WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychologically pure color

  1. Beyond the locus of spectrally pure colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The spectrum locus of a CIE chromaticity diagram defines the boundary within which all physically realizable color stimuli must fall. While that is a physical and mathematical reality that cannot be violated, it is possible to create colors that appear as if they were produced by physically impossible stimuli. This can be accomplished through careful control of the viewing conditions and states of adaptation. This paper highlights the importance of considering color appearance issues in the design of displays and specification of color gamuts and illustrates how the perceived color gamut can be manipulated significantly through the relationship between white-point and primary luminance levels without changing the chromaticity gamut of a display system. Using a color appearance model, such as CIECAM02, display color gamuts can be specified in perceptual terms such as lightness, chroma, brightness, and colorfulness rather than in strictly physical terms of the stimuli that create these perceptions. Examination of these perceptual gamuts, and their relationships to the viewing conditions, allows demonstration of the possibility of producing display gamuts that appear to reach beyond the locus of pure spectral colors when compared with typical display setups.

  2. The Psychological Four-Color Mapping Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task…

  3. Psychophysical evidence for a purely binocular color system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Koichi; Shioiri, Satoshi; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    Two adaptation experiments were conducted to examine a hypothesis for a purely binocular color system that responds only to simultaneous inputs from the two eyes and that inhibits the activities of a pair of monocular color systems with each receiving input from their respective eye. In the first experiment, after a red or green stimulus was presented to both eyes to adapt the hypothesized binocular system, its compensatory color was presented alternately to each eye to nullify the adaptation effect of the hypothesized monocular systems. Results showed that after adaptation, the color appearance of a test stimulus shifted more to that of the compensatory color in binocular viewing than in monocular viewing. In the second experiment, a red or green stimulus was presented either to both eyes or to the left eye, and then its compensatory color was presented only to the left eye. Comparison was made to the adaptation effect between the binocular presentation of the color stimulus and its monocular presentation. Results showed that the color appearance viewed with the left eye shifted toward the compensatory color for the binocular adaptation and was constant for the monocular adaptation. These results are consistent with the idea of a "purely" binocular color system inhibiting the activity of a pair of monocular systems.

  4. Pure gravities via color-kinematics duality for fundamental matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Henrik [Theory Division, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ochirov, Alexander [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2015-11-06

    We give a prescription for the computation of loop-level scattering amplitudes in pure Einstein gravity, and four-dimensional pure supergravities, using the color-kinematics duality. Amplitudes are constructed using double copies of pure (super-)Yang-Mills parts and additional contributions from double copies of fundamental matter, which are treated as ghosts. The opposite-statistics states cancel the unwanted dilaton and axion in the bosonic theory, as well as the extra matter supermultiplets in the supergravity theories. As a spinoff, we obtain a prescription for obtaining amplitudes in supergravities with arbitrary non-self-interacting matter. As a prerequisite, we extend the color-kinematics duality from the adjoint to the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We explain the numerator relations that the fundamental kinematic Lie algebra should satisfy. We give nontrivial evidence supporting our construction using explicit tree and loop amplitudes, as well as more general arguments.

  5. Faculty of Color Serving Students, Serving Self: The Psychology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal-Barnett, Angela; Mitchell, Michelle; Boeltar, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Describes a program called the Psychology Group, in which faculty of color assist students of color in preparing for the graduate application and interview process, utilizing coaching and mentoring. Focuses on the pilot project and the project outcomes. (CMK)

  6. Colors in Mind: A Novel Paradigm to Investigate Pure Color Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L.; Borst, Grégoire; Mast, Fred W.; Lobmaier, Janek S.

    2015-01-01

    Mental color imagery abilities are commonly measured using paradigms that involve naming, judging, or comparing the colors of visual mental images of well-known objects (e.g., "Is a sunflower darker yellow than a lemon"?). Although this approach is widely used in patient studies, differences in the ability to perform such color…

  7. Noni puree (Morinda citrifolia) mixed in beef patties enhanced color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W Nathan; Yancey, Janeal W S; Apple, Jason K; Dikeman, Michael E; Godbee, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    Ground beef, mixed with 0, 2, 4, and 6% Noni puree, was formed into 150-g patties, aerobically packaged, and displayed in retail for 5d. After 2 and 3d, patties with higher concentrations of Noni were perceived as redder and less discolored (Ppuree also had lower TBARS (were less oxidized; Ppuree concentration increased. The potential of Noni puree to improve the color stability and shelf life of fresh ground beef is very promising, but the flavors produced by the addition of Noni in ground beef may be detrimental to its use. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of color perception has intrigued scholars from antiquity. However, the understanding of this phenomena only came with the recognition of the nature of light and visual perception. Ancient concepts, present in science until the Renaissance, were based more on philosophical considerations and theoretical speculations than on anatomical studies and a matter-of-fact assessment of physiological functions of the visual system. From antiquity to 17th century scientific approach to the concept of vision was dominated by two theories: intromission and extramission (emanation). Intromission theory, propagated by Alhazen (lbn al.-Haythama), Vitello, John Peckham, Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, assumed that the light was transmitted from the observed object perpendicularly to the transparent eye structures. Johannes Kepler was the first scholar to propose that the retina was the receptive part of the eye. In the first half of the 17th century, Kepler's groundbreaking optical achievements and anatomical discoveries of many other scientists cast new light on the understanding of the role of different eye structures, finally wiping out the intromission theory. A further major achievement contributing to the recognition of the true nature of colors was a theory presented by Newton in 1688. He argued that they were colored rays, and not white light, that were composed of homogenous and pure light. It was, however, not until the 19th century when two modern theories of color appeared, i.e. a trichromatic theory mostly associated with the names of Young and Hemlholtz, and an opponent colors theory of Hering. In the 20th century, the two theories--previously assumed as contradictory--were joined into the zone theories of color vision. Colors have their cultural and social meanings, as far as a very individual and personal interpretation. In the former function they are used to illustrate some cultural and sociological phenomena; in the latter, they are helpful in

  9. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meier, Brian P; D'Agostino, Paul R; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Wilkowski, Benjamin M

    2012-01-01

    A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived...

  10. Color in Context: Psychological Context Moderates the Influence of Red on Approach- and Avoidance-Motivated Behavior: e40333

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brian P Meier; Paul R D'Agostino; Andrew J Elliot; Markus A Maier; Benjamin M Wilkowski

    2012-01-01

      Background A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived...

  11. Influences of organically and conventionally grown strawberry cultivars on anthocyanins content and color in purees and low-sugar jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Putnik, Predrag; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Vahčić, Nada; Babojelić, Martina Skendrović; Levaj, Branka

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this study was to detect influences of cultivar, cultivation and processing on anthocyanin content and color in purees and low-sugar jams produced from strawberry cultivars (Elsanta, Maya, Marmolada, Queen Elisa), grown under conventional and organic cultivation. Color was determined by CIELab values while anthocyanins were quantified by HPLC-UV/VIS-PDA. Queen Elisa was the best cultivar for processing as it had highest total anthocyanin content (TAC) that was well preserved in processing. On average, processing purees to jams decreased TAC for 28% where pelargonidin-3-glucoside revealed most noticeable loss (53%) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside was best preserved in processing. Obtained results indicated that measurement of colorimetric parameters are strongly correlated with content of anthocyanins. In other words, loss of anthocyanins during processing was accompanied by noticeable decrease in lightness, red/yellow color and total color change. Results showed that change of color is useful predictor for estimating anthocyanins in strawberry purees and jams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the Major Contribution on centralizing the experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color in counseling psychology. The roles of LGB people of color in LGB sociopolitical movements and their invisibility in the psychological literature are discussed as a context for this series of articles. This article…

  13. Perception and psychology of colors and their application in design

    OpenAIRE

    Despot, Katerina; Sandeva, Vaska; Donev, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Color science is the science that studies the properties of color and their application in different areas of life. More complex emotional states produce colors in works of art. Their impact far beyond the immediate sensations associated in stable and strong feelings. The same meaning is embedded in the words of the great Soviet artist Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin "There are colors and soothing irritation, screaming, arguing with each other and living together gently. In their fight or consent is born...

  14. A deblocking algorithm based on color psychology for display quality enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yu; Huang, Kai-Lin

    2012-12-01

    This article proposes a post-processing deblocking filter to reduce blocking effects. The proposed algorithm detects blocking effects by fusing the results of Sobel edge detector and wavelet-based edge detector. The filtering stage provides four filter modes to eliminate blocking effects at different color regions according to human color vision and color psychology analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better subjective and objective qualities for H.264/AVC reconstructed videos when compared to several existing methods.

  15. The effect of ultrasound on particle size, color, viscosity and polyphenol oxidase activity of diluted avocado puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiufang; Hemar, Yacine; Balaban, Murat O; Liao, Xiaojun

    2015-11-01

    The effect of ultrasound treatment on particle size, color, viscosity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and microstructure in diluted avocado puree was investigated. The treatments were carried out at 20 kHz (375 W/cm(2)) for 0-10 min. The surface mean diameter (D[3,2]) was reduced to 13.44 μm from an original value of 52.31 μm by ultrasound after 1 min. A higher L(∗) value, ΔE value and lower a(∗) value was observed in ultrasound treated samples. The avocado puree dilution followed pseudoplastic flow behavior, and the viscosity of diluted avocado puree (at 100 s(-1)) after ultrasound treatment for 1 min was 6.0 and 74.4 times higher than the control samples for dilution levels of 1:2 and 1:9, respectively. PPO activity greatly increased under all treatment conditions. A maximum increase of 25.1%, 36.9% and 187.8% in PPO activity was found in samples with dilution ratios of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:9, respectively. The increase in viscosity and measured PPO activity might be related to the decrease in particle size. The microscopy images further confirmed that ultrasound treatment induced disruption of avocado puree structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Call for Considering Color Vision Deficiency When Creating Graphics for Psychology Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although color vision deficiency (CVD) is fairly common, it is often not adequately considered when data is presented in color graphics. This study found that CVD tends to be mentioned neither in the author guidelines of psychology journals nor in the standard publication manuals of the field (e.g., the publication manuals of the American Psychological Association and the American Medical Association). To illustrate the relevance of this problem, a panel of scholars with CVD was used to evaluate the color figures in three respected psychological science journals. Results suggested that a substantial proportion of those figures were needlessly confusing for viewers with CVD and could have been easily improved through simple adjustments. Based on prior literature and on feedback from the panelists, recommendations are made for improving the accessibility of graphics in psychology reports.

  17. Extending color psychology to the personality realm: interpersonal hostility varies by red preferences and perceptual biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Liu, Tianwei; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    The color psychology literature has made a convincing case that color is not just about aesthetics, but also about meaning. This work has involved situational manipulations of color, rendering it uncertain as to whether color-meaning associations can be used to characterize how people differ from each other. The present research focuses on the idea that the color red is linked to, or associated with, individual differences in interpersonal hostility. Across four studies (N = 376 undergraduates), red preferences and perceptual biases were measured along with individual differences in interpersonal hostility. It was found that (a) a preference for the color red was higher as interpersonal hostility increased, (b) hostile people were biased to see the color red more frequently than nonhostile people, and (c) there was a relationship between a preference for the color red and hostile social decision making. These studies represent an important extension of the color psychology literature, highlighting the need to attend to person-based, as well as situation-based, factors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. From Psychology Of Race To Issue Of Skin Color: Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the aftermath of Western domination is the trivialization of skin color as significant issue among peoples of African descent. Regrettably, research by psychologists the world over emphasize race in the study of human social conditions. Despite the fact that race is increasingly irrelevant Western psychologists continually ...

  19. Optimal Color Design of Psychological Counseling Room by Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Ye, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Color is one of the most powerful aspects of a psychological counseling environment. Little scientific research has been conducted on color design and much of the existing literature is based on observational studies. Using design of experiments and response surface methodology, this paper proposes an optimal color design approach for transforming patients’ perception into color elements. Six indices, pleasant-unpleasant, interesting-uninteresting, exciting-boring, relaxing-distressing, safe-fearful, and active-inactive, were used to assess patients’ impression. A total of 75 patients participated, including 42 for Experiment 1 and 33 for Experiment 2. 27 representative color samples were designed in Experiment 1, and the color sample (L = 75, a = 0, b = -60) was the most preferred one. In Experiment 2, this color sample was set as the ‘central point’, and three color attributes were optimized to maximize the patients’ satisfaction. The experimental results show that the proposed method can get the optimal solution for color design of a counseling room. PMID:24594683

  20. Understanding sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender people of color in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bith-Melander, Pollie; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Sheth, Lina; Bermudez, Carlos; Drone, Jennifer; Wood, Woo; Schroeder, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic qualitative study explored the needs of transgender people of color, including biological transitioning issues, gender and group membership identity formation, HIV, and other health issues. The sample consisted of transgender youth and adults of color in San Francisco (N = 43). Data were collected from in-depth interviews with 20 youth and adults and focus groups with 23 individuals. The study focused on perspectives of racial and ethnic minorities from Asian/Pacific Islander, African American, and Latino backgrounds. The medical decision-making perspective was used to gain a deeper understanding of sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender individuals of color in San Francisco. The major themes that emerged were gender identity, group membership, transitioning and related issues, sex work, alcohol and drug use, mental health and health care, sense of community, HIV, resources, and other support. Key clinical considerations that health providers can use to improve care of transgender individuals of color are included.

  1. Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in strawberry puree and its effect on anthocyanins and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Huang, Lihan; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2014-01-01

    Raw whole strawberries, if contaminated with pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, must be pasteurized prior to consumption. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the thermal inactivation kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 in strawberry puree (SP), and evaluate the changes in anthocyanins and color, and the survival of yeasts and molds (YM) after thermal processing. Inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail, fresh SP, with or without added sugar (20 and 40 °Brix), was heated at 50, 52, 54, 57.5, 60, and 62.5 °C to determine the thermal resistance of E. coli O157:H7. In raw SP, the average D-values of E. coli O157:H7 were 909.1, 454.6, 212.8, 46.1, and 20.2 s at 50, 52, 54, 57.5, and 60 °C, respectively, with a z-value of 5.9 °C. While linearly decreasing with temperature, the log D-values of E. coli O157:H7 increased slightly with sugar concentration. The log degradation rates of anthocyanins increased linearly with temperature, but decreased slightly with sugar concentrations. These results suggest that sugar may provide some protection to both E. coli O157: H7 and anthocyanins in SP. The browning index was not affected by heating at 50 and 52 °C at low sugar concentrations, but increased by an average of 1.28%, 2.21%, and 10.1% per min when SP was exposed to heating at 54, 57.5, and 60 °C, respectively. YM was also inactivated by heating. This study demonstrated that properly designed thermal processes can effectively inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and YM in contaminated SP, while minimizing the changes in anthocyanins and color.

  2. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Meier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context, but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes.

  3. Influence of outdoor advertisement colors on psychological evaluation of townscape in Kyoto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Ayumi; Ishida, Taiichiro; Katsuya, Yoshiko

    2002-06-01

    Outdoor advertisements must be one of the major factors that affect our psychological impression for townscapes. They often conflict with propr color environments in cities particularly in historic cities like Kyoto. In this study we investigated how outdoor advertisements influenced our visual evaluation of townscapes in Kyoto. In recent years, a new regulation for outdoor advertisements came into operation in Kyoto and some of the advertisements have been replaced or removed gradually. We examined psychological evaluation for the townscapes before and after their changes. In the experiment, subjects evaluated 'visual harmony,' 'visual busyness,' 'visual comfort' and 'suitability to Kyoto' of townscapes projected on a screen. The results indicated that the evaluation of 'visual busyness' significantly decreased with the amount of the advertisements. The relations between the advertisements and the psychological evaluation of the townscape are discussed.

  4. Reaction to the Special Issue on Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This reaction article comments on the Major Contribution "Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology." The content analysis of the published literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color from 1998 to 2007 provides much-needed information that will help psychologists set future research agendas and…

  5. Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in strawberry puree and its effect on anthocyanins and color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw whole strawberries, if contaminated with pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, must be pasteurized prior to consumption. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the thermal inactivation kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 in strawberry puree (SP), and evaluate the changes in anthocyan...

  6. Prepare core–multishell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals with pure color and controlled emission by tri-n-octylphosphine-assisted method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Cuiling, E-mail: rencl@lzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hao, Junjie, E-mail: haojj@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Chen, Hongli [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Kai, E-mail: wangk@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wu, Dan [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: The core–multishell CdSe/ZnS QDs synthesized by the TOP-assisted SILAR method represent pure color, high luminescence and controlled emission wavelength, which can be continuously tuned by simply varying the emission of the core nanocrystals. - Highlights: • The prepared core–multishell QDs have pure color emission (FWHM, <25 nm) even after coating with 3-monolayer ZnS. • The emission wavelength can be continuously adjusted by simply varying the ODA:Cd ratio for preparing the core nanocrystals. • The CdSe/ZnS QDs still have good optical properties synthesized at 30 multi scales. • The knowledge gained in this study enabled us to better understand the mechanism of TOP-assisted method. - Abstract: Core–multishell semiconductor nanocrystals have great potential in light emitting devices (LEDs) display, fluorescent biomarkers and luminescent solar concentrators. However, their applications are strongly limited due to the wide full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), inaccurate controllable emission wavelength, and decreased quantum yield as the shell coverage growth. So there still remains a great challenge for improving the photoluminescence properties of core–multishell quantum dots. In this work, tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) assisted method was used to prepare CdSe/ZnS QDs with narrow FWHM and controlled emission wavelength, the influence of experimental conditions on the photoluminescent properties of the core–multishell QDs were investigated. The experimental results indicated this is an effective method to prepare core–multishell QDs with pure color emission (FWHM value is smaller than 25 nm after coating with 3 monolayers of ZnS), accurately controlled emission and high QY (>95%). This is the smallest FWHM for core–multishell QDs. The emission wavelength of the as-prepared core–multishell QDs can be continuously tuned by simply varying the emission of the core nanocrystals. Furthermore, the knowledge gained in this study

  7. A Pure Parallel survey of the colors of small trans-Neptunian objects to constrain the collisional history of the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David

    2017-08-01

    We propose to use 150 Pure Parallel ACS/WFC orbits within 5 degrees of the ecliptic to search for faint (R>25) trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Based on our prior experience we expect to discover 50 faint TNOs, 24 of which will be members of the dynamically isolated cold classical subpopulation. We predict, based on theory and preliminary observational evidence, that cold classical TNOs that are smaller than an observed break in the size distribution should be significantly bluer than large cold classical TNOs due to ongoing collisional evolution of those small bodies. We will obtain V-I colors for all detected TNOs, allowing a statistically significant test of the hypothesized color difference for small cold classicals. If smaller cold classicals exhibit bluer colors than large cold classicals then the nature of the break in the size distribution is collisional. On the contrary, if the small cold classicals are as red as their larger counterparts then the break instead is most likely primordial and a product of the environment in which these objects formed. We have extensive experience detecting faint TNOs in HST data. This well-posed experiment will offer for the first time direct observational evidence about the broad collisional history of the outer Solar System and is only possible with HST.

  8. A facile route to aqueous Ag:ZnCdS and Ag:ZnCdSeS quantum dots: Pure emission color tunable over entire visible spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ruosheng, E-mail: zengrsh@gznu.edu.cn [Key Lab for Functional Materials Chemistry of Guizhou Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Sun, Zhiguo [Key Lab for Functional Materials Chemistry of Guizhou Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Cao, Sheng [Institute of Materials, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315016 (China); Shen, Rongan; Liu, Zuoji; Long, Jintao [Key Lab for Functional Materials Chemistry of Guizhou Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Zheng, Jinju [Institute of Materials, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315016 (China); Shen, Yayun; Lin, Xiangnan [Key Lab for Functional Materials Chemistry of Guizhou Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • For the first time, a highly reactive and aqueous sulfur precursor was obtained. • The obtained Ag-doped QDs exhibited high PL QY as high as 40%. • The emission color was tunable and could span entire visible spectrum. • We provided a versatile approach to other aqueous multinary chalcogenide QDs. - Abstract: Aqueous Ag:ZnCdS quantum dots (QDs) with pure, color-tunable fluorescence were prepared based on co-nucleation doping strategy by using a highly reactive S powder precursor, which was reduced by NaBH{sub 4} at high temperature of 180 °C in a closed hydrothermal autoclave. For a meaningful comparison, thiourea as a relatively low reactive precursor was employed to test the advantages of this highly reactive S powder precursor in synthetic chemistry. The influences of various experimental variables, including the Zn/Cd ratio and Ag-doping concentration, on the optical properties of Ag:ZnCdS QDs were systematically investigated. The color-tunable quarternary Ag:ZnCdSeS QDs were also successfully prepared via the variation of Se/S precursor ratio based on the similar reactivity of the Se and S powder precursors. Further, the highly efficient Ag:ZnCdS/ZnS and Ag:ZnCdSeS/ZnS core/shell QDs were constructed by the deposition of the ZnS shell around the crude Ag:ZnCdS and Ag:ZnCdSeS core QDs. The results indicated that this facile synthetic route would provide a versatile approach for preparation of other aqueous multinary metal chalcogenide QDs.

  9. New comparison of psychological meaning of colors in samples and objects with semantic ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Rein

    2002-06-01

    In color preference and color-meaning research, color chips are widely used as stimuli. Are meanings of isolated color chips generalizeable to contextualized colors? According to Taft (1996), few significant differences exist between chip and object ratings for the same color. A similar survey was performed on 192 college students. This article reports the results of the study comparing semantic rating of color applied to a variety of familiar objects. The objects were a cup, T-shirt, sofa, car, notebook, and MP3 player, all images that represent daily life familiar objects. Subjects rated a set of 16 color chips, against 6 bipolar, 7-step semantic differential scales. The scales consisted of beautiful-ugly, soft-hard, warm-cool, elegant-vulgar, loud- discreet, and masculine-feminine. Analyses performed on the data indicated that unlike Taft's findings on 1996, significant differences existed between chip and object rating for the same color in every scale. The results of the study have implications for the use of color chips in color planning which suggest they are not compatible with the generality of results of the earlier color meaning research. Generally, a color judged to be beautiful, elegant and warm when presented as a chip does not equal beautiful, elegant, and warm when applied to the surface of an object such as a cup, T-shirt, sofa, car.

  10. Testing the efficacy of pure versus guided mirror exposure in women with bulimia nervosa: A combination of neuroendocrine and psychological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ferrer, Sandra; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2015-09-01

    Body exposure improves body image problems in women with eating disorders. However it has almost always been combined with other interventions. Thus, the efficacy of body exposure alone (i.e., pure exposure) remains largely unclear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of two body exposure techniques through psychological and neuroendocrine indices recorded within and between successive sessions. Twenty-nine women with high body dissatisfaction and diagnosis of bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Pure Exposure (n = 14) or Guided Exposure (n = 15). Participants received 6 exposure sessions. After each session, changes in thoughts (positive/negative) and body satisfaction were assessed. Also, we assessed the body discomfort experienced by participants within and between sessions. Finally, the changes in salivary cortisol levels within and between the initial and final treatment sessions were measured. Both groups showed a reduction in negative thoughts and a progressive increase in positive thoughts throughout the treatment. However, the increase in body satisfaction and the reduction in subjective discomfort within the sessions were greater in the pure exposure group. The cortisol levels during the initial and final treatment sessions decreased in both groups. Methodological limitations are reported. These results suggest that pure and guided exposures are effective interventions for improving thoughts and neuroendocrine responses, although pure exposure increased more body satisfaction feelings in bulimic women. Subjective discomfort also showed different patterns of change within and along sessions for each treatment. Reasons for these results are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Symptoms on College Performance among Students of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2003-01-01

    Study examined relationships among exposure to community violence during high school, psychological distress during first semester of college, and academic performance during first three semesters of college. Exposure to community violence and academic performance; and psychological distress and grade point average were not related. Exposure to…

  12. A Psychological Experiment on the Correspondence between Colors and Voiced Vowels in Non-synesthetes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Tomoko; Koda, Ai; Sekiguchi, Rikuko; Amemiya, Toshihiko

    In this study, we investigated the nature of cross-modal associations between colors and vowels. In Experiment 1, we examined the patterns of synesthetic correspondence between colors and vowels in a perceptual similarity experiment. The results were as follows: red was chosen for /a/, yellow was chosen for /i/, and blue was chosen for /o/ significantly more than any other vowels. Interestingly this pattern of correspondence is similar to the pattern of colored hearing reported by synesthetes. In Experiment 2, we investigated the robustness of these cross-modal associations using an implicit association test (IAT). A clear congruence effect was found. Participants responded faster in congruent conditions (/i/ and yellow, /o/ and blue) than in incongruent conditions (/i/ and blue, /o/ and yellow). This result suggests that the weak synesthesia between vowels and colors in non-synesthtes is not the fact of mere conscious choice, but reflects some underlying implicit associations.

  13. An extended research of crossmodal correspondence between color and sound in psychology and cognitive ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuwen Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the existing research on sound symbolism and crossmodal correspondence, this study proposed an extended research on cross-modal correspondence between various sound attributes and color properties in a group of non-synesthetes. In Experiment 1, we assessed the associations between each property of sounds and colors. Twenty sounds with five auditory properties (pitch, roughness, sharpness, tempo and discontinuity, each varied in four levels, were used as the sound stimuli. Forty-nine colors with different hues, saturation and brightness were used to match to those sounds. Result revealed that besides pitch and tempo, roughness and sharpness also played roles in sound-color correspondence. Reaction times of sound-hue were a little longer than the reaction times of sound-lightness. In Experiment 2, a speeded target discrimination task was used to assess whether the associations between sound attributes and color properties could invoke natural cross-modal correspondence and improve participants’ cognitive efficiency in cognitive tasks. Several typical sound-color pairings were selected according to the results of Experiment 1. Participants were divided into two groups (congruent and incongruent. In each trial participants had to judge whether the presented color could appropriately be associated with the sound stimuli. Result revealed that participants responded more quickly and accurately in the congruent group than in the incongruent group. It was also found that there was no significant difference in reaction times and error rates between sound-hue and sound-lightness. The results of Experiment 1 and 2 indicate the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between multiple attributes of sound and color, which also has strong influence on cognitive tasks. The inconsistency of the reaction times between sound-hue and sound-lightness in Experiment 1 and 2 is probably owing to the difference in experimental protocol, which indicates

  14. Application to graduate psychology programs by undergraduate students of color: the impact of a research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; Allard, Carolyn B

    2009-07-01

    The top 86 students were selected from a pool of approximately 400 applicants to a summer clinical psychology research training program for undergraduate students of color. Forty-three of the students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 clinical psychology research training programs, and 43 were randomly assigned to a control condition without training. The multicultural version of the training program emphasized the cultural context of psychology in all areas of training, whereas cultural context was de-emphasized in the monocultural version of the program. Although the cultural content of the 2 training programs was effectively manipulated as indicated by a fidelity check by an outside expert, there were no significant differences between the effects of the 2 programs on the outcomes measured in this study. The primary differences in this study were between students who did versus those who did not participate in a training program. Sixty-five percent of the students who completed the multicultural training program applied to graduate schools in psychology, compared with 47% of those who completed the monocultural training program, and 31% of those in the control group. Participation in summer research training programs also increased self-perceptions of multicultural competence.

