WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological wellbeing measured

  1. Validation of three Setswana measures for psychological wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marié Philipina Wissing

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was therefore to explore the psychometric properties of Setswana versions of three measures of psychological wellbeing, namely the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC (the 29-item version (Antonovsky, 1987, Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS (Diener, Emmons, Larson & Griffen, 1985 and Affectometer 2 (AFM (Kammann & Flett, 1983. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was implemented for this study. Questionnaires were translated, back-translated and evaluated in a research-committee approach. A stratified sample of 738 Setswana-speaking participants completed the questionnaires in randomly selected sites of the North West province of South Africa as part of the multi-disciplinary Transition and Health during Urbanisation of South Africans project. Reliability indices, means, standard deviations, ranges of scores, patterns of correlations and factor structures were established for all the scales. Main findings: The present Setswana SWLS and AFM are reliable and valid for use in this group, as is, to some extent, the SOC. The factor structures of the three scales were also consistent with the latent factor structures of the original scales. Practical implications: These validated measures are instruments for use in the clinical, community and work contexts of Setswana-speaking people.

  2. Measuring Chinese psychological well-being with Western developed instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Norvilitis, Jill M

    2002-12-01

    We explored the possibility of applying 4 psychological scales developed and commonly used in the West to Chinese culture. The participants, 273 Chinese and 302 Americans, completed measures of self-esteem (Self-Esteem Scale; Rosenberg, 1965), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988), and suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation; Beck, Kovacs, & Weissman, 1979). All scales were found to be reliable and valid cross culturally. Comparative analyses suggest that gender differences on all 4 scales are smaller among the Chinese than the Americans. Americans were more likely to score higher on the socially desirable scales (self-esteem and social support) and lower on the socially undesirable scale (suicidal ideation). However, no cultural differences were found in this study on the measure of depression. Results suggest that, with a few considerations or potential modifications, the current measures could be used in Chinese culture.

  3. Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being in adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell-Jones David L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being were evaluated for adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD: the General Well-being Index, (GWBI – British version of the Psychological General Well-being Index, and the 12-item Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ12. Methods Reliability, structure and other aspects of validity were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 157 adults with treated or untreated GHD, and sensitivity to change in a randomised placebo-controlled study of three months' growth hormone (GH withdrawal from 12 of 21 GH-treated adults. Results Very high completion rates were evidence that both questionnaires were acceptable to respondents. Factor analyses did not indicate the existence of useful GWBI subscales, but confirmed the validity of calculating a GWBI Total score. However, very high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96, N = 152, probably indicated some item redundancy in the 22-item GWBI. On the other hand, factor analyses confirmed the validity of the three W-BQ12 subscales of Negative Well-being, Energy, and Positive Well-being, each having excellent internal reliability (alphas of 0.86, 0.86 and 0.88, respectively, N from 152 to 154. There was no sign of item redundancy in the highly acceptable Cronbach's alpha of 0.93 (N = 148 for the whole W-BQ12 scale. Whilst neither questionnaire found significant differences between GH-treated and non-GH-treated patients, there were correlations (for GH-treated patients with duration of GH treatment for GWBI Total (r = -0.36, p = 0.001, N = 85, W-BQ12 Total (r = 0.35, p = 0.001, N = 88 and for all W-BQ12 subscales: thus the longer the duration of GH treatment (ranging from 0.5 to 10 years, the better the well-being. Both questionnaires found that men had significantly better overall well-being than women. The W-BQ12 was more sensitive to change than the GWBI in the GH-Withdrawal study. A significant between

  4. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  5. Emotional and Psychological Well-Being in Children: The Development and Validation of the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…

  6. Autonomous teamwork and psychological well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Seinen, B.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Few studies investigated the assumed positive effects of autonomous groups on individual psychological well-being. In the present study we investigated the hypotheses that (1) group autonomy is positively related to psychological well-being, (2) this relationship is mediated by individual autonomy,

  7. Sociodemographic predictors of elderly's psychological well-being in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Hamid, Tengku A; Yahaya, Nurizan

    2011-05-01

    Psychological well-being as one of the most important indicators of successful aging has received substantial attention in the gerontological literature. Prior studies show that sociodemographic factors influencing elderly's psychological well-being are multiple and differ across cultures. The aim of this study was to identify significant sociodemographic predictors of psychological well-being among Malay elders. The study included 1415 older Malays (60-100 years, 722 women), randomly selected through a multistage stratified random method from Peninsular Malaysia. WHO-Five well-being index was used to measure psychological well-being. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0. Using multiple regression analysis a significant model emerged (F(7, 1407) = 20.14, p ≤ 0.001), where age, sex, marital status, and household income were significant predictor variables of psychological well-being among Malay elders. However, level of education, employment status, and place of residence failed to predict psychological well-being. This study showed that the oldest old, elderly women, unmarried, and the poor elderly people are at risk for experiencing low psychological well-being. Therefore, they need special attention from family, policy makers, and those who work with elderly people.

  8. The relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhesam Khajeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient among 200 married students, 100 female and 100 make, in city of Najafabad, Iran. The study uses a questionnaire with 84 questions for measuring psychological well-being, which consists of six parts including Autonomy, Environmental mastery, Personal growth, Positive relation with others, Purpose in life and Self-acceptance, each with 14 questions. Cronbach alphas for these six items were calculated as 0.83, 0.86, 0.85, 0.88, 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. In order to measure empathy quotient (EQ, the study uses EQ-short form, which consists of 22 questions. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.70. Using stepwise regression technique, the study determines a positive and meaningful relationship between EQ and psychological well-being.

  9. Religious orientation and psychological well-being among Spanish undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García-Alandete

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.

  10. Employee entitlements during pregnancy and maternal psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2007-12-01

    Antenatal psychological well-being is multifactorially determined, including by social circumstances. Evidence suggests that workplace conditions are salient determinants of mental health, but it is not known whether employment conditions influence antenatal psychological well-being. To investigate the relationship between employment conditions and antenatal psychological well-being in Australian women. A sociodemographically diverse consecutive cohort of employed nulliparous women was recruited in late pregnancy. Data were collected by a structured interview assessing sociodemographic characteristics, employment arrangements, experience of pregnancy-related discrimination, and access to maternity leave entitlements. Participants completed two standardised psychometric measures of maternal mood: the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Profile of Mood States (PoMS). Comparisons of self-reported mood were made between women by experience of workplace adversity, using a composite measure of workplace events. Of 205 eligible women, 165 agreed to participate. Of these, 114 of 165 (69%) reported at least one form of workplace adversity during pregnancy. More women without private health insurance (78%) reported workplace adversity than those who were privately insured (57%) (chi2(1)=6.95, P=0.008). Women experiencing workplace adversity had significantly worse psychological well-being as indicated by the EDS score (7.7+/-5.1) than those who were experiencing no workplace adversity (5.5+/-3.4), mean difference (95% CI)=-2.2 (-3.7 to -0.8), P=0.003. Similar results were reported for the PoMS. Workplace adversity during pregnancy is associated with poorer maternal psychological well-being. Workplace conditions and entitlements are salient factors for consideration in assessments of antenatal psychosocial well-being.

