to 1.00 and reciprocity at school (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.74 was each associated with lower odds of psychological distress. When all independent variables were entered simultaneously, high family social capital, high neighborhood trust, high vertical school trust and reciprocity at school remained associated with lower odds of psychological distress. Since family, neighborhood and school social capital were inversely associated with psychological distress, strategies and policies that improve mutual support between the community and children must be implemented within the system.

  6. Association of increased circulating catecholamine and glucocorticoid levels with risk of psychological problems in oral neoplasm patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixu Xie

    Full Text Available Noradrenergic pathways and glucocorticoid-mediated signal pathways have been implicated in the growth and progression of oral cancer. Patients with oral neoplasms can have high psychological distress levels, but the effects of stress-related hormones on oral neoplasm growth are unknown.We have investigated the relationships between pre-surgical measurements of psychological problems with Symptom Checklist-90-revised Inventory (SCL90-R, tumor histology, circulating blood catecholamine and glucocorticoid levels among 75 oral neoplasm patients, including 40 oral cancer patients and 35 benign oral tumor patients.The results showed that most dimension scores of SCL90-R did not show a significant difference between the two groups except depression (p = 0.0201 and obsessive-compulsion (p = 0.0093, with the scores for these symptoms being higher among oral cancer group versus the benign oral tumor group. The differences of total score, average score and other monomial factor scores were not statistically significant. The mean concentrations of catecholamine and glucocorticoid in peripheral blood of the oral cancer group were higher than those in benign oral tumor group (p<0.01. We also examined whether associations observed between biobehavioral measures and circulating blood catecholamine and glucocorticoid levels extended to other compartments in the oral cancer group.These findings suggest that stress hormones may affect oral cancer behavior by influencing the tumor micro-environment though the circulating blood.

  7. Early childhood stunting is associated with poor psychological functioning in late adolescence and effects are reduced by psychosocial stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan P; Chang, Susan M; Powell, Christine A; Simonoff, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M

    2007-11-01

    Stunting is associated with deficits in cognition and school achievement from early childhood to late adolescence; however, there has been little investigation of emotional and behavioral outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether linear growth retardation (stunting) in early childhood is associated with poorer psychological functioning in late adolescence. The study was a prospective cohort study of stunted and nonstunted children. Participants were identified at age 9-24 mo by a survey of poor neighborhoods in Kingston, Jamaica, and a 2-y intervention trial of supplementation and stimulation was conducted in the stunted children. Psychological functioning was assessed at age 17 y in 103 of 129 stunted children enrolled and 64 of 84 nonstunted participants. Anxiety, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and antisocial behavior were reported by participants using interviewer-administered questionnaires and attention deficit, hyperactivity, and oppositional behavior were reported by parent interviews. The stunted participants reported significantly more anxiety (regression coefficient = 3.03; 95% CI = 0.99, 5.08) and depressive symptoms (0.37; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.72) and lower self-esteem (-1.67; 95% CI = -0.38, -2.97) than nonstunted participants and were reported by their parents to be more hyperactive (1.29; 95% CI = 0.12, 2.46). Effect sizes were 0.4-0.5 SD. Participants who received stimulation in early childhood differed from the nonstunted group in hyperactivity only. Children stunted before age 2 y thus have poorer emotional and behavioral outcomes in late adolescence. The findings expand the range of disadvantages associated with early stunting, which affects 151 million children <5 y old in developing countries.

  8. Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Is Associated with Psychological Resilience in Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Laura J; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Williams, Kelly W; McGraw, Susan M; Niro, Philip J; Karl, J Philip; Cable, Sonya J; Cropper, Thomas L; McClung, James P

    2017-03-01

    The 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010), a measure of diet quality, is used to quantify adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Better HEI scores have been associated with positive health outcomes; however, the relationship between diet quality and psychological resilience, a mental health attribute for coping with adversity, has not been assessed. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between diet quality and psychological resilience, and the relationship between resilience and demographics, anthropometrics, socioeconomic status, and health behavior. In this cross-sectional study, HEI-2010 scores and resilience were assessed using the Block food frequency questionnaire and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Other factors that can affect the relationship between HEI-2010 scores and resilience were assessed using surveys, and height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index. Male and female Army and Air Force recruits (n=834) enrolled in a randomized controlled trial and 656 (mean±standard deviation [SD] age=21±3.3 years) were included in this analysis. Data were collected before the initiation of military training at Fort Sill, OK (2012-2013) and Lackland Air Force Base, TX (2013-2014). Participants were split into low- and high-resilience groups based on Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale scores. Student's t test and χ(2) tests were used to determine differences between groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of resilience. Better diet quality was associated with resilience; higher HEI predicted an increased likelihood (odds ratio=1.02; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04) of a participant being in the high-resilience group after including race, ethnicity, education, smoking, age, body mass index, sex, and military branch in the full model. The data indicate that with every 10-point increase in HEI score, there was a 22% increased likelihood of

  9. Has the Association between Parental Divorce and Young Adults' Psychological Problems Changed over Time? Evidence from Sweden, 1968-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahler, Michael; Garriga, Anna

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown that parental divorce is associated with psychological maladjustment in children. Less is known about whether the magnitude of this association has changed over time. This is mainly because of the lack of repeated data, containing identical measures over time. In the present article, the authors use data from…

  10. The association between self-consciousness about appearance and psychological adjustment among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and survivors: the moderating role of appearance investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the moderating role of two facets of appearance investment (self-evaluative salience (SES) and motivational salience (MS)) in the relationship between self-consciousness about appearance and psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety and psychological quality of life (QoL)) in a sample of 134 breast cancer patients (68 newly diagnosed patients and 66 survivors). No significant differences were found between groups on body image variables. Among survivors, the associations between self-consciousness about appearance and the outcome variables were only significant at high (depression, psychological QoL) levels and at moderate (psychological QoL) levels of SES. Self-consciousness about appearance contributed to poor adjustment in both groups. This study demonstrates that appearance investment plays a key role in patients' adjustment and highlights the SES-MS distinction. SES seems to be a vulnerability factor for poor adjustment, and MS seems to be a protective factor that helps women cope with changes in appearance.

  11. Gender differences and psychological factors associated with suicidal ideation among youth in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Norhayati Ibrahim, Noh Amit, Normah Che Din, Hui Chien Ong Health Psychology Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Suicide is a global phenomenon that has been showing an upward trend in recent years. It is the second leading cause of death among youth. Studies on suicidal ideation warrant greater attention, as it leads to suicide attempts and other health risk behaviors. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare gender differences in suicidal ideation and determine the predictors of suicidal ideation among youth. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 232 youths aged between 15 and 25 years from selected urban areas in Malaysia. The results showed that suicidal ideation was higher among male participants compared with female participants. Age was the predictor of suicidal ideation for males, while depression and loss of motivation, as components of hopelessness, were the predictors of suicidal ideation among females. Hence, it is important that professionals conduct early identification tests for suicidality among young people. This will facilitate the early detection of depression and hopelessness, which is important, in order to prevent suicidal behaviors or other problems before these occur. Keywords: suicidal ideation, youth, depression, hopelessness, gender

  12. Caregiver distress associated with behavioral and psychological symptoms in mild Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Pedro Balieiro Jr.

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between Caregiver Distress and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementias (BPSD in mild Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Fifty patients and caregivers were interviewed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Results: 96.0% of the patients had at least one BPSD. The mean NPI total score was 19.6 (SD=18.05; range=0-78 whereas the mean Caregiver Distress Index (CDI total score was 11.5 (SD=10.41; range=0-40. For the individual symptoms, the weighted mean CDI was 2.8 (SD=1.58. All symptom CDI means were higher than 2.0 except for euphoria/elation (m=1.8; SD=1.49. There were correlations between CDI and derived measures (Frequency, Severity, FxS, and Amplitude for all symptoms, except Disinhibition and Night-time behavior. Correlations ranged between 0.443 and 0.894, with significance at p<0.05. Conclusions: All the derived measures, including amplitude, were useful in at least some cases. The data suggests that CDI cannot be inferred from symptom presence or profile. Symptoms should be systematically investigated.

  13. Meaning of life, representation of death, and their association with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Ines; Sansonetto, Giulia; Ronconi, Lucia; Rodelli, Maddalena; Baracco, Gloria; Grassi, Luigi

    2017-08-09

    This paper presents a two-phase cross-sectional study aimed at examining the possible mitigating role of perceived meaning of life and representation of death on psychological distress, anxiety, and depression. The first phase involved 219 healthy participants, while the second encompassed 30 cancer patients. Each participant completed the Personal Meaning Profile (PMP), the Testoni Death Representation Scale (TDRS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Distress Thermometer (DT). The primary analyses comprised (1) correlation analyses between the overall scores of each of the instruments and (2) path analysis to assess the indirect effect of the PMP on DT score through anxiety and depression as determined by the HADS. The path analysis showed that the PMP was inversely correlated with depression and anxiety, which, in turn, mediated the effect on distress. Inverse correlations were found between several dimensions of the PMP, the DT, and the HADS-Anxiety and HADS-Depression subscales, in both healthy participants and cancer patients. Religious orientation (faith in God) was related to a stronger sense of meaning in life and the ontological representation of death as a passage, rather than annihilation. Our findings support the hypothesis that participants who represent death as a passage and have a strong perception of the meaning of life tend to report lower levels of distress, anxiety, and depression. We recommend that perceived meaning of life and representation of death be more specifically examined in the cancer and palliative care settings.

  14. Association between psychological status with perceived social support in pregnant women referring to Tabriz health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaie, Fahimeh Sehhatie; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Rahmati, Mahbubeh; Nouri, Parviz; Bagherinia, Marzieh

    2017-05-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the psychological status of pregnant women with perceived social support. In this cross-sectional study, 372 Iranian women were selected randomly via a two-stage cluster sampling method at the third trimester of pregnancy in healthcare centers of Tabriz-Iran. Data were collected using the socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire, perceived social support (PRQ-85) and the short form of depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS-21). The statistical tests including Spearman's correlation, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal Wallis, and linear regression model were used for data. The mean (SD) score of perceived social support 131.5 (18.9) with a range of 25-175 was achieved. In terms of the scale of mental health, median (25-75 percentile) of the score of anxiety 4.0 (3.0-7.0), depression 1.0 (0.0-6.0), and stress 8.0 (0.6-10.0) was achieved. There was a significant negative correlation between perceived social support with anxiety (r = -.355, p social support affects the mental state of women in the third trimester of pregnancy and the levels of anxiety, depression, and stress decrease in pregnant women with increasing of social support.

  15. Examining the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the associations between job stressors and employee psychological distress: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-08-03

    The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. This study employed a prospective design. An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Barefoot, John; Brummett, Berverly H.;

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all m...

  17. The Roles of School Psychology Associations in Promoting the Profession, Professionals, and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.

    2014-01-01

    Professions are strong only to the extent they are represented by active and effective professional associations. Professional associations are strong only to the extent that they are composed of active and effective professionals. This article highlights the belief that the contributions of capable, creative, and committed colleagues who provide…

  18. Pattern formation with repulsive soft-core interactions: Discrete particle dynamics and Dean-Kawasaki equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; Ollivier, Hélène; López, Cristóbal; Blasius, Bernd; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Brownian particles interacting via repulsive soft-core potentials can spontaneously aggregate, despite repelling each other, and form periodic crystals of particle clusters. We study this phenomenon in low-dimensional situations (one and two dimensions) at two levels of description: by performing numerical simulations of the discrete particle dynamics and by linear and nonlinear analysis of the corresponding Dean-Kawasaki equation for the macroscopic particle density. Restricting to low dimensions and neglecting fluctuation effects, we gain analytical insight into the mechanisms of the instability leading to clustering which turn out to be the interplay among diffusion, the intracluster forces, and the forces between neighboring clusters. We show that the deterministic part of the Dean-Kawasaki equation provides a good description of the particle dynamics, including width and shape of the clusters and over a wide range of parameters, and analyze with weakly nonlinear techniques the nature of the pattern-forming bifurcation in one and two dimensions. Finally, we briefly discuss the case of attractive forces.

  19. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  20. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed.