  15. Liberating history: the context of the challenge of psychologists of color to American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickren, Wade E

    2009-10-01

    The history of race and ethnicity in North America is long and complex. It has been fraught with racism and various forms of oppression--intellectual, social, and physical--and defies easy analysis. This article examines the history of race and ethnicity in the United States, and how it played out in the field of psychology. Although other articles in this issue examine the specific impact of racism and internal colonialism on racial and ethnic minorities, this article places these events within an international context, specifically the post-World War II era when oppressed peoples around the world sought liberation from colonial oppressors. The article suggests that the struggles and successes of racial and ethnic minority psychologists may provide the best opportunity for American psychology to connect with emerging indigenous psychologies in other parts of the world, which represent the future of psychology in a globalizing world. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Color-blind racial ideology: theory, training, and measurement implications in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen A; Awad, Germine H; Brooks, James E; Flores, Michelle P; Bluemel, Jamie

    2013-09-01

    Synthesizing the interdisciplinary literature, we characterize color-blind racial ideology (CBRI) as consisting of two interrelated domains: color-evasion (i.e., denial of racial differences by emphasizing sameness) and power-evasion (i.e., denial of racism by emphasizing equal opportunities). Mounting empirical data suggest that the color-evasion dimension is ineffective and in fact promotes interracial tension and potential inequality. CBRI may be conceived as an ultramodern or contemporary form of racism and a legitimizing ideology used to justify the racial status quo. Four types of CBRI are described: denial of (a) race, (b) blatant racial issues, (c) institutional racism, and (d) White privilege. We discuss empirical findings suggesting a relationship between CBRI and increased racial prejudice, racial anger, and racial fear. Implications for education, training, and research are provided. © 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Psychological Heuristics and Faculty of Color: Racial Battle Fatigue and Tenure/Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Noelle Witherspoon; Crawford, Emily R.; Khalifa, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Faculty who have been historically excluded from participating in academia present a unique quandary for those who have traditionally held power at the university. This article explores the promotion and tenure (P&T) process of Black faculty using a psychological construct to examine how racial micro-aggressions manifest and articulate…

  18. Minority Students of Color and the Psychology Graduate Pipeline: Disquieting and Encouraging Trends, 1989-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Kohout, Jessica L.; Wicherski, Marlene; Leary, George E.; Vinokurov, Andrey

    2006-01-01

    Trends since 1989 in the minority graduate pipeline in psychology are examined, with special focus on trends in recent years. Encouraging trends generally outweigh troubling ones at lower levels of the pipeline. However, in recent years disquieting trends dominate at the higher pipeline levels. Promising trends include a rise in the percentage (to…

  19. Color blindness and Rorschach color responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsino, B V

    1985-10-01

    Color vision deficits occur in 10% of the American white male population. Thus, color blindness may invalidate diagnostic hypotheses generated from Rorschach data. The Rorschach protocols of 43 white, college male color-blind subjects were compared to the protocols of normally sighted controls. The color-blind group manifested fewer pure "C" responses. No significant between group differences emerged for any of the other primary Rorschach color variables. Pure "C" responses rarely figure prominently in Rorschach evaluations, and the apparent lowered frequency of these responses by the color-blind is insufficient to warrant modification of current Rorschach practice. The data suggest that color blindness is unlikely to confound Rorschach assessment.

  20. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  1. The anxiogenic video-recorded Stroop Color-Word Test: psychological and physiological alterations and effects of diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Silva, Flavia; Prado, Gabriela Bordini; Ribeiro, Lídia Christine Goulart; Leite, José Roberto

    2004-09-15

    From among the few human experimental models that can be used to predict the clinical activity of new anxiolytic drugs, the video-recorded Stroop Color-Word Test (VRSCWT), which uses subjective scales to evaluate anxious states, is notable for its simplicity. However, considering that the choice of treatment for anxiety disorders is heavily dependent on the level of somatic symptomatology, a quantitative evaluation of the physiological alterations elicited by the anxiogenic situation of the VRSCWT would also be of great interest. In the present study, 36 healthy male and female volunteers were submitted to either the VRSCWT or to a nonanxiogenic test. The results showed that, as well as a sensation of anxiety, the VRSCWT elicited increases in heart rate and gastrocnemius tension. Subsequently, a further 48 healthy men and women were randomly assigned to three treatments: placebo, 5 and 10 mg of diazepam, and were submitted to the VRSCWT. The results showed that in men, diazepam blocked the feeling of anxiety elicited by the test, although it did not prevent the physiological alterations, while in women, there was no response to the anxiolytic action of the drug. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that the VRSCWT is an efficient method of inducing anxiety experimentally. It is able to elicit observable psychological and physiological alterations and can detect the blocking, by an anxiolytic, of the feelings of anxiety in healthy men. Furthermore, the results suggest that the neural pathways for the control of the psychological and physiological manifestations of anxiety may be separate. This study also draws attention to the fact that gender is an important variable in the evaluation of anxiolytic drugs.

  2. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  3. [Pure Amnesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Tokida, Haruki

    2017-06-01

    Pure amnesia (amnesic syndrome) is an organic brain syndrome characterized by impairment in episodic memory, with either an anterograde or sometimes retrograde loss of memories. Although episodic memory is impaired, semantic memory, immediate memory, and procedural memory are preserved. The Papez circuit is a network of nerve fibers and nerve centers that starts and ends in the hippocampus travelling by way of the fornix, mammillary bodies, anterior thalamic nuclei, cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus. A lesion restricted to this circuit often produces pure amnesia. Regions concerned with the Yakovlev circuit also have an important role in memory. Clinical cases of pure amnesia caused by cerebrovascular disease presented following brain imaging and resulted from various different lesions. The cases identified were predominantly thalamic amnesia and hippocampal amnesia. Thalamic amnesia often resulted from an infarction in the territory of the thalamotuberal artery and paramedian thalamic artery although thalamic hemorrhage in medial portion of thalamus also produced pure amnesia. Hippocampal amnesia usually occurred following an infarction in the temporal branches of posterior cerebral artery. Cases of retrosplenial amnesia caused by subcortical hematoma and infarction in the retrosplenial region are also described. In addition, cases of pure amnesia resulting from an infarction in the fornix, mammillary body hemorrhage, and caudate hemorrhage are also shown.

  4. More Efficient e-Learning through Design: Color of Text and Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufic, Janko; Kalpic, Damir

    2009-01-01

    Background: The area of research aimed for a more efficient e-learning is slowly widening from purely technical to the areas of psychology, didactics and methodology. The question is whether the text or background color influence the efficiency of memory, i.e. learning. If the answer to that question is positive, then another question arises which…

  5. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meier, Brian P; D'Agostino, Paul R; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Wilkowski, Benjamin M

    2012-01-01

    .... Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach...

  6. Examining the Effects of Stress and Campus Climate on the Persistence of Students of Color and White Students: An Application of Bean and Eaton's Psychological Model of Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn R.; Wasserman, Timothy H.; Yildirim, Nilay; Yonai, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of stress and campus climate perceptions on the persistence decisions of students of color and White students using Bean and Eaton's (2000) Psychological Model of College Student Retention. A sample of first-year students (N = 1,491) at a predominantly White research university were survey enduring their…

  7. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  8. "Pure" motor hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokroverty, S; Rubino, F A

    1975-01-01

    Attenuation of cerebral evoked responses after stimulation of the median nerve in the hemiplegic limbs suggested that an apparently pure motor hemiplegia in some patients may not have pure involvement of the corticospinal system. Frontoparietal metastasis, infarction in basis pontis and medullary pyramid, and occlusion of internal carotid artery in the neck resulted in pure motor hemiplegia in some individuals. Images PMID:1185228

  9. Perceptual Representation of Color in Abstract Non-Color Word Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Aitao Lu; Ling Yang; John X Zhang; Yue Wu

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments showed that naming latencies were significantly shorter when the patch color was consistent with the object’s typical color relative to when they were inconsistent. Such color simulation was also found for verbs involving an object with color and words psychologically-related to color, indicating that color simulation is not limited to situations where there is a concrete, direct connection between the concept and the color information. Results from SOA manipulation indicate...

  10. Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  11. A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2009-01-01

    Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

  12. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  13. The nature of colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Pos, Osvaldo

    2002-06-01

    Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

  14. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  15. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers

    OpenAIRE

    Keiko Sato; Takaaki Inoue

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions). The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficie...

  16. Biological origins of color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna

    2017-05-23

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  17. Pure-tone Audiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapul, A. A.; Zubova, E. I.; Torgaev, S. N.; Drobchik, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The research focuses on a pure-tone audiometer designing. The relevance of the study is proved by high incidence of an auditory analyser in older people and children. At first, the article provides information about subjective and objective audiometry methods. Secondly, we offer block-diagram and basic-circuit arrangement of device. We decided to base on STM32F407VG microcontroller and use digital pot in the function of attenuator. Third, we implemented microcontroller and PC connection. C programming language is used for microcontroller’s program and PC’s interface. Fourthly, we created the pure-tone audiometer prototype. In the future, we will implement the objective method ASSR in addition to pure-tone audiometry.

  18. Rehabilitation of pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig Rós; Arendt, Ida-Marie

    2013-01-01

    , tentatively conclude that Multiple Oral Re-reading techniques may have some effect in mild pure alexia where diminished reading speed is the main problem, while Tacile-Kinesthetic training may improve letter identification in more severe cases of alexia. There is, however, still a great need for well......Acquired reading problems caused by brain injury (alexia) are common, either as a part of an aphasic syndrome, or as an isolated symptom. In pure alexia, reading is impaired while other language functions, including writing, are spared. Being in many ways a simple syndrome, one would think...

  19. Visual comfort evaluated by opponent colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Ken

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate psychological impression of visual comfort when we see an image of ordinary colored scene presented in a color display. Effects of opponent colors, i.e. red, green, yellow and blue component, on the subjective judgement on visual comfort to the image were investigated. Three kinds of psychological experiment were designed to see the effects and the results indicated that the red/green opponent color component was more affecting than the yellow-blue one, and red color in particular was the most affecting factor on visual comfort.

  20. Pure natural inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Nomura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We point out that a simple inflationary model in which the axionic inflaton couples to a pure Yang–Mills theory may give the scalar spectral index (ns and tensor-to-scalar ratio (r in complete agreement with the current observational data.

  1. Computer-Aided Color Aesthetic Evaluation Method Based on the Combination of Form and Color

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Wenke; Qin, Sheng-feng; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of color aesthetic evaluation based on the combination of form and color. According to the human visual physiological and psychological characteristics, this paper first proposes a new form-color field theory for the coupled form-color aesthetic evaluation based on the psychophysical field theory and the Moon and Spencer model. Second, it builds a coupled form-color topological graph for describing their interaction and develops a strength calculation algorith...

  2. Adaptive Ambient Illumination Based on Color Harmony Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ayano; Hirai, Keita; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    We investigated the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological effect by applying a modified color harmony model. We verified the proposed model by analyzing correlation between psychological value and modified color harmony score. Experimental results showed the possibility to obtain the best color for illumination using this model.

  3. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  4. Urine Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is often caused by medications, certain foods or food dyes. In some cases, though, changes in urine color ... can be caused by: Dyes. Some brightly colored food dyes can cause green urine. Dyes used for some ...

  5. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  6. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  7. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  8. Color invariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; van den Boomgaard, R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Geerts, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement of colored object reflectance, under different, general assumptions regarding the imaging conditions. We exploit the Gaussian scale-space paradigm for color images to define a framework for the robust measurement of object reflectance from color images. Object

  9. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  10. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  11. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  12. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  13. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  14. Colored percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    A model called "colored percolation" has been introduced with its infinite number of versions in two dimensions. The sites of a regular lattice are randomly occupied with probability p and are then colored by one of the n distinct colors using uniform probability q =1 /n . Denoting different colors by the letters of the Roman alphabet, we have studied different versions of the model like A B ,A B C ,A B C D ,A B C D E ,... etc. Here, only those lattice bonds having two different colored atoms at the ends are defined as connected. The percolation threshold pc(n ) asymptotically converges to its limiting value of pc as 1 /n . The model has been generalized by introducing a preference towards a subset of colors when m out of n colors are selected with probability q /m each and the rest of the colors are selected with probability (1 -q )/(n -m ) . It has been observed that pc(q ,m ) depends nontrivially on q and has a minimum at qmin=m /n . In another generalization the fractions of bonds between similarly and dissimilarly colored atoms have been treated as independent parameters. Phase diagrams in this parameter space have been drawn exhibiting percolating and nonpercolating phases.

  15. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  16. Psychology: Is it applied enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, P.J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The question "Is psychology applied enough?" can be regarded in two ways. In the first place, it could refer to the distinction "pure versus applied science", and the reproach that modern scientific experimental psychology has little to offer to the practitioner. It is argued that this distinction

  17. Perception of Fechner Illusory Colors in Alzheimer Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaubrys, Gintaras; Bukina, Vera; Bingelytė, Ieva; Taluntis, Vladas

    2016-11-30

    BACKGROUND Alzheimer disease (AD) primarily affects cognition. A variety of visual disorders was established in AD. Fechner illusory colors are produced by a rotating disk with a black and white pattern. The purpose of our research was to explore the perception of illusory colors in AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS W recruited 40 AD patients (MMSE ≥14) and 40 normal controls (CG group) matched by age, education, gender in this prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. An achromatic Benham's disk attached to a device to control the speed and direction of rotation was used to produce illusory colors. Primary, secondary, and tertiary RGB system colors were used for matching of illusory and physical colors. RESULTS Subjects in the AD group perceived less illusory colors in 5 arcs (pperception of pure yellow opponent colors (p>0.05). Mixed colors of the blue-yellow axis were perceived less often in AD, but more frequently than pure blue (#0000FF). The sequence of colors on Benham's disk followed a complex pattern, different from the order of physical spectral colors and opponent processes-based colors. CONCLUSIONS AD patients retained reduced perception of illusory colors. The perception of pure blue illusory color is almost absent in AD. The asymmetrical shift to the yellow opponent is observed in AD with red prevailing over green constituent. This may indicate cortical rather than retinal impairment.

  18. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  19. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  20. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  1. Eleven Colors That Are Almost Never Confused

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, Robert M.

    1989-08-01

    1.1. Three functions of color vision. Setting aside the complex psychological effects of color, related to esthetics, fashion, and mood, three relatively basic functions of color vision, which can be examined scientifically, are discernable. (1) With the eye in a given state of adaptation, color vision allows the perception of signals that otherwise would be below threshold, and therefore lost to perception. Evidence for this comes from a variety of two-color threshold experiments. (2) Visible contours can be maintained by color differences alone, regardless of the relative radiances of the two parts of the field whose junction defines the border. For achromatic vision, contour disappears at the isoluminant point. (3) Color specifies what seems to be an absolute property of a surface, one that enhances its recognizability and allows a clearer separation and classification of non-contiguous elements in the visual field.

  2. Image Transform Based on the Distribution of Representative Colors for Color Deficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Fukashi; Kudo, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Ohnishi, Noboru

    This paper proposes the method to convert digital image containing distinguishing difficulty sets of colors into the image with high visibility. We set up four criteria, automatically processing by a computer, retaining continuity in color space, not making images into lower visible for people with normal color vision, and not making images not originally having distinguishing difficulty sets of colors into lower visible. We conducted the psychological experiment. We obtained the result that the visibility of a converted image had been improved at 60% for 40 images, and we confirmed the main criterion of the continuity in color space was kept.

  3. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  4. Piaget's Critique of Pure Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falikowski, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Piaget's theory of cognitive developmental levels is criticized on the grounds that it blends empirical and philosophical issues of knowledge and, therefore, confuses genetic psychology and epistemology. (JN)

  5. Visual processing in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Habekost, Thomas; Gerlach, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Whether pure alexia is a selective disorder that affects reading only, or if it reflects a more general visual disturbance, is highly debated. We have investigated the selectivity of visual deficits in a pure alexic patient (NN) using a combination of psychophysical measures, mathematical modelling...... affected. His visual apprehension span was markedly reduced for letters and digits. His reduced visual processing capacity was also evident when reporting letters from words. In an object decision task with fragmented pictures, NN's performance was abnormal. Thus, even in a pure alexic patient with intact...... recognition of line drawings, we find evidence of a general visual deficit not selective to letters or words. This finding is important because it raises the possibility that other pure alexics might have similar non-selective impairments when tested thoroughly. We argue that the general visual deficit in NN...

  6. Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2003-03-01

    It has been postulated that humans can differentiate between millions of gradations in color. Not surprisingly, no completely adequate, detailed catalog of colors has yet been devised, however the quest to understand, record, and depict color is as old as the quest to understand the fundamentals of the physical world and the nature of human consciousness. Rolf Kuehni's Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present represents an ambitious and unprecedented history of man's inquiry into color order, focusing on the practical applications of the most contemporary developments in the field. Kuehni devotes much of his study to geometric, three-dimensional arrangements of color experiences, a type of system developed only in the mid-nineteenth century. Color spaces are of particular interest for color quality-control purposes in the manufacturing and graphics industries. The author analyzes three major color order systems in detail: Munsell, OSA-UCS, and NCS. He presents historical and current information on color space developments in color vision, psychology, psychophysics, and color technology. Chapter topics include: A historical account of color order systems Fundamentals of psychophysics and the relationship between stimuli and experience Results of perceptual scaling of colors according to attributes History of the development of mathematical color space and difference formulas Analysis of the agreements and discrepancies in psychophysical data describing color differences An experimental plan for the reliable, replicated perceptual data necessary to make progress in the field Experts in academia and industry, neuroscientists, designers, art historians, and anyone interested in the nature of color will find Color Space and Its Divisions to be the authoritative reference in its field.

  7. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  8. Color naming across languages reflects color use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Edward; Futrell, Richard; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Mahowald, Kyle; Bergen, Leon; Ratnasingam, Sivalogeswaran; Gibson, Mitchell; Piantadosi, Steven T; Conway, Bevil R

    2017-09-18

    What determines how languages categorize colors? We analyzed results of the World Color Survey (WCS) of 110 languages to show that despite gross differences across languages, communication of chromatic chips is always better for warm colors (yellows/reds) than cool colors (blues/greens). We present an analysis of color statistics in a large databank of natural images curated by human observers for salient objects and show that objects tend to have warm rather than cool colors. These results suggest that the cross-linguistic similarity in color-naming efficiency reflects colors of universal usefulness and provide an account of a principle (color use) that governs how color categories come about. We show that potential methodological issues with the WCS do not corrupt information-theoretic analyses, by collecting original data using two extreme versions of the color-naming task, in three groups: the Tsimane', a remote Amazonian hunter-gatherer isolate; Bolivian-Spanish speakers; and English speakers. These data also enabled us to test another prediction of the color-usefulness hypothesis: that differences in color categorization between languages are caused by differences in overall usefulness of color to a culture. In support, we found that color naming among Tsimane' had relatively low communicative efficiency, and the Tsimane' were less likely to use color terms when describing familiar objects. Color-naming among Tsimane' was boosted when naming artificially colored objects compared with natural objects, suggesting that industrialization promotes color usefulness.

  9. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-14

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  10. A STUDY OF COLOR AS A MARKETING CUE IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    OmarAlkhamisi, Abrar; Ba-brahem, Afnan Salem; Abdullah, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    Colors have powerful effects and prompt reactions based on both instincts and connotations. Colors have a subtle but pervasively effective element in graphic design. Colors alter the meanings of the objects or situations with which they are associated and color inclinations can predict consumers’ behavior. Colors instil graphic representations in packaging, advertising, and branding. Colors are also considered a significant part of our psychological and biological heritage. The cultural...

  11. Colorful drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies.

  12. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... condition. Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  14. Visual processing in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Habekost, Thomas; Gerlach, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Whether pure alexia is a selective disorder that affects reading only, or if it reflects a more general visual disturbance, is highly debated. We have investigated the selectivity of visual deficits in a pure alexic patient (NN) using a combination of psychophysical measures, mathematical modelling...... affected. His visual apprehension span was markedly reduced for letters and digits. His reduced visual processing capacity was also evident when reporting letters from words. In an object decision task with fragmented pictures, NN's performance was abnormal. Thus, even in a pure alexic patient with intact...... can be accounted for in terms of inefficient build-up of sensory representations, and that this low level deficit can explain the pattern of spared and impaired abilities in this patient....

  15. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  16. Pure Science and Applied Science*

    OpenAIRE

    Aumann, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    (Excerpt) The name of my talk is Pure Science and Applied Science, and the idea I would like to sell to you today is that there is no such thing as “pure” or “applied” science. In other words, there is such a thing as science, but there is no difference between pure and applied science. Science is one entity and cannot be separated into different categories. In order to back that up, I would like to tell you a little story. As an undergraduate, I studied mathematics at City College in New...

  17. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  18. Acceptability of Musa Balbisiana (Saba Banana Puree in Two Treatments in Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. De Castro Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Musa Balbisiana or Saba is a variety of banana fruit that is nutritious and readily available in the market the whole year round. This experimental study aimed to determine the acceptability of the ice cream made from Saba banana puree in two treatments (treatment 1- cooked puree and treatment 2- uncooked puree. Data gathered were described and analyzed using a special Analysis of Variance. The sensory characteristics of the ice cream in two treatments were compared with one another based on the 9-point hedonic scale utilized by trained panelist in the education sector in secondary, tertiary and graduate school level that specialized in food related discipline such as Food Technology, Food Service Management, Technology and Livelihood Education- Food Trades and Hotel and Restaurant Management. Results indicated that in treatment 1( cooked puree the taste and texture of the ice cream were liked extremely however its color was rated liked very much, while in treatment 2 (uncooked puree the texture and color were rated liked moderately while its taste was rated liked very much. A comparison of the sensory characteristics between the two treatments revealed that there is a significant difference in terms of taste, texture and color and overall acceptability of the Saba banana ice cream. It is then recommended that in preparing Saba banana puree using treatment 1 (cooking method, the fruit should be subjected in numerous sieving process using a fine mesh siever or sifter to produce good quality puree texture.

  19. Investor Psychology and Asset Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Hirshleifer, David

    2001-01-01

    The basic paradigm of asset pricing is in vibrant flux. The purely rational approach is being subsumed by a broader approach based upon the psychology of investors. In this approach, security expected returns are determined by both risk and misvaluation. This survey sketches a framework for understanding decision biases, evaluates the a priori arguments and the capital market evidence bearing on the importance of investor psychology for security prices, and reviews recent models.

  20. Instrumental color control for metallic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, W.; Han, Bing; Cui, Guihua; Rigg, Bryan; Luo, Ming R.

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes work investigating a suitable color quality control method for metallic coatings. A set of psychological experiments was carried out based upon 50 pairs of samples. The results were used to test the performance of various color difference formulae. Different techniques were developed by optimising the weights and/or the lightness parametric factors of colour differences calculated from the four measuring angles. The results show that the new techniques give a significant improvement compared to conventional techniques.

  1. Light Vision Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  2. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  3. Creating experimental color harmony map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  4. Teaching color as an experiential exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Margaret A.

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the course 'The Psychology of Color' that I teach at the Fashion Institute of Technology. Information was synthesized from many disciplines including human biology, physics, consumer behavior, developmental psychology, cross-cultural anthropology and sociology. After initial implementation, the course went through two additional phases of refinement. The current course is an integration of research, theory and application to our everyday lives.

  5. Partition functions of pure spinors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, P.A. [Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Compendio Viminale, I-00184 Rome (Italy) and DISTA, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Bellini 25/g, Alessandria 15100 (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy) and CERN, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: pgrassi@insti.physics.sunysb.edu; Morales Morera, J.F. [CERN, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: fmorales@cern.ch

    2006-09-04

    We compute partition functions describing multiplicities and charges of massless and first massive string states of pure-spinor superstrings in 3, 4, 6, 10 dimensions. At the massless level we find a spin-one gauge multiplet of minimal supersymmetry in d dimensions. At the first massive string level we find a massive spin-two multiplet. The result is confirmed by a direct analysis of the BRST cohomology at ghost number one. The central charges of the pure spinor systems are derived in a manifestly SO(d) covariant way confirming that the resulting string theories are critical. A critical string model with N=(2,0) supersymmetry in d=2 is also described.

  6. Multimedia programming with pure data

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    A quick and comprehensive tutorial book for media designers to jump-start interactive multimedia production with computer graphics, digital audio, digital video, and interactivity, using the Pure Data graphical programming environment.An introductory book on multimedia programming for media artists/designers who like to work on interactivity in their projects, digital art/design students who like to learn the first multimedia programming technique, and audio-visual performers who like to customize their performance sets

  7. Pure Science and Applied Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Aumann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Excerpt The name of my talk is Pure Science and Applied Science, and the idea I would like to sell to you today is that there is no such thing as “pure” or “applied” science. In other words, there is such a thing as science, but there is no difference between pure and applied science. Science is one entity and cannot be separated into different categories. In order to back that up, I would like to tell you a little story. As an undergraduate, I studied mathematics at City College in New York. At that time, what was called Pure Mathematics was in vogue, and the more prominent mathematicians were a little contemptuous of any kind of application. A very famous, prominent mathematician in the first half of the previous century by the name of G. H. Hardy, who was in a branch of mathematics called number theory, said that the only thing he regretted was that he unwittingly did some important work in mathematical genetics that eventually turned out to have some application. … Such was the atmosphere in the late ’40s of the previous century and, being a young man and impressionable, I was swept up in this atmosphere.

  8. Color Relationalism and Relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically examines color relationalism and color relativism, two theories of color that are allegedly supported by variation in normal human color vision. We mostly discuss color relationalism, defended at length in Jonathan Cohen's The Red and the Real, and argue that the theory has insuperable problems. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  10. The color enhancement and collimation features of the multi-colored LEDs with different periodic microstructure on the top surface of TIR lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shang-Ping; Fu, Han-Kuei

    2017-09-01

    Due to the advantages, such as high efficiency, power consumption reduction, no mercury, pure saturated color, high reliability and long lifetime, the solid-state lighting based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has become very popular at this stage. In the lighting applications such as spot lighting, downlighting, architectural and show lighting, the colortunable properties with collimating beam of LEDs are highly demanded. The color-tunable lighting is easily achieved using multi-colored LEDs instead of inefficient color filters. However, the applications of multi-colored LEDs usually appear the undesirable light patterns such as color separation or color fringes. At the meantime, the use of TIR (total internal reflection) lens for multi-colored LEDs to collimate the light from the LEDs with different color will introduce seriously undesirable artifacts. Thus, a periodic microstructure surface on the top surface of the TIR lens would be used to reshape the light from the different colored LED chips in the multi-colored LEDs, and then decrease the color separation and color nonuniformity. In this study, the TIR lens with periodic microstructure surface on the top surface would be used to collimate the light from multi-colored LEDs with low color separation or color fringes. The analysis of color enhancement and collimation features of the multi-colored LEDs with different periodic microstructure on the top surface of the TIR lens is presented.

  11. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  16. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Sato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions. The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1 reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2 examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3 explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP. Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth

  17. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Inoue, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions). The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1) reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2) examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3) explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP). Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance) as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth ratings in

  18. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions). The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1) reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2) examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3) explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP). Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance) as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth ratings in

  19. Optimal purely functional priority queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Okasaki, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Brodal recently introduced the first implementation of imperative priority queues to support findMin, insert and meld in O(1) worst-case time, and deleteMin in O(log n) worst-case time. These bounds are asymptotically optimal among all comparison-based priority queues. In this paper, we adapt...... Brodal's data structure to a purely functional setting. In doing so, we both simplify the data structure and clarify its relationship to the binomial queues of Vuillemin, which support all four operations in O(log n) time. Specifically, we derive our implementation from binomial queues in three steps...

  20. How pure are your vesicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Jason; Clayton, Aled

    2013-01-01

    We propose a straightforward method to estimate the purity of vesicle preparations by comparing the ratio of nano-vesicle counts to protein concentration, using tools such as the increasingly available NanoSight platform and a colorimetric protein assay such as the BCA-assay. Such an approach is simple enough to apply to every vesicle preparation within a given laboratory, assisting researchers as a routine quality control step. Also, the approach may aid in comparing/standardising vesicle purity across diverse studies, and may be of particular importance in evaluating vesicular biomarkers. We herein propose some criteria to aid in the definition of pure vesicles. PMID:24009896

  1. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  2. Brilliance, contrast, colorfulness, and the perceived volume of device color gamut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckaman, Rodney L.

    With the advent of digital video and cinema media technologies, much more is possible in achieving brighter and more vibrant colors, colors that transcend our experience. The challenge is in the realization of these possibilities in an industry rooted in 1950s technology where color gamut is represented with little or no insight into the way an observer perceives color as a complex mixture of the observer's intentions, desires, and interests. By today's standards, five perceptual attributes---brightness, lightness, colorfulness, chroma, and hue---are believed to be required for a complete specification. As a compelling case for such a representation, a display system is demonstrated that is capable of displaying color beyond the realm of object color, perceptually even beyond the spectrum locus of pure color. All this begs the question: Just what is meant by perceptual gamut? To this end, the attributes of perceptual gamut are identified through psychometric testing and the color appearance models CIELAB and CIECAM02. Then, by way of demonstration, these attributes were manipulated to test their application in wide gamut displays. In concert with these perceptual attributes and their manipulation, Ralph M. Evans' concept of brilliance as an attribute of perception that extends beyond the realm of everyday experience, and the theoretical studies of brilliance by Y. Nayatani, a method was developed for producing brighter, more colorful colors and deeper, darker colors with the aim of preserving object color perception---flesh tones in particular. The method was successfully demonstrated and tested in real images using psychophysical methods in the very real, practical application of expanding the gamut of sRGB into an emulation of the wide gamut, xvYCC encoding.