  11. Spiritual well-being may buffer psychological distress in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD)

    OpenAIRE

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Crawford, Sybil; Tran, Chau; Goldberg, Robert; Rosenthal, Lawrence; Ockene, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and has been associated with a worse prognosis. The authors examined whether spiritual wellbeing is associated with reduced psychological distress in patients with ICDs. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Wellbeing (FACIT-SWB) questionnare and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to measure spiritual wellbeing and overall psychological distress. Mu...

  12. Father Involvement, Nurturant Fathering, and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Daughters

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Camille C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between father involvement, nurturant fathering, and the psychological well-being among young adult women. A total of 99 young adult, female, university students completed retrospective measures of nurturant fathering, father involvement, and measures of current psychological well-being (measured in terms of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and psychological distress). Results indicated that retrospective perceptions of both fat...

  13. A longitudinal study of perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2007-01-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents (N = 2,758) responded to instruments measuring their perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being, including hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, and self-esteem. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that perceived parental psychological control was concurrently related to adolescent psychological well-being at Time 1 and Time 2. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the relationships between perceived parental psychological control and adolescent psychological well-being over time were bidirectional in nature. Regarding the differential contribution of paternal and maternal psychological control to adolescent psychological well-being over time, paternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction at Time 2, particularly for adolescent girls. On the other hand, maternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent self-esteem at Time 2. Relative to those conditions in which one or none of the adolescents' parents was perceived to display high psychological control at Time 1, the psychological well-being of adolescents at Time 2 was poorer under the condition in which both parents were perceived to display high levels of psychological control at Time 1. The clinical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  15. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...

  16. The Effect of the Psychological Sense of Community on the Psychological Well-Being in Older Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Pozzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing populations across Europe are increasing. Communities have an important role in not only engaging this segment of the population but also in helping them to make them feel “part of something” (local or global in order to favour their psychological well-being. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of volunteering and being connected in one’s community on well-being. The present paper will test an older volunteers’ psychological well-being model. 143 older volunteers completed measures of religiousness, sense of global responsibility, psychological sense of community, generativity, motivation to volunteer and a profile of mood states. Data show that a psychological sense of community has a key role in the study of older volunteerism due to its impact on well-being. Service agencies and administrations can develop campaigns to sustain older volunteerism in order to increase well-being and reduce social costs.

  17. Religiosity and Coping: Racial Stigma and Psychological Well-Being among African American Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Martin, Pamela P; Hope, Elan C; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lawrence Scott, Marquisha

    2018-06-02

    This study examined how having a relationship with God served as a protective factor between racial stigma beliefs and psychological well-being. A church sample of African American adolescent girls (N = 117, M age = 15) completed measures on racial stigma, psychological well-being, and reports on having a relationship with God. After controlling for adolescent age, family income, and church attendance, positive racial beliefs and having a relationship with God were associated with a healthier psychological well-being. Findings also revealed that having a relationship with God and internalizing healthier racial beliefs were associated with a healthier psychological well-being, whereas reporting higher levels of having a relationship with God served as a protective factor for African American girls when internalizing moderate levels of racial stigma. Overall, results suggest that having a relationship with God can serve as a coping mechanism and promote a healthier psychological well-being for African American adolescent girls.

  18. Mindfulness, psychological well-being and doping in talented young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this research was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being relate to the propensity to use Performance-Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) in a sample of talented young athletes. A secondary aim was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being are related. This was a survey ...

  19. Psychological Well-Being and Internet Addiction among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardak, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological well-being. Participants were 479 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The relationships between Internet addiction and psychological…

  20. Mediators of Psychological Well-being in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Beauchamp, Mark R; Miller, Andrew; Lonsdale, Chris; Parker, Philip; Dally, Kerry

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) intervention on psychological well-being in adolescent boys and to examine the potential mediating mechanisms that might explain this effect. ATLAS was evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial in 14 secondary schools located in low-income communities (N = 361 adolescent boys, mean age = 12.7 ± .5 years). The 20-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory and involved: professional development for teachers, provision of fitness equipment to schools, enhanced school sport sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies for reducing screen time. Assessments were conducted at baseline and immediately post intervention (8 months). Psychological well-being was measured using the Flourishing Scale. Motivational regulations (intrinsic, identified, introjected, controlled, and amotivation) and basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in school sport, muscular fitness, resistance training skill competency, and recreational screen time were examined as potential mediating mechanisms of the intervention effect. The intervention effect on well-being was small but statistically significant. Within a multiple mediator model, changes in autonomy needs satisfaction, recreational screen time, and muscular fitness significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on psychological well-being. In addition to the physical health benefits, targeted physical activity programs for adolescent boys may have utility for mental health promotion through the mechanisms of increasing autonomy support and muscular fitness and reducing screen time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of Religiosity in Psychological Well-Being Among Medical and Non-medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shemaila; Saleem, Tamkeen

    2017-08-01

    Religion has been generally considered as a protective factor for the psychological health of the people. As many studies have publicized a high prevalence of psychological morbidities among the medical students during their academic stages of medical schools, it is significant to investigate whether religiosity functions as a protective factor, to explore religiosity as a predictor of psychological well-being in a sample of medical students, and to compare the results of medical students as well as non-medical students with respect to religiosity and psychological well-being. The study is carried out in Federal Medical and Dental College and International Islamic University, Islamabad. The present study examined a sample of 120 medical students from Federal Medical and Dental College and 120 non-medical students from International Islamic University, Islamabad. Purposive sampling was used. The respondents completed religious orientation scale and scale of psychological well-being scale along with a demographic data sheet. In order to measure the study variables, linear regression and t test were used. The findings revealed that religiosity is a strong predictor of psychological well-being. Extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity predicts psychological well-being among the students. The results indicated a significant difference in psychological well-being between medical and non-medical students. No significant difference was found in religiosity of medical and non-medical students. The gender differences in religiosity and psychological well-being were found to be insignificant. The results emphasize that psychological well-being is prophesied by religiosity. The present research suggests further investigations and also endows with trends for psychological evaluation, development of religious beliefs, and interventions for augmenting psychological well-being among the medical students.

  2. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Wellbeing of Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N

    African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.

  3. Religiousness, Race, and Psychological Well-Being: Exploring Social Psychological Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Bruce; Crocker, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    Examined predictions (n=125) that the relationship between religious belief and psychological well-being should be more positive among black than white individuals, and the relationship should be mediated by social psychological aspects of religion with positive implications for well-being. Religious belief salience and psychological well-being…

  4. Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Malaysian Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Soheila; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Kadir, Rusnani Abdul; Jaafar, Wan Marzuki Wan; Panahi, Mohammad Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Investigations in the field of psychology have traditionally paid attention to studying mental health problems and their prevention (Kaplan, Shema, & Leite, 2008; Kokko, Korkalainen, Lyyra, & Feldt, 2012). However, a lack of psychological problems is not necessarily an indicator of the psychological well-being of individuals. Therefore,…

  5. A Model of Psychological Well-Being among International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Azadeh; Nejati, Mehran; Abd Razak, Nordin

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between acculturation attitude (i.e. adjustment and attachment attitudes) and individuals' psychological adaptation (i.e. life satisfaction, depression and self-esteem). Additionally, the relationship between the dimensions of psychological adaptation with psychological well-being and their mediation…