  1. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Merma Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the American Psychological Association (APA. The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific article is coherent with these rules. Overall, the rubric will concentrate on General Aspects of the article and on the Citation System. To do this, 10 articles that were published within 2012-2016 and included in the Journal Citation Report will be analyzed using technical expertise. After doing 5 pilot studies, the results showed the validity and the reliability of the instrument. Furthermore, the process showed the evidence of the possibilities of the rubric to contribute to uniform criteria that can be used as a didactic tool in different scenarios.

  2. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Sani SH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani,1 Zahra Fathirezaie,1 Serge Brand,2 Uwe Pühse,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,2 Markus Gerber,3 Siavash Talepasand4 1Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA and self-esteem (SE, while introducing body mass index (BMI, perceived physical fitness (PPF, and body image (BI in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years. The findings indicated that PA was directly and indirectly associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor indirectly, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and indirectly with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and indirectly associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE. Keywords: physical activity, self-esteem, physical fitness, body image, adults

  3. Association between symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and gender, morphological occlusion, and psychological factors in a group of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonjardim Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD in a sample of university students and its relationship to gender, occlusion, and psychological factors. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 196 subjects, aged 18-25 years. The TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification (classes I, II, and III. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, a 14-item self-administered rating scale developed specifically to identify anxiety and depression in nonpsychiatric medical outpatients, was used to assess the levels of anxiety (HADSa and depression (HADSd. Statistical Analysis: The incidence of TMD level, malocclusion, anxiety, and depression in both genders was calculated as percentages. Association between TMD degree and occlusion, HADSa, and HADSd was tested using the Chi-square test. Results: According to our results, 50% of the subjects had TMD, but it was of moderate or severe degree in only 9.18% of them. No statistically significant association could be found between TMD and gender or occlusion. TMD was found to have statistically significant association with HADSa but not with HADSd. Conclusion : A high prevalence of TMD was found in this student population; however, most of the cases could be classified as mild. Of the variables studied, only HADSa had a statistically significant association with TMD.

  4. The association between occupational stress and depressive symptoms and the mediating role of psychological capital among Chinese university teachers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xue; Yang, Yi-Long; Wang, Yang; Liu, Li; Wang, Shu; Wang, Lie

    2014-11-30

    Depression is a major public health problem that affects both individuals and society. Previous studies report that university teachers are particularly susceptible to high levels of occupational stress and depressive symptoms. The aims of this study were to explore the association between occupational stress and depressive symptoms in a group of university teachers, and assess the mediating role of psychological capital between these variables. A cross-sectional study was performed between November 2013 and January 2014. Teachers from six universities were randomly sampled in Shenyang. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, effort-reward imbalance scale, and psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic and working factors, were administered in questionnaires distributed to 1,500 university teachers. Completed questionnaires were received from 1,210 participants. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to examine the mediating role of psychological capital. In the present study, 58.9% (95% CI (Confidence Intervals): 56.1% to 61.7%) of university teachers had a CES-D score equal to or above the cut-off of 16. Both effort-reward ratio (ERR) and scores of over-commitment were positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas psychological capital was negatively associated with depressive symptoms among university teachers. Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between occupational stress and depressive symptoms. Among Chinese university teachers, occupational stress may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms, whereas psychological capital might be protective against depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that college administrators could support the development of psychological capital in their staff to alleviate depressive symptoms.

  5. Minority stress in lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults in Australia: associations with psychological distress, suicidality, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Toby; de Wit, John; Reynolds, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other same-sex attracted young people have been shown to be at a higher risk of mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, suicidality, and substance abuse, compared to their heterosexual peers. Homophobic prejudice and stigma are often thought to underlie these disparities. In this study, the relationship between such experiences of social derogation and mental health and substance use in same-sex attracted young people was examined using Meyer's minority stress theory. An online survey recruited 254 young women and 318 young men who identified as same-sex attracted, were aged 18-25 years, and lived in Sydney, Australia. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that internalized homophobia, perceived stigma, and experienced homophobic physical abuse were associated with higher levels of psychological distress and self-reported suicidal thoughts in the previous month. Furthermore, perceived stigma and homophobic physical abuse were associated with reporting a lifetime suicide attempt. The association between minority stress and substance use was inconsistent. While, as expected, higher levels of perceived stigma were associated with club drug dependence, there was an inverse association between internalized homophobia and club drug use, and between perceived stigma and hazardous alcohol use. The findings of this study provide support for the minority stress theory proposition that chronic social stress due to sexual orientation is associated with poorer mental health. The high rates of mental health and substance use problems in the current study suggest that same-sex attracted young people should continue to be a priority population for mental health and substance use intervention and prevention.

  6. 75 FR 3217 - J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application... 30, 2009, J&T Hydro Company (transferor) and W. Dean Brooks, and H. Bruce Cox (transferees) filed...

  7. Dental school deans' perceptions of the organizational culture and impact of the ELAM program on the culture and advancement of women faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannels, Sharon A; McLaughlin, Jean M; Gleason, Katharine A; Dolan, Teresa A; McDade, Sharon A; Richman, Rosalyn C; Morahan, Page S

    2009-06-01

    In 2006, deans of the sixty-four U.S. and Canadian dental schools were surveyed to gain their perspectives on their institutions' organizational culture for faculty, family-friendly policies, processes used by deans to develop faculty leadership, and the impact of the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program for Women. The deans reported (52 percent response rate) an improved climate in terms of gender equity, yet recognized that inequities still exist. Of fifteen family-friendly policies, only three were available at more than 50 percent of the schools, with little indication that additional policies were under consideration. The deans reported active engagement in behaviors to develop the leadership of their faculty members. Of the nine processes, 50 percent of the deans indicated three they believed to be particularly effective with women. They agreed that ELAM has had a positive impact on their alumnae and their schools. Results are discussed in terms of how the deans' perceptions compare to faculty perceptions and within the larger context of higher education and other organizations. The responsibility of the dean to shape the dental school's culture, particularly in the face of the changing demographics of dental faculty, adds to the importance of the unique perspective provided by the deans.

  8. A Phenomenological Study of the Preparation and Career Paths of Academic Deans in Church of God Institutions of Theological Education in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Flores, Jenniffer

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the preparation and career paths of academic deans in Church of God (COG) theological institutions located in Latin American and Caribbean. This study used a qualitative research approach and the in-depth interview method for data collection. A group of 14 academic deans that serve in COG theological schools and that…

  9. Development of a checklist of short-term and long-term psychological symptoms associated with ketamine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ni; Xu, Ke; Ning, Yuping; Wang, Daping; Ke, Xiaoyin; Ding, Yi; Sun, Bin; Zhou, Chao; Deng, Xuefeng; Rosenheck, Robert; He, Hongbo

    2015-06-25

    Ketamine is an increasingly popular drug of abuse in China but there is currently no method for classifying the psychological effects of ketamine in individuals with ketamine dependence. Develop a scale that characterizes the acute and long-term psychological effects of ketamine use among persons with ketamine dependence. We developed a preliminary symptom checklist with 35 dichotomous ('yes' or 'no') items about subjective feelings immediately after ketamine use and about perceived long-term effects of ketamine use that was administered to 187 inpatients with ketamine dependence recruited from two large hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on a randomly selected half of thesample to reduce the items and to identify underlying constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the second half of the sample to assess the robustness of the identified factor structure. Among the 35 symptoms, the most-reported acute effects were 'floating or circling' (94%), 'euphoric when listening to rousing music' (86%), and 'feeling excited, talkative, and full of energy' (67%). The mostreported long-term symptoms were 'memory impairment' (93%), 'personality changes' (86%), and 'slowed reactions' (81%). EFA resulted in a final 22-item scale best modelled by a four-factor model: two factors representing chronic symptoms (social withdrawal and sleep disturbances), one about acute psychoticlike symptoms, and one that combined acute drug-related euphoria and longer-term decreased libido. CFA showed that these 4 factors accounted for 50% of the total variance of the final 22-item scale and that the model fit was fair (Goodness of Fit Index, GIF=83.3%; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, RMSEA=0.072). A four-factor model including social withdrawal, sleep disturbance, psychotic-like symptoms, and euphoria at the time of drug use provides a fair description of the short-term and long-term psychological symptoms associated with

  10. Psychological disturbance and its associations in the children of the Gujarati community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, L; Hackett, R; Taylor, D C

    1991-07-01

    The infrequent referral of Asian children to child psychiatry clinics was noted. By administering Rutter's scale A2 to samples of Gujarati and English parents with children between the ages of 4 and 7 years a lower rate of disturbance was demonstrated among the Asian sample providing an explanation for the original observation. Family and child-rearing factors associated with disturbance were identified.

  11. Parental Inconsistency versus Parental Authoritarianism: Associations with Symptoms of Psychological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan Adeeb

    2008-01-01

    While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes. Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a…

  12. Are Teachers' Psychological Control, Autonomy Support and Autonomy Suppression Associated with Students' Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir; Nave, Adi; Hen, Shiran

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between student-perceived teacher behaviours and students' personal goal orientations. Thus, the study applied theoretical concepts from self-determination theory and parenting style in an attempt to enhance understanding of additional environmental characteristics possibly affecting personal goal orientation.…

  13. Associating Parental to Child Psychological Symptoms: Investigating a Transactional Model of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Panayiotou, Georgia; Fanti, Savvas

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal transactional association among paternal and maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Data were collected on preschool- to adolescent-age youth via a total of six assessments. The sample (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]…

  14. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behaviou

  15. Parental Inconsistency versus Parental Authoritarianism: Associations with Symptoms of Psychological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan Adeeb

    2008-01-01

    While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes. Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a…

  16. Association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with HPA and SAM axis reactivity to psychological and physical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuru J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jusen Tsuru,1 Yoshihiro Tanaka,1 Yoshinobu Ishitobi,1 Yoshihiro Maruyama,1 Ayako Inoue,1 Aimi Kawano,1 Rie Ikeda,1 Tomoko Ando,1 Harumi Oshita,2 Saeko Aizawa,1 Koji Masuda,1 Haruka Higuma,1 Masayuki Kanehisa,1 Taiga Ninomiya,1 Jotaro Akiyoshi1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan Background: Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with psychological changes; for example, carriers of the Met allele exhibit increased harm avoidance as well as a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder.Methods: To analyze the effects of BDNF Val66Met on stress responses, we tested 226 university students (88 women and 138 men using a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST] and an electrical stimulation stress test. Stress indices were derived from repeated measurements of salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, and psychological testing during the stress tests. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism (G196A.Results: A significant three-way interaction (time [3 levels] × BDNF [Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met]; P<0.05 was demonstrated that revealed different salivary cortisol responses in the TSST but not in electrical stimulation. Met/Met women had stronger cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST. Met/Met men exhibited stronger salivary cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST.Conclusion: These results indicate that a common, functionally significant polymorphism in BDNF had different effects on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis reactivity but not on sympathetic adrenomedullary reactivity in TSST and electrical stimulation tests. Keywords: stress, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cortisol, saliva

  17. The moderating effects of sex and age on the association between traumatic brain injury and harmful psychological correlates among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8. Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying, bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. CONCLUSIONS: TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for

  18. Associations and Synergistic Effects for Psychological Distress and Chronic Back Pain on the Utilization of Different Levels of Ambulatory Health Care. A Cross-Sectional Study from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; George, Aaron; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to assess the impact of chronic back pain and psychological distress on the utilization of primary and secondary levels of care in the ambulatory health care sector in Austria - a country without a gatekeeping system. Additionally, we aimed to determine if the joint effect of chronic back pain and psychological distress was higher than the impact of the sum of the two single conditions. The database used for this analysis was the Austrian Health Interview Survey, with data from 15,474 individuals. Statistical methods used were descriptive tests, regression models and the calculation of synergistic effects. Both chronic back pain and psychological distress had a positive association with the utilization of the primary (OR for chronic back pain 1.53 and psychological distress 1.33) and secondary (OR for chronic back pain 1.32 and psychological distress 1.24) levels of the health care sector. In the fully adjusted model, the synergistic effect of chronic back pain and psychological distress was significant for the secondary level of care (S 1.99, PAF 0.20), but not for the primary level of care (S 1.16, PAF 0.07). Synergistic effects and associations for chronic back pain and psychological distress on the utilization of both the primary and secondary levels of the ambulatory health care sector were observed, particularly for the secondary level of care. Our results demonstrate the utilization of health care services settings by individuals with these conditions, and offer opportunities to consider reorganization and structuring of the Austrian health care system.