  3. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  4. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  5. Mood perception of interior colors in a gym

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Haruyo; Koizumi, Naoko

    2002-06-01

    When people enter a gym, they feel more like exercising in some cases than other cases. The interior color of the space may be a contributing factor. This paper discusses how the interior color of a gym affects female subjects in their twenties and forties to fifties both physiologically and psychologically.

  6. The Effects of Color on the Moods of College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinc Kurt; Kelechi Kingsley Osueke

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to discover the psychological effects of colors on individuals, using the students’ union complex in a university campus. This building was chosen due to its richness in color variances. The research method is survey, and questionnaires were drawn up and distributed to an even range of students, comprising both international and local students; undergraduate and graduate. Questionnaires have been col...

  7. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  8. Gender peculiarities of color termsin French fashion magazines

    OpenAIRE

    KUPINA N.I.; KAMYSHANCHENKO E.A.; KALYUZHNAYA E.V.; GAIDUKOVA N.I.

    2015-01-01

    The authors consider different approaches to the matter of color terms in linguistics and psychology. Perception of visual images by language consciousness in different cultures is determined by various factors: a feature of national thinking, originality of nature, culture, and as a consequence different choice of the most typical prototype of any concept of color space. This article reviews a number of properties that are characteristic of basic and non-standard color terms. The article als...

  9. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaz, G.; Le Troter, A.; Sequeira, J.; Boi, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1). Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2), and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  10. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  11. Addressing Diversity in the Decade of Behavior: Focus on Women of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Nancy Felipe; Vaz, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the lives of women of color, illustrating diversity-minded feminist principles that may inform research and program development related to other aspects of diversity. Notes perspectives and priorities of women of color in psychology. Considers why implementing feminist psychology's inclusive vision for research is a continuing struggle,…

  12. Multiple neural mechanisms for coloring words in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takemasa; Noguchi, Yasuki; Koga, Hiroki; Tachibana, Ryosuke; Saiki, Jun; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Kita, Shinichi

    2014-07-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a phenomenon in which achromatic letters/digits automatically induce particular colors. When multiple letters are integrated into a word, some synesthetes perceive that all those letters are changed into the same color, reporting lexical color to that word. Previous psychological studies found several "rules" that determine those lexical colors. The colors to most words are determined by the first letters of the words, while some words in ordinal sequences have their specific colors. Recent studies further reported the third case where lexical colors might be influenced by semantic information of words. Although neural mechanisms determining those lexical colors remained unknown, here we identified three separate neural systems in the synesthete's brain underlying three rules for illusory coloring of words. In addition to the occipito-temporal and parietal regions previously found to be associated with the grapheme-color synesthesia, neural systems for lexical coloring extended to linguistic areas in the left inferior frontal and anterior temporal regions that were engaged in semantic analyses of words. Those results indicate an involvement of wider and higher neural networks than previously assumed in a production of synesthetic colors to visual stimuli and further showed a multiplicity of synesthetic mechanisms represented in the single brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Color: An Unsuspected Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargall, Hollie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the appropriate use of colors in school libraries. Highlights include how colors affect students' learning and behavior; influences on users' moods; users' ages; the use of colors to bring out the best physical attributes; and the use of color for floor coverings, window treatments, furnishings, and accessories. (LRW)

  14. Color identification testing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  15. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  16. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  17. Modeling color preference using color space metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Lessard, Laurent; Racey, Chris; Hurlbert, Anya C

    2017-07-27

    Studying color preferences provides a means to discover how perceptual experiences map onto cognitive and affective judgments. A challenge is finding a parsimonious way to describe and predict patterns of color preferences, which are complex with rich individual differences. One approach has been to model color preferences using factors from metric color spaces to establish direct correspondences between dimensions of color and preference. Prior work established that substantial, but not all, variance in color preferences could be captured by weights on color space dimensions using multiple linear regression. The question we address here is whether model fits may be improved by using different color metric specifications. We therefore conducted a large-scale analysis of color space models, and focused in-depth analysis on models that differed in color space (cone-contrast vs. CIELAB), coordinate system within the color space (Cartesian vs. cylindrical), and factor degrees (1st degree only, or 1st and 2nd degree). We used k-fold cross validation to avoid over-fitting the data and to ensure fair comparisons across models. The best model was the 2nd-harmonic Lch model ("LabC Cyl2"). Specified in CIELAB space, it included 1st and 2nd harmonics of hue (capturing opponency in hue preferences and simultaneous liking/disliking of both hues on an opponent axis, respectively), lightness, and chroma. These modeling approaches can be used to characterize and compare patterns for group averages and individuals in future datasets on color preference, or other measures in which correspondences between color appearance and cognitive or affective judgments may exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  19. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  20. Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Dong, Guang-Chang

    2004-07-01

    Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms, commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack. In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm, we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms. First, a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices. Then, by using probability theory and algebraic principles, the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then, by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices, we improve a specific decryption algorithm. Finally, some simulation results are shown.

  1. Dual Target Search is Neither Purely Simultaneous nor Purely Successive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Kyle R; Menneer, Tamaryn; Nomani, Mohammad S; Stroud, Michael J; Donnelly, Nick

    2017-08-31

    Previous research shows that visual search for two different targets is less efficient than search for a single target. Stroud, Menneer, Cave and Donnelly (2012) concluded that two target colours are represented separately based on modeling the fixation patterns. Although those analyses provide evidence for two separate target representations, they do not show whether participants search simultaneously for both targets, or first search for one target and then the other. Some studies suggest that multiple target representations are simultaneously active, while others indicate that search can be voluntarily simultaneous, or switching, or a mixture of both. Stroud et al.'s participants were not explicitly instructed to use any particular strategy. These data were revisited to determine which strategy was employed. Each fixated item was categorised according to whether its colour was more similar to one target or the other. Once an item similar to one target is fixated, the next fixated item is more likely to be similar to that target than the other, showing that at a given moment during search, one target is generally favoured. However, the search for one target is not completed before search for the other begins. Instead, there are often short runs of one or two fixations to distractors similar to one target, with each run followed by a switch to the other target. Thus, the results suggest that one target is more highly weighted than the other at any given time, but not to the extent that search is purely successive.

  2. Population heterogeneity and color stimulus heterogeneity in agent-based color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L; Jameson, Kimberly A

    2008-08-21

    Investigating the interactions between universal and culturally specific influences on color categorization across individuals and cultures has proven to be a challenge for human color categorization and naming research. The present article simulates the evolution of color lexicons to evaluate the role of two realistic constraints found in the human phenomenon: (i) heterogeneous observer populations and (ii) heterogeneous color stimuli. Such constraints, idealized and implemented as agent categorization and communication games, produce interesting and unexpected consequences for stable categorization solutions evolved and shared by agent populations. We find that the presence of a small fraction of color deficient agents in a population, or the presence of a "region of increased salience" in the color stimulus space, break rotational symmetry in population categorization solutions, and confine color category boundaries to a subset of available locations. Further, these heterogeneities, each in a different, predictable, way, might lead to a change of category number and size. In addition, the concurrent presence of both types of heterogeneity gives rise to novel constrained solutions which optimize the success rate of categorization and communication games. Implications of these agent-based results for psychological theories of color categorization and the evolution of color naming systems in human societies are discussed.

  3. Non-Critical Pure Spinor Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, I; Mazzucato, L; Oz, Y; Yankielowicz, Shimon; Adam, Ido; Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Mazzucato, Luca; Oz, Yaron; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    We construct non-critical pure spinor superstrings in two, four and six dimensions. We find explicitly the map between the RNS variables and the pure spinor ones in the linear dilaton background. The RNS variables map onto a patch of the pure spinor space and the holomorphic top form on the pure spinor space is an essential ingredient of the mapping. A basic feature of the map is the requirement of doubling the superspace, which we analyze in detail. We study the structure of the non-critical pure spinor space, which is different from the ten-dimensional one, and its quantum anomalies. We compute the pure spinor lowest lying BRST cohomology and find an agreement with the RNS spectra. The analysis is generalized to curved backgrounds and we construct as an example the non-critical pure spinor type IIA superstring on AdS_4 with RR 4-form flux.

  4. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  5. Why there might not be an evolutionary explanation for psychological altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    The existence of psychological altruism is hotly debated in the psychological and philosophical literature. In this paper I argue that even if psychological altruism does exist in some (or all) human groups, there may be no purely evolutionary explanation for existence of psychological altruism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear twilight sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L; Mollner, Duncan C

    2017-07-01

    At the earth's surface, clear-sky colors during civil twilights depend on the combined spectral effects of molecular scattering, extinction by tropospheric aerosols, and absorption by ozone. Molecular scattering alone cannot produce the most vivid twilight colors near the solar horizon, for which aerosol scattering and absorption are also required. However, less well known are haze aerosols' effects on twilight sky colors at larger scattering angles, including near the antisolar horizon. To analyze this range of colors, we compare 3D Monte Carlo simulations of skylight spectra with hyperspectral measurements of clear twilight skies over a wide range of aerosol optical depths. Our combined measurements and simulations indicate that (a) the purest antisolar twilight colors would occur in a purely molecular, multiple-scattering atmosphere, whereas (b) the most vivid solar-sky colors require at least some turbidity. Taken together, these results suggest that multiple scattering plays an important role in determining the redness of the antitwilight arch.

  7. Motion Alters Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang-Wook; Kang, Min-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Chromatic induction compellingly demonstrates that chromatic context as well as spectral lights reflected from an object determines its color appearance. Here, we show that when one colored object moves around an identical stationary object, the perceived saturation of the stationary object decreases dramatically whereas the saturation of the moving object increases. These color appearance shifts in the opposite directions suggest that normalization induced by the object’s motion may mediate the shift in color appearance. We ruled out other plausible alternatives such as local adaptation, attention, and transient neural responses that could explain the color shift without assuming interaction between color and motion processing. These results demonstrate that the motion of an object affects both its own color appearance and the color appearance of a nearby object, suggesting a tight coupling between color and motion processing. PMID:27824098

  8. Color-avoiding percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sebastian M; Danziger, Michael M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2017-08-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness, if such paths exist. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in S. M. Krause et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041022 (2016)]2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.6.041022. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. Here we propose a better method for solving this problem which is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our method with differentiated node functions, either as senders and receivers, or as transmitters. In both functions, nodes can be explicitly trusted or avoided. With only one avoided color we obtain standard percolation. Avoiding additional colors one by one, we can understand the critical behavior of color-avoiding percolation. For unequal color frequencies, we find that the colors with the largest frequencies control the critical threshold and exponent. Colors of small frequencies have only a minor influence on color-avoiding connectivity, thus allowing for approximations.

  9. Color-avoiding percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sebastian M.; Danziger, Michael M.; Zlatić, Vinko

    2017-08-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness, if such paths exist. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in S. M. Krause et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041022 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041022. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. Here we propose a better method for solving this problem which is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our method with differentiated node functions, either as senders and receivers, or as transmitters. In both functions, nodes can be explicitly trusted or avoided. With only one avoided color we obtain standard percolation. Avoiding additional colors one by one, we can understand the critical behavior of color-avoiding percolation. For unequal color frequencies, we find that the colors with the largest frequencies control the critical threshold and exponent. Colors of small frequencies have only a minor influence on color-avoiding connectivity, thus allowing for approximations.

  10. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  11. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  12. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  13. TITIK TEMU TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY DAN TASAWUF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah Khadijah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to introduce transpersonal psychology approach, especially its meeting point with the world of Sufism in Islam. The article tries to answer the following questions, are: 1 what is the difference between transpersonal psychology and other psycho-logical theories, and; 2 in what aspect transpersonal psychology shares a common ground with Sufism? The writer finds that there is a significant difference between transpersonal psychology and other psychological theories, especially psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Psychoanalysis emphasizes the deepest meaning of human behavior with a tendency to override the meaning of physical aspect. Behaviorism has been strongly influenced by pure science. In fact, research on the human psyche aspect cannot be done simply by applying pure science. Meanwhile, transpersonal psychology tries to fundamentally reinforce and develop human potential, both physical and mental aspects. Moreover, this approach reaches supernatural and spiritual aspects of human beings. The writer tends to argue that the common ground shared by the mystical aspects of the Western world, in the perspective of transpersonal psychology, and Sufism in Islam lays in the fact that each entity puts great emphasis on managing and increasing the spiritual aspect of human.Keywords: transpersonal psychology, tasawuf, common ground.

  14. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  15. Lower-dimensional pure-spinor superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Pietro Antonio [DISTA, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Bellini 25/g 15100 Alessandria (Italy); Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Compendio Viminale, I-00184, Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Wyllard, Niclas [Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2005-12-15

    We study to what extent it is possible to generalise Berkovits' pure-spinor construction in d = 10 to lower dimensions. Using a suitable definition of a 'pure' spinor in d = 4,6, we propose models analogous to the d = 10 pure-spinor superstring in these dimensions. Similar models in d = 2,3 are also briefly discussed.

  16. Uniform color space is not homogeneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2002-06-01

    Historical data of chroma scaling and hue scaling are compared and evidence is shown that we do not have a reliable basis in either case. Several data sets indicate explicitly or implicitly that the number of constant sized hue differences between unique hues as well as in the quadrants of the a*, b* diagram differs making what is commonly regarded as uniform color space inhomogeneous. This problem is also shown to affect the OSA-UCS space. A Euclidean uniform psychological or psychophysical color space appears to be impossible.

  17. Characterization of pure and composite resorcinol formaldehyde aerogels doped with silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, S. M.; Abdelfatah, M. S.; Mossad, M. M.

    2017-07-01

    A series of Resorcinol Formaldehyde (RF) aerogels composites with nanoparticles of sliver were prepared by the sol-gel method at different concentrations doped silver. FTIR spectra of pure and composite RF aerogels show six absorption bands attributed to -OH groups bonded to the benzene ring, stretching of -CH2- bonds and aromatic ring stretching. FTIR results ensured that sliver particles do not interact with aerogel network. UV-visible spectrum of pure silver show an absorbance peak at 420 nm attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of sliver Nano spheres. UV-visible spectral of pure and composite RF aerogels shows a steep decrease of absorption with wavelength after 500 nm, making sample’s color reddish brown. TEM and SEM images of pure and composite RF aerogels revealed that the textural arrangement of RF aerogels can be described as densely packed small nodules.

  18. Interactive bibliographical database on color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caivano, Jose L.

    2002-06-01

    The paper describes the methodology and results of a project under development, aimed at the elaboration of an interactive bibliographical database on color in all fields of application: philosophy, psychology, semiotics, education, anthropology, physical and natural sciences, biology, medicine, technology, industry, architecture and design, arts, linguistics, geography, history. The project is initially based upon an already developed bibliography, published in different journals, updated in various opportunities, and now available at the Internet, with more than 2,000 entries. The interactive database will amplify that bibliography, incorporating hyperlinks and contents (indexes, abstracts, keywords, introductions, or eventually the complete document), and devising mechanisms for information retrieval. The sources to be included are: books, doctoral dissertations, multimedia publications, reference works. The main arrangement will be chronological, but the design of the database will allow rearrangements or selections by different fields: subject, Decimal Classification System, author, language, country, publisher, etc. A further project is to develop another database, including color-specialized journals or newsletters, and articles on color published in international journals, arranged in this case by journal name and date of publication, but allowing also rearrangements or selections by author, subject and keywords.

  19. A photometric study of the structure of pure disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Pure disk galaxies are galaxies that form and evolve without a central bulge region. This morphology of galaxy is relatively unexplained and has yet to be successfully simulated using Lambda-Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) model parameters. The ΛCDM model is the standard framework from which astronomers and physicists understand and predict the Universe due to confirmed predictions such as the cosmic microwave background and the large scale structure of galaxy clusters. However, ΛCDM has yet to have a benchmark, observationally confirmed prediction on the galactic scale. This thesis is a study of eleven pure disk galaxies. Understanding this type of galaxy is very important in rectifying the incompatibility with the ΛCDM model. The method of analysis includes obtaining, cleaning and sky subtracting images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, deprojecting the images for a face on perspective, using g- and i-bands to construct color-index maps, using Fourier decompositions to create mode-dependent intensity ratio plots, surface density maps, mass-to-light ratio maps and surface brightness profiles, from which the radial scale length is derived. The future of this area of study is vital to understand a common feature of our Universe. Future studies can include looking for early supernova remnants or evidence of recent active galactic nuclei activity in young pure disk galaxies. Surveys and photometric analysis of edge-on pure disk galaxies may also reveal vital information to the origin and evolution of this class of galaxy.

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact Lens Laura: Vision ... Robyn: Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... and Your Eyes Aug 16, 2016 More Eye Health News Gene Therapy May Be a Game-Changer ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... With Inherited Retinal Disease Oct 30, 2017 How long does it take ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... from dry eye now have a completely new, drug-free alternative to lubricating eye drops and topical ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  8. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  9. Computational Cognitive Color Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehension of aesthetical color characteristics based on a computational model of visual perception and color cognition are presented. The computational comprehension is manifested by the machine’s capability of instantly assigning appropriate colors to the objects perceived. They form a scene

  10. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  11. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics publishes papers of the highest quality and significance in specific areas of physics, pure and applied, as listed below. The journal content reflects core physics disciplines, but is also open to a broad range of topics whose central theme falls within the bounds of physics.

  12. A Study on Visibility Rating of Several Representative Web-Safe Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daisuke; Saito, Keiichi; Notomi, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masao

    This paper presents the visibility ordering of several web-safe colors. The research of web site visibility is important because of the rapid dissemination of the World Wide Web. The combination of a foreground color and a background color is an important factor in providing sufficient visibility. Therefore, the rating of color combination visibility is necessary when developing accessible web sites. In this study, the visibility of several web-safe color combinations was examined using psychological methodology, i.e., a paired comparison. Eighteen chromatic web-safe colors were employed for visual stimuli. Nine students ranging from ages 21 to 29 (average 23.7) were recruited, and all were with normal color sensation. These nine subjects looked at two different colored characters simultaneously on the white background and were instructed to identify which one enabled them to see more clearly. In examining the relationship between the psychological rankings of the color combinations and the visual sensations, each color combination was first scored as to the visibility by Thurstone's paired comparisons technique. Secondly, the visual sensation was deduced by applying Weber-Fechner's law to the luminance of the foreground colors. As results, the luminance of a foreground color influenced the visibility; however the visibility rating is difficult only using the luminance of web-safe colors. These indicate that the chromaticity and chroma saturation are necessary in rating of chromatic web-safe color visibility.

  13. A Study on Visibility Estimation of Web-Safe Colors using Paired Comparison and Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daisuke; Saito, Keiichi; Notomi, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masao

    This paper presents the visibility ordering of several web safe colors. The research of web page visibility is important because of the rapid dissemination of the World Wide Web. The combination of a foreground color and a background color is an important factor in providing sufficient visibility. Therefore, the rating of color combination visibility is necessary when developing accessible web sites. In this study, the visibility of several web-safe color combinations was examined using psychological methodology, i.e., paired comparison. Eighteen chromatic and 3 achromatic web-safe colors were employed for visual stimuli. Twenty-eight subjects ranging from ages 21 to 75 were recruited, and all were with normal color sensation. They looked at two different colored characters simultaneously on the white background and were instructed to identify which one enabled them to see more clearly. In examining the relationship between the psychological rankings of the color combinations and the visual sensations, each color combination was first scored as to the visibility by Thurstone's paired comparison technique. Secondly, the visual sensation was deduced by applying Weber-Fechner's law to the luminance of the foreground colors. As results, the luminance of a foreground color influenced the visibility; however the visibility rating is difficult only using the luminance of web-safe colors. These indicate that the chromaticity and chroma saturation are necessary in rating of chromatic web-safe color visibility.

  14. How To Control Color Appearance With Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Margaret E.

    1980-05-01

    Colorimetry, as defined by the International Commission on Illumination, is the measurement of colors, made possible by the properties of the eye and based on a set of conventions. Instrumentation for measuring object color, therefore, must be based on a human observer. The intent is to design an instrument that in effect responds as a person would, so that research development, production control and quality control areas have some means of assessing the acceptability of the appearance of a product. Investigations of a human observer's psychological response to color, and the manner in which visual observations are made, give the instrument designer and manufacturer data necessary to answer two questions: a. How can we put numbers (instrument read-out) on a perception that occurs in the brain of the observer? b. What can we learn from examination of a visual observing situation that will guide us in our design of an instrumental simulation of this situation? Involving as it does our own daily, almost unconscious, practice of making judgments concerning the things we see, the design and manufacture of color measurement instruments is an exceedingly interesting field. The advances being made concurrently today in research concerning human color vision and in optical and electronic technology will make possible increasingly useful instrumentation for quality control of product color.

  15. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  16. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  17. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  19. Relating color working memory and color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perspectives on the Pure-Tone Audiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiek, Frank E; Shinn, Jennifer; Chermak, Gail D; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    The pure-tone audiogram, though fundamental to audiology, presents limitations, especially in the case of central auditory involvement. Advances in auditory neuroscience underscore the considerably larger role of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) in hearing and related disorders. Given the availability of behavioral audiological tests and electrophysiological procedures that can provide better insights as to the function of the various components of the auditory system, this perspective piece reviews the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram and notes some of the advantages of other tests and procedures used in tandem with the pure-tone threshold measurement. To review and synthesize the literature regarding the utility and limitations of the pure-tone audiogram in determining dysfunction of peripheral sensory and neural systems, as well as the CANS, and to identify other tests and procedures that can supplement pure-tone thresholds and provide enhanced diagnostic insight, especially regarding problems of the central auditory system. A systematic review and synthesis of the literature. The authors independently searched and reviewed literature (journal articles, book chapters) pertaining to the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram. The pure-tone audiogram provides information as to hearing sensitivity across a selected frequency range. Normal or near-normal pure-tone thresholds sometimes are observed despite cochlear damage. There are a surprising number of patients with acoustic neuromas who have essentially normal pure-tone thresholds. In cases of central deafness, depressed pure-tone thresholds may not accurately reflect the status of the peripheral auditory system. Listening difficulties are seen in the presence of normal pure-tone thresholds. Suprathreshold procedures and a variety of other tests can provide information regarding other and often more central functions of the auditory system. The audiogram is a primary tool for determining type

  1. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  2. What Can We Learn from Toddlers about Categorical Perception of Color? Comments on Goldstein, Davidoff, and Roberson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Wright, Oliver; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2009-01-01

    We comment on Goldstein, Davidoff, and Roberson's replication and extension ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102", 219-238 [2009]) of our study of the effect of toddlers' color term knowledge on their categorical perception (CP) of color ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 90", 114-141 [2005]). First, we discuss how best to…

  3. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  4. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  5. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Homeostatic study of the effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Qin; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Wu, Ren-Le; Ruan, Chang-Xiong; He, Li-Mei; Liu, Song-Hao

    2008-12-01

    There are effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome. It has been explained from the psychological and perceptual viewpoints, respectively. It was studied by integrating the homeostatic theory of exercise training and autonomic nervous model of color vision in this paper. It was found that the effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome depend on autonomic nervous homeostasis (ANH). Color can be classified into hot color such as red, orange and yellow and cold color such as green, blue and violet. If the athletes have been in ANH, there are no effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome. If the autonomic nervous system is far from ANH due to exercise induced fatigue, wearing cold color had no predominance for cold-hot matches, and wearing white had no predominance for white-color matches.

  7. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  8. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  9. Color recognition in Prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1992-11-01

    Hardware capable of recognizing the `named' colors (e.g., `red,' `yellow,' orange, etc.,) is available now at modest cost. This has been interfaced to a standard computer, running Prolog. The result is a powerful combination, capable of intelligently interpreting colored images, such as those on simple product packaging. The structure and applications of such a system are described. Prolog programs are presented which are capable of recognizing bananas, flags, and dragons. Learning color patterns is also discussed.

  10. Flashing anomalous color contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna, B; Spillmann, L.; Werner, JS

    2004-01-01

    A new visual phenomenon that we call flashing anomalous color contrast is described. This phenomenon arises from the interaction between a gray central disk and a chromatic annulus surrounded by black radial lines. In an array of such figures, the central gray disk no longer appears gray, but assumes a color complementary to that of the surrounding annulus. The induced color appears: (1) vivid and saturated; (2) self-luminous, not a surface property; (3) flashing with eye or stimulus movement...

  11. Inpainting the Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-21

    INPAINTING THE COLORS By Guillermo Sapiro IMA Preprint Series # 1979 ( May 2004 ) INSTITUTE FOR MATHEMATICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS UNIVERSITY OF...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inpainting the Colors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...information, while considering the gradient information brought in by the monochrome data. This way, the color is inpainted , constrained both by the

  12. Labels in PURE - Til gavn eller hindring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurcher, Sacha; Sass, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Denne artikel er baseret på en usability test af anvendelse af labels i PURE, et vidensregistreringssystem. Formålet var at undersøge om hvorvidt de anvendte labels i PURE understøtter forskernes inddatering af forskellige publikationstyper. Pilot testen viste at man skal være opmærksom på, at de...

  13. Diphenylhydantoin-induced pure red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, Usha; Malhotra, Purnima; Joshi, Panul

    2006-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is an uncommon complication of diphenylhydantoin therapy. It has not been reported in Indian literature. Awareness of the entity helps in establishing the cause of anaemia in these patients and alerts the physicians to the need of comprehensive haematological monitoring in these patients. A case of 58-year-old male who developed pure red cell aplasia following three months of diphenylhydantoin therapy is reported here.

  14. Scaling properties of pure-quartic solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Lo, Chih Wei; Stefani, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate, by experiments and analytical developments, that the recently discovered pure-quartic solitons significantly outperform conventional solitons for high-energy ultrafast pulses. This is due to the favorable scaling of their energy and their Kelly sidebands.......We demonstrate, by experiments and analytical developments, that the recently discovered pure-quartic solitons significantly outperform conventional solitons for high-energy ultrafast pulses. This is due to the favorable scaling of their energy and their Kelly sidebands....

  15. Online color monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massen, Robert C.

    1999-09-01

    Monitoring color in the production line requires to remotely observe moving and not-aligned objects with in general complex surface features: multicolored, textured, non-flat, showing highlights and shadows. We discuss the use of color cameras and associated color image processing technologies for what we call 'imaging colorimetry.' This is a 2-step procedure which first uses color for segmentation and for finding Regions-of- Interest on the moving objects and then uses cluster-based color image processing for computing color deviations relative to previously trained references. This colorimetry is much more a measurement of aesthetic consistency of the visual appearance of a product then the traditional measurement of a more physically defined mean color vector difference. We show how traditional non-imaging colorimetry looses most of this aesthetic information due to the computation of a mean color vector or mean color vector difference, by averaging over the sensor's field-of-view. A large number of industrial applications are presented where complex inspection tasks have been solved based on this approach. The expansion to a higher feature space dimensions based on the 'multisensorial camera' concept gives an outlook to future developments.

  16. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  17. Changing skin color: Evolution and modern trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews various evolutionary events that resulted in skin color variation among humans. Skin of the early man is presumed to be colorless as that of the chimpanzees. During the course of evolution, hairless state of skin with sweat glands would have occurred for the purpose of thermoregulation. Thermoregulation was very important for brain development and function. In due course, pigmentation occurred in the naked skin of man in order to offer photo-protection. The physiological demand of vitamin D 3 and folate in human system and the effect of sun-light in their synthesis and metabolism would have further established some changes in the skin color of man in various geographic locations. Although genetics and physiological adaptations have determined human skin color in different groups/races, during the course of civilization, humans have developed a deep desire to change skin color. Current scientific research on development of novel agents for modulation of skin color is likely to benefit in pigmentary disorders and also in psychological well being through the use of cosmetics.