  6. Measures of self-perceived well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Ian

    2010-07-01

    As people lead longer and generally healthier lives, aspirations and expectations of health care extend to include well-being and enhanced quality of life. Several measurement scales exist to evaluate how well health care reaches these goals. However, the definitions of well-being or quality of life remain open to considerable debate, which complicates the design, validation, and subsequent choice of an appropriate measurement. This article reviews nine measures of psychological well-being, tracing their origins in alternative conceptual approaches to defining well-being. It compares their psychometric properties and suggests how they may be used. The review covers the Life Satisfaction Index, the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale, single-item measures, the Philadelphia Morale scale, the General Well-Being Schedule, the Satisfaction With Life scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the World Health Organization 5-item well-being index, and the Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Scales range in size from a single item to 22; levels of reliability and validity range from good to excellent, although for some of the newer scales we lack information on some forms of validity. Measures exist to assess several conceptions of psychological well-being. Most instruments perform adequately for survey research, but we know less about their adequacy for use in evaluating health care interventions. There remains active debate over how adequately the questions included portray the theoretical definition of well-being on which they are based. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Caregiver Burden, Spirituality, and Psychological Well-Being of Parents Having Children with Thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anum, Jawaria; Dasti, Rabia

    2016-06-01

    The research determined the relationship of caregiving burden, spirituality and psychological well-being of parents of Pakistani thalassemic patients in a crosssectional research design. The sociodemographic form, Montgomery-Borgatta burden measure (Montgomery et al. in Who should care for the elderly? An east-west value divide. World Scientific, River Edge, pp 27-54, 2000), Multidimensional Measure of Islamic Spirituality (Dasti and Sitwat in J Muslim Ment Health 8(2):47-67, 2014. doi: 10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0008.204 ) and Ryff Scale of Psychological Well-being (Ryff in J Pers Soc Psychol 57(6):1069-1081, 1989. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069 ) were administered on a sample of 80 parents (32 fathers and 48 mothers) recruited from different Thalassemic Centers of Lahore city, Pakistan. Data were analyzed through correlation and mediational analyses. Results indicated that the caregiver burden was negatively correlated with the psychological well-being and the domains of spirituality, while the psychological well-being and spirituality were positively correlated. We identified that the caregiver burden has direct effect on the psychological well-being of the parents and it influences the psychological well-being through the pathway of the two domains of spirituality, i.e., self-discipline and meanness-generosity. These results highlighted the role of spirituality upon the psychological well-being of caregivers, which could be utilized to prevent pathological influences (such as hard feelings, hopelessness, depressed mood, anxiety, and relationship problems) of caregiver burden and enhance psychological well-being through spiritual counseling. Caregivers can work on their well-being and burden by disciplining their lives and forgoing hard feelings toward others.

  8. The significance of deaf identity for psychological well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Madeleine; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    of psychological well-being than those with a marginal identity. Further, it found that additional disability, educational level, and feeling discriminated against significantly and independently explained the degree of psychological well-being. Results are discussed here with respect to social identity theory......Research has paid attention to how deaf identity affects life outcomes such as psychological well-being. However, studies are often carried out with small samples and without controlling for other variables. This study examined how different forms of identity—deaf, hearing, bicultural (deaf...... and hearing), and marginal (neither deaf nor hearing)—were associated with levels of psychological well-being and a number of other variables. The sample was 742 adults with hearing loss in Denmark. The study found that those with a deaf, hearing or bicultural identity had significantly higher levels...

  9. Aggression and psychological well-being of adolescent taekwondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Aggression and psychological well-being of adolescent taekwondo participants in comparison with hockey participants and a non sport group ... According to experts, schools in South ...

  10. Changes in productivity, psychological wellbeing and physical wellbeing from working in a 'green' building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Milner, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Based on improvements in indoor environmental quality claims are that 'green' buildings are healthier and promote greater productivity than conventional buildings. However, the empirical evidence over the last decade has been inconclusive, usually with flawed study designs. This study explored whether a 'green' building leads to a healthier, more productive work environment. A one-year, longitudinal comparison of two groups of employees of a large commercial bank; a group that moved into a GreenStar-accredited building and a group that stayed in a conventional building, was conducted. Measures of psychological wellbeing, physical wellbeing, productivity, and perceptions of the physical environment were taken before the move, six months later, and one year later. Results indicate that the 'green' building group had significantly increased self-reported productivity and physical wellbeing. The perceptions of the physical work environment indicate that respondents in the 'green' building group experienced significant air quality improvements (specifically, reduced stale air, better ventilation, improved air movement, reduced humidity, and conditions that were not too drafty) but perceived the lighting conditions as dimmer. Despite positive findings 'green' building rating tools require amendment to focus on those qualities that actually lead to improved wellbeing and productivity.

  11. Consequences of Casual Sex Relationships and Experiences on Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    2017-10-01

    Casual sexual relationships and experiences (CSREs) are still considered to be detrimental to the psychological well-being of youth even though findings remain inconclusive. Most studies have focused on emerging adulthood. Using a prospective design based on a representative sample of high school students in the province of Québec, we measured sexually active adolescents' (N = 2,304) psychological well-being six months after engaging in these relationships while controlling for prior well-being. We analyzed two forms of CSREs, friends with benefits (FWB) and one-night stand (ONS) relationships, as well as levels of sexual intimacy. The results show that CSREs had a small impact (small effect sizes) on subsequent psychological well-being, especially among girls; FWB relationships involving penetrative contact increased girls' psychological distress and both their alcohol and drug consumption. ONSs including sexual touching increased girls' psychological distress and their drug use. None of the CSREs influenced boys' psychological well-being. The findings underscored the importance of using caution when arguing that CSREs are detrimental or harmless to the psychological well-being of adolescents. The results also highlight the importance of taking into account gender and forms of CSREs in prevention and health interventions.

  12. Consequences of Casual Sex Relationships and Experiences on Adolescents’ Psychological Well-Being: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Casual sexual relationships and experiences (CSREs) are still considered to be detrimental to the psychological well-being of youth even though findings remain inconclusive. Most studies have focused on emerging adulthood. Using a prospective design based on a representative sample of high school students in the province of Québec, we measured sexually active adolescents’ (N = 2,304) psychological well-being six months after engaging in these relationships while controlling for prior well-being. We analyzed two forms of CSREs, friends with benefits (FWB) and one-night stand (ONS) relationships, as well as levels of sexual intimacy. The results show that CSREs had a small impact (small effect sizes) on subsequent psychological well-being, especially among girls; FWB relationships involving penetrative contact increased girls’ psychological distress and both their alcohol and drug consumption. ONSs including sexual touching increased girls’ psychological distress and their drug use. None of the CSREs influenced boys’ psychological well-being. The findings underscored the importance of using caution when arguing that CSREs are detrimental or harmless to the psychological well-being of adolescents. The results also highlight the importance of taking into account gender and forms of CSREs in prevention and health interventions. PMID:28010123

  13. Does psychological need satisfaction perceived online enhance well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Satisfaction with life and psychological well-being in people with gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabito-Alcón, María F; Rodríguez-Molina, José M

    2016-01-01

    Satisfaction with life and psychological well-being have been extensively studied as measures of mental health, which has led to the development of two major traditions, the hedonic and eudaimonic. A difference has been found between subjective emotional well-being, which is often called psychological well-being, and cognitive well-being, or satisfaction with life. The aim of this study was to explore satisfaction with life and psychological wellbeing in people diagnosed with gender dysphoria (GD), and compare their results to those of the general population. We also looked for gender-related differences. The Fordyce Happiness Measures (or Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire) and the adaptation to Castilian Spanish of the Likert-type 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale were applied to a control sample of 40 students and a group of 61 people with GD. Descriptive statistics and the t test for independent samples were calculated. The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 15. The results indicated that the GD group had lower scores on the satisfaction with life and psychological well-being scales than the control group. No gender differences were found in satisfaction with life or psychological well-being.