  19. The 2008 financial crisis: Changes in social capital and its association with psychological wellbeing in the United Kingdom - A panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Giordano, Giuseppe N

    2016-03-01

    The global financial crisis of 2008 was described by the IMF as the worst recession since the Great Depression. This historic event provided the backdrop to this United Kingdom (UK) longitudinal study of changes in associations between social capital and psychological wellbeing. Past longitudinal studies have reported that the presence of social capital may buffer against adverse mental health outcomes. This study adds to existing literature by employing data from the British Household Panel Survey and tracking the same individuals (N = 11,743) pre- and immediately post-crisis (years 2007-09). With longitudinal, multilevel logistic regression modelling, we aimed to compare the buffering effects of individual-level social capital (generalised trust and social participation) against worse psychological wellbeing (GHQ-12) during and immediately after the 2008 financial crisis. After comparing the same individuals over time, results showed that stocks of social capital (generalised trust) were significantly depleted across the UK during the crisis, from 40% trusting others in 2007 to 32% in 2008. Despite this drop, the buffering effect of trust against worse psychological wellbeing was pronounced in 2008; those not trusting had an increased risk of worse psychological wellbeing in 2008 compared with the previous year in fully adjusted models (OR = 1.49, 95% CI (1.34-1.65). Levels of active participation increased across the timeframe of this study but were not associated with psychological health. From our empirical evidence, decision makers should be made aware of how events such as the crisis (and the measures taken to counter its effects) could negatively impact on a Nation's trust levels. Furthermore, past research implies that the positive effects of trust on psychological wellbeing evident in this study may only be short-term; therefore, decision makers should also prioritise policies that restore trust levels to improve the psychological wellbeing of the

  20. Racial and ethnic differences in associations between psychological distress and the presence of binge drinking: Results from the California health interview survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Bongki; Wang, Kaipeng; Tran, Thanh

    2017-02-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities often suffer from poorer health than Whites given their exposure to more stressors and fewer resources that buffer the effects of stress. Given that alcohol is often consumed to alleviate the negative moods, the present study hypothesized that psychological distress may impact the involvement in binge drinking differently across racial and ethnic groups. We used data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2007 to 2012. The sample consisted of 130,556 adults including African Americans (N=6541), Asians (N=13,508), Latinos (N=18,128), and Whites (N=92,379). Binary logistic regression analysis was used with consideration for complex survey design. The results indicated that psychological distress was significantly associated with binge drinking across all racial and ethnic groups. However, this association differed by race and ethnicity adjusting for age, gender, marital status, education, poverty, and employment status. The results revealed that psychological distress had the largest effect on binge drinking for Asian Americans, particularly Filipinos and South Asians, compared to Whites. This study highlights the importance of examining racial and ethnic differences in the impacts of psychological distress on alcohol consumption. Future research is needed to better understand the potential factors that mediate the effects of psychological distress on binge drinking specific to each racial and ethnic group in order to develop culturally sensitive interventions and hence decrease the alcohol-related racial health disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Positive psychological factors are associated with lower PTSD symptoms among police officers: post Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanlies, Erin C; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M

    2014-12-01

    Following Hurricane Katrina, police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges. This cross-sectional study examined the association between resilience, satisfaction with life, gratitude, posttraumatic growth, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in 84 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana. Protective factors were measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were measured using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist--Civilian (PCL-C). Potential associations were measured using linear regression and analysis of variance. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and alcohol. Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.5 ± 14.5 for females and 27.8 ± 12.1 for males. Adjusted mean levels of PCL-C symptoms significantly decreased as quartiles of resilience (p < .001), satisfaction with life (p < .001), and gratitude (p < .001) increased. In contrast, PCL-C symptoms were not associated with posttraumatic growth in this sample. These results indicate that positive factors such as resilience, satisfaction with life, and gratitude may help mitigate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. To further explore these relationships, longitudinal follow-up in a larger population would be of interest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. [The Visual Association Test to study episodic memory in clinical geriatric psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, Han; Prins, Marleen; Lauret, Gijs

    2017-09-27

    The Visual Association Test (VAT) is a brief learning task that consists of six line drawings of pairs of interacting objects (association cards). Subjects are asked to name or identify each object and later are presented with one object from the pair (the cue) and asked to name the other (the target). The VAT was administered in a consecutive sample of 174 psychogeriatric day care participants with mild to major neurocognitive disorder. Comparison of test performance with normative data from non-demented subjects revealed that 69% scored within the range of a major deficit (0-8 over two recall trials), 14% a minor, and 17% no deficit (9-10, and ≥10 respectively).VAT-scores correlated with another test of memory function, the Cognitive Screening Test (CST), based on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (r = 0.53). Tests of executive functioning (Expanded Mental Control Test, Category Fluency, Clock Drawing) did not add significantly to the explanation of variance in VAT-scores.Fifty-five participants (31.6%) were faced with initial problems in naming or identifying one or more objects on the cue cards or association cards. If necessary, naming was aided by the investigator. Initial difficulties in identifying cue objects were associated with lower VAT-scores, but this did not hold for difficulties in identifying target objects.A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether linear or quadratic trends best fitted VAT performance across the range of CST scores. The regression model revealed a linear but not a quadratic trend. The best fitting linear model implied that VAT scores differentiated between CST scores in the lower, as well as in the upper range, indicating the absence of floor and ceiling effects, respectively. Moreover, the VAT compares favourably to word list-learning tasks being more attractive in its presentation of interacting visual objects and cued recall based on incidental learning of the association

  3. Medical school deans' perceptions of organizational climate: useful indicators for advancement of women faculty and evaluation of a leadership program's impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannels, Sharon; McLaughlin, Jean; Gleason, Katharine A; McDade, Sharon A; Richman, Rosalyn; Morahan, Page S

    2009-01-01

    The authors surveyed U.S. and Canadian medical school deans regarding organizational climate for faculty, policies affecting faculty, processes deans use for developing faculty leadership, and the impact of the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program for Women. The usable response rate was 58% (n = 83/142). Deans perceived gender equity in organizational climate as neutral, improving, or attained on most items and deficient on four. Only three family-friendly policies/benefits were available at more than 68% of medical schools; several policies specifically designed to increase gender equity were available at fewer than 14%. Women deans reported significantly more frequent use than men (P = .032) of practices used to develop faculty leadership. Deans' impressions regarding the impact of ELAM alumnae on their schools was positive (M = 5.62 out of 7), with those having more fellows reporting greater benefit (P = .01). The deans felt the ELAM program had a very positive influence on its alumnae (M = 6.27) and increased their eligibility for promotion (M = 5.7). This study provides a unique window into the perceptions of medical school deans, important policy leaders at their institutions. Their opinion adds to previous studies of organizational climate focused on faculty perceptions. Deans perceive the organizational climate for women to be improving, but they believe that certain interventions are still needed. Women deans seem more proactive in their use of practices to develop leadership. Finally, deans provide an important third-party judgment for program evaluation of the ELAM leadership intervention, reporting a positive impact on its alumnae and their schools.

  4. The American Psychological Association Task Force assessment of violent video games: Science in the service of public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L; Appelbaum, Mark; Dodge, Kenneth A; Graham, Sandra; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C; Hamby, Sherry; Fasig-Caldwell, Lauren G; Citkowicz, Martyna; Galloway, Daniel P; Hedges, Larry V

    2017-01-01

    A task force of experts was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) to update the knowledge and policy about the impact of violent video game use on potential adverse outcomes. This APA Task Force on Media Violence examined the existing literature, including the meta-analyses in the field, since the last APA report on media violence in 2005. Because the most recent meta-analyses were published in 2010 and reflected work through 2009, the task force conducted a search of the published studies from 2009-2013. These recently published articles were scored and assessed by a systematic evidentiary review, followed by a meta-analysis of the high utility studies, as documented in the evidentiary review. Consistent with the literature that we reviewed, we found that violent video game exposure was associated with: an increased composite aggression score; increased aggressive behavior; increased aggressive cognitions; increased aggressive affect, increased desensitization, and decreased empathy; and increased physiological arousal. The size of the effects was similar to that in prior meta-analyses, suggesting a stable result. Our task force concluded that violent video game use is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, but found insufficient studies to examine any potential link between violent video game use and delinquency or criminal behavior. Our technical report is the basis of this article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Psychological Factors Associated with Emotional Distress among Palestinian Arabs from East Jerusalem Accessing Psychiatric Care in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Levav, Itzhak; Danilovich, Eli; Abu-Tair, Mamoun; Podolsky, Grigory

    2016-01-01

    The Palestinian population residing in East Jerusalem is characterized by high rates of poverty and unemployment and is subject to discrimination in various forms, including infrastructure of mental health services. Little is known about the help seeking needs and practices of East Jerusalem residents. We examined socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of a consecutive sample Palestinian residents from East Jerusalem (N=50) who accessed a specially assigned psychiatric clinic in Israel. In addition, we examined the psychological factors associated with emotional distress among these service-users upon entry to care. Participants completed a survey in Arabic that included a socio-demographic questionnaire and measures assessing emotional distress, perceived exposure to discrimination and social support, and mental health stigma. Participants reported high levels of emotional distress. Female gender, low socioeconomic status, higher perceived exposure to discrimination and higher perceived social support were associated with increased emotional distress. Findings add to the scarce body of knowledge on specific mental health characteristics of East Jerusalem Palestinian residents.

  6. Navigating the obesogenic environment : How psychological sensitivity to the food environment and self-regulatory competence are associated with adolescent unhealthy snacking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F. Marijn; De Vet, Emely; Wardle, Jane; Chu, Maria T.; De Wit, John; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Living in an obesogenic environment may not affect all adolescents to the same extent, depending on their psychological sensitivity to the food environment and their self-regulatory competence. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of these two factors with unhealthy

  7. Navigating the obesogenic environment: How psychological sensitivity to the food environment and self-regulatory competence are associated with adolescent unhealthy snacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Vet, de E.; Wardle, J.; Chu, M.T.; Wit, J.B.F.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Living in an obesogenic environment may not affect all adolescents to the same extent, depending on their psychological sensitivity to the food environment and their self-regulatory competence. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of these two factors with unhealthy

  8. Use of Student Support Services among University Students: Associations with Problem-Focused Coping, Experience of Personal Difficulty and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julal, F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Universities provide a range of problem-focused social support services to help students who are experiencing personal difficulties. The current study examines how the effectiveness of students' ("N" = 131) problem-coping style, experience of personal difficulty and psychological distress are associated with actual use of support…

  9. The Role of Culture in Relational Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems in Japanese and US School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate psychometric properties that assess forms of aggression (i.e., relational and physical aggression) across cultures (i.e., Japan and the United States) and (2) to investigate the role of culture in the associations between forms of aggression and social-psychological adjustment problems such as…

  10. Working Nonstandard Schedules and Variable Shifts in Low-Income Families: Associations with Parental Psychological Well-Being, Family Functioning, and Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, JoAnn; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal data from the New Hope Project--an experimental evaluation of a work-based antipoverty program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin--was used to explore concurrent and lagged associations of nonstandard schedules and variable shifts with parental psychological well-being, regularity of family mealtimes, and child well-being among low-income…

  11. ALOUD: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study: Association between biological and psychological determinants and study success in adult formal distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Neroni, J., Gijselaers, J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 6 December). ALOUD: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study: Associations between biological and psychological determinants and study success in adult formal distance education. Presented at the Open University for t

  12. Navigating the obesogenic environment : How psychological sensitivity to the food environment and self-regulatory competence are associated with adolescent unhealthy snacking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F. Marijn; De Vet, Emely; Wardle, Jane; Chu, Maria T.; De Wit, John; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Living in an obesogenic environment may not affect all adolescents to the same extent, depending on their psychological sensitivity to the food environment and their self-regulatory competence. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of these two factors with unhealthy

  13. Bullying Among South Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Association With Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence rates of physical, verbal, relational, property, and cyber bullying among a sample of South Korean middle school students. Associations between bullying and a list of psychopathological symptoms were also examined. Finally, whether a link between bullying and psychopathological symptoms is modified by the level of parental attachment was examined. Results show that, contrary to Western studies, girls were more likely than boys to be involved in school bullying. Significant interaction effects between parental attachment and bully/victim status on depression were also discovered.