  18. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  19. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  20. Music Retrieval Based on the Relation between Color Association and Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamur, Tetsuaki; Utsumi, Akira; Sakamoto, Maki

    Various methods for music retrieval have been proposed. Recently, many researchers are tackling developing methods based on the relationship between music and feelings. In our previous psychological study, we found that there was a significant correlation between colors evoked from songs and colors evoked only from lyrics, and showed that the music retrieval system using lyrics could be developed. In this paper, we focus on the relationship among music, lyrics and colors, and propose a music retrieval method using colors as queries and analyzing lyrics. This method estimates colors evoked from songs by analyzing lyrics of the songs. On the first step of our method, words associated with colors are extracted from lyrics. We assumed two types of methods to extract words associated with colors. In the one of two methods, the words are extracted based on the result of a psychological experiment. In the other method, in addition to the words extracted based on the result of the psychological experiment, the words from corpora for the Latent Semantic Analysis are extracted. On the second step, colors evoked from the extracted words are compounded, and the compounded colors are regarded as those evoked from the song. On the last step, colors as queries are compared with colors estimated from lyrics, and the list of songs is presented based on similarities. We evaluated the two methods described above and found that the method based on the psychological experiment and corpora performed better than the method only based on the psychological experiment. As a result, we showed that the method using colors as queries and analyzing lyrics is effective for music retrieval.

  1. The Effects of Color on the Moods of College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinc Kurt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to discover the psychological effects of colors on individuals, using the students’ union complex in a university campus. This building was chosen due to its richness in color variances. The research method is survey, and questionnaires were drawn up and distributed to an even range of students, comprising both international and local students; undergraduate and graduate. Questionnaires have been collected and analyzed to find out the effects different colors had on students’ moods in different spaces of the students’ union complex. This research would contribute to understand more about colors and how they affect our feelings and therefore to make better decisions and increase the use of spaces when choosing colors for different spaces to suit the purpose for which they are designed.

  2. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for

  3. Quorum Colorings of Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Heditniemi (Sandra); R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLet $G = (V,E)$ be a graph. A partition $\\pi = \\{V_1, V_2, \\ldots, V_k \\}$ of the vertices $V$ of $G$ into $k$ {\\it color classes} $V_i$, with $1 \\leq i \\leq k$, is called a {\\it quorum coloring} if for every vertex $v \\in V$, at least half of the vertices in the closed neighborhood

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact ... After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter ...

  5. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  6. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... 2017 By Dan Gudgel The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved sales of a gene therapy ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... DEC 21, 2017 By Dan Gudgel The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved sales of a ...

  9. 3-D Color Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ... Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without a prescription in the United States. All ...

  11. Lighting For Color Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthey, James A.

    1988-02-01

    Some results concerning lighting for human color vision can be generalized to robot color vision. These results depend mainly on the spectral sensitivities of the color channels, and their interaction with the spectral power distribution of the light. In humans, the spectral sensitivities of the R and G receptors show a large overlap, while that of the B receptors overlaps little with the other two. A color vision model that proves useful for lighting work---and which also models many features of human vision---is one in which the "opponent color" signals are T = R - G, and D = B - R. That is, a "red minus green" signal comes from the receptors with greatest spectral overlap, while a "blue minus yellow" signal comes from the two with the least overlap. Using this model, we find that many common light sources attenuate red-green contrasts, relative to daylight, while special lights can enhance red-green contrast slightly. When lighting changes cannot be avoided, the eye has some ability to compensate for them. In most models of "color constancy," only the light's color guides the eye's adjustment, so a lighting-induced loss of color contrast is not counteracted. Also, no constancy mechanism can overcome metamerism---the effect of unseen spectral differences between objects. However, we can calculate the extent to which a particular lighting change will reveal metamerism. I am not necessarily arguing for opponent processing within robots, but only presenting results based on opponent calculations.

  12. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  13. Color Constancy by Deep Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.; Hu, N.; Lucassen, M.P.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Computational color constancy aims to estimate the color of the light source. The performance of many vision tasks, such as object detection and scene understanding, may benefit from color constancy by estimating the correct object colors. Since traditional color constancy methods are based on

  14. The art of packaging: An investigation into the role of color in packaging, marketing, and branding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behzad Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

      The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing research in the field of packaging and marketing and shed more light on the psychology of colors and their effect on packaging and marketing...

  15. P1-10: The Association between Colors and Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Yu Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wexner (1954 Journal of Applied Psychology 38 432–435 demonstrated colors were associated with specific emotions. Colors have many meanings, such as that red can lead to induce positive or negative emotions (Kaya & Epps, 2011 College Student Journal 38 396–406. This study extends previous findings and aims to investigate two questions, (1 whether colors are associated with the emotions of pictures in IAPS (International Affective Picture System and (2 whether perceiving IAPS consciously and unconsciously has different emotion associations. We replaced facial expressions with pictures of IAPS as stimuli. Five colors (black, red, yellow, blue, and white and 3 categories of IAPS (fear, awe, and amusement were manipulated in this study. Pictures were displayed in different durations to manipulate conscious (250 ms and unconscious (33 ms visual stimuli (Manuel & Pedro, 2009 Behavior Research Method 41 184–191 in two experiments. Participants were required to select the most suitable color at their first glance when the pictures of IAPS were presented, and vice versa. Results showed that overall association between colors and pictures of IAPS was weak but the association pattern was meaningful. It concluded (1 black and red colors are associated with the fearful emotion, and blue color is associated with the happy emotion; (2 white colors do not associate with the fear emotion, which is incongruent with the previous study (Osvaldo & Paul, 2007 Colour: Design & Creativity 1 1–20; (3 participants did not perform differently between conscious and unconscious stimulus conditions.

  16. Color Medical Image Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 20th century, medical imaging has been dominated by monochrome imaging modalities such as x-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, color information has been overlooked in medical image analysis applications. Recently, various medical imaging modalities that involve color information have been introduced. These include cervicography, dermoscopy, fundus photography, gastrointestinal endoscopy, microscopy, and wound photography. However, in comparison to monochrome images, the analysis of color images is a relatively unexplored area. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for monochrome images are often not directly applicable to multichannel images. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of color information in medical image analysis.

  17. Nokia PureView oversampling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Tero; Alakarhu, Juha; Salmelin, Eero; Partinen, Ari

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes Nokia's PureView oversampling imaging technology as well as the product, Nokia 808 PureView, featuring it. The Nokia PureView imaging technology is the combination of a large, super high resolution 41Mpix with high performance Carl Zeiss optics. Large sensor enables a pixel oversampling technique that reduces an image taken at full resolution into a lower resolution picture, thus achieving higher definition and light sensitivity. One oversampled super pixel in image file is formed by using many sensor pixels. A large sensor enables also a lossless zoom. If a user wants to use the lossless zoom, the sensor image is cropped. However, up-scaling is not needed as in traditional digital zooming usually used in mobile devices. Lossless zooming means image quality that does not have the digital zooming artifacts as well as no optical zooming artifacts like zoom lens system distortions. Zooming with PureView is also completely silent. PureView imaging technology is the result of many years of research and development and the tangible fruits of this work are exceptional image quality, lossless zoom, and superior low light performance.

  18. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  19. Flame Color as a Lean Blowout Predictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra R. Chaudhari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study characterizes the behavior of a premixed swirl stabilized dump plane combustor flame near its lean blow-out (LBO limit in terms of CH* chemiluminiscence intensity and observable flame color variations for a wide range of equivalence ratio, flow rates and degree of premixing (characterized by premixing length, Lfuel. LPG and pure methane are used as fuel. We propose a novel LBO prediction strategy based solely on the flame color. It is observed that as the flame approaches LBO, its color changes from reddish to blue. This observation is found to be valid for different levels of fuel-air premixing achieved by changing the available mixing length of the air and the fuel upstream of the dump plane although the flame dynamics were significantly different. Based on this observation, the ratio of the intensities of red and blue components of the flame as captured by a color CCD camera was used as a metric for detecting the proximity of the flame to LBO. Tests were carried out for a wide range of air flow rates and using LPG and CH4 as fuel. For all the operating conditions and both fuels tested, this ratio was found to monotonically decrease as LBO was approached. Moreover, the value of this ratio was within a small range close to LBO for all the cases investigated. This makes the ratio suitable as a metric for LBO detection at all levels of premixing.

  20. What (others think) your favorite color tells about your personality: An interpersonal circumplex analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stöber, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    So far, psychological research has found little evidence for a relationship between personality and color preference. In folk psychology, however, it is a widely held belief that a person's color preferences may give insights into his or her personality as, for example, is demonstrated by the popularity of the famous-infamous Lüscher Test. Using Wiggins's interpersonal circumplex as a nomological net (Gurtman, 1992; Wiggins & Broughton, 1991), two studies are presented investigating assumptio...

  1. Conclusive discrimination among N equidistant pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, Luis; Hermann-Avigliano, Carla; Salazar, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Klimov, A. B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    We find the allowed complex overlaps for N equidistant pure quantum states. The accessible overlaps define a petal-shaped area on the Argand plane. Each point inside the petal represents a set of N linearly independent pure states and each point on its contour represents a set of N linearly dependent pure states. We find the optimal probabilities of success of discriminating unambiguously in which of the N equidistant states the system is. We show that the phase of the involved overlap plays an important role in the probability of success. For a fixed overlap modulus, the success probability is highest for the set of states with an overlap with phase equal to zero. In this case, if the process fails, then the information about the prepared state is lost. For states with a phase different from zero, the information could be obtained with an error-minimizing measurement protocol.

  2. Musical notation reading in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Wong, Yetta K.

    2017-01-01

    a pure alexic patient, KH, who was a highly skilled amateur musician before a stroke that resulted in PA (elevated reading RTs; word length effect; intact writing and language) and right hemianopia. KH experienced difficulties in note reading and playing by notes post-stroke. KH's visual short......Abstract Pure alexia (PA) is an acquired reading disorder following lesions to left ventral temporo-occipital cortex. Patients with PA read slowly but correctly, and show an abnormal effect of word length on RTs. However, it is unclear how pure alexia may affect musical notation reading. We report......-term memory capacity was intact in the left visual field.1 We investigated KH's letter and note reading using simultaneous matching tasks with stimuli presented slightly to the left of fixation. KH was compared to 9 controls matched for age, education, and music reading experience, using single case...

  3. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  4. Pure neuritic leprosy: Current status and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P Narasimha; Suneetha, Sujai

    2016-01-01

    Pure neuritic leprosy has always been an enigma due to its clinical and management ambiguities. Although only the Indian Association of Leprologist's classification recognizes 'pure neuritic leprosy' as a distinct sub group of leprosy, cases nonetheless are reported from various countries of Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, indicating its global relevance. It is important to maintain pure neuritic leprosy as a subgroup as it constitutes a good percentage of leprosy cases reported from India, which contributes to more than half of global leprosy numbers. Unfortunately, a high proportion of these patients present with Grade 2 disability at the time of initial reporting itself due to the early nerve involvement. Although skin lesions are absent by definition, when skin biopsies were performed from the skin along the distribution of the affected nerve, a proportion of patients demonstrated leprosy pathology, revealing sub-clinical skin involvement. In addition on follow-up, skin lesions are noted to develop in up to 20% of pure neuritic leprosy cases, indicating its progression to manifest cutaneous disease. Over the decades, the confirmation of diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy has been subjective, however, with the arrival and use of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) for nerve imaging, we have a tool not only to objectively measure and record the nerve thickening but also to assess the morphological alterations in the nerve including echo texture, fascicular pattern and vascularity. Management of pure neuritic leprosy requires multidrug therapy along with appropriate dose of systemic corticosteroids, for both acute and silent neuritis. Measures for pain relief, self-care of limbs and physiotherapy are important to prevent as well as manage disabilities in this group of patients.

  5. Pure neuritic leprosy: Current status and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Narasimha Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure neuritic leprosy has always been an enigma due to its clinical and management ambiguities. Although only the Indian Association of Leprologist's classification recognizes 'pure neuritic leprosy' as a distinct sub group of leprosy, cases nonetheless are reported from various countries of Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, indicating its global relevance. It is important to maintain pure neuritic leprosy as a subgroup as it constitutes a good percentage of leprosy cases reported from India, which contributes to more than half of global leprosy numbers. Unfortunately, a high proportion of these patients present with Grade 2 disability at the time of initial reporting itself due to the early nerve involvement. Although skin lesions are absent by definition, when skin biopsies were performed from the skin along the distribution of the affected nerve, a proportion of patients demonstrated leprosy pathology, revealing sub-clinical skin involvement. In addition on follow-up, skin lesions are noted to develop in up to 20% of pure neuritic leprosy cases, indicating its progression to manifest cutaneous disease. Over the decades, the confirmation of diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy has been subjective, however, with the arrival and use of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS for nerve imaging, we have a tool not only to objectively measure and record the nerve thickening but also to assess the morphological alterations in the nerve including echo texture, fascicular pattern and vascularity. Management of pure neuritic leprosy requires multidrug therapy along with appropriate dose of systemic corticosteroids, for both acute and silent neuritis. Measures for pain relief, self-care of limbs and physiotherapy are important to prevent as well as manage disabilities in this group of patients.

  6. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  7. Postpartum unconscious dynamics emerging from the Lüscher color test in Ethiopian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardo, Vincenzo; Gabrieli, Catia; Volpe, Francesca; Savio, Francesca; Straface, Gianluca; Soldera, Gino

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of the Lüscher color test (LCT), a psychological instrument based on theory that colors are selected in unconscious way and that the color sensory perception of color is objective and universal. The research has involved 24 Ethiopian women, which delivered at the Getche Health Center in Gurage. It seemed to be relevant for the majority of Ethiopian women identify the rejected color (58.66%), the gray, than the favorite color, the yellow 33.33%). The yellow color suggests that they better express their personality in a physical context, while the gray color indicates that they want to live this experience intensely. This exploratory work lays the foundations for further studies in disadvantaged women, both in developing low-income Countries as well as in industrialized Countries characterized by an high level of emigration, and for clinical applications by the complete LCT version.

  8. Dark fermentation on biohydrogen production: Pure culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Show, Kuan-Yeow; Su, Ay

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of literature reports on the pure hydrogen-producers under anaerobic environment. Challenges and perspective of biohydrogen production with pure cultures are also outlined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  10. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  11. Do graphemes attract spatial attention in grapheme-color synesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volberg, G; Chockley, A S; Greenlee, M W

    2017-05-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive concurrent colors for some objectively achromatic graphemes (inducers). Using oscillatory responses in the electroencephalogram, we tested the hypothesis that inducers automatically attract spatial attention and, thus, favor a conscious experience of color. Achromatic inducers and real-colored non-inducers were presented to the left or to the right visual hemifield and orientation judgments were required for subsequently presented Gabor patches. The graphemes were irrelevant for the task so that the related brain response was purely stimulus-driven. Synesthetes (n =12), but not an equal number of controls, showed an early theta power increase for inducers presented to the right compared to the left hemifield, with sources in left fusiform gyrus. Alpha power asymmetries indicative of shifts of spatial attention were not observed. Together, synesthetes showed an increased responsiveness to inducers in grapheme processing areas. However, contrary to our hypothesis, inducers did not attract spatial attention in synesthetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  13. Color Display Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    and G. M. Corso , "Color flcsearch for Visuz’l Displays, Technical Report No. ONH-CR2l3-102-3, July 1975, 108 pp. 45 1 Results of two code comparison...respective- ly. Since the display elements constitute routine or non-priority informatica , all display information would be coded green if the three-color...1963, with Amendment 1, 30 September 1971. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC. 27. Christ, R.E. and G.M. Corso . "Color Research for Visual

  14. Knowing Color Terms Enhances Recognition: Further Evidence from English and Himba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Julie; Davidoff, Jules; Roberson, Debi

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments attempted to reconcile discrepant recent findings relating to children's color naming and categorization. In a replication of Franklin and colleagues ["Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 90" (2005) 114-141], Experiment 1 tested English toddlers' naming and memory for blue-green and blue-purple colors. It also found…

  15. Content Analysis of Literature about LGB People of Color: 1998-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ping; Brewster, Melanie E.; Moradi, Bonnie; Goodman, Melinda B.; Wiseman, Marcie C.; Martin, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a content analysis of the past decade (1998-2007) of psychological scholarship about lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color. Findings revealed that literature about LGB people of color is growing. But, findings also highlighted underused methods, underrepresented subpopulations, and understudied topics in the…

  16. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.D.; Preenen, P.T.Y.; Essen, H. van

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue

  17. Multi-dimensional effects of color on the world wide web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jill

    2002-06-01

    Color is the most powerful building material of visual imagery on the World Wide Web. It must function successfully as it has done historically in traditional two-dimensional media, as well as address new challenges presented by this electronic medium. The psychological, physiological, technical and aesthetic effects of color have been redefined by the unique requirements of the electronic transmission of text and images on the Web. Color simultaneously addresses each of these dimensions in this electronic medium.

  18. Acetylene reduction by pure cultures of Rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, D L

    1975-01-01

    Acetylene reduction has been demonstrated in pure cultures of rhizobia. The requirements and conditions necessary for the activity in Rhizobium sp. 32H1 are described. The most important factors are a low cell density and a very low oxygen concentration. PMID:1158849

  19. Implicit Reading in Chinese Pure Alexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chunlei; Zhu, Renjing; Xu, Mingwei; Luo, Benyan; Weng, Xuchu

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that some patients with pure alexia display evidence of implicit access to lexical and semantic information about words that they cannot read explicitly. This phenomenon has not been investigated systematically in Chinese patients. We report here a case study of a Chinese patient who met the criteria for pure…

  20. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K; Nielsen, J E; Fallentin, E

    1997-01-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus...

  1. Pure Type Systems for Functional Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, J.-W.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    We present a functional programming language based on Pure Type Systems PTSs. We show how we can define such a language by extending the PTS framework with algebraic data types case expressions and definitions. Furthermore we present an efficient type checking algorithm and an interpreter for

  2. Purely Magnetic Silent Universes do not Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, K. T.; Carminati, J.

    2008-09-01

    We present a new Maple package called STeM (Symbolic Tetrad Manipulation). Using STeM, we outline, using a formalism which is a hybrid of the NP and Orthonormal ones, the proof of the nonexistence of purely magnetic silent universes.

  3. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences is a multi-disciplinary specialist journal aimed at promoting research in Biological Science, Agricultural Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Mathematical Sciences and Medicine. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/. Articles are indexed on ...

  4. Elastic moduli of nearly pure polycrystalline plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Albert; Shekhter, Arkady; Betts, Jon B.; Fanelli, Victor

    2012-02-01

    We measure elastic moduli of microalloyed poly-crystalline cylindrical specimen of Pu-239. We observe α->β->γ->δ phase transitions and find that the elastic moduli of nearly pure plutonium are the same as those of Ga-stabilized plutonium.

  5. Option Panels in Pure-Jump Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop parametric inference procedures for large panels of noisy option data in the setting where the underlying process is of pure-jump type, i.e., evolve only through a sequence of jumps. The panel consists of options written on the underlying asset with a (different) set of strikes...

  6. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  7. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  8. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003249.htm Fingers that change color To use the sharing features on this page, ... Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... more kids are being diagnosed with the condition. Studies show that a low-dose of atropine, typically ...

  10. Color Associations of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Deborah A.

    1983-01-01

    Free color associations were collected from a total of 337 children in the fourth through sixth grades to 12 concepts: hope, anger, sadness, honesty, fear, happiness, pain, love, death, strength, school, and life. (Author/RH)

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Purchase the colored contact lenses from an eye product retailer who asks for a prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... Counter Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. But few know ... contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... Eyes SEP 20, 2017 By Dan Gudgel A report published in a medical journal reinforces what that ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to ... Ophthalmologist Browse Answers Free Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... lenses, remove the lenses and seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Gene Therapy ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy ... to its original shape after wearing orthokeratology lenses? Sep 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ...

  2. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that ... directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does not ask for a prescription. There is no ... of approved contact lenses . Related Stories How long does it take the eye to go back to ...

  5. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or by a child during the time of tooth development can cause changes in the color and hardness ... be taken. Alternative Names ... MO: Elsevier; 2016:chap 2. Tinanoff N. Development and developmental anomalies of the teeth. In: Kliegman ...

  6. 52-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 52-color IR data of asteroids, taken using a double circularly variable filter. The short wavelength portion of the CVF covered the octave...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in ... to wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left ...

  9. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asked to tell the difference between a red bottle cap and caps of a different color. How the ... information from the eye to the brain) -- the bottle caps are used in this case. Normal Results Normally, ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. ...

  11. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Magee, Linda; Osborne, Susan; Hall, Linda K; Whorwell, Peter J

    2012-09-05

    As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW). This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. 620 pupils (aged 11-17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1%) males, 322 (51.9%) females) at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an 'experiment' to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p color was chosen by 48.9% of normal and only 18.8% of depressed pupils (p colors which reached significance for sport and music. This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  12. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  13. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  14. Wetting in Color

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly...

  15. Color television system using single gun color cathode ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiser, E. E.; Hilborn, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    Two-primary color and single gun system provides quality differential color and variation in brightness for specific colors by varying current and controlling duty cycle of electron beam. Number of video amplifiers, deflection circuits, and guns required to display color TV picture is reduced and less complex tube is required.

  16. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  17. The Trojan Color Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    2018-02-01

    The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and Neptune are likely to have been captured from original heliocentric orbits in the dynamically excited (“hot”) population of the Kuiper Belt. However, it has long been known that the optical color distributions of the Jovian Trojans and the hot population are not alike. This difference has been reconciled with the capture hypothesis by assuming that the Trojans were resurfaced (for example, by sublimation of near-surface volatiles) upon inward migration from the Kuiper Belt (where blackbody temperatures are ∼40 K) to Jupiter’s orbit (∼125 K). Here, we examine the optical color distribution of the Neptunian Trojans using a combination of new optical photometry and published data. We find a color distribution that is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jovian Trojans but unlike any sub-population in the Kuiper Belt. This result is puzzling, because the Neptunian Trojans are very cold (blackbody temperature ∼50 K) and a thermal process acting to modify the surface colors at Neptune’s distance would also affect the Kuiper Belt objects beyond, where the temperatures are nearly identical. The distinctive color distributions of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojans thus present us with a conundrum: they are very similar to each other, suggesting either capture from a common source or surface modification by a common process. However, the color distributions differ from any plausible common source population, and there is no known modifying process that could operate equally at both Jupiter and Neptune.

  18. Perceptual limitations of peripherally displayed colors on CRTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancman, Eileen G.

    1991-03-01

    Cathode ray tubes are currently used in aircraft cockpits to relay important color coded information necessary for mission completion and pilot survival. Color CRT's presently used are as large as 6 x 6 inch, but are projected to increase in size until the all glass cockpit is achieved. As the display gets larger, peripheral vision may be relied upon even more heavily. Peripheral vision is also important in present situations involving more than one CRT display used in a row, and especially when the pilot is in a head-up mode. The research in this report dealt with a subject's ability to recognize in their peripheral vision the three primary colors, blue, green, and red, on a cathode ray tube (CRT) with all three guns adjusted to achieve equal luminance. Data for various subject psychological states (normal, stressed, and relaxed) was collected. Percent error (e.g., how many times red was perceived as green or blue) was recorded for each state and color. A second performance measure, visual field dimension (e.g., degrees off of fovea where the color of the circle was correctly perceived) along the x-axis, was also collected for each color and psychological state.

  19. Psychological distress and intelligence in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T. W.; Antal, K.

    2016-01-01

    This study has primarily aimed to investigate first, the prevalence of psychological distress complaints among a population-representative sample of young men, second, whether psychological distress is associated with poorer performance on an intelligence test and third, whether any association...... is a purely linear function. Specifically, we have examined self-reported symptoms of psychological distress, and IQ, among 1869 young men appearing before the Danish Draft Board with a view to assessing suitability for conscription. The assessment included a 25-item questionnaire concerning a broad range...... was 0.15, but the relationship was better described by a model incorporating a negatively accelerating quadratic function and individuals above the 90th percentile on the PHS had a mean IQ of 94. This finding confirms the need to consider any general psychological distress, especially at high levels...

  20. Autonomous detection of ISO fade point with color laser printers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ni; Maggard, Eric; Fothergill, Roberta; Jessome, Renee J.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    Image quality assessment is a very important field in image processing. Human observation is slow and subjective, it also requires strict environment setup for the psychological test 1. Thus developing algorithms to match desired human experiments is always in need. Many studies have focused on detecting the fading phenomenon after the materials are printed, that is to monitor the persistence of the color ink 2-4. However, fading is also a common artifact produced by printing systems when the cartridges run low. We want to develop an automatic system to monitor cartridge life and report fading defects when they appear. In this paper, we first describe a psychological experiment that studies the human perspective on printed fading pages. Then we propose an algorithm based on Color Space Projection and K-means clustering to predict the visibility of fading defects. At last, we integrate the psychological experiment result with our algorithm to give a machine learning tool that monitors cartridge life.

  1. Mutation of Bacterium Vibrio gazogenes for Selective Preparation of Colorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihosseini, Farzaneh; Lango, Jozsef; Ju, Kou-San; Hammock, Bruce D.; Sun, Gang

    2010-01-01

    A novel marine bacterium strain effectively produced prodiginine type pigments. These colorants could dye wool, silk and synthetic fabrics such as polyester and polyacrylic and also show antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on the dyed products. Methyl nitrosoguanidine was used as a mutation agent to increase the genetic diversity and the production yield of the bacteria of the family of Vibrio gazogenes. The analysis of the mutated samples showed that two new main colorants as well as three previously found ones were produced. Liquid chromatography electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques were used to elucidate the structures of the newly produced colorants. Mass measurements revealed that the colorants C1, C2, C3, C4 have molecular masses of 321, 323, 351, and 295 Da. One unstable colorant C5 with molecular mass of 309 Da was detected as well. The mutated bacteria strains increased the yield of pigment production by about 81% and produced prodigiosin in 97% purity. The antibiotic activities of pure colorants are discussed as well. Based on their bio-activity and excellent dyeing capabilities, these colorants could be employed in cosmetic and textile industries. PMID:19902486

  2. Mutation of bacterium Vibrio gazogenes for selective preparation of colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihosseini, Farzaneh; Lango, Jozsef; Ju, Kou-San; Hammock, Bruce D; Sun, Gang

    2010-01-01

    A novel marine bacterium strain effectively produced prodiginine type pigments. These colorants could dye wool, silk and synthetic fabrics such as polyester and polyacrylic and also show antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on the dyed products. Methyl nitrosoguanidine was used as a mutation agent to increase the genetic diversity and the production yield of the bacteria of the family of Vibrio gazogenes. The analysis of the mutated samples showed that two new main colorants as well as three previously found ones were produced. Liquid chromatography electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques were used to elucidate the structures of the newly produced colorants. Mass measurements revealed that the colorants C1, C2, C3, C4 have molecular masses of 321, 323, 351, and 295 Da. One unstable colorant C5 with molecular mass of 309 Da was detected as well. The mutated bacteria strains increased the yield of pigment production by about 81% and produced prodigiosin in 97% purity. The antibiotic activities of pure colorants are discussed as well. Based on their bio-activity and excellent dyeing capabilities, these colorants could be employed in cosmetic and textile industries.

  3. The color of carbonaceous aerosols in the ambient atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Chung, C.; Zhang, F.; Yin, Y.; Zhao, D.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosols, i.e. carbonaceous aerosols, mainly consist of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OAs). Most OAs are non-absorptive, whereas some, e.g. brown carbon (BrC), can also significantly absorb solar radiation. However, the BC and BrC show quite different spectral habits on the absorption, and, thus, different colors. This presentation reveals the colors of carbonaceous aerosols in the ambient atmosphere. A combination of the particle scattering simulations, radiative transfer and RGB color model is used to display the color of an aerosol layer in the atmosphere, and BrC, BC and their mixture with scattering OAs are considered. Numerical results indicate that the color of the aerosol layer is substantially influenced by their absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE), not the species. Both the BCs and tar balls (TBs, a class of BrC) appear brownish at small particle sizes and becomes blackish at large sizes. At realistic size distributions, BCs look more blackish than TBs, but still exhibit some brown color. Meanwhile, if the aerosol layer absorbs over approximately 80% of the incident light (at green), all biomass burning aerosols become black in the atmosphere. The colors for mixture of purely scattering and absorptive carbonaceous aerosol layers in the atmosphere are also investigated. This study suggests that the brownishness of biomass burning aerosols indicates the amount of BC/BrC as well as the ratio of BC to BrC.