  15. Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B; Luthans, Fred; Smith, Ronda M; Palmer, Noel F

    2010-01-01

    The recently recognized core construct of psychological capital or PsyCap (consisting of the positive psychological resources of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) has been demonstrated to be related to various employee attitudinal, behavioral, and performance outcomes. However, to date, the impact of this positive core construct over time and on important employee well-being outcomes has not been tested. This study meets this need by analyzing the relationship between a broad cross-section of employees' (N = 280) level of PsyCap and two measures of psychological well-being over time. The results indicated that employees' PsyCap was related to both measures of well-being and, importantly, that PsyCap explained additional variance in these well-being measures over time. The limitations, needed future research, and practical implications conclude the article.

  16. Effect of Participation in Aerobic Dancing Classes on Psychological Well-Being of Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Behzadnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent decades, the positive psychology considered as an ability of human being which are provided appropriate studies in well-being and happiness domains. In this way, the purpose of current research was to identify the effect of aerobic dancing on psychological well-being of non-athletic male students. Materials and Methods: The research method was of a quasi-experimental nature in the form of a time-series design using experimental and control groups. 40 non-athlete students (21.6±1.82 years old from General physical Education 1 course in Birjand University were randomly selected and assign to two groups. The Ryff's scales of psychological well-being were used to analyze the psychological well-being parameters in the pre-test and post-test of training. The training protocol was including 12 weeks, and 3 seasons (60 minutes per week that each subject in experimental group received 15 minutes warm-up, 30 minute aerobic training and 15 minutes cool-down and relaxation training. Results: The results of repeated measure analysis of variance indicated significant differences in psychological well-being and its subdivisions in the 3 phases of tests in the experimental group (p<0.01. Moreover, the results of t-test showed the positive influence of 12 weeks aerobic training on psychological well-being of the student boys (first post-test, p<0.001; second post-test, p<0.001, and well-being scores of aerobic group was higher than control group. Conclusion: The result of the present research emphasizes the factors affecting on psychological well-being as well as its ways to promote of well-being. Implications of these findings are discussed among exercise psychologists.

  17. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF REPRODUCTIVE NORMATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Aleksandrovna Zmievskaya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the reproductive normativity in the context of its relationship to person’s psychological well-being. The theoretical analysis allowed to formulate the definition of reproductive normativity (RN and its structural components. It’s considered the problem of relation between objective and subjective components of RN as the determinant of psychological well-being. It’s presented and justified one of the possible typologies of RN, reflecting the most common variants of modern Russians’ reproductive behavior: 1 high RN («The total normativity»; 2 medium-high RN («Family with deviant past»; 3 medium-low RN («Single parenthood»; 4 low RN («No family and children». The presence of different relations between objective and subjective components of RN in described types is empirically detected. The highest consistency of RN components is observed in groups with high and low RN, the lowest consistency is manifested among single parents. The mismatch between RN components is associated with lower psychological well-being. Single parents are at risk: they demonstrate the most negative evaluations of their life, self-awareness and self-attitude. Average- auspicious and almost identical indicators of psychological well-being were found among respondents with deviant past (medium-high RN and respondents with no family and children (low RN: psychological benefits of having family and children are eliminated by abnormal parenthood experience and by the mismatch between desired and actual implementation of family life. Thereby the «blocked» parent role is connected with the same level of psychological well-being as the improperly played parent role. The highest level of psychological well-being is expectedly found among respondents with high RN («The total normativity».

  19. Does Social Interaction Matter Psychological Well-Being in Persons With Dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Boltz, Marie; Lee, Hana; Algase, Donna L

    2017-06-01

    Social interaction between residents and staff is an important factor influencing sense of well-being. This study examined the relationship between staff-resident interactions and psychological well-being of persons with dementia. A total of 831 observations of 110 persons with dementia in 17 nursing homes and 6 assisted living facilities were included. Psychological well-being was measured by observed displays of positive and negative emotional expressions. Social interaction was determined by the type of social interaction (ie, verbal interaction, nonverbal interaction, and both verbal and nonverbal interactions) and the quality of interaction (ie, positive, negative, and neutral). Verbal or both verbal and nonverbal interactions showed significant relationship with positive and negative emotional expressions. Positive interaction was significantly associated with more positive emotional expression, whereas negative interaction was not. Staff-resident interactions are important to promote the psychological well-being of persons with dementia in residential care.

  20. Perceived Social Support and Assertiveness as a Predictor of Candidates Psychological Counselors' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…

  1. The Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwan, Toni; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2017-12-22

    To identify and appraise studies investigating the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke and evidence for personality change. Systematic searches of six databases (PsychINFO, CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science) were conducted from inception to June 2017. Studies involving adult stroke samples that employed a validated measure of at least one of the Big Five personality factors were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of studies. Eleven studies were identified that assessed associations between personality and psychological well-being after stroke (nine studies) or post-stroke personality change (two studies). A consistent finding was that higher neuroticism was significantly related to poorer psychological well-being. The evidence for the other Big Five factors was mixed. In terms of personality change, two cross-sectional studies reported high rates of elevated neuroticism (38-48%) and low extraversion (33-40%) relative to normative data. Different questionnaires and approaches to measuring personality (i.e., self vs. informant ratings, premorbid personality vs. current personality) complicated comparisons between studies. People high on neuroticism are at increased risk of poor psychological well-being after stroke. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to address the limited research on post-stroke personality change. Implications for rehabilitation High neuroticism is associated with poorer psychological well-being after stroke. Assessing personality characteristics early after stroke may help to identify those at risk of poor psychological outcomes.

  2. Monitoring of psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether monitoring and discussing psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes improves mood, glycemic control, and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial of 461...... outpatients with diabetes who were randomly assigned to standard care or to the monitoring condition. In the latter group, the diabetes nurse specialist assessed and discussed psychological well-being with the patient (with an interval of 6 months) in addition to standard care. The computerized Well...... nurse. The two groups did not differ for HbA(1c) or in their overall evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. In the monitoring condition, significantly more subjects were referred to the psychologist. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring and discussing psychological well-being as part of routine diabetes...