  14. "Walter Gropius" by Dean Carter. Exhibition of College of Architecture and Urban Studies Timeline and Portrait Busts.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Dean

    2014-01-01

    DEAN CARTER. Walter Gropius. Cast bronze. The Art Collection / Virginia Tech Foundation Exhibition of portrait busts and the timeline of the history College of Architecture and Urban Studies, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the College. Curated by Truman Capone and Deb Sim. Francis T. Eck Exhibition Corridor, Moss Arts Center, Virginia Tech. Image 13

  15. The Honors Thesis: A Handbook for Honors Directors, Deans, and Faculty Advisors. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark; Lyons, Karen; Weiner, Norman

    2014-01-01

    This handbook is intended to help all those who design, administer, and implement honors thesis programs--honors directors, deans, staff, faculty, and advisors--evaluate their thesis programs, solve pressing problems, select more effective requirements or procedures, or introduce an entirely new thesis program. The authors' goal is to provide…

  16. Equilibrium dynamics of the Dean-Kawasaki equation: Mode-coupling theory and its extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongsoo; Kawasaki, Kyozi; Jacquin, Hugo; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    We extend a previously proposed field-theoretic self-consistent perturbation approach for the equilibrium dynamics of the Dean-Kawasaki equation presented in [Kim and Kawasaki, J. Stat. Mech. (2008) P02004, 10.1088/1742-5468/2008/02/P02004]. By taking terms missing in the latter analysis into account we arrive at a set of three new equations for correlation functions of the system. These correlations involve the density and its logarithm as local observables. Our new one-loop equations, which must carefully deal with the noninteracting Brownian gas theory, are more general than the historic mode-coupling one in that a further approximation corresponding to Gaussian density fluctuations leads back to the original mode-coupling equation for the density correlations alone. However, without performing any further approximation step, our set of three equations does not feature any ergodic-nonergodic transition, as opposed to the historical mode-coupling approach.

  17. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Dean Ornish Program (“Opening the Heart” in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dean Ornish of the Preventive Medicine Research Institute in Sausalito, California has created an intensive holistic treatment for coronary heart patients with improved diet (low fat, whole foods, plant based, exercise, stress management, and social support that has proven to be efficient. In this paper, we analyze the rationale behind his cure in relation to contemporary holistic medical theory. In spite of a complex treatment program, the principles seem to be simple and in accordance with holistic medical theories, like the Antonovsky concept of rehabilitating the sense of coherence and the life mission theory for holistic medicine. We believe there is a need for the allocation of resources for further research into the aspects of holistic health and its methods, where positive and significant results have been proven and reproduced at several sites.

  18. Associations between psychological factors and the effect of home-based physical exercise in women with chronic neck and shoulder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linn; Gerdle, Björn; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Andersson, Gerhard; Larsson, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exercise is often used in the treatment of chronic neck and shoulder muscle pain. It is likely that psychological aspects have an impact on the results of exercise-based treatments. Objectives: (1) To examine the associations between psychological factors and the effect of a home-based physical exercise intervention. (2) To examine differences in psychological factors at baseline between (a) subjects who continued in the trial and those who did not and (b) subjects who completed the intervention and those who did not. Method: A total of 57 women with chronic neck and shoulder pain were included in a home-based exercise intervention trial. Pain intensity, disability, and psychological factors (anxiety and depression symptoms, catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, self-efficacy, and pain acceptance) were measured at baseline, after 4–6 months, and after 1 year of exercise. Associations between the psychological factors and changes in pain intensity and disability were analysed, as well as differences in psychological factors at baseline between subjects who continued in and completed the intervention, and those who did not. Results: Associations between positive changes in pain intensity and disability were found for low fear-avoidance beliefs and low-pain self-efficacy at baseline. In addition, fear-avoidance beliefs at baseline were higher in the subjects who dropped out of the intervention than in those who continued. Pain acceptance at baseline was higher in the subjects who completed the intervention at the end of the trial. Conclusion: Particularly, fear-avoidance beliefs and pain self-efficacy should be taken into consideration when implementing home-based physical exercise as treatment for chronic neck pain. In addition, high pain acceptance might improve the adherence to prescribed exercise. PMID:27688880

  19. Psychology data from the Race Implicit Association Test on the Project Implicit Demo website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyuan Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This data archive includes Race Implicit Association Test (IAT scores of 2,355,303 Internet volunteers who completed educational/demonstration versions of the Race IAT at https://implicit.harvard.edu from 2002 to 2012. Data in this archive can be downloaded for all years, either separately by year or in a single file. Codebooks, indicating the variable labels and value labels, and changes of variables over years, are available for both individual-year data sets and the entire data set. Participation in the (still on-going Race IAT “study” at the Project Implicit (PI demonstration site includes completion of the Race IAT along with demographic questions, self-report measures of racial attitude, and various additional measures received by a portion of the participants. These data allow analyses involving changes in responding over time and interrelations among IAT and self-report measures of race attitudes, as well as the association of each of these with demographics. This archive is available at http://osf.io/project/52qxL/. Dataset The Data described in this paper is available from the Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/52qxl/ [1

  20. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  1. Psychological distress and its associations with past events in pregnant women affected by armed conflict in Swat, Pakistan: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Chiumento, Anna; Dherani, Mukesh; Bristow, Katie; Sikander, Siham; Rahman, Atif

    2015-01-01

    The public health significance of maternal mental health is well established. Armed conflicts expose populations to events that could have long-term negative consequences for mental health of pregnant women and their children. This study explores the prevalence and associated risk factors for psychological distress of women during pregnancy, including exposure to past conflict-related potentially traumatic events, in a population exposed to armed conflict in the Swat region of Pakistan. A community-based cross-sectional survey of 349 pregnant women in two union councils in Swat was conducted. Psychological distress was measured using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). Conflict-related potentially traumatic events (PTEs) were measured through an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Information was also collected on major life events (Life Events Checklist), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and demographic and socio-economic variables. Prevalence of current psychological distress was 38.1 % (95 % CI: 33.1, 43.3). Psychological distress was significantly associated with three or more potentially traumatic events (PTEs) experienced during the conflict (OR = 2.62, 95 % CI: 1.22, 5.61); three or more major life events in the year following the conflict (OR = 3.25, 95 % CI: 1.82, 5.82) and inversely associated with family support (OR = 0.91, 95 % CI: 0.88, 0.95). This is one of the first community based cross sectional surveys in Swat valley, Pakistan to assess the prevalence of psychological distress during pregnancy in an area affected by conflict. Over a third of women show evidence of significant psychological distress. Exposure to potentially traumatic events remained independently associated with psychological distress 1 year after conflict ended, suggesting that conflict exposure may have long-term impacts upon maternal mental health. Combining this with findings relating to the cumulative

  2. Creating healthier workplaces: The American Psychological Association/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health cooperative agreement. Introduction and historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J C; Camara, W J; Johnson, J V; Sauter, S L; Hurrell, J J; Piotrkowski, C S; Spielberger, C D

    1997-01-01

    This article introduces the special section on the American Psychological Association/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (APA/NIOSH) collaboration. The section includes an overview statement of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research by Linda Rosenstock and 5 competitively peer-reviewed articles submitted to the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology following their presentation in an earlier form at the 3rd APA/NIOSH conference in September 1995. This article provides a brief history of the APA/NIOSH collaboration forged at the turn of this decade.

  3. Do law students stand apart from other university students in their quest for mental health: A comparative study on wellbeing and associated behaviours in law and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skead, Natalie K; Rogers, Shane L

    2015-01-01

    We are not producing a product, but a well-balanced person.(1) It is well-documented that law students experience higher levels of psychological distress than members of the general population and university students in other professional disciplines. In 2014, we published our findings on an empirical study identifying the correlations between law student wellbeing and student behaviour both at and away from law school. The results of the study informed the development of an evidence-based 'behavioural toolkit' to assist law students and law schools in making informed choices and decisions that promote and even improve the mental health of students. The study we undertook was not, however, limited to law students. It extended to collecting quantitative data on psychological distress and associated behaviours in psychology students. This article reports on the comparative findings of the study and provides a comparative basis for understanding the contextual influences on the wellbeing of law students.

  4. Social and psychological factors associated with adolescents' self-acceptance of occlusal condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D F; Spencer, A J; Tolliday, P D

    1987-04-01

    Studies using plaster models of teeth and photographs simulating the full range of occlusal conditions have found high agreement between measures of adolescent social acceptability of these conditions and perceived need for orthodontic treatment. This study examined the association between adolescents' acceptability of their own occlusal condition, severity of malocclusion, and likelihood of undergoing orthodontic treatment. The factors predicting the acceptability of occlusal condition of 13-yr-olds, as assessed by the SASOC scale, were measurements of acceptability of general physical appearance, and the severity of occlusal condition. Variability in SASOC scores appeared to be independent of gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Gender, and severity of occlusal condition were important differences between subjects who had received, planned, or were undergoing orthodontic treatment, and those who had not. Neither SASOC scores nor perceived need for treatment accounted for a significant proportion of the variance between these groups. Although adolescents seeking orthodontic treatment had a greater severity of malocclusion than those not, little difference was observed between these groups in acceptance of occlusal condition.

  5. The associations of illness perceptions and self-efficacy with psychological well-being of patients in preparation for joint replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magklara, Eleni; Morrison, Val

    2016-09-01

    Patient well-being on referral to surgery likely affects their surgical experience yet few studies examine pre-surgical correlates of well-being. Guided by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation and Social Cognitive theory, this study examined whether illness and emotional representations, general and domain self-efficacy were associated with pre-surgical well-being. The pre-surgical assessment of a three-wave prospective study is reported. Fifty-four hip and knee replacements patients (mean age = 69.33; SD = 8.57) were recruited in the pre-surgery educational clinic at a UK general hospital. Patients completed a questionnaire-pack including the Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Rehabilitation Outcome Scale, the Falls-Efficacy Scale, and the Short Form of Psychological Well-Being Index. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that above and beyond demographic and clinical characteristics, negative emotional representations were associated with lower psychological well-being while strong general self-efficacy beliefs were positively related to psychological well-being. Independent of demographic and clinical characteristics, joint replacement patients' psychological well-being was associated with their cognitions and emotional reactions to their condition before surgery. Early interventions could potentially target these modifiable factors to improve pre-surgical well-being in this group of patients, with potential for additional post-surgical benefit.

  6. Association between psychological distress and dietary intake among evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake in a cross-sectional study: the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Uemura, Mayu; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Otsuru, Akira; Maeda, Masaharu; Harigane, Mayumi; Horikoshi, Naoko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Yabe, Hirooki; Takahashi, Hideto; Nagai, Masato; Nakano, Hironori; ZHANG Wen; Hirosaki, Mayumi; ABE, MASAFUMI

    2016-01-01

    Objective Psychological distress is generally associated with poor dietary intake, but this has never been investigated among residents after a major disaster. We attempted to reveal the associations between dietary intake and non-specific mental health distress as well as traumatic symptoms among evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis of 63 047 evacuees (27 901 men, 35 146 women) who responded to The Fukushima Health Management Survey...