  4. Color entanglement like effect in collinear twist-3 factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian

    2017-12-01

    We study the color entanglement like effect for T-odd cases in collinear twist-3 factorization. For an example, we compute the transverse single spin asymmetry for direct photon production in pp collisions in a pure collinear twist-3 approach. By analyzing the gauge link structure of the collinear gluon distribution on the unpolarized target side, we demonstrate how the color entanglement-like effect arises in the presence of the additional gluon attachment from a polarized projectile. The result is consistent with that obtained from a hybrid approach calculation.

  5. The effects of perceiving color in living environment on QEEG, oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and emotion regulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroykham, Watchara; Wongsathikun, J; Wongsawat, Y

    2014-01-01

    Light and color have been shown to have substantial physical, psychological and sociological effects on humans. Hence, an investigation on the effect of changes in light and color to the biological signals is a challenging problem. Five participants were measured the oxygen saturation (SpO2), pulse rate, and quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) in six colors (white, blue, green, yellow, red and black) of living environment for 5 minutes per color. Then all participants were asked to answer the emotional questionnaire of BRUMS and color performance for each color environment. The results showed brain activity of high beta wave (25-30 Hz) that associated with alertness, agitation, mental activity, and general activation of mind and body functions (at frontal lobes and temporal lobes) in red and yellow colored rooms were higher than blue, green, white and black colored rooms, respectively. It also had the relationship with the psychological effect (BRUMS). The amplitude asymmetry of beta wave (12-25 Hz) was highly attenuated in warm color (red and yellow colored rooms), moderately attenuated in cool color (green and blue colored room) and little attenuated in white and black colored rooms. The BRUMS showed that red and yellow yielded significant effect on anger (F = 4.966, p = 0.002) and confusion (F=3.853, p=0.008). Red and green color yielded high effect on vigor. Green color did not affect the depression. Blue color yielded moderate effect on confusion, tension and fatigue. White and black colors yielded low effect on any mood, but black color had no effect on vigor. In addition, we cannot observe any significant changes of pulse rate and blood oxygen saturation in each color. The results can possibly be used as the recommendation to design the room for either normal people or patients.

  6. The Munsell Color System: a scientific compromise from the world of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Color systems make accurate color specification and matching possible in science, art, and industry by defining a coordinate system for all possible color perceptions. The Munsell Color System, developed by the artist Albert Henry Munsell in the early twentieth century, has influenced color science to this day. I trace the development of the Munsell Color System from its origins in the art world to its acceptance in the scientific community. Munsell's system was the first to accurately and quantitatively describe the psychological experience of color. By considering the problems that color posed for Munsell's art community and examining his diaries and published material, I conclude that Munsell arrived at his results by remaining agnostic as to the scientific definition of color, while retaining faith that color perceptions could be objectively quantified. I argue that Munsell was able to interest the scientific community in his work because color had become a controversial topic between physicists and psychologists. Parts of Munsell's system appealed to each field, making it a workable compromise. For contrast, I suggest that three contemporary scientists with whom Munsell had contact--Wilhelm Ostwald, Ogden Rood, and Edward Titchener--did not reach the same conclusions in their color systems because they started from scientific assumptions about the nature of color.

  7. Effect of moisture content on the preservation of chemically pretreated canned tomato puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdulsalam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of moisture content on the preservation of chemically pretreated and canned tomato puree was determined. Three samples labeled A, B, C concentrated to different solid content levels via evaporation, and preserved using 60 mg of sodium meta-bisulphate were investigated. Results revealed that sample ‘C’ that was at 90.63% moisture content and 9.37% tomato solids gave the best performance with no bacterium growth and no color (bright red change. There was no decrease in the weight of sample ‘C’ throughout the eight months of storage. Samples ‘A’ at 85.20% moisture content and ‘B’ at 88.57% moisture content, showed significant changes in weight of tomato puree at 1% level of significance. Although no bacterium growth was observed in samples ‘A’ and ‘B’, the puree samples underwent color change from bright red to dark brown. The pH for samples ‘A’ and ‘B’ ranged from 5.0 to 5.4 while for sample ‘C’ it ranged from 4.2 to 4.45. The average ambient temperature during the study was 30.5oC.

  8. Pure Case and Prepositional Case in Russian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per; Lorentzen, Elena

    2017-01-01

    By considering Russian case as the nominal equivalent to mood whereby its semantic functions are emphasized at the expense of its syntactic functions, it is demonstrated that the nominative, accusative, vocative and genitive cases constitute a mini system in which the nominative and the accusative...... three different viewpoints, which equally apply to the pure as well as the prepositional case systems. Within the prepositional case system, the accusative and the locative are treated by the notion of contact, while the genitive, dative and the instrumental are treated by the lack of contact......—prepositional analogues to the notion of local reference and non-local reference. It is suggested that the notion ‘contact’ has had a clear retroactive influence on the function of the accusative in the pure case system....

  9. Pure Case and Prepositional Case in Russian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Elena; Durst-Andersen, Per

    2017-01-01

    By considering Russian case as the nominal equivalent to mood whereby its semantic functions are emphasized at the expense of its syntactic functions, it is demonstrated that the nominative, accusative, vocative and genitive cases constitute a mini system in which the nominative and the accusative...... three different viewpoints, which equally apply to the pure as well as the prepositional case systems.Within the prepositional case system, the accusative and the locative are treated by the notion of contact, while the genitive, dative and the instrumental are treated by the lack of contact......—prepositional analogues to the notion of local reference and non-local reference. It is suggested that the notion ‘contact’ has had a clear retroactive influence on the function of the accusative in the pure case system....

  10. Black Hole Attractors and Pure Spinors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Jonathan P.; Maloney, Alexander; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2006-02-21

    We construct black hole attractor solutions for a wide class of N = 2 compactifications. The analysis is carried out in ten dimensions and makes crucial use of pure spinor techniques. This formalism can accommodate non-Kaehler manifolds as well as compactifications with flux, in addition to the usual Calabi-Yau case. At the attractor point, the charges fix the moduli according to {Sigma}f{sub k} = Im(C{Phi}), where {Phi} is a pure spinor of odd (even) chirality in IIB (A). For IIB on a Calabi-Yau, {Phi} = {Omega} and the equation reduces to the usual one. Methods in generalized complex geometry can be used to study solutions to the attractor equation.

  11. Heat engine driven by purely quantum information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Jun; Kim, Kang-Hwan; Sagawa, Takahiro; Kim, Sang Wook

    2013-12-06

    The key question of this Letter is whether work can be extracted from a heat engine by using purely quantum mechanical information. If the answer is yes, what is its mathematical formula? First, by using a bipartite memory we show that the work extractable from a heat engine is bounded not only by the free energy change and the sum of the entropy change of an individual memory but also by the change of quantum mutual information contained inside the memory. We then find that the engine can be driven by purely quantum information, expressed as the so-called quantum discord, forming a part of the quantum mutual information. To confirm it, as a physical example we present the Szilard engine containing a diatomic molecule with a semipermeable wall.

  12. Is word recognition crowded in pure alexia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Katrine; Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pure alexia is a selective deficit in reading, which arises following damage to the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Crowding, the inability to recognise objects in a clutter, has recently been hypothesised to be the underlying deficit of apperceptive visual agnosia1. Crowding...... normally occurs in peripheral vision, and we therefore tested whether the performance with words at the centre of fixation in a pure alexic patient (LK) is indeed similar to the performance of matched controls in the peripheral visual field. Using an accuracy-based word recognition task with brief, masked...... exposures, we tested word processing in LK and 24 matched controls. LK was tested in central vision, while the controls were tested in central vision and 4.6 degrees to the right of fixation. LK was significantly impaired on visual word recognition in the central visual field but there was no significant...

  13. Performance of broiler fed pure glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dássia Daiane Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments evaluated the pure glycerin in broiler chicken diets. Experiment 1 was a metabolism test using total feces sampling method with 96 male chickens aging from 17 to 25 d when animals were fed on two treatments: diet1 = no glycerin and diet2 = 60g/kg of glycerin. The apparent metabolized energy measured 4015 kcal/kg and the apparent metabolized corrected for nitrogen balance was 3911 kcal/kg. Experiment 2 evaluated weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion in 480 chicks at 6, 20 and 34 d old fed on diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120 g/kg of glycerin. The results indicate that pure glycerin in chicken diets, as a source of energy must take into consideration the age of the animals and it may be added up to 120 g/kg, from 20 to 41 d of age.

  14. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hall

    2003-12-01

    interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to belowreplacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens’ “pure relationship” concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are more likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.

  15. 7 CFR 51.1827 - Highly colored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1827 Highly colored. Highly colored means that the ground color of each fruit is a deep tangerine color, or characteristic color for the variety...

  16. The Surface Tension of Pure Liquid Compounds,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface tension tables presented herein are the result of a literature survey, evaluation, and compilation of data of some 2200 pure liquid... surface tension values to establish the regression curves and their equations. The constants of the equations (slope and intercept), together with the...standard deviations are given for each compound. The selection factors establishing criteria of quality of surface tension data are discussed. These

  17. Acquired pure red cell aplasia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata R Dafale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA is a rare occurrence in children.This is a case of an eight year old girl child who developed acquired PRCA secondary to long term intake of sodium Valproate. This case is reported to review the causes of PRCA in children and to reconsider the use of drugs of longer duration in children and adults.

  18. Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Cimmino; P. Trezzi; Maio, T

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. Methods: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. Results: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%), analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7%) patients. The number of...

  19. Stationary processes with pure point diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Daniel; Robert V. Moody

    2011-01-01

    We consider the construction and classification of some new mathematical objects, called ergodic spatial stationary processes, on locally compact Abelian groups, which provide a natural and very general setting for studying diffraction and the famous inverse problems associated with it. In particular we can construct complete families of solutions to the inverse problem from any given pure point measure that is chosen to be the diffraction. In this case these processes can be classified by th...

  20. Pure and Public, Popular and personal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    and the exclusions of the public sphere. I argue that the ideals of a pure aesthetic and a public sphere neglect issues that are crucial to the type of commonality at stake in popular cultural artifacts: personal issues, social conflicts, and what is pleasurable to the senses or has to do with emotions. Third, I...... and inclusive understanding not only of bestselling popular culture but also of aesthetics and the public sphere...

  1. Les Problemes de l'alexie pure (Problems of Pure Alexia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremin, Helgard

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews studies done on alexia and describes experiments designed to distinguish qualitatively between pure alexia (marked by the absence of oral and written problems) and other forms of alexia. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  2. Structural colors, cosmetics, and fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushkina, Natalia; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2009-08-01

    Structural colors are non-pigment colors that originate from the scattering of light from ordered microstructures, thin films, and even irregular arrays of scatterers. Examples include the flashing sparks of colors in opals and the brilliant hues of some butterflies such as Morpho rhetenor. Structural colors arise in nature from one or more of a palette of physical mechanisms that are now understood quite well and can be implemented industrially to produce structurally colored paints, fabrics, and cosmetics.

  3. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-03

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  4. Expanding color design methods for architecture and allied disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Harold E.

    2002-06-01

    The color design processes of visual artists, architects, designers, and theoreticians included in this presentation reflect the practical role of color in architecture. What the color design professional brings to the architectural design team is an expertise and rich sensibility made up of a broad awareness and a finely tuned visual perception. This includes a knowledge of design and its history, expertise with industrial color materials and their methods of application, an awareness of design context and cultural identity, a background in physiology and psychology as it relates to human welfare, and an ability to problem-solve and respond creatively to design concepts with innovative ideas. The broadening of the definition of the colorists's role in architectural design provides architects, artists and designers with significant opportunities for continued professional and educational development.

  5. DNATagger, colors for codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, N M; Basso, D M

    2008-09-16

    DNATagger is a web-based tool for coloring and editing DNA, RNA and protein sequences and alignments. It is dedicated to the visualization of protein coding sequences and also protein sequence alignments to facilitate the comprehension of evolutionary processes in sequence analysis. The distinctive feature of DNATagger is the use of codons as informative units for coloring DNA and RNA sequences. The codons are colored according to their corresponding amino acids. It is the first program that colors codons in DNA sequences without being affected by "out-of-frame" gaps of alignments. It can handle single gaps and gaps inside the triplets. The program also provides the possibility to edit the alignments and change color patterns and translation tables. DNATagger is a JavaScript application, following the W3C guidelines, designed to work on standards-compliant web browsers. It therefore requires no installation and is platform independent. The web-based DNATagger is available as free and open source software at http://www.inf.ufrgs.br/~dmbasso/dnatagger/.

  6. How bees distinguish colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Behind each facet of the compound eye, bees have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by sunlight reflected from the surrounding panorama. In experiments that excluded ultraviolet, bees learned to distinguish between black, gray, white, and various colors. To distinguish two targets of differing color, bees detected, learned, and later recognized the strongest preferred inputs, irrespective of which target displayed them. First preference was the position and measure of blue reflected from white or colored areas. They also learned the positions and a measure of the green receptor modulation at vertical edges that displayed the strongest green contrast. Modulation is the receptor response to contrast and was summed over the length of a contrasting vertical edge. This also gave them a measure of angular width between outer vertical edges. Third preference was position and a measure of blue modulation. When they returned for more reward, bees recognized the familiar coincidence of these inputs at that place. They cared nothing for colors, layout of patterns, or direction of contrast, even at black/white edges. The mechanism is a new kind of color vision in which a large-field tonic blue input must coincide in time with small-field phasic modulations caused by scanning vertical edges displaying green or blue contrast. This is the kind of system to expect in medium-lowly vision, as found in insects; the next steps are fresh looks at old observations and quantitative models.

  7. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  8. Color adaptation induced from linguistic description of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liling; Huang, Ping; Zhong, Xiao; Li, Tianfeng; Mo, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience.

  9. The color "fruit": object memories defined by color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David E; Pearson, Joel; Khuu, Sieu K

    2013-01-01

    Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems.

  10. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

    2013-02-01

    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTARCTIC LIVING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )

  12. Iris color evaluation with a digital color camera

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Ramírez, Jorge Alexis; Vilaseca Ricart, Meritxell; de Lasarte, Marta; Düll, Jochen; Pujol Ramo, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    In this work we measure and evaluate the color of irises, prostheses and cosmetic colored contact lenses with a system based on a digital RGB color camera. Using multispectral tools, the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric coordinates are computed from the RGB digital values of the acquired images. With the statistical analysis of the L*a*b* values, the color gamuts and the CIEDE2000 color differences, a comparison of the color associated to each set of samples is performed. Specifically, the...

  13. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  14. Color optical biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanlou, Ardieshir; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Snashall, Emma; Osanlou, Orod; Osanlou, Rostam

    2014-02-01

    Progress has been made towards the development of a flexible true color holographic imaging device for direct optical biopsy. This can potentially be used for surgical techniques employing direct visualization, including endoscopy and laparoscopy. A novel panchromatic `ultrahigh precision' recording media, with a thin layer of ultrafine grain of silver halide crystals of 10-20 nm average diameter, has been utilized. The significance of the development so far, has been the ability to emulate `color optical biopsy' providing useful information of `medical relevance'.

  15. Glossiness of Colored Papers based on Computer Graphics Model and Its Measuring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Teizo

    In the case of colored papers, the color of surface effects strongly upon the gloss of its paper. The new glossiness for such a colored paper is suggested in this paper. First, using the Achromatic and Chromatic Munsell colored chips, the author obtained experimental equation which represents the relation between lightness V ( or V and saturation C ) and psychological glossiness Gph of these chips. Then, the author defined a new glossiness G for the colored papers, based on the above mentioned experimental equations Gph and Cook-Torrance's reflection model which are widely used in the filed of Computer Graphics. This new glossiness is shown to be nearly proportional to the psychological glossiness Gph. The measuring system for the new glossiness G is furthermore descrived. The measuring time for one specimen is within 1 minute.

  16. Children's emotional associations with colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, C J; Varghese, R

    1994-03-01

    In this study children's emotional associations with colors were investigated. Sixty children (30 girls, 30 boys), equally divided into groups of 5-year-olds and 6 1/2-year-olds, were asked their favorite color and were then shown nine different colors, one at a time and in a random order. For each color, children were asked, "How does (the color) make you feel?" All children were able to verbally express an emotional response to each color, and 69% of children's emotional responses were positive (e.g., happiness, excitement). Responses also demonstrated distinct color-emotion associations. Children had positive reactions to bright colors (e.g., pink, blue, red) and negative emotions for dark colors (e.g., brown, black, gray). Children's emotional reactions to bright colors became increasingly positive with age, and girls in particular showed a preference for brighter colors and a dislike for darker colors. Boys were more likely than girls were to have positive emotional associations with dark colors. Potential sources for children's color-emotion concepts, such as gender-related and idiosyncratic experiences, are discussed.

  17. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  18. An object-color space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinenko, Alexander D

    2009-10-05

    Putting aside metaphorical meanings of the term, color space is understood as a vector space, where lights having the same color (i.e., subjectively indistinguishable) are represented as a point. The CIE 1931 color space, empirically based on trichromatic color measurements, is a classical example. Its derivatives, such as CIELAB and sRGB, have been successfully used in many applications (e.g., in color management). However, having been designed for presenting the color of self-luminous objects, these spaces are less suitable for presenting color of reflecting objects. Specifically, they can be used to represent color of objects only for a fixed illumination. Here I put forward a color space to represent the color of objects independently of illumination. It is based on an ideal color atlas comprising the reflectance spectra taking two values: k or 1 - k (0 color atlas is complete; that is, every reflecting object is metameric to some element of the atlas. When illumination alters, the classes of metameric reflectance spectra are reshuffled but in each class there is exactly one element of the atlas. Hence, the atlas can uniquely represent the metameric classes irrespective of illumination. Each element of the atlas (thus, object color) is specified by three numbers: (i) lambda = (lambda(1) + lambda(2))/2, which correlates well with hue of object color (as dominant wavelength correlates with hue of light color); (ii) delta =/lambda(1) - lambda/, which correlates with whiteness/blackness; and (iii) alpha =/1 - 2k/, which correlates with chroma of object color (as colorimetric purity correlates with saturation of light color). Using a geographical coordinate system, each element of the atlas (thus, each object color) is geometrically represented as a radius vector so that its length equals alpha, the latitude and longitude being proportional to delta and lambda, respectively.

  19. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  20. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  1. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP; water deficit (WD plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  2. Pure transperitoneal laparoscopic correction of retrocaval ureter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Qing; Xu, Li-Wei; Li, Xin-de; Li, Gong-Hui; Yu, Yan-Lan; Yu, Da-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Gen

    2012-07-01

    Retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital abnormality. Operative repair is always suggested in cases of significant functional obstruction. Laparoscopic procedures have been employed as the minimally invasive therapeutic option for retrocaval ureter. However, the laparoscopic techniques for retrocaval ureter might be technically challenging to some surgeons. The aim of this article was to present our experience and surgical techniques of pure transperitoneal laparoscopic pyelopyelostomy and ureteroureterostomy in nine patients with retrocaval ureter. A total of nine patients of retrocaval ureter underwent pure laparoscopic pyelopyelostomy or ureteroureterostomy. The operation was performed with the patients placed in the 70-degree lateral decubitus position via a three port transperitoneal approach with two 10-mm and one 5-mm ports. The distal part of the dilated renal pelvis was transected at the ureteropelvic junction and the ureter was relocated anterior to the inferior vena cava. The tension-free pyeloureteral or ureteroureteral anastomosis was completed with the intracorporal freehand suturing and in situ knot-tying techniques combined with interrupted and continuous fashion. A double J ureteral stent was inserted in an antegrade manner during laparoscopy. Intravenous urography or computerized tomography and renal ultrasonography were performed after 3 months postoperatively. All operations were completed laparoscopically, and no open conversion was required. The mean operative time was 135 minutes (range, 70 - 250 minutes), with minimal blood loss (less than 60 ml). No intra-operative complications or significant bleeding occurred. All patients presented mild postoperative pain and quick convalescence. The symptoms disappeared and hydronephrosis decreased substantially after surgery. Pure transperitoneal laparoscopic correction for retrocaval ureter was associated with an excellent outcome, minimal invasiveness and short hospital stay. It is technically feasible

  3. chemf: A purely functional chemistry toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höck, Stefan; Riedl, Rainer

    2012-12-20

    Although programming in a type-safe and referentially transparent style offers several advantages over working with mutable data structures and side effects, this style of programming has not seen much use in chemistry-related software. Since functional programming languages were designed with referential transparency in mind, these languages offer a lot of support when writing immutable data structures and side-effects free code. We therefore started implementing our own toolkit based on the above programming paradigms in a modern, versatile programming language. We present our initial results with functional programming in chemistry by first describing an immutable data structure for molecular graphs together with a couple of simple algorithms to calculate basic molecular properties before writing a complete SMILES parser in accordance with the OpenSMILES specification. Along the way we show how to deal with input validation, error handling, bulk operations, and parallelization in a purely functional way. At the end we also analyze and improve our algorithms and data structures in terms of performance and compare it to existing toolkits both object-oriented and purely functional. All code was written in Scala, a modern multi-paradigm programming language with a strong support for functional programming and a highly sophisticated type system. We have successfully made the first important steps towards a purely functional chemistry toolkit. The data structures and algorithms presented in this article perform well while at the same time they can be safely used in parallelized applications, such as computer aided drug design experiments, without further adjustments. This stands in contrast to existing object-oriented toolkits where thread safety of data structures and algorithms is a deliberate design decision that can be hard to implement. Finally, the level of type-safety achieved by Scala highly increased the reliability of our code as well as the productivity of

  4. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  5. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  6. Noble gases in pure lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Valdez, F J; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2013-03-21

    The mechanism of how a noble gas modifies the excitability of nerve cells and how such excitability can be recovered under hyperbaric pressure remains unclear. Here we present a calorimetric study where the melting point depression of pure lipid membranes induced by noble gases and its recovery with a hydrostatic pressure is addressed. A correlation is found between the electric polarizability (α) of these gases and their effect on the melting transition of the membranes. These results concur with other findings to support the idea that general anesthesia only depends on the ability of a certain atom or molecule to increase the general disorder of the membrane.

  7. Origin of matter out of pure curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Dadhich, Naresh; Maeda, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for origin of matter in the universe in the framework of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in higher dimensions. The recently discovered new static black hole solution by the authors \\cite{md2006} with the Kaluza-Klein split up of spacetime as a product of the usual ${\\ma M}^4$ with a space of negative constant curvature is indeed a pure gravitational creation of a black hole which is also endowed with a Maxwell-like {\\it gravitational charge} in four-dimensional vacuum spa...

  8. Synthesis of pure Portland cement phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselsky, Andreas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    Pure phases commonly found in Portland cement clinkers are often used to test cement hydration behaviour in simplified experimental conditions. The synthesis of these phases is covered in this paper, starting with a description of phase relations and possible polymorphs of the four main phases...... in Portland cement, i.e. tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium alumino ferrite. Details of the The process of solid state synthesis are is described in general including practical advice on equipment and techniques. Finally In addition, some exemplary mix compositions...

  9. Electrostatic Precipitation in Nearly Pure Gaseous Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Cox, Bobby; Ritz, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitation was performed in a nearly pure gaseous nitrogen system as a possible remedy for black dust contaminant from high pressure 6000 psi lines at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The results of a prototype electrostatic precipitator that was built and tested using nitrogen gas at standard atmospheric pressures is presented. High voltage pulsed waveforms are generated using a rotating spark gap system at 30 Hz. A unique dust delivery system utilizing the Venturi effect was devised that supplies a given amount of dust per unit time for testing purposes.

  10. Purely cubic action for string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.

  11. Needleless Electrospinning of Pure and Blended Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmelsmann, Nils; Homburg, Sarah Vanessa; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer with bactericidal, fungicidal, hemostatic and other interesting properties. It can be used, e.g., in medical products, as a filter medium, in biotechnological purposes etc. For these possible applications, nanofiber mats with a large inner surface will be most efficient. This is why in a recent project, the electrospinning properties of pure chitosan as well as chitosan blended with poly(ethylene oxide) were investigated. Using a needleless nanospinning process, the technology under examination can be upscaled from lab to industrial scale, enabling direct transfer of the gained experiences to the intended application.

  12. Quantum correlations support probabilistic pure state cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, Luis, E-mail: lroa@udec.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alid-Vaccarezza, M.; Jara-Figueroa, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Revolución 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2014-02-01

    The probabilistic scheme for making two copies of two nonorthogonal pure states requires two auxiliary systems, one for copying and one for attempting to project onto the suitable subspace. The process is performed by means of a unitary-reduction scheme which allows having a success probability of cloning different from zero. The scheme becomes optimal when the probability of success is maximized. In this case, a bipartite state remains as a free degree which does not affect the probability. We find bipartite states for which the unitarity does not introduce entanglement, but does introduce quantum discord between some involved subsystems.

  13. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Dijkstra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014. In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi. We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi. The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.

  14. Rediscovering Red: Full-Spectrum Structural Color in Colloidal Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkiriadou, Sofia; Park, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Young-Seok; Yi, Gi-Ra; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

    2014-03-01

    We use colloidal glasses to develop pigments with structural color: color that arises from interference rather than absorption. This pigmentation mechanism is common in blue birds, whose feather barbs often contain glassy microstructures. When a glass is illuminated, the spatial correlations between neighboring particles can give rise to constructive interference for a small range of wavelengths. Unlike the colors arising from Bragg diffraction in crystals, the colors of these ``photonic glasses'' are independent of angle due to the disordered, isotropic structure. However, there are no known examples of photonic glasses with pure structural red color, either in nature or in the lab. We present both experimental evidence and a model showing that the absence of red is due to the wavelength-dependence of the single-particle scattering cross-section. We show that this problem can be solved in ``inverse glasses,'' namely glasses composed of particles with refractive index lower than that of their medium. Although these systems are similar to those in birds, no known species uses this mechanism to create red. We use inverse glasses to make full-spectrum, angle-independent structural colors. This will enable the use of colloidal glasses as a new type of long-lasting, non-bleaching pigment.

  15. Differential Binding of Colors to Objects in Memory: Red and Yellow Stick Better Than Blue and Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof eKuhbandner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Both evolutionary considerations and recent research suggest that the color red serves as a signal indicating an object’s importance. However, until now, there is no evidence that this signaling function of red is also reflected in human memory. To examine the effect of red on memory, we conducted four experiments in which we presented objects colored in four different colors (red, green, blue, and yellow and measured later memory for the presence of an object and for the color of an object. Across experiments, we varied the type of objects (words versus pictures, task complexity (single objects versus multiple objects in visual scenes, and intentionality of encoding (intentional versus incidental learning. Memory for the presence of an object was not influenced by color. However, in all four experiments, memory for the color of an object depended on type of color and was particularly high for red and yellow-colored objects and particularly low for green-colored objects, indicating that the binding of colors into object memory representations varies as a function of color type. Analyzing the observers’ confidence in their color memories revealed that color not only influenced objective memory performance but also subjective confidence. Subjective confidence judgments differentiated well between correct and incorrect color memories for red-colored objects, but poorly for green-colored objects. Our findings reveal a previously unknown color effect which may be of considerable interest for both basic color research and applied settings like eyewitness testimony in which memory for color features is relevant. Furthermore, our results indicate that feature binding in memory is not a purely automatic process by which any attended feature is automatically bound into a unitary memory representation. Rather, binding in memory seems to vary across different subtypes of features, a finding that supports recent research showing that features of objects

  16. Color invariant edge detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.-M.; Dev, A.; van den Boomgaard, R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Cornelissen, F.; Geerts, H.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.; Olsen, O.F.; Weickert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Segmentation based on color, instead of intensity only, pro- vides an easier distinction between materials, on the condition that ro- bustness against irrelevant parameters is achieved, such as illumination source, shadows, geometry and camera sensitivities. Modeling the phys- ical process of the

  17. Color discrimination data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M.A.; Walraven, P.L.

    1972-01-01

    The sense of sight provides us with information on how the radiance of the environment is distributed in time and space. Such information pertains to both the energy and the spectral distribution of the radiance. Researchers in the field of color vision generally assume that, as attributes of visual

  18. SEVEN COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Seven-color Asteroid Survey(SCAS) consists of photometry in seven filters from 0.9 to 2.3 microns, of a total of 126 asteroids of types S, K, and M.

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact ... the United States. Gene Therapy May Be a Game-Changer for People With ... Professionals Link your website to EyeSmart Embed EyeSmart videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact ... the United States. Gene Therapy May Be a Game-Changer for People With ... Professionals Link your website to EyeSmart Embed EyeSmart videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in pop-up Halloween stores are not FDA-approved and are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann ... lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying ...