  3. Gender differences in the effect of breastfeeding on adult psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Noriko; Bartley, Mel; McMunn, Anne; Kelly, Yvonne

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about whether the positive effect of breastfeeding on child health extends to adult psychological adjustment. We hypothesized that breastfed babies would have higher psychological well-being in adulthood in relation to the pathway of childhood psychosocial adjustment. We used the available cases with normal birthweight from the National Child Development Study (NCDS, N=7304, born in 1958) and the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70, N=6205, born in 1970). Childhood psychosocial adjustment was assessed by the child's teacher, using the Bristol Social Adjustment Guides for the NCDS and the Rutter Behaviour Scale for the BCS70. Adult psychological well-being was defined in terms of measures of emotional distress and self-efficacy. In this study, we controlled the effects of socio-demographic factors at birth: maternal age and educational status, two-parenthood and being a first-born child. We used path analysis to test life-course pathways between breastfeeding and adult psychological well-being independent of socio-demographic factors at birth and the role childhood psychosocial adjustment. After accounting for the effects of the socio-demographic factors at birth, being breastfed indirectly contributed to adult psychological well-being among women through the pathway from childhood psychosocial adjustment. Moreover, this was directly associated with better psychological well-being in adulthood among women from the BCS70. Being breastfed was not associated with psychological outcomes amongst men in either cohort. Being breastfed contributed to psychological outcomes in women, especially from the later born cohort. Our findings suggest that being breastfed can be important for women's psychological well-being throughout the lifecourse.

  4. PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS FOR PROFESSORS IN BRAZIL AND CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    BOAS,ANA ALICE VILAS; MORIN,ESTELLE M.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental he...

  5. Adolescents Eating Behavior, Body Image and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Lana; Sujoldžić, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the middle school students in the Croatian region of Dalmatia. The survey was designed to examine adolescent eating behavior as it relates to body image and psychological well-being (self-esteem, life-satisfaction and stress) in relation to body mass index; BMI. Differences among participants in food intake were examined according to demographic variables and eating behavior (regular food intake or dieting) as well. Psychological variables were highly associated with die...

  6. Self-esteem stability in relation to narcissism and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zorjan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of self-esteem stability has an important role in the understanding of interpersonal and psychological functioning of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem stability, narcissism and psychological well-being. A total of 178 participants (77% female participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 20, with the ages ranging from 18 to 26 years. The participants completed the following scales and questionnaires: Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI, Psychological Well-being Scales (PWBS, Instability of Selfesteem scale (ISES and Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (RSES. The Rosenberg Self-esteem scale was used to measure both self-esteem level and self-esteem stability, which was defined as dispersion of self-esteem level in time. For the purpose of obtaining data on self-esteem stability, the participants were required complete the Rosenberg self-esteem scale for a sequence of 14 days, other measures were completed during the first day of participation in the study. The main effects for self-esteem level emerged for narcissism and psychological well-being, in both cases higher levels of self-esteem was associated to higher levels of narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability additionally explained a significant proportion of variability in narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability was negatively associated with higher levels of narcissism and positively associated with higher levels of psychological well-being, above and beyond the effect of self-esteem level. When comparing two different measures of self-esteem stability, the results revealed that people with higher level of narcissism tend to overestimate their self-esteem stability. The results were consistent with our hypotheses. The importance of considering both level and stability of self-esteem, limitations of the present study and possibilities for further research are

  7. Psychological well-being and workability in child abuse investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, N

    2018-05-17

    Working with victims and offenders of child abuse can impact on the health and well-being of police officers and staff. To identify the effects of tenure, work ability, gender and a personal experience of child abuse on symptoms of anxiety, depression and primary and secondary trauma in child abuse investigators (CAIs). Screening questionnaires were sent to police officers and staff. The officers and staff worked in child protection in seven police forces. The surveillance was undertaken online and the data were encrypted and personal identifiers removed. The four clinical measures were Goldberg Anxiety/Depression Scale, Professional Quality of Life and Impact of Events (extended). Eighty-two per cent of 2798 CAIs returned questionnaires. There was a statistically significant relationship between all four clinical symptoms and workability (P < 0.001), between tenure and primary trauma (P < 0.01) and between anxiety, depression, primary trauma and workability and adverse childhood experience (ACE) scores (P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that workability, tenure and ACE scores explained between 12 and 23% of the variance. There were gender differences with women having higher levels of symptoms; however, the effect size and clinical significance were negligible for all but the primary trauma scores. Psychological surveillance can provide an important source of evidence for occupational health practitioners working with CAIs in informing them of the factors which could be considered in selecting, training, supporting and retaining officers and staff. Psychological surveillance can also help police management to identify ways to monitor the long-term effectiveness and well-being of CAIs.

  8. Spirituality, psychological well-being, and HIV symptoms for African Americans living with HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C L; Holzemer, W L

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to explore the contribution of spiritual well-being and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) symptoms to psychological well-being measured by depression, hope, and state-trait anxiety in a sample of 117 African-American men and women with a mean age of 38 years living with HIV disease. Of the respondents, 26% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 74% were HIV seropositive. Each participant completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Sign and Symptom Checklist for Persons with HIV Disease, the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Nowotny Hope Scale, State-Trait Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The findings suggest that existential well-being, a spiritual indicator of meaning and purpose, more than religious well-being, was significantly related to the participants' psychological well-being. In addition, HIV symptoms were found to be significant predictors of psychological well-being. These findings support the need for nurses to continue exploring ways to integrate and support spirituality within the domains of clinical practice.

  9. Work Separation Demands and Spouse Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthner, Dennis K.; Rose, Roderick

    2009-01-01

    Using family resilience and ecological theories, we examine the relationship between partner work-required travel separations and spouse psychological well-being. The study examines the role of work-organization-provided supports for families and of informal support networks, including marital satisfaction, as factors that can reduce the risks for…

  10. Liver enzymes and psychological well-being response to aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Background: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a medical condition that has broad implications for a person's physical and ... Objective: The aim of this study was to detect changes in liver enzymes and psychological well-being in response to aerobic .... of mood that can be used to calculate a Total Mood.

  11. Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Diane M.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Many people have concealable stigmatized identities: Identities that can be hidden from others and that are socially devalued and negatively stereotyped. Understanding how these concealable stigmatized identities affect psychological well-being is critical. We present our model of the components of concealable stigmatized identities including valenced content – internalized stigma, experienced discrimination, anticipated stigma, disclosure reactions, and counter-stereotypic/positive informati...

  12. Young Children's Physical and Psychological Well-Being through Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Jin; Wee, Su-Jeong; Gilbert, Beverly Boals; Choi, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Children's participation in yoga activities is receiving increasingly widespread attention as an exercise system that promotes not only physical health benefits but also psychological well-being. The authors of this article introduce how yoga practices can be implemented in an early childhood classroom to enhance children's mind and body harmony,…

  13. Social support, locus of control, and psychological well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R

    1997-01-01

    Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2

  14. Psychological well-being: The contributions of perceived prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the contributions of perceived prevalence of financial crime, socioeconomic status and gender on psychological well-being among unemployed. The cross-sectional survey research design was employed. Participants were 288 unemployed graduates sampled in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria.

  15. Occupational health and psychological well-being of industrial employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bhardwaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.

  16. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective

  17. Gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2012-06-01

    Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present study is one of the first to provide empirical data on this topic. Both childhood and adolescent gender nonconformity were negatively related to well-being. In the same analyses, neither sexual orientation nor biological sex was a significant predictor of well-being. These results suggest that gender-atypical traits may be more relevant for psychological health than a same-sex sexual orientation. Both environmental and biological influences may account for these findings.