  7. Quality of life of adult daughters of women with schizophrenia: Associations with psychological resource losses and gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Ora; Kushnir, Jonathan; Bar, Mor; Kushnir, Talma

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived losses and gains of psychological resources and quality of life of adult daughters of women with schizophrenia. Thirty one adult daughters of mothers with schizophrenia (age range 30 to 50years) and thirty women of similar socio-demographic characteristics whose mothers were mentally healthy (the control group) participated in this study. (a) Resource loss was higher and resource gains were lower among daughters of women with schizophrenia, compared to the control group; (b) despite resource gains total score of quality of life was significantly lower among daughters of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the controls; (c) daughters of mothers with schizophrenia had lower levels of family functioning, a higher level of negative emotions and a lower level of positive emotions; (d) resource gains moderated the negative relationship between resource loss and quality of life; (e) the most significant predictor of quality of life was the group (i.e. daughters of women with schizophrenia compared with controls); (f) quality of life was more strongly associated with resource loss than with resource gain. The findings of this research underscore the importance of raising awareness of caregivers and healthcare authorities to the needs of the unique population of daughters of women diagnosed with schizophrenia for support and even treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary evidence that exercise dependence is associated with blunted cardiac and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Ginty, Annie T; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2011-02-01

    Low or blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress have been shown to characterise those with a tobacco or alcohol dependency. The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise dependency would be similarly associated with blunted reactivity. Young female exercisers (N=219) were screened by questionnaire for exercise dependence. Ten women with probable exercise dependence and 10 non dependent controls were selected for laboratory stress testing. Cardiovascular activity and salivary cortisol were measured at rest and in response to a 10-min mental arithmetic stress task. The exercise dependent women showed blunted cardiac reactions to the stress task and blunted cortisol at 10, 20, and 30 minute post stress exposure. These effects could not be accounted for in terms of group differences in stress task performance, nor could the cardiac effects be attributed to group differences in cardio-respiratory fitness. It would seem that low stress reactivity is characteristic of a wide range of dependencies, and is not confined to substance dependence. Our results offer further support for the hypothesis that blunted stress reactivity may be a peripheral marker of a central motivational dysregulation.

  9. Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Mediates the Association between Self-Control Skills and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie

    2017-01-01

    Although studies have shown that self-control skills (SCSs) are positively linked to both personal and interpersonal outcomes in adolescent students, studies on the putative mechanisms underlying this relationship are scarce. Drawing on Self-Determination Theory and previous studies, we theorized that the association between students' SCSs and their subjective well-being (SWB) in school may be mediated by students' perceived satisfaction of their basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. The sample consisted of 1576 Israeli adolescent students (54% girls) in grades 10-12 (mean age 16) enrolled in 20 schools. A mediation model was tested with structural equation modeling and a robust bootstrap method for testing indirect effects, controlling for school-level variance. The findings supported the hypothesized model and a post hoc multi-group comparison analysis yielded gender invariance in the model. The findings suggest that both girls and boys with high SCSs may perceive themselves as having greater needs satisfaction in school and consequently higher school-related SWB. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  10. The association between psychological stress and low back pain among district hospital employees in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Olivier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of low back pain (LBP can be influenced by psychosocial  stress experienced  at  work.  The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  determine the point prevalence for LBP and the psychological stress expe-rienced at work as a factor associated with the presence of LBP amongst staff  employed  at  district  hospital  in  Pretoria,  Gauteng,  South  Africa.  A  self-administered questionnaire was  completed  by  all  participants. Results indicated that the point prevalence for LBP was 47.46%. Sixty five point five seven percent of employees who experienced stress at work all the time, suffered from LBP (p=0.001. Stress experienced at work all the time increased the risk of LBP (OR 3.47 CI 1.46 ; 8.23.  A clinical recommendation resulting from this study is that healthcare providers need to include the provision of education, support and appropriate  referral for patients who perceive themselves to have high levels of stress.

  11. Factors associated with psychological distress in the Canadian population: a comparison of low-income and non low-income sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jean; Liu, Aihua

    2011-06-01

    This study presents a comparison of the level of psychological distress between low-income and non low-income populations in Canada. It describes the factors associate with distress identified for each population and presents the differences found with the models used in predicting distress. Data were collected through the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 including 36,984 individuals aged 15 or over. Of this sample, 17.9% (N = 7,940) was identified as being within the low-income population. In the low-income population, the percentage of high psychological distress was as high as 28%, compared to 19% in the non low-income population. Variables related to social support, stress and coping abilities were the stronger sets of variables related to distress in both populations. The results provided evidence that although economically disadvantaged and more affluent populations share many variables associated with psychological distress, they have a different profile on the correlates of psychological distress.

  12. Associations between perceived employability, employee well-being, and its contribution to organizational success: a matter of psychological contracts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuyper, de N.; Heijden, van der B.I.J.M.; Witte, van de H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated interactions between perceived employability and employees' perceptions about psychological contract obligations made by the employer in relation to life and job satisfaction, self-rated performance, and turnover intention. We hypothesized that perceived employability relates positiv

  13. Comprehensive theory of the Deans' switch as a variable flow splitter: fluid mechanics, mass balance, and system behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeker, Peter; Leppert, Jan; Mysliwietz, Bodo; Lammers, Peter Schulze

    2013-10-01

    The Deans' switch is an effluent switching device based on controlling flows of carrier gas instead of mechanical valves in the analytical flow path. This technique offers high inertness and a wear-free operation. Recently new monolithic microfluidic devices have become available. In these devices the whole flow system is integrated into a small metal device with low thermal mass and leak-tight connections. In contrast to a mechanical valve-based system, a flow-controlled system is more difficult to calculate. Usually the Deans' switch is used to switch one inlet to one of two outlets, by means of two auxiliary flows. However, the Deans' switch can also be used to deliver the GC effluent with a specific split ratio to both outlets. The calculation of the split ratio of the inlet flow to the two outlets is challenging because of the asymmetries of the flow resistances. This is especially the case, if one of the outlets is a vacuum device, such as a mass spectrometer, and the other an atmospheric detector, e.g. a flame ionization detector (FID) or an olfactory (sniffing) port. The capillary flows in gas chromatography are calculated with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation of the laminar, isothermal and compressible flow in circular tubes. The flow resistances in the new microfluidic devices have to be calculated with the corresponding equation for rectangular cross-section microchannels. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation underestimates the flow to a vacuum outlet. A corrected equation originating from the theory of rarefied flows is presented. The calculation of pressures and flows of a Deans' switch based chromatographic system is done by the solution of mass balances. A specific challenge is the consideration of the antidiffusion resistor between the two auxiliary gas lines of the Deans' switch. A full solution for the calculation of the Deans' switch including this restrictor is presented. Results from validation measurements are in good accordance with the developed

  14. The presence of resilience is associated with a healthier psychological profile in intensive care unit (ICU) nurses: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealer, Meredith; Jones, Jacqueline; Newman, Julia; McFann, Kim K; Rothbaum, Barbara; Moss, Marc

    2012-03-01

    ICU nurses are repeatedly exposed to work related stresses resulting in the development of psychological disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder and burnout syndrome. Resilience is a learnable multidimensional characteristic enabling one to thrive in the face of adversity. In a national survey, we sought to determine whether resilience was associated with healthier psychological profiles in intensive care unit nurses. Surveys were mailed to 3500 randomly selected ICU nurses across the United States and included: demographic questions, the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Overall, 1239 of the mailed surveys were returned for a response rate of 35%, and complete data was available on a total of 744 nurses. Twenty-two percent of the intensive care unit nurses were categorized as being highly resilient. The presence of high resilience in these nurses was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, symptoms of anxiety or depression, and burnout syndrome (resilience was independently associated with a lower prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (presilience was independently associated with a lower prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and burnout syndrome in intensive care unit nurses. Future research is needed to better understand coping mechanisms employed by highly resilient nurses and how they maintain a healthier psychological profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The history of psychology course in Spanish psychology curricula: Past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisvert-Perales, Mauricio; Monteagudo-Soto, María J; Mestre, Vicenta

    2016-05-01

    Since the university education of psychologists began in Spain in 1954, the history of psychology course has been included in the curriculum. In the first few years, only half of the curricula offered the course. From 1973 to 2007, the universities' organization and regulation underwent successive reforms that involved changes in the curricula, decreeing specific national guidelines for each degree and establishing a minimum set of common required courses, called core courses, including the history of psychology. In 2007, the European Higher Education Area was set up, transforming the 5-year bachelor's degrees into 4-year degrees and eliminating the required guidelines, with each university being able to define the content of their curricula. The Dean's Conference for Psychology agreed on some recommendations related to core courses, which continued to include the history of psychology and were adopted by the majority of the universities. In 2015, the government established a new national regulation that makes it possible for each university to voluntarily reduce the length of the bachelor's degree to 3 years. Some psychology historians believe that this hypothetical reduction in the length of the degree, along with the already existing general tendency to prioritize applied or practical courses over basic or fundamental ones, could produce an appropriate scenario for the disappearance of the history of psychology course in some universities.

  16. Ein Ende, das zum Anfang wurde: die Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie, 1907-1913: zur (Vor)Geschichte der IAPR (1/4) - The end that turned into a new beginning: the journal for the psychology of religion, 1907-1913: on the (pre)history of the International Association for the Psychology of Religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2014, the International Association for the Psychology of Religion (IAPR) will have its centennial, and so will its scientific journal, the present Archive for the Psychology of Religion [Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ARp]. This first article on IAPR’s (pre)history analyses the fate of the

  17. Ein Ende, das zum Anfang wurde: die Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie, 1907-1913: zur (Vor)Geschichte der IAPR (1/4) - The end that turned into a new beginning: the journal for the psychology of religion, 1907-1913: on the (pre)history of the International Association for the Psychology of Religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2014, the International Association for the Psychology of Religion (IAPR) will have its centennial, and so will its scientific journal, the present Archive for the Psychology of Religion [Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ARp]. This first article on IAPR’s (pre)history analyses the fate of the for

  18. The association of genotype-based inbreeding coefficient with a range of physical and psychological human traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Veijola, Juha; Sebert, Sylvain; Koiranen, Markku; Keller, Matthew C; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2014-01-01

    Across animal species, offspring of closely related mates exhibit lower fitness, a phenomenon called inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression in humans is less well understood because mating between close relatives is generally rare and stigmatised, confounding investigation of its effect on fitness-relevant traits. Recently, the availability of high-density genotype data has enabled quantification of variation in distant inbreeding in 'outbred' human populations, but the low variance of inbreeding detected from genetic data in most outbred populations means large samples are required to test effects, and only a few traits have yet been studied. However, it is likely that isolated populations, or those with a small effective population size, have higher variation in inbreeding and therefore require smaller sample sizes to detect inbreeding effects. With a small effective population size and low immigration, Northern Finland is such a population. We make use of a sample of ∼5,500 'unrelated' individuals in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort 1966 with known genotypes and measured phenotypes across a range of fitness-relevant physical and psychological traits, including birth length and adult height, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, heart rate, grip strength, educational attainment, income, marital status, handedness, health, and schizotypal features. We find significant associations in the predicted direction between individuals' inbreeding coefficient (measured by proportion of the genome in runs of homozygosity) and eight of the 18 traits investigated, significantly more than the one or two expected by chance. These results are consistent with inbreeding depression effects on a range of human traits, but further research is needed to replicate and test alternative explanations for these effects.

  19. The association of genotype-based inbreeding coefficient with a range of physical and psychological human traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin J H Verweij

    Full Text Available Across animal species, offspring of closely related mates exhibit lower fitness, a phenomenon called inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression in humans is less well understood because mating between close relatives is generally rare and stigmatised, confounding investigation of its effect on fitness-relevant traits. Recently, the availability of high-density genotype data has enabled quantification of variation in distant inbreeding in 'outbred' human populations, but the low variance of inbreeding detected from genetic data in most outbred populations means large samples are required to test effects, and only a few traits have yet been studied. However, it is likely that isolated populations, or those with a small effective population size, have higher variation in inbreeding and therefore require smaller sample sizes to detect inbreeding effects. With a small effective population size and low immigration, Northern Finland is such a population. We make use of a sample of ∼5,500 'unrelated' individuals in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort 1966 with known genotypes and measured phenotypes across a range of fitness-relevant physical and psychological traits, including birth length and adult height, body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, heart rate, grip strength, educational attainment, income, marital status, handedness, health, and schizotypal features. We find significant associations in the predicted direction between individuals' inbreeding coefficient (measured by proportion of the genome in runs of homozygosity and eight of the 18 traits investigated, significantly more than the one or two expected by chance. These results are consistent with inbreeding depression effects on a range of human traits, but further research is needed to replicate and test alternative explanations for these effects.

  20. Emily Dean and The Foundation of First Department of Librarianship in Turkey Türkiye'de İlk Kütüphanecilik Bölümü'nün Kuruluşu ve Emily Dean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekine Karakaş

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign specialists played an eminent role in the foundation and growth of university department of library science in Turkey. Among those who pioneered the production and training of graduate librarians was Emily Dean, who was sure that an educational institution modelled on an American type library school would be developed by her Turkish colleagues. Emily Dean's valuable contribution which initiated library science lectures in Ankara University cannot be denied. Türkiye'de üniversite düzeyinde eğitim görmüş kütüphanecilerin yetişmesi için bir kütüphanecilik dalının kurulmasında ülkemize gelen yabancı uzmanlar önemli bir rol oynamışlardır. Bunlardan Emily Dean Amerika çizgisinde oluşturulacak bir eğitim kurumunun Türkler tarafından en iyi şekilde geliştirileceğine olan inançla Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesinde Kütüphanecilikle ilgili derslerin başlamasında büyük çaba göstermiştir.