  2. Local Color Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Gomila Salas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a local algorithm for contrast enhancement developed by N. Moroney at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories and presented at the IS&T/SID Eight Color Imaging Conference, in 2000. The algorithm uses a non-linear masking, is fast and does not require any manual parameter adjustments.

  3. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  4. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percent of men and 0.5 percent of women with Northern European ancestry have the common form of red-green color blindness. Men are much more likely to be colorblind than women because the genes responsible for the most common, ...

  5. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  6. Why Leaves Change Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    For years, scientists have worked to understand the changes that happen to trees and shrubs in the autumn. Although we don't know all the details, we do know enough to explain the basics and help you to enjoy more fully Nature's multicolored autumn farewell. Three factors influence autumn leaf color-leaf pigments, length of night, and weather, but not quite...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without a prescription in the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... By Dan Gudgel The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved sales of a gene therapy treatment ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  11. The role of mnemonic processes in pure-target and pure-foil recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Gregory J; Criss, Amy H; Malmberg, Kenneth J

    2015-04-01

    Surprisingly, response patterns in a recognition memory test are very similar regardless of whether the test list contains both targets and foils or just one class of items. To better understand these effects, we evaluate performance over the course of testing. Output interference (OI) is the decrease in performance across test trials due to an increase in noise caused by encoded test items. Critically, OI is predicted on pure lists if the mnemonic evidence for each test item is evaluated. In two experiments, participants received accurate feedback, no feedback, or random feedback that was unrelated to the response on each test trial and pure or standard test lists. When no feedback was provided, performance was nearly identical for standard and pure test lists, replicating previous findings. Only in the presence of accurate feedback were participants able to successfully adapt to pure list environments and improve their accuracy. Critically, OI was observed, demonstrating that participants continued to evaluate mnemonic evidence even in pure list conditions. We discuss the implication of these data for models of memory.

  12. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  13. On the importance of PURE - Public Understanding of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Lars; Kandpal, Tara C.

    2013-09-15

    Public understanding of science (PUS) is a central concept among science communicators. Public understanding of renewable energy (PURE) is proposed as an important sub-concept of PUS. The aim of this paper is to interest and invite renewable energy scientists to join a PURE research project. Four separate important questions for a PURE research project can be identified: (A) Is PURE important? (B) Which issues of PURE are the most important ones, according to renewable energy scientists? (C) What understanding of renewable energy has the general public today, worldwide? (D) How to achieve PURE?.

  14. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Brian eJohnson; Brian eJohnson

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary ...

  15. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  16. How bees distinguish colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: Behind each facet of the compound eye, bees have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by sunlight reflected from the surrounding panorama. In experiments that excluded ultraviolet, bees learned to distinguish between black, gray, white, and various colors. To distinguish two targets of differing color, bees detected, learned, and later recognized the strongest preferred inputs, irrespective of which target displayed them. First preference was the position and measure of blue reflected from white or colored areas. They also learned the positions and a measure of the green receptor modulation at vertical edges that displayed the strongest green contrast. Modulation is the receptor response to contrast and was summed over the length of a contrasting vertical edge. This also gave them a measure of angular width between outer vertical edges. Third preference was position and a measure of blue modulation. When they returned for more reward, bees recognized the familiar coincidence of these inputs at that place. They cared nothing for colors, layout of patterns, or direction of contrast, even at black/white edges. The mechanism is a new kind of color vision in which a large-field tonic blue input must coincide in time with small-field phasic modulations caused by scanning vertical edges displaying green or blue contrast. This is the kind of system to expect in medium-lowly vision, as found in insects; the next steps are fresh looks at old observations and quantitative models. Keywords: vision, honey bee, visual processing, optimum system, picture sorting

  17. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  18. Money or mental health: the cost of alleviating psychological distress with monetary compensation versus psychological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2010-10-01

    AbstractMoney is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world - improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth.

  19. Purely collective versus RPA rotational vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faessler, A.; Nojarov, R.

    1988-12-22

    The low-lying 1/sup +/ isovector state vertical strokeRPA> in /sup 48/Ti is calculated in RPA removing the spurious state due to rotations. Its excitation energy, the magnetic dipole transition B(M1; 0/sup +/->1/sup +/) and the (e, e') form factors are compared with experiment, with the purely collective scissor vibration of the deformed protons against the deformed neutrons vertical strokeROT>=N(ed /sub n/J/sub x//sup n/-ed /sub p/J/sub x//sup p/)vertical stroke> and with the purely orbital state vertical strokeORB>=N/sub L/(b/sub n/L/sub x//sup n/-b/sub p/L/sub x//sup p/)vertical stroke>. Although the collective state overlap only ty vertical strokevertical stroke/sup 2/=0.12 and vertical strokevertical stroke/sup 2/=0.07, the =+-1 residual quadrupole force is generated in RPA scissor type isovector rotational vibrations, but only very few nucleons are participating.

  20. Nanoporous Au: an unsupported pure gold catalyst?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittstock, A; Neumann, B; Schaefer, A; Dumbuya, K; Kuebel, C; Biener, M; Zielasek, V; Steinrueck, H; Gottfried, M; Biener, J; Hamza, A; B?umer, M

    2008-09-04

    The unique properties of gold especially in low temperature CO oxidation have been ascribed to a combination of various effects. In particular, particle sizes below a few nm and specific particle-support interactions have been shown to play important roles. On the contrary, recent reports revealed that monolithic nanoporous gold (npAu) prepared by leaching a less noble metal, such as Ag, out of the corresponding alloy can also exhibit remarkably high catalytic activity for CO oxidation, even though no support is present. Therefore, it was claimed to be a pure and unsupported gold catalyst. We investigated npAu with respect to its morphology, surface composition and catalytic properties. In particular, we studied the reaction kinetics for low temperature CO oxidation in detail taking mass transport limitation due to the porous structure of the material into account. Our results reveal that Ag, even if removed almost completely from the bulk, segregates to the surface resulting in surface concentrations of up to 10 at%. Our data suggest that this Ag plays a significant role in activation of molecular oxygen. Therefore, npAu should be considered as a bimetallic catalyst rather than a pure Au catalyst.

  1. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krabbe, K.; Fallentin, E.; Herning, M. [Danish Research Center of Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre Hospital, Kettegaard alle 30, DK-2650 Hvidovre (Denmark); Nielsen, J.E.; Fenger, K. [Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Section of Neurogenetics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus callosum on one midsagittal slice and the area of the brain on one axial slice were measured and a ``corpus-callosum index`` expressing the size of the corpus callosum relative to that of the brain was calculated. Cross-sectional areas and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the spinal cord at the levels of C 2, C 5, T 3, T 6, T 9 and T 11 were measured. No significant differences between patients and controls were found on qualitative evaluation of the images. The patients had a significantly smaller corpus callosum and ``corpus-callosum index`` than controls. This finding, not reported previously, might indicate that the disease process in pure HSP is not confined to the spinal cord. The anteroposterior diameters of the spinal cord at T 3 and T 9 were significantly smaller in patients than in controls. This might correspond to the degeneration of the pyramidal tracts and the dorsal columns described at neuropathological examination. (orig.). With 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many changes which have characterized the second demographic transition, shifts in fertility and union formation have attracted a great deal of interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to below-replacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens' "pure relationship" concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are morel likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.

  3. Reducing Color/Brightness Interaction in Color Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed digitally sampled scan-conversion scheme for color television reduces unwanted interactions between chrominance and luminance signals. New scheme reduces luminance and chrominance bandwidth to increase frequency separation between signals. To avoid proportionally reducing horizontal brightness resolution and horizontal color resolution, horizontal interlace of luminance signal and two color-difference signals used.

  4. Natural-color maps via coloring of bivariate grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Jane E.; Jenny, Bernhard

    2017-09-01

    Natural ground color is useful for maps where a representation of the Earth's surface matters. Natural color schemes are less likely to be misinterpreted, as opposed to hypsometric color schemes, and are generally preferred by map readers. The creation of natural-color maps was once limited to manual cartographic techniques, but they can now be created digitally with the aid of raster graphics editing software. However, the creation of natural-color maps still requires many steps, a significant time investment, and fairly detailed digital land cover information, which makes this technique impossible to apply to global web maps at medium and large scales. A particular challenge for natural-color map creation is adjusting colors with location to create smoothly blending transitions. Adjustments with location are required to show land cover transitions between climate zones with a natural appearance. This study takes the first step in automating the process in order to facilitate the creation of medium- and large-scale natural-color maps covering large areas. A coloring method based on two grid inputs is presented. Here, we introduce an algorithmic method and prototype software for creating maps with this technique. The prototype software allows the map author to interactively assign colors to design the appearance of the map. This software can generate web map tiles at a global level for medium and large scales. Example natural-color web maps created with this coloring technique are provided.

  5. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  6. Widespread use of pure and impure placebo interventions by GPs in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Karin; Höfner, Lisa; Fässler, Margrit; Linde, Klaus

    2012-02-01

    To collect data on the use of placebo interventions by GPs in Germany. A questionnaire was mailed to 400 randomly selected GPs in Bavaria. Non-responders were reminded by telephone after 4 weeks and were given a second copy of the questionnaire after a further 3 weeks. In all, 208 completed questionnaires were returned. The majority of GPs (88%) have used a placebo at least once in their practice; 45% have used pure placebos, such as saline injections and sugar pills, at least once last year; the median frequency of use was 5 [interquartile range (IQR), 2-10]. The use of impure placebos during the past year was more common: 76% of GPs have used impure placebos, i.e. medical interventions that have pharmacological or physical activity but have no intrinsic effect (e.g. pharmacological or physical action) on the patient's disease or its symptoms, with a median frequency of 20 times per year (IQR, 10-50). The main reason for the use of placebo was a possible psychological effect, followed by the expectation of patients to receive a treatment. For the majority of GPs placebo interventions were ethically justified if they were used for a possible psychological effect. Placebo interventions are a widely accepted part of medical treatment in German general practices and are used primarily for their psychological effects. Impure placebos are used much more frequently than pure placebos.

  7. Influence of gender, anxiety and depression symptoms, and use of oral contraceptive in color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Aparecida da; Anfe, Taciana Emília de Almeida; Matos, Adriana Bona; Vieira, Glauco Fioranelli

    2015-01-01

    The color is a psychophysical phenomenon, and much has been studied about its physical components. However, the psychological part is poorly investigated, except for the difference between genders in the literature shows that more men are color deficient than women. Dental students are trained to better understand the differences in color, so we became interested in studying whether psychological variables such as anxiety and depression and use of hormonal contraceptives may interfere with this ability. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate if factors, such as, hormonal contraceptive use, depressive symptoms, anxiety and quality of life, influence on the ability of color discrimination of dental school students. Sixty-one subjects participated and the following instruments apply: (1) test that consists in the observation of a set of 25 labels (Pantones) with values of known colors, (2) scales of depression, anxiety, and quality of life assessments, and (3) Ishihara test. No difference was observed between genders as color perception (p = 0.868). Symptoms of anxiety and depression were significantly more frequent in the female population that showed worse quality of life (p color perception. Women using hormonal contraceptives had lower color perception than men (p = 0.04). No difference between the genders in the perception of colors was observed, contrary to common sense that women discriminate more colors than men, but women using hormonal contraceptives showed more difficulty in color perception. The ability to understand and distinguish color differences is extremely important in clinical dentistry. There could be differences in color perception between men and women that would influence clinical performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  9. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  10. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruthers Helen R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW. This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. Methods 620 pupils (aged 11–17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1% males, 322 (51.9% females at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an ‘experiment’ to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Results Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p  Conclusion This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  11. A colored avocado seed extract as a potential natural colorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, Deepti; Elias, Ryan J; Lambert, Joshua D; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing consumer demand for and scientific interest in new natural colorants. Avocado (Persea americana) seed when crushed with water develops an orange color (= 480 nm) in a time-dependent manner. Heat treatment of the seed prevented color development, whereas the addition of exogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO), but not peroxidase restored color development. Color development was also inhibited by the addition of tropolone, an inhibitor of PPO. Color formation resulted in a decrease in the concentration of polyphenols indicating utilization for color formation. The orange color intensified as the pH was adjusted from 2.0 to 11.0, and these changes were only partially reversible when pH was adjusted from 7.5 to 11.0 in the presence of oxygen, but completely reversible when the pH was changed in the absence of oxygen. The color was found to be stable in solution at -18 °C for 2 mo. These results suggest that the avocado seed may be a potential source of natural colorant, and that color development is PPO-dependent. There is growing public and scientific interest in the development of natural alternatives to synthetic colorants in foods. Extracts of turmeric, paprika, and beets are examples of food-derived natural colorants. Avocado seeds, which represent an under-utilized waste stream, form a stable orange color when crushed in the presence of air. Our data indicate that avocado seed represents a potential source of new natural colorants for use in foods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: About this journal. Journal Home > Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  16. Archives: Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Archives: Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  18. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Coloration strategies in peacock feathers

    OpenAIRE

    Zi, Jian; Yu, Xindi; Li, Yizhou; Hu, Xinhua; Xu, Chun; Wang, Xingjun; Liu, Xiaohan; Fu, Rongtang

    2003-01-01

    We report the mechanism of color production in peacock feathers. We find that the cortex in differently colored barbules, which contains a 2D photonic-crystal structure, is responsible for coloration. Simulations reveal that the photonic-crystal structure possesses a partial photonic bandgap along the direction normal to the cortex surface, for frequencies within which light is strongly reflected. Coloration strategies in peacock feathers are very ingenious and simple: controlling the lattice...

  20. The chemical history of color

    CERN Document Server

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2014-01-01

    In this brief, Mary Virginia Orna details the history of color from the chemical point of view. Beginning with the first recorded uses of color and ending in the development of our modern chemical industry, this rich, yet concise exposition shows us how color pervades every aspect of our lives. Our consciousness, our perceptions, our useful appliances and tools, our playthings, our entertainment, our health, and our diagnostic apparatus - all involve color and are based in no small part on chemistry.

  1. Wetting in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  2. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN TEPUNG DAN PUREE PISANG TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK MUTU MAKANAN PADAT BERBASIS-PISANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanti Ekafitri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBanana is one of the leading fruits commodities in Indonesia, easy to find, has high economic value, high cultural and nutritional value. In general bananas are consumed as fresh fruits. While post-harvest for handling the banana is rarely used causing a lot of banana not be consumed. There is need to preserved banana to banana products, such as the banana flour. This banana flour can be used in manufacturing banana snack bar mixed with the fresh of banana puree. This study aimed to assess the charactericticsof banana snack bar for using different ratios of bananaflour and puree. Banana bar was baked with different ratios of banana flou rand banana puree of 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. The snack bar then was analyzed for proximate analysis and physical characterietics. The data was analyzed using ANOVA with Duncan test. The result of study showed that the characteristic differ among three banana products. The banana snack bar contained 14 to 23 percent of water, 3.6 to 4.3 percent of protein, and 11.5 to 12.6 percent of fat, 35.7 to 46.0 percent carbohydrate. Physical analysis was 4677 to 20245 gf for hardness values, 0.44 to 0.66 for elasticity, and 33 gf to 42 for brightness (L value. High ratio of banana puree increased content of water, protein, and elasticity; but less fat, carbohydrates, hardness, and color brightness. The best banana snack bar was formulated from banana puree and banana flour with ratio of 2:1.Keywords: banana flour, banana puree, snack bar, characteristicABSTRAKPisang merupakan salah satu komoditas buah unggulan Indonesia yang mudah diperoleh, memiliki nilai ekonomi, budaya, serta nilai gizi yang tinggi. Pada umumnya pisang dikonsumsi dalam bentuk segar, sedangkan penanganan pasca panen masih kurang, sehingga banyak pisang menjadi cepat busuk. Oleh karena itu diperlukan pengolahan pisang, salah satunya adalah mengolah menjadi tepung pisang. Tepung pisang bisa digunakan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan makanan padat berbentuk

  3. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  4. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  5. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  6. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Leer en Español: Pruebas para Detectar Daltonismo en ... between the two colors. According to Dr. Varma, children with color blindness can benefit from different kinds of lesson plans ...

  7. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nancy A.; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…

  8. Typography, Color, and Information Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on how typography and color complement and differ from each other in signaling an underlying content structure; the synergism between typography, color, and page layout (use of white space) that aids audience understanding and use; and the characteristics of typography and of color that are most important in these contexts. (SR)

  9. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused

  10. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  11. Clinical features of pure hereditary spastic paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Qian-qian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the clinical features and diagnostic methods of patients with pure hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP. Methods Patients diagnosed with pure HSP from October 2006 to February 2013 admitted to Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University were included. The patients were assessed by the Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale and the clinical features were reviewed. Results Thirty-three HSP patients (21 men and 12 women were included in the study. Thirteen patients (39.39% had family history of HSP and the most common genetic mode of the familial cases were autosomal dominant inheritance (11/13. The mean age of onset were (20.35 ± 15.55 years and the mean disease duration were (12.77 ± 9.83 years. All of the included patients presented with signs of impairment of the pyramidal tract such as increased muscular tone, tendon hyperreflexia and positive Babinski's sign of the lower limbs. Impairment of the pyramidal tract also presented in the upper limbs in some patients. Scissors gait appeared in 29 patients and feet deformity in 5 patients. Atrophy of thoracic cord on MRI were presented in 5 patients while 2 patients complicated with peripheral nerve damage. Four patients had a novel exon 10-17 deletion in SPG4 gene. There were no differences in onset age, disease duration and mean score of the Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale between male and female patients as well as between patients with and without family history (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusion The onset age of pure HSP is variational and males are more common than females. The most common inheritance mode is autosomal dominant and most of the cases are characterized by impairment of the pyramidal tract of the lower limbs and occasionally bladder dysfunction and peripheral nerve damage. Gender and family history do not affect the clinical features. Clinical features, family history and spinal cord MRI will assist the correct diagnosis, and making a definite

  12. Facile formation of biomimetic color-tuned superhydrophobic magnesium alloy with corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2011-03-15

    The design of color-tuned magnesium alloy with anticorrosive properties and damping capacity was created by means of a simple and inexpensive method. The vertically self-aligned nano- and microsheets were formed on magnesium alloy AZ31 by a chemical-free immersion process in ultrapure water at a temperature of 120 °C, resulting in the color expression. The color changed from silver with metallic luster to some specific colors such as orange, green, and orchid, depending on the immersion time. The color-tuned magnesium alloy showed anticorrosive performance and damping capacity. In addition, the colored surface with minute surface textures was modified with n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS), leading to the formation of color-tuned superhydrophobic surfaces. The corrosion resistance of the color-tuned superhydrophobic magnesium alloy was also investigated using electrochemical potentiodynamic measurements. Moreover, the color-tuned superhydrophobic magnesium alloy showed high hydrophobicity not just for pure water but also for corrosive liquids, such as acidic, basic, and some aqueous salt solutions. In addition, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test was performed to investigate the adhesion of the color-tuned superhydrophobic film to the magnesium alloy surface.

  13. Rapid serial processing of natural scenes: color modulates detection but neither recognition nor the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Svenja; Hansen-Goos, Onno; Thrun, Michael; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2014-12-16

    The exact function of color vision for natural-scene perception has remained puzzling. In rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) tasks, categorically defined targets (e.g., animals) are detected typically slightly better for color than for grayscale stimuli. Here we test the effect of color on animal detection, recognition, and the attentional blink. We present color and grayscale RSVP sequences with up to two target images (animals) embedded. In some conditions, we modify either the hue or the intensity of each pixel. We confirm a benefit of color over grayscale images for animal detection over a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), with improved hit rates from 50 to 120 ms and overall improved performance from 90 to 120 ms. For stimuli in which the hue is inverted, performance is similar to grayscale for small SOAs and indistinguishable from original color only for large SOAs. For subordinate category discrimination, color provides no additional benefit. Color and grayscale sequences show an attentional blink, but differences between color and grayscale are fully explained by single-target differences, ruling out the possibility that the color benefit is purely attentional. © 2014 ARVO.

  14. 7 CFR 201.64 - Pure live seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined by...

  15. Origin of the pure spinor and Green-Schwarz formalisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovits, Nathan [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista,Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-20

    The pure spinor formalism for the superstring was recently obtained by gauge-fixing a purely bosonic classical action involving a twistor-like constraint ∂x{sup m}(γ{sub m}λ){sub α}=0 where λ{sup α} is a d=10 pure spinor. This twistor-like constraint replaces the usual Virasoro constraint ∂x{sup m}∂x{sub m}=0, and the Green-Schwarz fermionic spacetime spinor variables θ{sup α} arise as Faddeev-Popov ghosts for this constraint. In this paper, the purely bosonic classical action is simplified by replacing the classical d=10 pure spinor λ{sup α} with a d=10 projective pure spinor. The pure spinor and Green-Schwarz formalisms for the superparticle and superstring are then obtained as different gauge-fixings of this purely bosonic classical action, and the Green-Schwarz kappa symmetry is directly related to the pure spinor BRST symmetry. Since a d=10 projective pure spinor parameterizes ((SO(10))/(U(5))), this action can be interpreted as a standard ĉ=5 topological action where one integrates over the ((SO(10))/(U(5))) choice of complex structure. Finally, a purely bosonic action for the d=11 supermembrane is proposed which reduces upon double-dimensional reduction to the purely bosonic action for the d=10 Type IIA superstring.

  16. NextStation Color

    CERN Multimedia

    Steve Jobs created a NeXT generation operating system. The NeXTstation provides functionality that other computers are just providing today.The NS Color I/O cable attaches to the back of the computer on one end and on the other end the cable is split to connect to the display and the Sound Box. The Sound Box also has a keyboard signal port. Like a MAC or SUN of the same vintage, the mouse connects to the keyboard. These boxes run NEXTSTEP, which a full object-oriented OS. It has UNIX as a base and provides a gorgeous graphical interface. NEXTSTEP was also available for other platforms. They tend to run a little slow. But they have great digital sound and full color displays.

  17. Children's conceptions of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Elsa; Rice Meyer, Karen

    An examination of children's notions about light and visual phenomena shows the existence of mental models, that is to say, ways of thinking that are consistent and pervasive. These naive conceptual schemes, used by different children to explain similar phenomena, determine the kinds of responses given by the children in problem-solving situations. In this article we study children's ideas about colored objects and colored shadows, with special attention to the ways in which these ideas are organized into mental models. The elucidation of these models provides valuable instructional tools that serve to assess and to confront students' naive conceptions. This work was carried out in a science museum at the site of interactive exhibits that show unexpected effects. Children who visited the museum were engaged in problem-solving situations that involved predictions, explanations, and manipulations of the exhibit.

  18. A Comparison of Women of Color and Non-Hispanic White Women on Factors Related to Leaving a Violent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K.; Saunders, Daniel G.; Zhang, Lingling

    2011-01-01

    This study compares women of color and non-Hispanic White women regarding the influence of socioeconomic status, family investment, and psychological abuse on leaving a violent relationship. It was found that most women who left stayed away for less than a month. Women of color and non-Hispanic White women did not differ in their length or rate of…

  19. Momentum of the Pure Radiation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The local momentum equation of the pure radiation field is considered in terms of an earlier elaborated and revised electromagnetic theory. In this equation the contribution from the volume force is found to vanish in rectangular geometry, and to become nonzero but negligible in cylindrical geometry. Consequently the radiated momentum is due to the Poynting vector only, as in conventional electrodynamics. It results in physically relevant properties of a photon model having an angular momentum (spin. The Poynting vector concept is further compared to the quantized momentum concept for a free particle, as represented by a spatial gradient operator acting on the wave function. However, this latter otherwise successful concept leads to difficulties in the physical interpretation of known and expected photon properties such as the spin, the negligible loss of transverse momentum across a bounding surface, and the Lorentz invariance.

  20. Pure word deafness. (Auditory verbal agnosia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoumaker, R D; Ajax, E T; Schenkenberg, T

    1977-04-01

    The selective inability to comprehend the spoken word, in the absence of aphasia or defective or defective hearing, is defined as pure word deafness (auditory verbal agnosia). Reported cases of this rare disorder have suggested the site of involvement to be strategically placed, interrupting fibers from left and right primary auditory receptive areas which project to Wernicke's are in the dominant hemisphere. Our patient is a 44-year-old male who suffered from an uncertain illness complicated by fever, jaundice and generalized seizures seven years previously. Following an apparent convulsion, the patient was noted to be unable to understand spoken language without loss of ability to recognize and respond to sounds or marked impairment of speech or reading. The evidence suggested bilateral cerebral hemisphere disease more marked on the right. The abrupt onset without progression is consistent with a vascular or ischemic etiology. Conclusions about the nature of the lesion and areas involved must await further studies and ultimately tissue examination.

  1. Quantum marginals from pure doubly excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek, Tomasz; Tsanov, Valdemar

    2017-11-01

    The possible spectra of one-particle reduced density matrices that are compatible with a pure multipartite quantum system of finite dimension form a convex polytope. We introduce a new construction of inner- and outer-bounding polytopes that constrain the polytope for the entire quantum system. The outer bound is sharp. The inner polytope stems only from doubly excited states. We find all quantum systems, where the bounds coincide giving the entire polytope. We show, that those systems are: (i) any system of two particles (ii) L qubits, (iii) three fermions on N≤slant 7 levels, (iv) any number of bosons on any number of levels and (v) fermionic Fock space on N≤slant 5 levels. The methods we use come from symplectic geometry and representation theory of compact Lie groups. In particular, we study the images of proper momentum maps, where our method describes momentum images for all representations that are spherical.

  2. Equilibrium Molecular Interactions in Pure Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium molecular interactions in pure real gases are investigated based on the chemical thermodynamics principles. The parallels between clusters in real gases and chemical compounds in equilibrium media have been used to improve understanding of the real gas structure. A new approach to the equilibrium constants for the cluster fractions and new methods to compute them and their significant parameters from the experimental thermophysical data are developed. These methods have been applied to some real gases, such as Argon and Water vapors and gaseous Alkanes. It is shown that the four-particle clusters make a noticeable contribution in the thermophysical properties of the equilibrium Water vapor. It is shown also that the effective bond energy for dimers in Alkanes linearly grows with the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

  3. Evolving spacetimes with purely radial tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasre Esfahani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this study time-dependent and spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations in an anisotropic background with a purely radial tension are presented. There exist three classes of solutions,1 An open spacetime with a wormhole at its center. 2 A conical spacetime. 3 A closed spacetime. These inhomogeneous solutions are reduced to FRW spacetimes in matter-dominated era, asymptotically. Therefore, they can be used to describe local inhomogeneities that are not considered in the standard model. For the wormhole solution. it is explicity shown that the considered matter is non-exotic, that is, it does not violate the energy conditions. Also, static solutions are studied. There is only one static solution,a conical spacetime. In this case, the matter satisfies the energy condition critically.

  4. Clitic doubling and pure agreement person features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado Rocha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze clitic doubling constructions in dialectal non-standard Brazilian Portuguese. Within the Minimalism Framework, we explain very peculiar aspects of the doubled structures in this language, namely the fact that they occur only for 1st and 2nd person pronouns and that they co-vary with single clitic structures and single strong pronoun structures. Our approach assumes that the clitics me and te are hosted by a dedicated functional projection and result from the checking of the sole person feature [speaker:±]. Moreover, we show that, unlikely other cross-linguistic phenomena of pronominal doubling, Brazilian Portuguese Clitic Doubling does neither yield (nor is a result of any interpretive effect, but rather is an instance of a pure agreement chain. This leads us to advocate, contra the standard Minimalist Program, for the validity of the conceptual postulation of AgrP, as a condition on well-formedness of certain structures.

  5. Pure White Cell Aplasia and Necrotizing Myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Geon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure white cell aplasia (PWCA is a rare hematologic disorder characterized by the absence of neutrophil lineages in the bone marrow with intact megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis. PWCA has been associated with autoimmune, drug-induced, and viral exposures. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old female who presented with severe proximal weakness without pain and was found to have PWCA with nonspecific inflammatory necrotizing myositis and acute liver injury on biopsies. These findings were associated with a recent course of azithromycin and her daily use of a statin. Myositis improved on prednisone but PWCA persisted. With intravenous immunoglobulin and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor therapies, her symptoms and neutrophil counts improved and were sustained for months.