  18. The problem group? Psychological wellbeing of unmarried people living alone in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hwa Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of unmarried one-person households has increased rapidly among young adults living in the Republic of Korea since 2000. How this rise in solo living is related to psychological wellbeing is of importance to both individuals and society as a whole. Objective: This study examined how living alone is related to psychological wellbeing and how this association differs across attitudes toward marriage among young adults aged 25-39. Methods: We relied on repeated cross-sectional data from the Korea Social Survey (2010 and 2012 to compare unmarried solo residents to both unmarried and married individuals living with family members. Psychological wellbeing was measured in terms of life satisfaction and suicidal ideation over the past twelve months. Results: In general, unmarried solo residents experienced greater life satisfaction than did unmarried family coresidents. Of those with a positive attitude toward marriage, unmarried solo residents had lower life satisfaction than did married family coresidents. For those with a non-positive attitude toward marriage, however, there was no difference in the level of life satisfaction between unmarried solo residents and married family coresidents. Suicidal ideation did not differ by living arrangement. Conclusions: Unmarried solo living does not necessarily relate to lower psychological wellbeing among young adults in Korea. Life stage and attitudes toward marriage should be considered when examining the association between living arrangements and psychological wellbeing.

  19. Psychological well-being of Thai nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Wang, Chia-Chih D C

    2011-05-01

    The psychological well-being of nursing students is a very important component in the training and development of future nurses. While previous studies have explored different aspects of nursing students' mental and psychological health in various countries, they have given little attention to comparing nursing students with their non-nursing student peers. The present study investigated the differences between nursing students and non-nursing students in Thailand with regard to their psychological well-being. The gender effect was also examined. Four hundred students were included in this study (200 nursing students and 200 non-nursing students). Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and four psychological instruments that examined their self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and social difficulties. Overall, compared to their non-nursing counterparts, nursing students were found to score significantly higher on self-esteem and life satisfaction and reported lower levels of depression and social difficulties. Gender was also found to have a significant main effect on participants' social difficulties. Several recommendations for improving the mental health and psychological well-being of nursing students are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Educational Psychology Working to Improve Psychological Well-Being: An Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joe; Singh-Dhesi, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    This article presents one English local authority's educational psychology service's approach to supporting children and young people's psychological well-being. Evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic approaches adopted by one intervention (the Child Behaviour Intervention Initiative [CBII]) is presented. The statistical analysis…

  1. Disclosure and Psychological Well-Being of Sexually Abused Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kindy Yuk-Ip

    2015-01-01

    The role of disclosure on psychological well-being of adolescents with child sexual abuse experience was investigated in a subsample of 74 disclosers among 800 adolescents recruited in the community in Hong Kong. The results supported that CSA experiences have differential impact on adolescents' psychological well-being. Family characteristics of the disclosers accounted for only a small amount of the variance in an array of psychological well-being measures. CSA characteristics were robust predictors of disclosers' sexual eroticism and externalizing behavioral symptoms. Disclosers' cognitive appraisal of CSA experience and quality of parental attachment were strong predictors of their self-esteem and internalizing behavioral problems. After controlling for the aforementioned factors, negative disclosure experience still significantly predicted lower self-esteem, higher sexual anxiety, more internalizing behavior, and more severe post-traumatic stress disorder responses. Research to understand the factors that generate negative disclosure experiences is needed for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of disclosure.

  2. Coping Strategies and Psychological Well-Being among Teacher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustems-Carnicer, Josep; Calderón, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    The coping strategies used by students play a key role in their psychological well-being. This study examines the relationship between coping strategies and psychological well-being in a sample of 98 undergraduates aged between 19 and 42 years. Coping strategies were evaluated by means of the CRI-A (Moos, 1993), while psychological well-being was…

  3. Destructive managerial leadership and psychological well-being among employees in Swedish, Polish, and Italian hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Holmberg, Ingalill; Bernin, Peggy; Alderling, Magnus; Åkerblom, Staffan; Widerszal-Bazyl, Maria; Magrin, Maria Elena; Hasselhorn, Hans-Martin; Milczarek, Malgorzata; D'Angelo, Giuliana; Denk, Melanie; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional exploratory study was to investigate destructive managerial leadership in the hotel industry in Sweden, Poland, and Italy in relation to psychological well-being among employees. 554 questionnaires were collected from employees in all occupational groups within hotels. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) measured working conditions, particularly iso-strain or high work demands combined with low control and poor social support, and psychological well-being, defined in terms of mental health, vitality, and behavioural stress. Items adapted from the Global Leadership and Organisational Behaviour Effectiveness (GLOBE) research program questionnaire measured autocratic, malevolent, and self-centred leadership styles. Differences in ratings between countries were estimated, as well as the relationship between destructive managerial leadership on an organisation level and employee psychological well-being on an individual level. The relationship between destructive leadership and psychological well-being among employees was adjusted for employees' reported iso-strain. Autocratic and malevolent leadership were at the organisation level related to low vitality among employees and self-centred leadership was significantly associated with poormental health, low vitality, and high behavioural stress. Autocratic and malevolent leadership were more strongly related to iso-strain than was self-centred leadership. Variations in leadership practice between countries were seen in autocratic and malevolent leadership. This exploratory study suggests a significant association between destructive managerial leadership on the organisation level and poor psychological well-being among employees on an individual level. Interventions to decrease iso-strain and enhance psychological well-being among employees could be directed at an organisation level.

  4. Emotional intelligence and affective intensity as life satisfaction and psychological well-being predictors on nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Berges, Beatriz; Augusto-Landa, José-María

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI), affective intensity, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being in a sample of nursing professionals. Studies conducted in nursing have shown that emotional intelligence is a skill that minimizes the negative stress consequences. PEI was measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, which includes the emotional attention, clarity and repair subscales. Affective intensity was measured by Larsen's Affective Intensity Scale. To analyze this relationship, we observed the impact of PEI and affective intensity on life satisfaction and psychological well-being, while controlling the sociodemographic variables. The correlation analyses showed significant relationships between the subscales of these variables. Clarity showed positive relationships with some psychological well-being dimensions. Affective intensity subscales presented relationships with life quality and different subscales of psychological well-being. Regression analyses indicated that repair is the only life satisfaction predictor. Moreover, clarity, some affective intensity dimensions, and sociodemographic variables are the main predictors of psychological well-being. The results confirmed the importance of repair on life quality and psychological well-being. Programs to improve nursing professionals' PEI are needed to increase their psychological well-being and life satisfaction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Psychological wellbeing and self-esteem in students across the transition between secondary school and university: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinauskas Romualdas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study investigated the psychological wellbeing and self-esteem of students during the transition between secondary school and university. The sample comprised 197 students (82 male; 115 female. The mean age of the students at the start of the study was 18.54 years (SD = 0.78. Students completed measures of psychological wellbeing (Ryff Psychological Wellbeing Scale and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale during their final year of secondary school and again at the start of their university studies. Repeated measures (RM multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to investigate how transition status and gender affected aspects of psychological wellbeing and self-esteem. Multivariate analysis showed main effect of the transition from school to university on psychological wellbeing and self-esteem. Univariate analysis indicated that psychological wellbeing was higher at the start of university studies than during the final year of secondary school, but failed to confirm the effect of the transition on self-esteem. Gender by transition status interactions for two psychological wellbeing dimensions (autonomy and purpose in life were found.