  1. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  2. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  3. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  4. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  5. Gender-Specific Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Kim, Bo Hyun; Je, Hyung Gon; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the gender-specific associations between psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. We examined 4,689 Korean adults aged 20-79 years who participated in the 2013 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. With regard to SES, occupation status (none, manual, and nonmanual), marital status (single, married, divorced, and widowed), and psychological factors (detection of stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts) were determined via questionnaires. Compared with married men, single and divorced men exhibited ORs (95% confidence interval [CIs]) for MetS of 0.45 (0.31-0.65) and 1.61 (1.02-2.55), respectively, after adjusting for covariates. However, this association was not significant in women. Compared with those in the lowest household income group and least educated group in women, the ORs for MetS in the highest income group and the most educated group were 0.63 (CI 0.46-0.86) and 0.46 (CI 0.32-0.67), respectively. Suicidal thoughts in men (OR 1.64, CI 1.03-2.61) and perceived stress in women (OR 1.26, CI 1.01-1.59) were associated with MetS. In this study, MetS has gender-specific associations with lower SES and psychological factors. Thus, gender-specific public health interventions based on SES and psychological factors are needed to prevent and treat MetS and reduce additional cardiovascular disease risk.

  6. Gender-Specific Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Im Cho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess the gender-specific associations between psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES and metabolic syndrome (MetS in Korean adults. We examined 4,689 Korean adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the 2013 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. With regard to SES, occupation status (none, manual, and nonmanual, marital status (single, married, divorced, and widowed, and psychological factors (detection of stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts were determined via questionnaires. Compared with married men, single and divorced men exhibited ORs (95% confidence interval [CIs] for MetS of 0.45 (0.31–0.65 and 1.61 (1.02–2.55, respectively, after adjusting for covariates. However, this association was not significant in women. Compared with those in the lowest household income group and least educated group in women, the ORs for MetS in the highest income group and the most educated group were 0.63 (CI 0.46–0.86 and 0.46 (CI 0.32–0.67, respectively. Suicidal thoughts in men (OR 1.64, CI 1.03–2.61 and perceived stress in women (OR 1.26, CI 1.01–1.59 were associated with MetS. In this study, MetS has gender-specific associations with lower SES and psychological factors. Thus, gender-specific public health interventions based on SES and psychological factors are needed to prevent and treat MetS and reduce additional cardiovascular disease risk.

  7. The prevalence of exposure to domestic violence and the factors associated with co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure: a sample from primary care patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kersnik Janko; Pesjak Katja; Selic Polona

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Since many health problems are associated with abuse and neglect at all ages, domestic violence victims may be considered as a group of primary care patients in need of special attention. Methods The aim of this multi-centre study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in primary care patients, and to identify those factors which influence the co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure and their consequences (physical, sexual and reproductive ...

  8. Développement d'un Gestionnaire Automatisé de Bibliographies selon les normes de l'American Psychological Association (GABI APA Style)

    OpenAIRE

    Thirion, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Nowadays, there are plenty of complete and user-friendly database management systems. However, most of them only produce poorly organized raw data, generally lacking of internal consistency. This situation remains awkward, especially for scientists who have regularly to report references in an extremely ruled international format. GABI APA Style was built in titis context. GABl APA Style is a reference manager software using the presentation rules of the American Psychological Association ...

  9. Health psychology: status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancarte, A L; Murphy, K J; Reilley, R R

    1991-08-01

    This study investigated the present status and suggested trends in health psychology as reported by American Psychological Association Division 38 (Health Psychology) members. A 25-item mail-in survey was developed to obtain these data from a randomly selected sample of 300. Information includes a demographic description of the respondents, their selection of influential books, journals, and individuals, and their opinions regarding the current status and desirable future trends in the field of health psychology.

  10. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive psycholog

  11. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  12. Comments on "Facilitation and Coherence Between the Dynamic and Retrospective Perception of Segmentation in Computer-Generated Music," by Freya Bailes and Roger T. Dean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cross

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the study by Bailes & Dean (2007 addresses an underresearched area of auditory and musical perception, it raises questions concerning stimuli, methodology, and the study's relation to previous research, that are outlined in this commentary.

  13. Errors by the American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Educational, Association in representing homosexuality in amicus briefs about Amendment 2 to the U.S. Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K; Landess, T

    1996-10-01

    In October 1995, consortiums of psychiatric and educational profes sional organizations, including the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association and the National Educational Association, submitted amicus briefs to the U.S. Supreme Court asserting that the scientific literature unequivocally supports the following propositions (a) that homosexuals, including homosexual teachers, do not disproportionately molest children, (b) that children of homosexual patients are not more likely to become homosexuals, (c) that professionals agree that homosexuality is not a pathology, and (d) that homosexual attractions are biologically or genetically predetermined and are therefore beyond the control of the individual. The first two contentions are inconsistent with the scientific literature, and the second two grossly oversimplify a contentious and uncertain literature.

  14. Characterization of thermal desorption with the Deans-switch technique in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Huang, Ying-Xue; Huang, Ting-Jyun; Chen, Yong-Shen; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2016-09-02

    This study presents a novel application based on the Deans-switch cutting technique to characterize the thermal-desorption (TD) properties for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Flash-heating of the sorbent bed at high temperatures to desorb trapped VOCs to GC may easily produce severe asymmetric or tailing GC peaks affecting resolution and sensitivity if care is not taken to optimize the TD conditions. The TD peak without GC separation was first examined for the quality of the TD peak by analyzing a standard gas mixture from C2 to C12 at ppb level. The Deans switch was later applied in two different stages. First, it was used to cut the trailing tail of the TD peak, which, although significantly improved the GC peak symmetry, led to more loss of the higher boiling compounds than the low boiling ones, thus suggesting compound discrimination. Subsequently, the Deans switch was used to dissect the TD peak into six 30s slices in series, and an uneven distribution in composition between the slices were found. A progressive decrease in low boiling compounds and increase in higher boiling ones across the slices indicated severe inhomogeneity in the TD profile. This finding provided a clear evidence to answer the discrimination problem found with the tail cutting approach to improve peak symmetry. Through the use of the innovated slicing method based on the Deans-switch cutting technique, optimization of TD injection for highly resolved, symmetric and non-discriminated GC peaks can now be more quantitatively assessed and guided.

  15. Empty-nest-related psychological distress is associated with progression of brain white matter lesions and cognitive impairment in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dandan; Dong, Yuanli; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yingxin; Diao, Yutao; Cui, Yi; Wang, Juan; Chai, Qiang; Liu, Zhendong

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between empty-nest-related psychological distress and the progression of white matter lesions (WMLs) and cognitive impairment in 219 elderly subjects aged 60 years or over. Psychological distress was assessed using the University of California at Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) Short-Form. Cognitive function was evaluated using the MMSE and MoCA. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. After 5.2-year follow-up, the reductions in MMSE and MoCA scores and the increases in periventricular (P)WMH, deep (D)WMH, and total WMH volumes in the empty-nest elderly were greater than those in the non-empty-nest elderly (P < 0.05). The reduced MMSE and MoCA scores and increased volumes of PWMH and total WMH in the empty-nest elderly living alone were greater than those in the empty-nest elderly living with a spouse (P < 0.05). UCLA-LS and GDS scores were significantly and independently associated with reduced MMSE and MoCA scores and the increased volumes of PWMH, DWMH, and total WMH. The results indicate that empty-nest-related psychological distress is associated with progression of WMLs and cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:28256594

  16. Switchable 3D optofluidic Y-branch waveguides tuned by Dean flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Zhu, X. Q.; Liang, L.; Zuo, Y. F.; Xu, Y. S.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, Y. J.; Huang, Q. Q.

    2016-12-01

    Optical branch waveguides are one of the most important optical elements and have been widely exploited for optical communication systems. However, prevailing devices are typically solid and have limit in tunability. Liquid optical devices have attracted more interest for the advantage of tunability of liquid media, but their signals suffer serious leakage if the refractive index (RI) of liquid is smaller than that of solid channels. This paper demonstrates the tunable three-dimensional (3D) optofluidic Y-branch waveguides in plannar microchannels by simply introducing Dean flow. This device can reconfigure 3D Y-branch profiles and separate the intensity of light as tunable ratio from 0 to 1 by adjusting the flow rates with low loss. Different from the prevailing 2D liquid counterparts, the 3D configuration offer much more freedom in the selection of liquid media as liquid’s RI can be totally independent to the solid channel structure. The transmission loss through the device is estimated to 0.97 db when the splitting angle is 10°, which shows the light is confined better in the 3D liquid structures than traditional 2D liquid counterparts. The Y-branch waveguides show potential in applications of integrated optofluidic devices.

  17. Dogs and Monsters: Moral Status Claims in the Fiction of Dean Koontz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen W

    2016-03-01

    This article explores conceptions of moral status in the work of American thriller author Dean Koontz. It begins by examining some of the general theories of moral status used by philosophers to determine whether particular entities have moral status. This includes both uni-criterial theories and multi-criterial theories of moral status. After this examination, the article argues for exploring bioethics conceptions in popular fiction. Popular fiction is considered a rich source for analysis because it provides not only a good approximation of the beliefs of ordinary members of the moral community, but also explores important issues in a context where ordinary individuals are likely to encounter them. Following on from this, the article then explores theories of moral status in the context of Koontz's novels. In particular, the article focuses on the novel Watchers and Koontz's Frankenstein series. Through these works, Koontz indicates that entities have moral status for a variety of reasons and thus presumably, he is a proponent of multi-criterial theories of moral status. The article concludes with an examination of what this might mean for our understanding of moral status claims generally.

  18. 海员心理分析与对策%Analyses on seafarer’s psychology and associated countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈磊

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces the various psychological crisis and status faced by seafarers. It holds that navigation customs can provide psychological counseling and adjustment to seafarers and proposes relevant measures for enhancing the attraction of seafarer as a career.%文中介绍了海员面临的各类心理危机和心理现状,提出了航海习俗对海员心理具有疏导调节作用,指出了提升海员职业吸引力的相关举措。

  19. Dietary Adherence, Glycemic Control, and Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating Among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Chileans with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbozo, Sylvia; Flynn, Patricia M; Stevens, Serena D; Betancourt, Hector

    2015-12-01

    Despite the strong association between obesity and binge eating, limited research has examined the implications of binge eating on dietary adherence and psychological factors in ethnically diverse type 2 diabetes patients. This study investigated the prevalence of binge eating and its association with dietary adherence, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous type 2 diabetes patients in Chile. Participants were 387 indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous (non-Mapuche) adults with type 2 diabetes. Self-report measures of binge eating, dietary adherence, diet self-efficacy, body image dissatisfaction, and psychological well-being were administered. Participants' weight, height, and glycemic control (HbA(1c)) were also obtained. Approximately 8 % of the type 2 diabetes patients reported binge eating. The prevalence among Mapuche patients was 4.9 %, and among non-Mapuche patients, it was 9.9 %. Compared to non-binge eaters, binge eating diabetes patients had greater body mass index values, consumed more high-fat foods, were less likely to adhere to their eating plan, and reported poorer body image and emotional well-being. Results of this study extend previous research by examining the co-occurrence of binge eating and type 2 diabetes as well as the associated dietary behaviors, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous patients in Chile. These findings may increase our understanding of the health challenges faced by indigenous populations from other countries and highlight the need for additional research that may inform interventions addressing binge eating in diverse patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Prevalence of Self-Reported Work-Related Injuries and Their Association with Psychological Symptoms in General Working Population of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pei-Hua; Cheng, Yawen

    2016-05-02

    Objectives This study investigated the prevalence of self-reported work-related injuries across occupational groups and examined their association with the risk of psychological symptoms in general working population of Taiwan. Methods Data from a national survey conducted in 2013 of a representative sample of general working people of Taiwan was analyzed, consisting of 12,528 male and 8396 female workers aged 25~65 years. Information about work-related injuries including work-related disease occurred over the previous 12 months prior to the survey was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The presence of psychological symptoms was assessed by the Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS). Also obtained were participants' socio-demographic characteristics, working hours, job control, psychological job demands, physical job demands and job insecurity. Results Over a year, 14.91 % of male and 11.53 % of female working people had experienced work-related injuries. Workers with lower educational level, manual workers, the self-employed as well as employers of small enterprise were at higher risks for work-related injuries. Findings from multivariate logistic regression analyses with adjustment of gender, age, working hours and psychosocial work conditions showed that employees with experiences of work-related injuries over the past year were at a substantially higher risk for psychological symptoms (OR = 2.42) as compared to employees who had no experiences of work-related injuries. Conclusion A sizable proportion of workers are affected by work-related injuries and these workers are at higher risk for psychological symptoms. The psychosocial consequences of work-related injuries deserve further investigation and interventions.