  6. Synaptic devices based on purely electronic memristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ruobing [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Li, Jun; Zhuge, Fei, E-mail: zhugefei@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Zhu, Liqiang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Cao, Hongtao, E-mail: zhugefei@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Fu, Bing; Li, Kang [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2016-01-04

    Memristive devices have been widely employed to emulate biological synaptic behavior. In these cases, the memristive switching generally originates from electrical field induced ion migration or Joule heating induced phase change. In this letter, the Ti/ZnO/Pt structure was found to show memristive switching ascribed to a carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites (e.g., oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials) in ZnO. The carrier trapping/detrapping level can be controllably adjusted by regulating the current compliance level or voltage amplitude. Multi-level conductance states can, therefore, be realized in such memristive device. The spike-timing-dependent plasticity, an important Hebbian learning rule, has been implemented in this type of synaptic device. Compared with filamentary-type memristive devices, purely electronic memristors have potential to reduce their energy consumption and work more stably and reliably, since no structural distortion occurs.

  7. Computing with Colored Tangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishy Y. Carmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a diagrammatic model of computation based on an axiom of distributivity. A diagram of a decorated colored tangle, similar to those that appear in low dimensional topology, plays the role of a circuit diagram. Equivalent diagrams represent bisimilar computations. We prove that our model of computation is Turing complete and with bounded resources that it can decide any language in complexity class IP, sometimes with better performance parameters than corresponding classical protocols.

  8. The Computation of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    intact color vision were compromised. Twelve out of 14 of the patients also suffered prosopagnosia . But from this, one cannot 25 conclude, attractive as...Meadows [81] and Damasio et. al. [20] note, this is supported by the fact that prosopagnosia and achromatopsia may occur independently of each other...toma in his left upper quadrant, he had no other visual deficits, in particular no prosopagnosia and no loss of visual acuity. Damasio et. al. [20

  9. Pure and Poetic: Butterfly in the Quantum World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Indubala

    Story of the Hofstadter butterfly is a magical occurrence in a quantum flatland of two-dimensional crystals in a magnetic field. In this drama, the magnetic flux plays the role of Planck constant, linking the variables x and p in the butterfly Hamiltonian H = cosx + cosp as [ x , p ] = iℏ . It is a story of reunion of Descartes and Pythagoras and tale of this quantum fractal is related to Integral Apollonian gaskets. Integers rule the butterfly landscape as quantum numbers of Hall conductivity while irrational numbers emerge as the asymptotic magnification of these topological integers in the kaleidoscopic images of the butterfly. Simple variations of the above Hamiltonian generates a wide spectrum of physical phenomenon. For example, the Hamiltonian H = cosx + λcosp with the parameter λ ≠ 1 in its zero energy solution hides the critical point of a topological transition in a superconducting chain and thus barely misses the Majorana fermions. Another example is the Hamiltonian obtained by including terms like cos (x +/- p) which for flux half exhibits Dirac semi-metallic states in addition to all integer quantum Hall states corresponding to all possible solutions of the Diophantine equation for this value of the magnetic flux. In this analytically tractable model where the parameter λ varies periodically with time, the topological states are described by edge modes whose dispersion is given by a pure cosine function. Finally, nature has composed beautiful variations of the Hofstadter butterfly not only in systems such as Penrose and Kagame lattices and also in the relativistic colorful world of quarks and antiquarks.

  10. Hole transport in pure and doped hematite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peilin; Carter, Emily A.

    2012-07-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a promising candidate for use in photovoltaic (PV) and photoelectrochemical devices. Its poor conductivity is one major drawback. Doping hematite either p-type or n-type greatly enhances its measured conductivity and is required for potential p-n junctions in PVs. Here, we study hole transport in pure and doped hematite using an electrostatically embedded cluster model with ab initio quantum mechanics (unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory). Consistent with previous work, the model suggests that hole hopping is via oxygen anions for pure hematite. The activation energy for hole mobility is predicted to be at least 0.1 eV higher than the activation energy for electron mobility, consistent with the trend observed in experiments. We examine four dopants—magnesium(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and manganese(II/III) in direct cation substitution sites—to gain insight into the mechanism by which conductivity is improved. The activation energies are used to assess qualitative effects of different dopants. The hole carriers are predicted to be attracted to O anions near the dopants. The magnitude of the trapping effect is similar among the four dopants in their +2 oxidation states. The multivalent character of Mn doping facilitates local hole transport around Mn centers via a low-barrier O-Mn-O pathway, which suggests that higher hole mobility can be achieved with increasing Mn doping concentration, especially when a network of these low-barrier pathways is produced. Our results suggest that the experimentally observed conductivity increase in Mg-, Ni-, and Cu-doped p-type hematite is mostly due to an increase in hole carriers rather than improved mobility, and that Mg-, Ni-, and Cu-doping perform similarly, while the conductivity of Mn-doped hematite might be significantly improved in the high doping concentration limit.

  11. Production of pure hydrogen by ethanol dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santacesaria, E.; Carotenuto, G.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M. [Naples ' ' Federico II' ' Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-12-30

    Hydrogen production from bio-ethanol is one of the most promising renewable processes to generate electricity using fuel cells. In this work, we have studied the production of pure hydrogen as by product of ethanol dehydrogenation reaction. This reaction is promoted by copper based catalysts and according to the catalyst used and the operative conditions gives place to acetaldehyde or ethyl acetate as main products. We studied in particular the performance of a commercial copper/copper chromite catalyst, supported on alumina and containing barium chromate as promoter that has given the best results. By operating at low pressure and temperature with short residence times, acetaldehyde is more selectively produced, while, by increasing the pressure (10-30 bars), the temperature (200-260 C) and the residence time (about 100 (grams hour/mol) of ethanol contact time) the selectivity is shifted to the production of ethyl acetate. However, in both cases pure hydrogen is obtained, as by product, that can easily be separated. Hydrogen obtained in this way is exempt of CO and can be directly fed to fuel cells without any inconvenience. In this work, runs performed in different operative conditions have been reported with the scope to individuate the best conditions. A carrier of H{sub 2} 6% in N{sub 2} has been used. The studied catalyst has also shown a good thermal stability with respect to sintering phenomena, that generally occurs during the dehydrogenation on other copper catalysts. Hydrogen productivities of 8-39 mol{sub H2} (gcat){sup -1}(h){sup -1} have been obtained for the explored temperature range 200-260 C. At last, the most accredited reaction mechanism is reported and discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (orig.)

  12. Production of pure hydrogen by ethanol dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santacesaria, Elio; Carotenuto, Giuseppina; Tesser, Riccardo; Di Serio, Martino [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

    2011-06-15

    Hydrogen production from bio-ethanol is one of the most promising renewable processes to generate electricity using fuel cells. In this work, we have studied the production of pure hydrogen as a by-product of the ethanol dehydrogenation reaction. This reaction is promoted by copper based catalysts and according to the catalyst used and the operating conditions gives place to acetaldehyde or ethyl acetate as main products. We studied in particular the performance of a commercial copper/copper chromite catalyst, supported on alumina and containing barium chromate as a promoter, which gave the best results. By operating at low pressure and temperature with short residence times, acetaldehyde is more selectively produced, while, by increasing the pressure (10-30 bars), the temperature (200-260 C) and the residence time (about 100 grams hour/mol of ethanol contact time) the selectivity is shifted to the production of ethyl acetate. However, in both cases pure hydrogen is obtained, as a by-product, which can easily be separated. Hydrogen obtained in this way is free of CO and can be directly fed to fuel cells without any inconvenience. In this work, runs performed under different operating conditions have been reported with the scope to select the best conditions. A carrier of H2 6% in N{sub 2} has been used. The studied catalyst has also shown a good thermal stability with respect to sintering phenomena, which generally occur during the dehydrogenation over other copper catalysts. Hydrogen productivities of 8-39 g{sub H2} (Kgcat){sup -1} (h){sup -1} were obtained for the explored temperature range of 200-260 C. Finally the most accredited reaction mechanism is reported and discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (orig.)

  13. Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

  14. Applying Cognitive Psychology to User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Sabeen; Durrani, Qaiser S.

    This paper explores some key aspects of cognitive psychology that may be mapped onto user interfaces. Major focus in existing user interface guidelines is on consistency, simplicity, feedback, system messages, display issues, navigation, colors, graphics, visibility and error prevention [8-10]. These guidelines are effective indesigning user interfaces. However, these guidelines do not handle the issues that may arise due to the innate structure of human brain and human limitations. For example, where to place graphics on the screen so that user can easily process them and what kind of background should be given on the screen according to the limitation of human motor system. In this paper we have collected some available guidelines from the area of cognitive psychology [1, 5, 7]. In addition, we have extracted few guidelines from theories and studies of cognitive psychology [3, 11] which may be mapped to user interfaces.

  15. Colored Traveling Salesman Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhou, MengChu; Sun, Qirui; Dai, Xianzhong; Yu, Xiaolong

    2015-11-01

    The multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem. It has been widely and successfully applied to the practical cases in which multiple traveling individuals (salesmen) share the common workspace (city set). However, it cannot represent some application problems where multiple traveling individuals not only have their own exclusive tasks but also share a group of tasks with each other. This work proposes a new MTSP called colored traveling salesman problem (CTSP) for handling such cases. Two types of city groups are defined, i.e., each group of exclusive cities of a single color for a salesman to visit and a group of shared cities of multiple colors allowing all salesmen to visit. Evidences show that CTSP is NP-hard and a multidepot MTSP and multiple single traveling salesman problems are its special cases. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-chromosome coding for CTSP and analyze the corresponding solution space. Then, GA is improved by incorporating greedy, hill-climbing (HC), and simulated annealing (SA) operations to achieve better performance. By experiments, the limitation of the exact solution method is revealed and the performance of the presented GAs is compared. The results suggest that SAGA can achieve the best quality of solutions and HCGA should be the choice making good tradeoff between the solution quality and computing time.

  16. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  17. Spatial imaging in color and HDR: prometheus unchained

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J.

    2013-03-01

    The Human Vision and Electronic Imaging Conferences (HVEI) at the IS and T/SPIE Electronic Imaging meetings have brought together research in the fundamentals of both vision and digital technology. This conference has incorporated many color disciplines that have contributed to the theory and practice of today's imaging: color constancy, models of vision, digital output, high-dynamic-range imaging, and the understanding of perceptual mechanisms. Before digital imaging, silver halide color was a pixel-based mechanism. Color films are closely tied to colorimetry, the science of matching pixels in a black surround. The quanta catch of the sensitized silver salts determines the amount of colored dyes in the final print. The rapid expansion of digital imaging over the past 25 years has eliminated the limitations of using small local regions in forming images. Spatial interactions can now generate images more like vision. Since the 1950's, neurophysiology has shown that post-receptor neural processing is based on spatial interactions. These results reinforced the findings of 19th century experimental psychology. This paper reviews the role of HVEI in color, emphasizing the interaction of research on vision and the new algorithms and processes made possible by electronic imaging.

  18. Synesthesia: a colorful word with a touching sound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylopoulos, Myrto I; Ro, Tony

    2013-10-22

    Synesthesia is a fairly common condition in which individuals experience atypical responses (such as color experiences) in association with certain types of stimuli (such as non-colored letters). Although synesthesia has been described for centuries, only very recently has there been an explosive growth of systematic scientific examinations of this condition. In this article, we review and critically evaluate current methods for both assessing synesthesia and examining its psychological basis, including the "test-retest" procedure, online battery assessments, and behavioral experiments. We highlight the limitations of these methods for understanding the nature of this complex condition and propose potential solutions to address some of these limitations. We also provide a set of markers that aid in distinguishing synesthesia from other closely related psychological phenomena.

  19. Synesthesia: A colorful word with a touching sound?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrto I. Mylopoulos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a fairly common condition in which individuals experience atypical responses (such as color experiences in association with certain types of stimuli (such as non-colored letters. Although synesthesia has been described for centuries, only very recently has there been an explosive growth of systematic scientific examinations of this condition. In this article, we review and critically evaluate current methods for both assessing synesthesia and examining its psychological basis, including the "test-retest" procedure, online battery assessments, and behavioral experiments. We highlight the limitations of these methods for understanding the nature of this complex condition and propose potential solutions to address some of these limitations. We also provide a set of characteristics that aid in distinguishing synesthesia from other closely related psychological phenomena.

  20. Color imaging fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Erik; Oguz Akyuz, Ahmet; Johnson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an understanding of what color is, where color comes from, and how color can be used correctly in many different applications. The authors first treat the physics of light and its interaction with matter at the atomic level, so that the origins of color can be appreciated. The intimate relationship between energy levels, orbital states, and electromagnetic waves helps to explain why diamonds shimmer, rubies are red, and the feathers of the Blue Jay are blue. Then, color theory is explained from its origin to the current state of the art, including image captu

  1. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These two forms of color vision deficiency disrupt color perception but do not affect the sharpness of vision ( ... Protan defect Florida State University: Human Vision and Color Perception KidsHealth from the Nemours Foundation MalaCards: color blindness ...

  2. Color discrimination, color naming and color preferences in 80-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijk, H; Berg, S; Sivik, L; Steen, B

    1999-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate color discrimination, color naming and color preference in a random sample of 80-year-old men and women. Knowledge of color perception in old age can be of value when using color contrast, cues and codes in the environment to promote orientation and function. The color naming test indicated that the colors white, black, yellow, red, blue and green promoted recognition to the highest degree among all subjects. A gender-related difference, in favor of women, occurred in naming five of the mixed colors. Women also used more varied color names than men. Color discrimination was easier in the red and yellow area than in the blue and green area. This result correlates positively with visual function on far sight, and negatively with diagnosis of a cataract. The preference order for seven colors put blue, green and red at the top, and brown at the bottom, hence agreeing with earlier studies, and indicating that the preference order for colors remains relatively stable also in old age. This result should be considered when designing environments for old people.

  3. The correlation between radiative surface defect states and high color rendering index from ZnO nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Combined surface, structural and opto-electrical investigations are drawn from the chemically fashioned ZnO nanotubes and its heterostructure with p-GaN film. A strong correlation has been found between the formation of radiative surface defect states in the nanotubes and the pure cool white light possessing averaged eight color rendering index value of 96 with appropriate color temperature. Highly important deep-red color index value has been realized > 95 which has the capability to render and reproduce natural and vivid colors accurately. Diverse types of deep defect states and their relative contribution to the corresponding wavelengths in the broad emission band is suggested.

  4. GEM operation in pure noble gases and the avalanche confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Buzulutskov, A F; Bressan, A; Mauro, A D; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Biagi, S F

    1999-01-01

    We study the operation of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) in pure Ar and almost pure Xe. Rather high gas gains obtained in pure Ar, of the order of 1000, are explained by the effect of the avalanche confinement to a GEM micro-hole. Applications to the development of non-ageing sealed photon detector filled with pure noble gases are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the photoelectron collection efficiency deteriorated in pure Ar due to electron backscattering, can be recovered by operation at a higher electric field.

  5. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  6. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M

    2006-08-01

    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  7. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  8. Color differences without probit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Color science generally considers color differences from the standpoint of distance metrics. These distance metrics are typically experimental and are based on many paired comparisons and probit analysis. The predominant focus is on the derivation of a uniform metric that is optimized for small color differences around the just-noticeable difference limit. Increasingly sophisticated mathematical modeling is then used to fit a range of laboratory data sets. While this work has yielded invaluable industrial applications, it has perhaps left certain aspects of color differences under explored. For example how do non-experts typically describe color differences? What are the natural language characteristics of the description of color difference? This paper considers color differences specifically from the nominal or linguistic perspective.

  9. Reasoning about color in Prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Whelan, Paul F.

    1994-10-01

    The use of color as a basis for segmenting images is attractive for a wide variety of industrial inspection applications, especially in the manufacturing of domestic goods, food, pharmaceuticals, toiletries and electronics. Human beings define colors, not formulae, or computer programs. Moreover, no two people have an identical view of what a color set, such as 'canary yellow' is. The article argues that teaching by showing is more relevant than the accepted methods of Color Science, in the design of factory-floor vision systems. Fast hardware for color recognition has been available for several years but has not yet received universal acceptance. This article explains how this equipment can be used in conjunction with symbolic processing software, based on the Artificial Intelligence language Prolog. Using this hardware-software system, a programmer is able to express ideas about colors in a natural way. The concepts of color set union, intersection, generalization and interpolation are all discussed.

  10. Color image and video enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Lecca, Michela; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    This text covers state-of-the-art color image and video enhancement techniques. The book examines the multivariate nature of color image/video data as it pertains to contrast enhancement, color correction (equalization, harmonization, normalization, balancing, constancy, etc.), noise removal and smoothing. This book also discusses color and contrast enhancement in vision sensors and applications of image and video enhancement.   ·         Focuses on enhancement of color images/video ·         Addresses algorithms for enhancing color images and video ·         Presents coverage on super resolution, restoration, in painting, and colorization.

  11. A field guide to digital color

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Maureen Stone's field guide to digital color presents a survey of digital color with special emphasis on those fields important for computer graphics. The book provides the foundation for understanding color and its applications, discusses color media and color management and the use of color in computer graphics, including color design and selection. The book provides a guide for anyone who wants to understand and apply digital color. An annotated bibliography provides in-depth references for further study on each topic.

  12. Color stability and colorant effect on maxillofacial elastomers. Part III: weathering effect on color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, S P; Andres, C J; Moore, B K

    1999-04-01

    Maxillofacial prostheses are serviceable for approximately 6 months, after which they need to be refabricated because of the deterioration of color and physical properties. This third article in a 3-part series evaluated the color stability of commonly used colorant-elastomer combinations as a result of exposure to weathering. Fifteen specimens were fabricated for each of the 3 elastomers (Silastic medical adhesive type A, Silastic 4-4210, and Silicone A-2186) and 6 colorants (dry earth pigments, rayon fiber flocking, artist's oil paints, kaolin, liquid cosmetics, and no colorant) for a total of 270 specimens (18 groups of 15 specimens). The 15 specimens of each elastomer-colorant combination were separated into 3 test condition groups (control, time passage, and natural weathering) of 5 specimens per test condition group. Control specimens were evaluated within 1 month of fabrication. The time passage group was sealed in glass containers and kept in the dark for 6 months before testing. The natural weathering groups were placed on the roof of the dental school for 6 months and exposed to sunlight and weathering. Color and optical density data for each elastomer-colorant combination were subjected to a 1-way analysis of variance to examine effects among test conditions (control, time passage, and weathering). When significant differences were observed, the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test was performed to identify differences in elastomer-colorant combinations among each test condition at a significance level of .05. Changes in color, as a result of weathering, were noted in many of the colorant-elastomer combinations. Also, color change occurred not only to the colored, but also to uncolored materials over time without exposure to weathering. Clinically, the addition of colorants could have a stabilizing effect on the elastomer color when it is exposed to weathering.

  13. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  14. Voyager Observations of the Color of Saturn's Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previously unreduced high resolution Voyager 2 images of Saturn's main rings are used to generate reflectivity (I/F) profiles as a function of radius. Ratios of profiles taken from green, violet, orange, and UV filter images are then produced. The I/F ratios are diagnostic of composition, and provide us with information on the rings' present state of compositional evolution. The rings are extremely reddish in color which suggests that they could not be pure water ice. The most likely candidates for the non-icy components are silicates and organics. The sources of these pollutants are of extreme importance in determining the compositional history of the rings. The radial profiles of ring color ratio exhibit several very interesting properties: (a) broad-scale, fairly smooth, color variations which are only weakly correlated with underlying ring structure (optical depth variations) across the outer C ring and inner B ring as well as the Cassini division region. These variations are probably consistent with ballistic transport; (b) fine-scale, noise-Like (but unquestionably real) color variations across at least the outer two-thirds of the B ring. Not only the "redness" but the spectral shape varies. These variations are currently unexplained. Groundbased spectroscopic observations should be pursued to study the implied compositional heterogeneities on at least the larger scales. This data set will be used for modeling of the color and composition of the main rings using ballistic transport and radiative transfer theories.

  15. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell,D.A; Broadhead, L.W.; Harrell, W.J.

    2006-03-31

    The AgraPure Mississippi Biomass project was a congressionally directed project, initiated to study the utilization of Mississippi agricultural byproducts and waste products in the production of bio-energy and to determine the feasibility of commercialization of these agricultural byproducts and waste products as feedstocks in the production of energy. The final products from this project were two business plans; one for a Thermal plant, and one for a Biodiesel/Ethanol plant. Agricultural waste fired steam and electrical generating plants and biodiesel plants were deemed the best prospects for developing commercially viable industries. Additionally, oil extraction methods were studied, both traditional and two novel techniques, and incorporated into the development plans. Mississippi produced crop and animal waste biomasses were analyzed for use as raw materials for both industries. The relevant factors, availability, costs, transportation, storage, location, and energetic value criteria were considered. Since feedstock accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of producing biodiesel, any local advantages are considered extremely important in developing this particular industry. The same factors must be evaluated in assessing the prospects of commercial operation of a steam and electrical generation plant. Additionally, the access to the markets for electricity is more limited, regulated and tightly controlled than the liquid fuel markets. Domestically produced biofuels, both biodiesel and ethanol, are gaining more attention and popularity with the consuming public as prices rise and supplies of foreign crude become less secure. Biodiesel requires no major modifications to existing diesel engines or supply chain and offers significant environmental benefits. Currently the biodiesel industry requires Federal and State incentives to allow the industry to develop and become self-sustaining. Mississippi has available the necessary feedstocks and is

  16. Hewlett-Packard's Approaches to Full Color Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gary

    2012-02-01

    Reflective displays are desirable in applications requiring low power or daylight readability. However, commercial reflective displays are currently either monochrome or capable of only dim color gamuts. Low cost, high-quality color technology would be rapidly adopted in existing reflective display markets and would enable new solutions in areas such as retail pricing and outdoor digital signage. Technical breakthroughs are required to enable bright color gamuts at reasonable cost. Pixel architectures that rely on pure reflection from a single layer of side-by-side primary-color sub-pixels use only a fraction of the display area to reflect incident light of a given color and are, therefore, unacceptably dark. Reflective devices employing stacked color primaries offer the possibility of a somewhat brighter color gamut but can be more complex to manufacture. In this talk, we describe HP's successes in addressing these fundamental challenges and creating both high performance stacked-primary reflective color displays as well as inexpensive single layer prototypes that provide good color. Our stacked displays utilize a combination of careful light management techniques, proprietary high-contrast electro-optic shutters, and highly transparent active-matrix TFT arrays based on transparent metal oxides. They also offer the possibility of relatively low cost manufacturing through roll-to-roll processing on plastic webs. To create even lower cost color displays with acceptable brightness, we have developed means for utilizing photoluminescence to make more efficient use of ambient light in a single layer device. Existing reflective displays create a desired color by reflecting a portion of the incident spectrum while absorbing undesired wavelengths. We have developed methods for converting the otherwise-wasted absorbed light to desired wavelengths via tailored photoluminescent composites. Here we describe a single active layer prototype display that utilizes these materials

  17. Color characters for white hot string bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtright, Thomas L.; Raha, Sourav; Thorn, Charles B.

    2017-10-01

    The state space of a generic string bit model is spanned by N ×N matrix creation operators acting on a vacuum state. Such creation operators transform in the adjoint representation of the color group U (N ) [or S U (N ) if the matrices are traceless]. We consider a system of b species of bosonic bits and f species of fermionic bits. The string, emerging in the N →∞ limit, identifies P+=m M √{2 } where M is the bit number operator and P-=H √{2 } where H is the system Hamiltonian. We study the thermal properties of this string bit system in the case H =0 , which can be considered the tensionless string limit: the only dynamics is restricting physical states to color singlets. Then the thermal partition function Tr e-β m M can be identified, putting x =e-β m, with a generating function χ0b f(x ), for which the coefficient of xn in its expansion about x =0 is the number of color singlets with bit number M =n . This function is a purely group theoretic object, which is well studied in the literature. We show that at N =∞ this system displays a Hagedorn divergence at x =1 /(b +f ) with ultimate temperature TH=m /ln (b +f ). The corresponding function for finite N is perfectly finite for 0

  18. [Alfred Adler and the psychology of aesthetic surgery in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, S L

    2002-01-01

    The quest for a psychological theory to explain the effects of aesthetic surgery reached its high point in the 1920s with the adoption of Alfred Adler's theory of the inferiority complex. The basis for this theory was Adler's early work in the psychological response of the body to disease and "degeneration". Aesthetic surgeons sought out the Adlerian model rather than a Freudian one as purely psychological while its roots, and their own theories, were clearly somatic in origin.

  19. Color Appearance of the Neon Color Spreading Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Vusić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As a part of this paper, the influence of various parameters within the target process of graphic reproduction on the color appearance of the neon color spreading effect was investigated. The shift in a color appearance qualitatively is determined through the calculation of changes in perceptual attributes of color, i.e. differences in lightness, chroma and hue. The influence of different media (printed images, and LCD display in the “cross-media” system was examined, as well as the role of the inserted segment color choice and background of the primary stimulus as an element of design solutions. These parameters were evaluated in a variety of ambient conditions and under the observation of three CIE standard light sources and illuminants. It was found that it was mostly the changes of the chroma and lightness. The change in the color hue is the lowest.

  20. Use of discrete chromatic space to tune the image tone in a color image mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuxun; Li, Zhijiang; Zhang, Jianqing; Zheng, Li

    2003-09-01

    Color image process is a very important problem. However, the main approach presently of them is to transfer RGB colour space into another colour space, such as HIS (Hue, Intensity and Saturation). YIQ, LUV and so on. Virutally, it may not be a valid way to process colour airborne image just in one colour space. Because the electromagnetic wave is physically altered in every wave band, while the color image is perceived based on psychology vision. Therefore, it's necessary to propose an approach accord with physical transformation and psychological perception. Then, an analysis on how to use relative colour spaces to process colour airborne photo is discussed and an application on how to tune the image tone in colour airborne image mosaic is introduced. As a practice, a complete approach to perform the mosaic on color airborne images via taking full advantage of relative color spaces is discussed in the application.

  1. Pure Land or Pure Mind?: Locus of Awakening and American Popular Religious Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Payne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two sections, each with its own distinct goal, forming an interrelated whole. The first introduces “locus of awakening,” and applies it to the relative success in America of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, compared to Pure Land Buddhism. The explanatory power of the concept is demonstrated by also considering Soka Gakkai. The difference between popular culture treatments of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, and Pure Land Buddhism was the problematic leading to identifying locus of awakening as an aspect of Buddhist thought. The second section locates it in the history of Buddhist thought, demonstrating that it is not a modern conceptualization of the path, not one created in response to Euro–American religio-therapeutic culture. Locus of awakening is, instead, part of the continuity of the Buddhist tradition, and does not fall on one side or the other of the sometimes overdrawn dichotomy between Asian and American Buddhisms.

  2. Workplace Diversity and Public Policy: Challenges and Opportunities for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An…

  3. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on the background microbial loads and quality of cantaloupe puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Sokorai, Kimberly; Ukuku, Dike; Fan, Xuetong; Juneja, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) applied to cantaloupe puree (CP) on microbial loads and product quality during storage for 10days at 4°C. Freshly prepared, double sealed and double bagged CP (ca. 5g) was pressure treated at 300, 400 and 500MPa at 8°C and 15°C for 5min. Microflora populations, soluble solid content, pH, color, antioxidant activity, appearance and aroma were measured at 1, 6, and 10d of storage. Results showed that high pressure treatment of 300MPa (8°C and 15°C) resulted in reduction of total aerobic plate count from 3.3 to 1.8logCFU/g. The treatment reduced the populations of native aerobic plate count to non-detectable levels (detection limit 1logCFU/g) at 400MPa and 500MPa pressures at 15°C. Pressure treatment completely inactivated mold and yeast in puree below the limits of detection at day 1 and no regrowth was observed during 10days of storage at 4°C while mold and yeast in untreated puree survived during the storage. High pressure treatment did not show any adverse impact on physical properties as soluble solid content (SSC, 11.2°Brix) and acidity (pH, 6.9). The instrumental color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were affected due to HHP treatment creating a slightly lighter product, compared to control, as indicated by higher L.* and lower a* values. However the change was not detected by the sensory panel while evaluating appearance scores. Pressure treatment did not affect the antioxidant capacity of puree product compared to control. Visual appearance and sniffing aroma test by panel revealed no adverse changes in the sensory parameters as a result of HHP treatment. HHP method described in this study appears to be a promising way to inactivate spoilage microorganisms in the cantaloupe puree and maintain quality. This study provides a viable option for preservation and marketing this product. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Cliques, coloring, and satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of a DIMACS Challenge is to encourage and coordinate research in the experimental analysis of algorithms. The First DIMACS Challenge encouraged experimental work in the area of network flow and matchings. The Second DIMACS Challenge, on which this volume is based, took place in conjunction with the DIMACS Special Year on Combinatorial Optimization. Addressed here are three difficult combinatorial optimization problems: finding cliques in a graph, coloring the vertices of a graph, and solving instances of the satisfiability problem. These problems were chosen both for their practical interest and because of their theoretical intractability.