  6. The psychological well-being manifesting among master’s students in Industrial and Organisational Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Psychological well-being among master’s students is seen as a contributing factor towards having a meaningful, enjoyable and productive experience as a student. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative description of the psychological well-being experiences of first-year students in a part-time coursework master’s degree in Industrial and Organisational Psychology (IOP in order to foster an empathetic understanding of their experiences. Motivation for the study: The understanding of their master’s students’ psychological wellbeing experiences will assist university IOP departments in facilitating the appropriate psychological containment to students and the optimisation of their resilience towards meaningfully completing their first year and perhaps also their master’s degree. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research was conducted within a hermeneutic interpretive stance. Data were gathered from a focus group with 10 conveniently chosen participants. Thematic content analysis provided eight themes, which were interpreted and linked to the literature on psychological well-being. Main findings: Student distress caused by job demands leads to languishing and feeling overwhelmed. In contrast, student eustress resulting from job resources leads to flourishing, consisting of self-efficacy, locus of control and optimism. Practical implications: University IOP departments can use the information towards understanding their master’s students’ psychological well-being experiences, which could assist in the students’ successful and timeous completion of their studies. Contribution: The study contributes to the literature on master’s students’ real negative and positive experiences and psychological well-being, which university departments often deny or dismiss as idiosyncratic. Keywords: positive organisational behaviour; job demands; job resources; multiple roles; support

  7. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  8. Personality, passion, self-esteem and psychological well-being among junior elite athletes in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bauger, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Personality research among athletes seems to have obtained less interest in recent years after much focus until the 1990s. This decline was obviously a result of ill conducted “personology” research, and a greater focus on psychological state versus trait in the sport psychology community. The present study explored personality dimensions, as measured by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory, passion, self-esteem, and well-being among junior elite athletes. In addition, the athletes ...

  9. Psychological Well-Being Among Women Who Experienced Intimate Partner Violence and Received Civil Legal Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M; Hartley, Carolyn Copps

    2018-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is often associated with negative mental health outcomes; yet, little is known about the psychological well-being of women who experience IPV and receive civil legal services. Civil legal services are not specifically designed to focus on women's mental health needs but Sullivan's Social and Emotional Well-Being Framework helps to explain why women receiving this type of formal assistance may demonstrate positive changes in psychological well-being. Using a panel study design and data from 85 women who experienced IPV and sought civil legal services, we examined women's psychological well-being over a one-year period of time. Approximately two thirds of the women received assistance from Iowa Legal Aid (ILA) for a civil protective order ( n = 56) and the rest were represented in a family law matter. We used measures of mental health (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) and well-being (social support, resilience, goal directed thinking, empowerment). Our hypotheses that women would experience a decrease in mental health symptoms and an increase in well-being were partially supported. Women reported a decrease in depressive and PTSD symptoms over one year but there were no changes in their goal-oriented thinking or resilience. Implications for practice and future research are included.

  10. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2014-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  11. Does Employee Recognition Affect Positive Psychological Functioning and Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M Dolores; Privado, Jesús

    2015-09-14

    Employee recognition is one of the typical characteristics of healthy organizations. The majority of research on recognition has studied the consequences of this variable on workers. But few investigations have focused on understanding what mechanisms mediate between recognition and its consequences. This work aims to understand whether the relationship between employee recognition and well-being, psychological resources mediate. To answer this question a sample of 1831 workers was used. The variables measured were: employee recognition, subjective well-being and positive psychological functioning (PPF), which consists of 11 psychological resources. In the analysis of data, structural equation models were applied. The results confirmed our hypothesis and showed that PPF mediate the relationship between recognition and well-being. The effect of recognition over PPF is two times greater (.39) with peer-recognition than with supervisor-recognition (.20), and, the effect of PPF over well-being is .59. This study highlights the importance of promoting employee recognition policies in organizations for the impact it has, not only on well-being, but also on the positive psychological functioning of the workers.

  12. Personality traits and emotional intelligence as predictors of teachers' psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined predictive validity of the Big Five personality traits and three dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI regarding psychological well-being on the sample of primary and highschool teachers. Notwithstanding relatively high correlations between personality and EI scales, reported by other studies, we predicted that EI still accounts for a significant amount of variability in psychological well-being. This prediction originates in idea that different abilities concerning emotions should help individuals to be more effective in various aspects of positive functioning. One hundred fifty two teachers filled out the Big Five Inventory (BFI, Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ, and the short version of Riff's Psychological Well-Being Scales (RPWB. Results showed good predictive validity of personality traits, for they accounted for 22 to 43% of variability in different psychological well-being scales. Predictive validity of EI is also excellent, but when controlling for personality traits is far worse, since it accounts for only 1 to 3% of variance in well-being scales. Discriminant validity of EI scales measured by ESCQ is therefore unsatisfactory.

  13. Psychological well-being as a predictor of dropout among recently qualified Danish eldercare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giver, Hanne; Faber, Anne; Hannerz, Harald; Strøyer, Jesper; Rugulies, Reiner

    2010-05-01

    The eldercare sector is characterized by a shortage of labour and a high turnover rate, which constitutes a major challenge for the ageing societies of western Europe. The aim of the present study was to investigate if a low level of psychological well-being at the time of graduation predicts dropout among eldercare workers two years later. We included 4,968 female eldercare trainees in this prospective study, recruited from 27 of the 28 Danish colleges for eldercare. Psychological well-being in 2004 was measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). We linked the survey data with national register data to obtain information about labour market attachment two years after qualification. In 2006, 37% of all participants had left the eldercare sector. Compared to participants with high psychological well-being at baseline, participants with medium and low psychological well-being were more likely to dropout to sectors unrelated to health and welfare (odds ratio (OR) 1.40 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.06-1.85) and 1.66 (95% CI = 1.27-2.19), respectively). They were also more likely to drop out of the labour market (OR 1.48 (95% CI = 1.08-2.04) and 1.60 (95% CI = 1.12-2.20), respectively). Psychological well-being was not related to dropout to other health- and welfare sectors or dropout to further education. The fact that more than one third of all participants had left the eldercare sector two years after qualification demonstrates the importance of retention initiatives early in working life. In addition a focus on psychological well-being among eldercare workers should be considered.

  14. The Psychological Well-Being and Sociocultural Adaptation of Short-Term International Students in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although…

  15. The Impact of Missionary Service on the Spiritual Development and Psychological Wellbeing of Mormon College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Brian S.