  1. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  2. Psychological Factors Associated with Genetic Test Decision-Making among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Richman, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    Making decisions to undergo Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) genetic testing can be challenging. It is important to understand how the perceptions of affected individuals might influence testing decision-making. Although evidence has shown that psychological factors are important in predicting testing decisions, affect-type variables have been…

  3. Socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with psychological distress 1 and 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Olsson, Erik; Hursti, Timo

    2016-01-01

    and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. Results The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28 %) at T1 and 231 (28 %) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14 %) women at T1 and 92 (11 %) at T2. Despite non...

  4. Evidence for associations among somatoform dissociation, psychological dissociation, and reported trauma in patients with chronic pelvic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, ERS; van Dyck, R; ter Kuile, MM; Mourits, MJE; Spinhoven, P; van der Hart, O

    This study investigates somatoform as well as psychological dissociation, somatization and reported trauma among patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Women with CPP (n = 52) who were newly referred to a gynecology department, or whose pain had resisted treatment, completed standardized

  5. STRATEGIES FOR COPING WITH PAIN AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS ASSOCIATED WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT OSTEOARTHROSIS AND INTERNAL DERANGEMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JASPERS, JPC; HEUVEL, F; STEGENGA, B; DEBONT, LGM

    1993-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the relationship among a variety of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral coping strategies and pain/suffering and psychological distress in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain. Design: Cross-sectional, correlational study. Setting: Department of Oral and Maxillofac

  6. Evidence for associations among somatoform dissociation, psychological dissociation, and reported trauma in patients with chronic pelvic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, ERS; van Dyck, R; ter Kuile, MM; Mourits, MJE; Spinhoven, P; van der Hart, O

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates somatoform as well as psychological dissociation, somatization and reported trauma among patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Women with CPP (n = 52) who were newly referred to a gynecology department, or whose pain had resisted treatment, completed standardized self-repo

  7. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  8. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  9. Overestimation of heterosexually attributed AIDS deaths is associated with immature psychological defence mechanisms and clitoral masturbation during penile-vaginal intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, S; Costa, R M

    2009-12-01

    Research shows that (1) greater use of immature psychological defence mechanisms (associated with psychopathology) is associated with lesser orgasmic consistency from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), but greater frequency of other sexual behaviours and greater condom use for PVI, and (2) unlike the vectors of receptive anal intercourse and punctures, HIV acquisition during PVI is extremely unlikely in reasonably healthy persons. However, the relationship between overestimation of AIDS deaths due to 'heterosexual transmission' (often misunderstood as only PVI), sexual behaviour and mental health has been lacking. Two hundred and twenty-one Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire, reported past month frequencies of their various sexual activities, and estimated the total number of women who died from AIDS in Scotland nominally as a result of heterosexual transmission in the UK from a partner not known to be an injecting drug user, bisexual or infected through transfusion. The average respondent overestimated by 226,000%. Women providing lower estimates were less likely to use immature psychological defences, and had a lower frequency of orgasms from clitoral masturbation during PVI and from vibrator use. The results indicate that those who perceive 'heterosexual transmission' led to many AIDS deaths have poorer psychological functioning, and might be less able to appreciate PVI.

  10. Associations between a History of Traumatic Brain Injuries and Current Cigarette Smoking, Substance Use, and Elevated Psychological Distress in a Population Sample of Canadian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Hamilton, Hayley; Rehm, Jürgen; Asbridge, Mark; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-07-15

    This study describes the prevalence of reported history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with reports of current substance use, cigarette smoking, and psychological distress among Canadian adults in a population sample. A cross-sectional sample of 1999 Ontario adults 18-93 years of age were surveyed by telephone in 2011 as part of the Center for Addiction and Mental Health's ongoing representative survey of adult mental health and substance use in Ontario, Canada. Loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or at least one overnight hospitalization resulting from symptoms associated with the TBI injury represented minimum criteria for TBI. An estimated 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 14.8, 19.0) of adults reported a TBI in their lifetime. Men had higher prevalence of TBI than women. Adults who reported a history of TBI had higher odds of reported past-year daily smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.15), using cannabis (AOR = 2.80) and nonmedical opioids (AOR = 2.90), as well as screened significantly for recent elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.97) in the past few weeks, compared to adults without a history of TBI. Co-occurrence of a history of TBI with current elevated psychological distress and substance use warrants vigilance among medical practitioners to assess the possibility of a history of TBI during reviews of the history leading to the occurrence of these conditions.

  11. Conservation psychology as a field of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kalc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades the importance of psychology has become more prominent when addressing environmental issues. At the turn of the millennium a new field of psychological research was introduced to scientific community. The so-called conservation psychology strives to merge and spur basic and applied psychological research from the field of (proenvironmental behaviour and sustainable development. Together with environmental and population psychology, it forms Division 34 of American Psychological Association. However, conservation psychology is not a broadly known and renowned field of study in Slovenia. Therefore, the main purpose of the present article is to introduce conservation psychology as a possible field of study to Slovenian psychologists.

  12. Culture-general and -specific associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with perceived parental warmth and psychological control among Turk and Belgian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-10-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance.

  13. Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphisms are associated with physical activity, food intake, eating behaviors, psychological health, and modeled change in body mass index in overweight/obese Caucasian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbron, Janetta; van der Merwe, Lize; Zaahl, Monique G; Kotze, Maritha J; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-08-06

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085-rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory), and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire). The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores), a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation.

  14. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janetta Harbron

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire, psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory, and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire. The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores, a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation.

  15. Psychological Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Flohrer, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Instilling psychological empowerment in employees is one of the most important tasks of modern leadership. Building on quantitative research and the development of a new psychometric scale related to project management this thesis shows: First, individuals' characteristics and their work team environment influence perceptions of access to information and resources – two important antecedents of psychological empowerment. Second, while a project briefing strengthens the link of the psychologic...

  16. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  17. Association between symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and gender, morphological occlusion, and psychological factors in a group of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Bonjardim Leonardo; Lopes-Filho Ricardo; Amado Guilherme; Albuquerque Ricardo; Goncalves Suzane

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in a sample of university students and its relationship to gender, occlusion, and psychological factors. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 196 subjects, aged 18-25 years. The TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification (classes I, II, and III). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a 14-...

  18. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact.

  19. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child’s visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child’s disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact. PMID:27603670

  20. Physical capacity and psychological mood in association with self-reported work ability in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlund Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reports of work ability correlated to the results of quantitative tests measuring physical capacity and a questionnaire assessing psychological mood in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms. Methods The participants comprised 47 patients (36 men and eleven women with exposure to hand vibration and vascular and/or neurological symptoms in the hands. They performed several quantitative tests (manual dexterity, hand grip strength, finger strength and completed the Work Ability Index (WAI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaires. Results Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant associations between the WAI results, the HADS indices, hand grip and finger strength, and manual dexterity measured using the Purdue Pegboard®. Multiple regression analysis revealed age and HADS indices as the strongest predictors of work ability. Conclusions The patient’s age and psychological mood may be stronger predictors of work ability compared with results from tests measuring physical capacity of the hands in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms. When using the WAI as an instrument for assessing work ability in these patients, health care providers need to be more aware of the impact of the psychological mood.

  1. Type D personality is associated with impaired psychological status and unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svansdottir Erla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type D (distressed personality has been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis and poor emotional well-being in cardiac patients, but it is still unclear what mechanisms link Type D personality with poor clinical outcomes in cardiac patients. In the present cohort of Icelandic cardiac patients, we examined potential pathways that may explain this relationship. The objectives were to examine 1 the association between Type D personality and impaired psychological status, and to explore whether this association is independent of disease severity; and 2 the association between Type D personality and an unhealthy lifestyle. Methods A sample of 268 Icelandic coronary angiography patients (74% males (N = 199; mean age 62.9 years (SD 10.5, range 28-85 years completed the Type D Scale (DS14, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS at hospitalization. Health-related behaviors were assessed 4 months following angiography. Clinical data were collected from medical files. Results Type D personality was associated with an increased risk of anxiety (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.55-5.69, depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.42-11.29, and stress (OR 5.99, 95% CI:3.08-11.63, independent of demographic variables and disease severity. Furthermore, fish consumption was lower among Type Ds, as 21% of Type Ds versus 5% of non-Type Ds consumed fish p p = 0.024 and to use antidepressants (17% versus 9%, p = 0.049 and sleeping pills (49% versus 33%, p = 0.019 compared to non-Type Ds. Type D personality was not associated with other health-related behaviors, aside from trends towards less fruit and vegetable consumption, and more weight gain. Conclusion Type D personality was associated with psychological distress and an unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients. Future studies should further investigate the association between Type D personality and health-related behaviors.

  2. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  3. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  4. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  5. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not interest

  6. Statement of the American Psychological Association in response to the "joint principles: integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norman B; Belar, Cynthia D; Cubic, Barbara A; Garrison, Ellen G; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-06-01

    Comments on the article "Joint principles: Integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home" (see record 2014-24217-011), presented by the Working Party Group on Integrated Behavioral Healthcare. The American Psychological Association (APA) shares concerns about the lack of reference to behavioral health care in the original 2007 Joint Principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home for which this new document is intended to supplement but not replace. The decision to support the supplemental Joint Principles was not an easy one for APA, as there is one area of significant concern. That concern is related to the use of the term "physician-directed medical practice"

  7. Research on Deans of Schools in Universities:Retrospection and Outlook%Journal of Higher Education Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬红

    2016-01-01

    院长作为大学二级学院的行政负责人,作为学科方向的引领者及人、财、物等相应资源的整合者及配置者,对于学院乃至学校发展发挥着不可替代的作用。我国大学及学者对院长群体的关注和研究还很不够,文章尝试梳理国内外院长研究相关文献,旨在为我国本土相关研究提供基础资料与方向参考。从国内外相关文献来看,学界未来需要强化微观、质性研究,加强院长工作的情境研究。%As the chief executive of a school in a university and the leading person of discipline orienta-tion as well as the integrator and distributor of personnel,finance and material,the dean plays an irre-placeable role for the development of schools and universities.However,the research on deans is in-sufficient.The article attempts to make a literature review on the role and leadership of deans at home and aboard,and provide basic information and direction for the research field in China.Based on the review,it could be concluded that micro,qualitative and context research should be strengthened.

  8. Factors associated with the use of evidence-based practices to treat psychological trauma by psychotherapists with trauma treatment expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Carlton D; Sprang, Ginny

    2010-10-01

    This paper investigates 10 socio-demographic and case characteristic variables as predictors of use of evidence-based practice and non-evidence-based practice in the treatment of psychological trauma. A national random sample of 2,400 trauma treatment specialists in all 50 states and the District of Columbia were sent surveys with a response rate of 29.6% (N = 711) usable surveys returned. Stepwise regressions conducted on evidence-based practice use indicated that special trauma training, older age, and higher percentage of PTSD on the case load were the only significant predictors of evidence-based practice use. Implications for trauma practices are indicated.