  5. 'Snow White' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench dubbed 'Snow White,' after further digging on the 25th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (June 19, 2008). The lander's solar panel is casting a shadow over a portion of the trench. The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  7. Pharmacological actions of pure muscarine chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, P. J.

    1957-01-01

    The action of chromatographically pure crystalline muscarine chloride, prepared from Amanita muscaria, has been compared with acetylcholine chloride (ACh) on a number of different organs from a variety of species. Muscarine caused spasm in vivo and in vitro of muscles of the gut, uterus, urinary bladder, and bronchus. It also caused contraction of the horse ureter and carotid artery chain in vitro and slowed the isolated auricles of the guinea-pig and rabbit, and the frog heart. Muscarine caused a drop in blood pressure, although in vitro it produced either constriction or dilatation of the blood vessels of the rabbit ear. All these actions resembled those of acetylcholine, though muscarine was usually more potent. Muscarine effects were readily prevented by atropine sulphate. It had a slight action on the frog rectus abdominis muscle, causing a contracture at high concentrations. Muscarine was destroyed neither by pepsin nor by boiling at any pH. It was inactive by mouth in a monkey in a quantity many times that which would cause poisoning by ingestion of Amanita muscaria in the human being. Muscarine neither inhibited nor was hydrolysed by either true- or pseudo-cholinesterase. Muscarine chloride did not cause paralysis of the neuromuscular junctions of the rat diaphragm or of the cat gastrocnemius. PMID:13413151

  8. Spectroscopically pure bis(phthalocyaninato)protactinium (IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, F.; Beck, O.F.; Krauss, H.; Brown, D.; Tso, T.C.

    1980-05-01

    Spectroscopically pure PaPc/sub 2/ has been prepared by reaction between PaI/sub 4/ x 4 CH/sub 3/CN and o-phthalic acid dinitrile in 1-chloronaphthalene followed by sublimation at 5 x 10/sup -3/ Pa in a temperature profile with three clearly defined zones (520/sup 0/C/350/sup 0/C/room temperature). This procedure gives a product almost completely free of H/sub 2/Pc impurity which is known to have been present in previously reported complexes of the type AnPc/sub 2/. Thus, the trace of H/sub 2/Pc in the substance could only be detected by derivative spectroscopy. X-ray powder diffraction shows the compound to be isostructural with ThPc/sub 2/ and UPc/sub 2/. The ligand spectrum is typical of AnPc/sub 2/ complexes. f-f bands observed in a solid state spectrum provide additional proof that the compound is Pasup(I)sup(V)Pc/sub 2/.

  9. Twofold symmetries of the pure gravity action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2017-01-01

    We recast the action of pure gravity into a form that is invariant under a twofold Lorentz symmetry. To derive this representation, we construct a general parameterization of all theories equivalent to the Einstein-Hilbert action up to a local field redefinition and gauge fixing. We then exploit this freedom to eliminate all interactions except those exhibiting two sets of independently contracted Lorentz indices. The resulting action is local, remarkably simple, and naturally expressed in a field basis analogous to the exponential parameterization of the nonlinear sigma model. The space of twofold Lorentz invariant field redefinitions then generates an infinite class of equivalent representations. By construction, all off-shell Feynman diagrams are twofold Lorentz invariant while all on-shell tree amplitudes are automatically twofold gauge invariant. We extend our results to curved spacetime and calculate the analogue of the Einstein equations. While these twofold invariances are hidden in the canonical approach of graviton perturbation theory, they are naturally expected given the double copy relations for scattering amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity.

  10. The Pure Rotational Spectrum of KO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Mark; Russ, Benjamin; Sheridan, Phillip M.; Bucchino, Matthew; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-06-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of potassium monoxide (KO) has been recorded using millimeter-wave direct absorption spectroscopy. KO was synthesized by the reaction of potassium vapor, produced in a Broida-type oven, with nitrous oxide. No DC discharge was necessary. Eleven rotational transitions belonging to the ^{2}Π_{3/2} spin-orbit component have been measured and have been fit successfully to a case (c) Hamiltonian. Rotational and lambda-doubling constants for this spin-orbit component have been determined. It has been suggested that the ground electronic state of KO is either ^{2}Π (as for LiO and NaO) or ^{2}Σ (as for RbO and CsO), both of which lie close in energy. Recent computational studies favor a ^{2}Σ ground state. Further measurements of the rotational transitions of the ^{2}Π_{1/2} spin-orbit component and the ^{2}Σ state are currently in progress, as well as the potassium hyperfine structure.

  11. Critical scaling in a pure organic ferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, C. E-mail: paulsen@labs.polycnrs-gre.fr; Souletie, J.; Rey, P

    2001-05-01

    Pure organic ferromagnets, i.e. materials which contain no metallic centers, are very rare. We report here results of very low temperature AC susceptibility and DC magnetization measurements made on one of these exotic ferromagnets (formula C{sub 13}H{sub 17}N{sub 2}O{sub 3}) based on the spin S=((1)/(2)) free radical NIT (nitronyl nitroxide). A very weak hysteresis has been observed with a coercive field H{sub c}=0.15 Oe at 0.1 K. (T{sub c}{approx_equal}0.44 mK) The single crystal sample appears to be perfectly isotropic, so that measurements along the three crystal axis allow for a self-consistent way to correct for demagnetization effects. Scaling of the data allows us to estimate values for critical exponents {gamma}=1.35 and {beta}=0.33, and a very large critical region is observed, extending up to nearly 10 times T{sub c}.

  12. Pure gauge spin-orbit couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikakhwa, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Planar systems with a general linear spin-orbit interaction (SOI) that can be cast in the form of a non-Abelian pure gauge field are investigated using the language of non-Abelian gauge field theory. A special class of these fields that, though a 2×2 matrix, are Abelian are seen to emerge and their general form is given. It is shown that the unitary transformation that gauges away these fields induces at the same time a rotation on the wave function about a fixed axis but with a space-dependent angle, both of which being characteristics of the SOI involved. The experimentally important case of equal-strength Rashba and Dresselhaus SOI (R+D SOI) is shown to fall within this special class of Abelian gauge fields, and the phenomenon of persistent spin helix (PSH) that emerges in the presence of this latter SOI in a plane is shown to fit naturally within the general formalism developed. The general formalism is also extended to the case of a particle confined to a ring. It is shown that the Hamiltonian on a ring in the presence of equal-strength R+D SOI is unitarily equivalent to that of a particle subject to only a spin-independent but θ-dependent potential with the unitary transformation relating the two being again the space-dependent rotation operator characteristic of R+D SOI.

  13. Photoionization Dynamics in Pure Helium Droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, Darcy S.; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Wang, Chia C.; Poisson,Lionel; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2007-02-04

    The photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy of pure He droplets are investigated at photon energies between 24.6 eV (the ionization energy of He) and 28 eV. Time-of-flight mass spectra and photoelectron images were obtained at a series of molecular beam source temperatures and pressures to assess the effect of droplet size on the photoionization dynamics. At source temperatures below 16 K, the photoelectron images are dominated by fast electrons produced via direct ionization of He atoms, with a small contribution from very slow electrons with kinetic energies below 1 meV arising from an indirect mechanism. The fast photoelectrons have as much as 0.5 eV more kinetic energy than those from atomic He at the same photon energy. This result is interpreted and simulated within the context of a 'dimer model', in which one assumes vertical ionization from two nearest neighbor He atoms to the attractive region of the He2+ potential energy curve. Possible mechanism for the slow electrons, which were also seen at energies below IE(He), are discussed, including vibrational autoionizaton of Rydberg states comprising an electron weakly bound to the surface of a large HeN+ core.

  14. Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.; O'Neil, T. M.; Valentini, F.

    2012-10-01

    Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low-frequency branch of near-linear Langmuir (plasma) waves: the frequency is such that the complex dielectric function (Dr, Di) has Dr= 0; and ``flattening'' of f(v) near the wave phase velocity vph gives Di=0 and eliminates Landau damping. Here, we observe standing axisymmetric EAWs in a pure ion column.footnotetextF. Anderegg, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 095001 (2009). At low excitation amplitudes, the EAWs have vph˜1.4 v, in close agreement with near-linear theory. At moderate excitation strengths, EAW waves are observed over a range of frequencies, with 1.3 v vphvph.footnotetextF. Valentini et al., arXiv:1206.3500v1. Large amplitude EAWs have strong phase-locked harmonic content, and experiments will be compared to same-geometry simulations, and to simulations of KEENfootnotetextB. Afeyan et al., Proc. Inertial Fusion Sci. and Applications 2003, A.N.S. Monterey (2004), p. 213. waves in HEDLP geometries.

  15. Techno-functional properties of tomato puree fortified with anthocyanin pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, C; Albano, C; Calabriso, N; Carluccio, M A; Durante, M; Mita, G; Renna, M; Serio, F; Blando, F

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of tomato puree fortification with several anthocyanin-rich food colorants on bioactive compound content (phenolics, isoprenoids), antioxidant capacity, in vitro biological activities and consumer acceptance. Tomato puree (tp) was added with different anthocyanin extracts from black carrot (Anthocarrot), grape fruit skins (Enocolor), elderberry fruits (Elderberry) or mahaleb cherry fruits (Mahaleb), thus obtaining a 'functional tomato puree' (ftp). The consumer acceptance (colour, flavor, taste, visual appearance) was at high level, except for Mahaleb-added ftp. Compared to the control (tp), the addition of colouring extracts increased significantly the total phenolic content, before pasteurization, in addition to the expected anthocyanin content. However, after pasteurization, mostly Anthocarrot-ftp preserved an increased phenolic (+53%) content, as well as a higher antioxidant capacity (50%), more than the other added-extracts. Consistently, against tp, Anthocarrot-ftp exhibited an increased anti-inflammatory capacity as showed by the reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in human cultured endothelial cells, under inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  17. Color adaptation induced from linguistic description of color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Zheng

    Full Text Available Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience.

  18. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five–color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated look-up tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sensor....... The color sensor monitors the chromaticity of the mixed light providing the correction factor for the current driver by using the generated look-up table. The long term stability and accuracy of the system will be experimentally investigated with target tolerance within a circle radius 0.0011 in the uniform...

  19. The Color “Fruit”: Object Memories Defined by Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David E.; Pearson, Joel; Khuu, Sieu K.

    2013-01-01

    Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems. PMID:23717677

  20. The color "fruit": object memories defined by color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Lewis

    Full Text Available Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems.

  1. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-04-29

    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  2. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  3. Green Pea and Garlic Puree Model Food Development for Thermal Pasteurization Process Quality Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Liu, Fang

    2017-07-01

    Development and selection of model foods is a critical part of microwave thermal process development, simulation validation, and optimization. Previously developed model foods for pasteurization process evaluation utilized Maillard reaction products as the time-temperature integrators, which resulted in similar temperature sensitivity among the models. The aim of this research was to develop additional model foods based on different time-temperature integrators, determine their dielectric properties and color change kinetics, and validate the optimal model food in hot water and microwave-assisted pasteurization processes. Color, quantified using a* value, was selected as the time-temperature indicator for green pea and garlic puree model foods. Results showed 915 MHz microwaves had a greater penetration depth into the green pea model food than the garlic. a* value reaction rates for the green pea model were approximately 4 times slower than in the garlic model food; slower reaction rates were preferred for the application of model food in this study, that is quality evaluation for a target process of 90 °C for 10 min at the cold spot. Pasteurization validation used the green pea model food and results showed that there were quantifiable differences between the color of the unheated control, hot water pasteurization, and microwave-assisted thermal pasteurization system. Both model foods developed in this research could be utilized for quality assessment and optimization of various thermal pasteurization processes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. The art of packaging: An investigation into the role of color in packaging, marketing, and branding

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing research in the field of packaging and marketing and shed more light on the psychology of colors and their effect on packaging and marketing. Nowadays, packaging is proved to be one of the significant factors in the success of promoting product sale. However, there is a perceived gap with respect to the different aspects of packaging, in particular the graphics, design, and color of packaging. The current study provides...

  5. Moon Color Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Moon was taken by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, 1990, at a range of about 350,000 miles. The color composite uses monochrome images taken through violet, red, and near-infrared filters. The concentric, circular Orientale basin, 600 miles across, is near the center; the nearside is to the right, the far side to the left. At the upper right is the large, dark Oceanus Procellarum; below it is the smaller Mare Humorum. These, like the small dark Mare Orientale in the center of the basin, formed over 3 billion years ago as basaltic lava flows. At the lower left, among the southern cratered highlands of the far side, is the South-Pole-Aitken basin, similar to Orientale but twice as great in diameter and much older and more degraded by cratering and weathering. The cratered highlands of the near and far sides and the Maria are covered with scattered bright, young ray craters.

  6. Natural colorants from filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fábio Aurélio Esteves; Zaccarim, Bruna Regina; de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Dos Santos, Carolina Alves; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    In the last years, there is a trend towards the replacement of synthetic colorants by natural ones, mainly due to the increase of consumer demand for natural products. The natural colorants are used to enhance the appearance of pharmaceutical products, food, and different materials, making them preferable or attractive. This review intends to provide and describe a comprehensive overview of the history of colorants, from prehistory to modern time, of their market and their applications, as well as of the most important aspects of the fermentation process to obtain natural colorants. Focus is given to colorants produced by filamentous fungal species, aiming to demonstrate the importance of these microorganisms and biocompounds, highlighting the production performance to get high yields and the aspects of conclusion that should be taken into consideration in future studies about natural colorants.

  7. Psychology of family business

    OpenAIRE

    Taylyakova, Feruzahon

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  8. Professional psychology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  9. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...

  10. Bosonic colored group field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Geloun, Joseph [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France); University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou (BJ). International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair); Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Departement de Mathematiques et Informatique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Dakar (Senegal); Magnen, Jacques [Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de Physique Theorique, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Rivasseau, Vincent [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    Bosonic colored group field theory is considered. Focusing first on dimension four, namely the colored Ooguri group field model, the main properties of Feynman graphs are studied. This leads to a theorem on optimal perturbative bounds of Feynman amplitudes in the ''ultraspin'' (large spin) limit. The results are generalized in any dimension. Finally, integrating out two colors we write a new representation, which could be useful for the constructive analysis of this type of models. (orig.)

  11. Physics observables for color transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Pire, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    The physics observables dedicated to the study of color transparency are diverse. After a brief pedagogical introduction, we emphasize the complementarity of the nuclear filtering and color transparency concepts. The importance of quantum interferences leads to suspect pictures based on the preparation of a squeezed state of small transverse size leading to a rapid transverse expansion. The different roles of heavy and light nuclei are emphasized. The possibility of color transparency tests i...

  12. Color Strategies for Image Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, color encoding strategies for different image database applications are discussed. The color image workflow is examined in detail, and master and derivative file encoding strategies are outlined in relation to capture, maintenance, and deployment of image files. For the most common image database purposes, recommendations are given as to which type of color encoding is most suitable. Advantages and disadvantages of sensor, input-referred, output-referred, and output device spec...

  13. Operational Assessment of Color Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    University of Waterloo), Dr. Frank Kooi (The Netherlands Organisation ), Dr. (Lt Col) Jay Flottmann, Dr. (Col) Lex Brown, Lt Col Robert Forino, and Mr...results for each of the four devices. Color vision status for all subjects was based on the consensus of the test battery. Other studies often...Using the consensus of the test battery to define color status, the RCCT and CAD had the best sensitivity (identifying a color anomalous subject

  14. Spectrophotometer-Based Color Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    evaluated using nominal values for L*a*b* (color space ) from international paint suppliers. The results demonstrate the value of using a spectrophotometer...advantage over the x, y, z tristimulus values used to describe color because they more uniformly span the visible color space . Figure 1 L*a*b...diagram UNCLASSIFIED Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED 3 There are many possible metrics to express the

  15. Psychology in its Place

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...

  16. Pure analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cimmino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pure analgesics are only rarely used by Italian clinicians and this holds true also for rheumatologists. This work is concerned with an evaluation of the use of analgesics in a rheumatological outpatient clinic during the period 1989-1999. Methods: The records of 1705 patients consecutively seen at the clinic were downloaded on a specifically built website. Results: 4469 visits were considered. In 260 of them (5.8%, analgesics were prescribed to 234 (13.7% patients. The number of patients with a prescription of analgesics steadily increased during the years 1989-1999. The diagnoses in patients assuming analgesics were: osteoarthritis (47.1%, inflammatory arthritis (24.2%, soft tissue rheumatisms (13.7%, nonspecific arthralgia/myalgia (7.5%, and connective tissue diseases (2.6%. Peripheral analgesics were used in 188 (82.5% patients and central analgesics were used in the remaining 40 patients (17.5%. Analgesic drugs were used mainly in degenerative joint conditions. The indications for analgesics in the 55 patients with inflammatory arthrits were: (a partial or total remission of arthritis; for this reason non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were no longer required in 18 patients; (b to increase the analgesic effect of NSAIDs in 23 patients; (c contraindications to NSAIDs in 14 patients (renal failure in 2 patients, gastritis in 10, allergy and bleeding in the remaining two. Conclusions: About 14% of our outpatients were treated with analgesics with an increasing trend in the examined period. The main indications for analgesics are degenerative conditions but they can be used also in selected patients with arthritis.

  17. Predictions of pure liquid shock Hugoniots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.

    1998-06-01

    Determination of product species and associated equations-of-state (EOS) for energetic materials such as pyrotechnics with complex elemental compositions remains a major unsolved problem. Although, empirical EOS models may be calibrated to replicate detonation conditions within experimental variability (5--10%), different states, e.g. expansion, may produce significant discrepancy with data if the basic form of the EOS model is incorrect. A more physically realistic EOS model based on intermolecular potentials, such as the Jacobs Cowperthwaite Zwisler (JCZ3) EOS, is needed to predict detonation states as well as expanded states. Predictive capability for any EOS requires a large species data base composed of a wide variety of elements. Unfortunately, only 20 species have known exponential 6 (EXP 6) molecular force constants which are used in the JCZ3-EOS. Of these 20 species, only 10 have been adequately compared to experimental data such as molecular scattering or shock Hugoniot data. Since data in the strongly repulsive region of the molecular potential is limited, alternative methods must be found to deduce force constants for a larger number of species. The objective of the present study is to determine JCZ3 product species force constants using corresponding state theory. Intermolecular potential parameters were obtained for a variety of gas species using a simple corresponding states technique with critical volume and critical temperature. A more complex, four parameter corresponding state method with shape and polarity corrections was also used to obtain intermolecular potential parameters. Both corresponding state methods were used to predict shock Hugoniot data obtained from pure liquids. The simple corresponding state method is shown to give adequate agreement with shock Hugoniot data.

  18. Psychiatry and psychology in medieval Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Nasser; Gorji, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The history of psychological sciences and especially the ways in which related disorders were treated in medieval Persia are not well known in the West. The main objective of this article is to review the clinical approaches to psychological disorders used by practitioners in medieval Persia. Several documents still exist from which the clinical data on different psychological syndromes in medieval Persia can be ascertained. Data for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, the Internet, references from relevant articles and books, the Astan-e-Ghods Razavi Library, the Tehran University Library, the Mashhad University Library, and the files of the authors. Search terms included psychiatry, psychology, Persian, medieval, Avicenna, and pharmacotherapy. The medieval practitioners defined various signs and symptoms, apparent causes, and hygienic and dietary rules for prevention of these disorders. Medieval Persian medical writings encouraged the treatment of psychological disorders by tackling the conditions that cause or contribute to the disorder and through the use of electrical-shock therapy, phlebotomy, psychotherapy, music and color therapy, and especially prescription of long lists of medicaments. Some of the approaches of doctors in medieval Persia are accepted today, although most remain largely unexamined. With further research, more of these treatments may be shown to be of use to modern medicine.

  19. On dominator colorings in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    yx ∈ N ¯G(x) ∩ Y. Then x dominates the color class which contains yx. Thus C is a dom- inator coloring of ¯G and χd( ¯G) = ω( ¯G). Now suppose there exists x ∈ X such that. N ¯G(x) ∩ Y = ∅. Then in any dominator coloring of ¯G, the color class which x domi- nates is of the form {x1} where x1 ∈ X and hence it follows that ...

  20. Colored Flag by Double Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Describes various demonstrations that illustrate double refraction and rotation of the plane of polarization in stressed, transparent plastics, with the consequent production of colored designs. (ZWH)

  1. PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND. DEVELOPMENT. Oladipo, S.E. PhD. Dept. of Counselling Psychology, Tai Solarin University of Education,. Ijagun, Ogun State. Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) ...

  2. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  3. School Psychology in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Anders

    1987-01-01

    Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

  4. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  5. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  6. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  7. Color Assessment and Transfer for Web Pages

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ou

    2012-01-01

    Colors play a particularly important role in both designing and accessing Web pages. A well-designed color scheme improves Web pages' visual aesthetic and facilitates user interactions. As far as we know, existing color assessment studies focus on images; studies on color assessment and editing for Web pages are rare. This paper investigates color assessment for Web pages based on existing online color theme-rating data sets and applies this assessment to Web color edit. This study consists o...

  8. Thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends during deep fat frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, Charanjiv

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shall be deleted offer some advantages like better nutritional quality, lower cost and greater storage stability than pure oils. Model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO and sunflower oil (SFO were examined for change in their physico-chemical parameters (acid value, iodine value, color value, peroxide value and fatty acids. Repeated deep fat frying processes were carried out using dried potato chips in pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends, in order to study the thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil showed good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although all the blended oils used in the study showed good thermal stability during repeated deep fat frying cycles, model blends consisting of 60%RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils.La mezclas de aceites pueden ofrecer algunas ventajas sobre los aceites puros las como mejor calidad nutricional, coste inferior o mayor estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. En este estudio, aceite de salvado de arroz (RBO, aceite de girasol (SFO y mezclas de ambos, se sometieron al proceso de fritura de patatas y se evaluaron los principales cambios físico-químicos en los aceites puros y en sus mezclas (acidez, índice de yodo, color, índice de peróxidos y composición de ácidos grasos. Aunque todas las muestras mostraron buena estabilidad a elevada temperatura, los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con la mezcla que contenía 60% de RBO y 40% de SFO.

  9. ActionScript Developer's Guide to PureMVC

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cliff

    2011-01-01

    Gain hands-on experience with PureMVC, the popular open source framework for developing maintainable applications with a Model-View-Controller architecture. In this concise guide, PureMVC creator Cliff Hall teaches the fundamentals of PureMVC development by walking you through the construction of a complete non-trivial Adobe AIR application. Through clear explanations and numerous ActionScript code examples, you'll learn best practices for using the framework's classes in your day-to-day work. Discover how PureMVC enables you to focus on the purpose and scope of your application, while the f

  10. A Color-Opponency Based Biological Model for Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Color constancy is the ability of the human visual system to adaptively correct color-biased scenes under different illuminants. Most of the existing color constancy models are nonphysiologically plausible. Among the limited biological models, the great majority is Retinex and its variations, and only two or three models directly simulate the feature of color-opponency, but only of the very earliest stages of visual pathway, i.e., the single-opponent mechanisms involved at the levels of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons. Considering the extensive physiological evidences supporting that both the single-opponent cells in retina and LGN and the double-opponent neurons in primary visual cortex (V1 are the building blocks for color constancy, in this study we construct a color-opponency based color constancy model by simulating the opponent fashions of both the single-opponent and double-opponent cells in a forward manner. As for the spatial structure of the receptive fields (RF, both the classical RF (CRF center and the nonclassical RF (nCRF surround are taken into account for all the cells. The proposed model was tested on several typical image databases commonly used for performance evaluation of color constancy methods, and exciting results were achieved.

  11. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna J Putman

    Full Text Available Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis, and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  12. COLORING PROPERTIES OF WOOL FABRIC COLORED BY NEW DYESTUFFS - AZOMETHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJEVIC Dragan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The azomethines have broad applications in food and dyestuff industries, and in analytical chemistry, catalysis and also in the field of agrochemical. These have played an influential part in the improvement of modern coordination chemistry, but also they can also be found at key points in the development of inorganic biochemistry, catalysis and also in optical materials. The present paper describes coloring properties of wool fabric colored by new dyestuffs - azomethines, derivate of isatin. Synthesizing of dyestuffs can often have one to six chromogen, which can be defined as the photoactive components that contain colored or uncolored absorbent components. In addition of monoazo, diazo, poly-azo, anthraquinone, xanthan and similar systems, the azomethines or imines, also includes to the chromogen groups. Azomethines, such as, isatin-3-hydrazone, isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone and isatin-3-phenylhydrazone, were synthesized and their coloring performance on wool fabric assessed. The synthesized azomethines showed very good substantively for wool fibers with good coloring performance according to CIEL*a*b* system which characterized quantitative and qualitative coloring property. Dyestuff 3 or isatin-3-phenylhydrazone bound to woolen textiles to a greater extent and greater intensity (minimum value of L. Dyestuff 2 or isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone linked to the minimum amount for textiles (the largest value of L. Although it must be noted that it is a lighter shade (yellow color as opposed to the dyestuff 3 (red color.

  13. Adding Texture to Color: Quantitative Analysis of Color Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2010-01-01

    What happens to color emotion responses when texture is added to color samples? To quantify this we performed an experiment in which subjects ordered samples (displayed on a computer monitor) along four scales: Warm-Cool, Masculine-Feminine, Hard-Soft and Heavy-Light. Three sample types were used:

  14. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  15. Preliminary assessments of portable color spectrophotometer measurements of cotton color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color with the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd (diffuse reflectance) and +b (yellowness). It has been reported that some cotton bales, especially those transported overseas, appear to have changed significantly in color from their in...

  16. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing,

  17. Color the night : applying daytime colors to nighttime imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method to give (fused) multiband night-time imagery a natural day-time color appearance. For input, the method requires a false color RGB image that is produced by mapping 3 individual bands (or the first 3 principal components) of a multiband nightvision system to the respective

  18. Event-related potentials reveal linguistic suppression effect but not enhancement effect on categorical perception of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Yang, Ling; Yu, Yanping; Zhang, Meichao; Shao, Yulan; Zhang, Honghong

    2014-08-01

    The present study used the event-related potential technique to investigate the nature of linguistic effect on color perception. Four types of stimuli based on hue differences between a target color and a preceding color were used: zero hue step within-category color (0-WC); one hue step within-category color (1-WC); one hue step between-category color (1-BC); and two hue step between-category color (2-BC). The ERP results showed no significant effect of stimulus type in the 100-200 ms time window. However, in the 200-350 ms time window, ERP responses to 1-WC target color overlapped with that to 0-WC target color for right visual field (RVF) but not left visual field (LVF) presentation. For the 1-BC condition, ERP amplitudes were comparable in the two visual fields, both being significantly different from the 0-WC condition. The 2-BC condition showed the same pattern as the 1-BC condition. These results suggest that the categorical perception of color in RVF is due to linguistic suppression on within-category color discrimination but not between-category color enhancement, and that the effect is independent of early perceptual processes. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. White Rock in False Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington

  20. Wiedemann: color y exilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gustavo Cobo Borda

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El exiliado mantiene viva, en la retina de la memoria, los colores de su inicial contacto con el mundo. Al nacer en Munich en 1905 e interesarse por las artes plásticas, las primeras visiones de Guillermo Wiedemann bien pudieran fijarse en los caballos azules de Franz Marc o en las remotas tierras vírgenes de ese adánico primitivismo con que los expresionistas alemanes de la nueva sensibilidad huían hacia la naturaleza, trátese del bosque verde o las cumbres recubiertas de nieve. La choza africana o lo~ archipiélagos del Pacífico donde los tótems de Gauguin todavía arden, con sensualidad ancestral, en la penumbra salvaje.