  9. Investigating analgesic and psychological factors associated with risk of postpartum depression development: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhitharan T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thangavelautham Suhitharan,1 Thi Phuong Tu Pham,2 Helen Chen,2,3 Pryseley Nkouibert Assam,4 Rehena Sultana,2 Nian-Lin Reena Han,5 Ene-Choo Tan,6,7 Ban Leong Sng1,2 1Department of Women’s Anaesthesia, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Duke-NUS Medical School, 3Women’s Service, Department of Psychological Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 4Singapore Clinical Research Institute, 5Division of Clinical Support Services, 6Research Laboratory, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 7SingHealth Paediatrics Academic Clinical Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peripartum analgesic and psychological factors that may be related to postpartum depression (PPD.Methods: This case–control study was conducted in pregnant females who delivered at KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital from November 2010 to October 2013 and had postpartum psychological assessment. Demographic, medical, and postpartum psychological status assessments, intrapartum data including method of induction of labor, mode of labor analgesia, duration of first and second stages of labor, mode of delivery, and pain intensity on hospital admission and after delivery were collected. PPD was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and clinical assessment by the psychiatrist.Results: There were 62 cases of PPD and 417 controls after childbirth within 4–8 weeks. The odds of PPD was significantly lower (33 of 329 [10.0%] in females who received epidural analgesia for labor compared with those who chose nonepidural analgesia (29 of 150 [19.3%] ([odds ratio] 0.47 (0.27–0.8, P=0.0078. The multivariate analysis showed that absence of labor epidural analgesia, increasing age, family history of depression, history of depression, and previous history of PPD were independent risk factors for development of PPD.Conclusion: The absence of labor epidural analgesia remained as an independent

  10. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Shame amplifies the association between stressful life events and paranoia amongst young adults using mental health services: Implications for understanding risk and psychological resilience.

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    Johnson, Judith; Jones, Christopher; Lin, Ashleigh; Wood, Stephen; Heinze, Kareen; Jackson, Christopher

    2014-12-15

    Shame is associated with a range of psychological disorders, and is a trans-diagnostic moderator of the association between stressors and symptoms of disorder. However, research has yet to investigate shame in relation to specific psychotic symptoms in clinical groups. In order to address this, the present study investigated shame in young adults with mental health problems, to test whether shame was i) directly associated with paranoia, a prevalent psychotic symptom, and ii) a moderator of the association between stress and paranoia. Sixty participants completed measures of stressful events, paranoia, shame, depression and anxiety. Results from a cross-sectional regression analysis suggested that shame was associated with paranoia after the stressful life event measure was entered into the model, and shame moderated the association between stress and paranoia. For individuals scoring high on shame, shame amplified the association between stress and paranoia, but for low-shame individuals, the association between stress and paranoia was non-significant. These findings suggest that high levels of shame could confer vulnerability for paranoia amongst clinical groups, and that resistance to experiencing shame could be a marker of resilience.

  12. Bem-estar psicológico e adolescência: fatores associados Psychological well-being and adolescence: associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Azevedo da Silva

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho procurou avaliar os fatores associados ao bem-estar psicológico em adolescentes realizando um estudo transversal com amostra representativa (n = 960 com idades entre 15 e 18 anos. Foram visitados 86 domicílios em cada um dos 90 setores censitários sorteados. Um consentimento informado era assinado pelos pais ou responsáveis pelo adolescente antes que ele respondesse a um questionário auto-aplicado. O bem-estar psicológico foi avaliado através de uma escala que continha sete figuras que representavam expressões variando de extrema felicidade até extrema tristeza. O adolescente era solicitado a assinalar aquela figura que mais se assemelhava à maneira como se sentia a respeito da sua vida. Entre os entrevistados 72,33% se consideravam com alto nível de bem-estar psicológico, a prevalência foi maior nas famílias de maior nível sócio-econômico (classe social A ou B e com maior escolaridade materna. Os resultados também mostraram que pessoas que mantém uma prática religiosa, não fumam, não consomem bebidas alcoólicas e que desejam emagrecer tem maior bem-estar psicológico, sugerindo uma inter-relação entre os comportamentos de saúde.This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960 of adolescents (15-18 years. Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families

  13. Association between psychological distress and dietary intake among evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake in a cross-sectional study: the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Mayu; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Otsuru, Akira; Maeda, Masaharu; Harigane, Mayumi; Horikoshi, Naoko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Yabe, Hirooki; Takahashi, Hideto; Nagai, Masato; Nakano, Hironori; Zhang, Wen; Hirosaki, Mayumi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Psychological distress is generally associated with poor dietary intake, but this has never been investigated among residents after a major disaster. We attempted to reveal the associations between dietary intake and non-specific mental health distress as well as traumatic symptoms among evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis of 63 047 evacuees (27 901 men, 35 146 women) who responded to The Fukushima Health Management Survey in 2012, non-specific mental health distress was assessed using the Kessler-6 (K6) scale, while traumatic symptoms were evaluated using the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist—Stressor-Specific Version (PCL-S). The outcome was ‘low frequency’—meaning a daily consumption in the 25th centile or less according to the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)—of 19 targeted food items. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for demographic, lifestyle-related and disaster-related factors. Results Of the participants, 14.7% suffered non-specific mental health distress, and 21.2% exhibited traumatic symptoms. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that the former were likely to have a low intake frequency of certain foods, such as rice and bread, fish, meat, vegetables or fruit (non-juice), soya bean products, milk, and yogurt or lactobacillus drinks; the latter were also likely to have a low intake frequency of certain foods, including rice and bread, fish, meat, vegetables (non-juice), milk and yogurt or lactobacillus drinks, but conversely consumed vegetable and fruit juices more often. These associations between dietary intake and non-specific mental health distress, as well as traumatic symptoms, were predominantly observed in women. Conclusions Psychological distress after the Great East Japan Earthquake among evacuees was associated with a low intake frequency of certain foods, and the association was

  14. Psychological and culturally-influenced risk factors for the incidence and persistence of low back pain and associated disability in Spanish workers: findings from the CUPID study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Serra, Consol; Martínez, José Miguel; Ntani, Georgia; Delclos, George L; Palmer, Keith T; Coggon, David; Benavides, Fernando G

    2013-01-01

    To assess the importance of psychological and culturally-influenced factors as predictors of low back pain (LBP) incidence and persistence in Spanish workers. As part of the international Cultural and Psychosocial Influences in Disability (CUPID) study, 1105 Spanish nurses and office workers answered questions at baseline about LBP in the past month and past year, associated disability, occupational lifting, smoking habits, health beliefs, mental health, and distress from common somatic symptoms. At 12-month follow-up, they were asked about LBP and associated disability in the past month. Associations with LBP incidence and persistence were assessed by log binomial regression, and characterised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) with associated 95% CIs. 971 participants (87.9%) completed follow-up. Among 579 with no LBP at baseline, 22.8% reported LBP at follow-up. After adjustment for sex, age and occupation, new LBP was predicted by poor mental health (PRR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2), somatising tendency (PRR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.7) and presence of LBP for >1 month in the year before baseline (PRR 4.7, 95% CI 3.1 to 6.9). Among 392 subjects who had LBP at baseline, 59.4% reported persistence at follow-up, which was associated with presence of symptoms for >1 month in the 12 months before baseline (PRR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.7) and more weakly with somatising tendency, and with adverse beliefs about LBP work-relatedness and prognosis. In Spain, as in northern European countries, psychological and culturally-influenced factors have an important role in LBP development and persistence.

  15. Factors associated with psychological distress, behavioral impact and health-related quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Michelle Ang; Tan, Luor Shyuan Maudrene; Tai, E Shyong; Griva, Konstadina; Amir, Mohamed; Chong, Kok Joon; Lee, Yung Seng; Lee, Jeannette; Khoo, Eric Yin-Hao; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Data on psychological distress (DIS), behavioral impact (BI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are important yet lacking among Asian patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aim to identify factors associated with DIS, BI and HRQoL among T2DM to better understand patient needs. DIS was measured with Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18) Psychological Distress (DHP-PD) subscale, Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) and Kessler-10 (K10), BI with DHP-18 Barriers to Activity and Disinhibited Eating subscales and HRQoL with Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between these outcomes and patient demographic, socioeconomic status, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and comorbidities. 213 T2DM patients (mean (SD) age: 45.0 (12.1) years, mean (SD) HbA1C: 8.3% (1.9%) and 70.0% reported at least one comorbidity) were evaluated. Poorer glycemic control was significantly associated with higher DHP-PD, PAID and worse HRQoL. Taking oral hypoglycemic agents plus insulin was independently associated with Barrier to Activity and Disinhibited Eating. Poorer glycemic control was only associated with diabetes-related distress (measured by DHP-PD and PAID) but not major depressive disorder (measured by K10). It may be more appropriate to screen for diabetes-related distress rather than major depressive disorder for patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Does psychological well-being mediate the association between experiences of acts of offensive behaviour and turnover among care workers? A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Thomas; Hogh, Annie; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes; Borg, Vilhelm

    2013-06-01

    To investigate whether the psychological well-being of care workers in the Danish eldercare services mediated the association between experiences of acts of offensive behaviour and actual turnover. Research suggests that experiences of acts of offensive behaviour are associated with risk of turnover. However, little is known about the longitudinal associations between experiences of different types of offensive behaviour (threats, violence, bullying, and unwanted sexual attention) and risk of actual turnover. A prospective cohort study. The study was conducted among employees in the eldercare services in Denmark. Employees aged 55 or more and non-care staff were excluded from the study. Employees who were working in eldercare at baseline (2005) and no longer worked in eldercare at follow-up (2006) were interviewed through questionnaires. Respondents to this questionnaire were coded as cases of turnover (N = 608) and were compared with employees who had not changed jobs during follow-up (N = 4330). Data on experiences of acts of offensive behaviour and well-being were measured at baseline. Data were analysed using logistic regression analysis. Frequent and occasional experiences of bullying and threats and occasional experiences of unwanted sexual attention at baseline entailed a significantly increased risk of turnover at follow-up. Further analyses showed that psychological well-being significantly reduced the risk of turnover and that well-being partially mediated the association between bullying and turnover and fully mediated the association between threats, unwanted sexual attention, and turnover. Prevention of threats, unwanted sexual attention and - especially - bullying may contribute towards improving well-being and reducing turnover among eldercare staff. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The association between overall health, psychological distress, and occupational heat stress among a large national cohort of 40,913 Thai workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjawan Tawatsupa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational heat stress is a well-known problem, particularly in tropical countries, affecting workers, health and well-being. There are very few recent studies that have reported on the effect of heat stress on mental health, or overall health in workers, although socioeconomic development and rapid urbanization in tropical developing countries like Thailand create working conditions in which heat stress is likely. Objective: This study is aimed at identifying the relationship between self-reported heat stress and psychological distress, and overall health status in Thai workers. Results: 18% of our large national cohort (>40,000 subjects often works under heat stress conditions and males are exposed to heat stress more often than females. Furthermore, working under heat stress conditions is associated with both worse overall health and psychological distress (adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.49 to 1.84. Conclusions: This association between occupational heat stress and worse health needs more public health attention and further development on occupational health interventions as climate change increases Thailand's temperatures.

  18. Evolving Internship Issues in School Psychology Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Swerdlik, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Current issues relevant to school psychology internships are reviewed. The movement toward professional competencies and behavioral benchmarks as they relate to school psychology internships is discussed, with a concentration on American Psychological Association and National Association of School Psychologists standards. Given the emphasis on…

  19. Evolving Internship Issues in School Psychology Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Swerdlik, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Current issues relevant to school psychology internships are reviewed. The movement toward professional competencies and behavioral benchmarks as they relate to school psychology internships is discussed, with a concentration on American Psychological Association and National Association of School Psychologists standards. Given the emphasis on…

  20. Guidelines for the evaluation of dementia and age-related cognitive decline. American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Assessment of cognitive functioning among older adults requires specialized training and refined psychometric tools. Psychologists conducting such assessments must learn current diagnostic nomenclature and criteria, gain specialized competence in the selection and use of psychological tests, and understand both the limitations of these tests and the context in which they may be used and interpreted. Assessment of cognitive issues in dementia and age-related cognitive decline is a core focus of the specialty of clinical neuropsychology. Therefore, these guidelines are not intended to suggest the development of an independent proficiency. Rather, they are intended to state explicitly some appropriate cautions and concerns for all psychologists who wish to assess cognitive abilities among older adults, particularly when distinguishing between normal and pathological processes.