    2017-01-01

    Mormon college students may leave or delay their studies to serve missions for their church, typically for 18 to 24 months. This dissertation studies the impact of serving a mission on the spiritual development and psychological wellbeing of these students. Using a two-factor ANOVA fixed-effects, nonexperimental design, five measurement scales on…

  16. The Consequences of Perceived Discrimination for Psychological Well-Being : A Meta-Analytic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Michael T.; Branscombe, Nyla R.; Postmes, Tom; Garcia, Amber

    In 2 meta-analyses, we examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being and tested a number of moderators of that relationship. In Meta-Analysis 1 (328 independent effect sizes, N = 144,246), we examined correlational data measuring both perceived

  17. The consequences of perceived discrimination for psychological well-being: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael T; Branscombe, Nyla R; Postmes, Tom; Garcia, Amber

    2014-07-01

    In 2 meta-analyses, we examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being and tested a number of moderators of that relationship. In Meta-Analysis 1 (328 independent effect sizes, N = 144,246), we examined correlational data measuring both perceived discrimination and psychological well-being (e.g., self-esteem, depression, anxiety, psychological distress, life satisfaction). Using a random-effects model, the mean weighted effect size was significantly negative, indicating harm (r = -.23). Effect sizes were larger for disadvantaged groups (r = -.24) compared to advantaged groups (r = -.10), larger for children compared to adults, larger for perceptions of personal discrimination compared to group discrimination, and weaker for racism and sexism compared to other stigmas. The negative relationship was significant across different operationalizations of well-being but was somewhat weaker for positive outcomes (e.g., self-esteem, positive affect) than for negative outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety, negative affect). Importantly, the effect size was significantly negative even in longitudinal studies that controlled for prior levels of well-being (r = -.15). In Meta-Analysis 2 (54 independent effect sizes, N = 2,640), we examined experimental data from studies manipulating perceptions of discrimination and measuring well-being. We found that the effect of discrimination on well-being was significantly negative for studies that manipulated general perceptions of discrimination (d = -.25), but effects did not differ from 0 when attributions to discrimination for a specific negative event were compared to personal attributions (d = .06). Overall, results support the idea that the pervasiveness of perceived discrimination is fundamental to its harmful effects on psychological well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and psychological wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Theodore E A

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that autobiographical memory serves three basic functions in everyday life: self-definition, social connection, and directing behaviour (e.g., Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005). However, no research has examined relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and healthy functioning (i.e., psychological wellbeing). The present research examined the relations between the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory and three factors of psychological wellbeing in single and recurring autobiographical memories. A total of 103 undergraduate students were recruited and provided ratings of each function for four autobiographical memories (two single, two recurring events). Results found that individuals who use their autobiographical memories to serve self, social, and directive functions reported higher levels of Purpose and Communion and Positive Relationships, and that these relations differ slightly by event type.

  19. The concept of mindfulness: nonspecific factor of psychological wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugovkina O.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the growing interest in the study of the concept of mindfulness as a psychological construct and a form of psychotherapeutic intervention for the prevention and treatment of various mental disorders has become prominent in the foreign literature. On the basis of empirical evidence the article describes the positive effects of psychological awareness, including an increase of the subjective well-being, satisfaction with interpersonal relationships, improvement of some cognitive performance (working memory, executive functions, decline in cognitive and emotional reactivity. The article gives a description of the presumed neurobiological correlates of awareness and formulate the general perspective for further research.

  20. Overtime and psychological well-being among Chinese office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdmont, J; Zhou, J; Hassard, J

    2011-06-01

    Research on the relationship between overtime and psychological well-being, and workers' perceptions of the factors that determine overtime, has been conducted exclusively in the Western cultural context. To examine whether existing theory and evidence can be applied to a non-Western cultural setting by investigating the constructs among a sample of office workers drawn from a Chinese branch of an international information and communication technology company. Data were collected from 130 full-time employees on overtime hours worked, psychological well-being, and four variables identified by participants as being important determinants of overtime: job demands, intrinsic motivation, anticipated rewards, and overtime work culture. T-tests and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between variables. All study participants had worked overtime in the previous 6 months period; the mean weekly overtime rate was 14.2 h. High overtime employees demonstrated significantly lower levels of psychological well-being than those who worked low levels of overtime. In combination, the four reasons for working overtime predicted approximately one-fifth of the variance in overtime hours worked, suggesting that knowledge of these variables could be used by practitioners to predict the amount of overtime in which workers are likely to engage. The findings suggest that existing theory and evidence may apply beyond the individualist cultural context. The findings might usefully inform the organization of work in collectivist cultures and the implementation of multinational operations in these cultures.

  1. PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS FOR PROFESSORS IN BRAZIL AND CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    BOAS, ANA ALICE VILAS; MORIN, ESTELLE M.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental health in work domai...

  2. Perceived Changes in Well-Being: The Role of Chronological Age, Target Age, and Type of Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Dittburner, Julie L.; Huff, Barbara P.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate whether perceived changes in one's well-being from the present to the future are related to chronological age, target age, and type of measure (psychological well-being versus life satisfaction). Young adults (N = 114) rated their current well-being and their future well-being at one of three target ages…

  3. Burnout and psychological well-being of personnel of intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe E. García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The working conditions in intensive care units (ICUs are related to a high risk of burnout. In this study we aim to measure the influence of rumination and social support on burnout and psychological well-being in members of the staff of an ICU in a reference hospital in Chile. We proposed a model showing an indirect influence of brooding mediated by social support and burnout on the psychological well-being. We surveyed one hundred and thirty six employees (81.9% of the total of ages 23 to 59 years of age. This sample consisted of 85.3% women and 14.7% men. We used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWB, Zimet’s Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS, and the Ruminative Responses Scale by Treynor et al (RRS. Results indicated direct relations between social support and well-being, and between brooding and burnout. They also indicated inverse relations between social support and burnout, and between brooding and well-being. The mediation model showed adequate indices of fit.

  4. Psychological well-being of older Chinese immigrants living in Australia: a comparison with older Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoping; Bryant, Christina; Boldero, Jennifer; Dow, Briony

    2016-10-01

    Few current studies explore psychological well-being among older Chinese immigrants in Australia. The study addressed this gap and provided preliminary data on psychological well-being among this group. Four indicators, namely depression, anxiety, loneliness, and quality of life, were used to present a comprehensive picture of psychological well-being. Participants were two groups of community-dwelling older people, specifically 59 Chinese immigrants and 60 Australian-born people (median age=77 and 73, respectively). Data were collected through standardized interviews. The Geriatric Depression Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale and the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire were used to measure depression, anxiety, loneliness, and quality of life, respectively. Chinese participants' median quality of life score was higher than the scale mid-point, indicating relatively high levels of quality of life. However, 10% exhibited symptoms of depression, 6% had symptoms of anxiety, and 49% felt lonely. Compared to Australian participants, Chinese participants reported poorer quality of life and higher levels of loneliness. Importantly, the difference in quality of life remained when the impact of socio-demographic factors was controlled for. This study was the first to use multiple indicators to explore psychological well-being among older Chinese immigrants in Australia. Its results suggest that their psychological well-being might be worse than that of Australian-born people when using loneliness and quality of life as indicators. In particular, loneliness is a common psychological problem among this group, and there is a need for public awareness of this problem.

  5. Perceived social support and the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Sumiyo; Yasuoka, Junko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Poudel, Krishna C; Ragi, Allan; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-09-01

    Parental deaths due to AIDS seriously affect the psychological well-being of children. Social support may provide an effective resource in the care of vulnerable children in resource-limited settings. However, few studies have examined the relationships between social support and psychological well-being among AIDS orphans. This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore associations between perceived social support (PSS) and the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans, and to identify socio-demographic factors that are associated with PSS. Data were collected from 398 pairs of AIDS orphans (aged 10-18 years) and their caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya. The participants provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics, the children's PSS, and the children's psychological status (based on measures of depressive symptoms and self-esteem). Of the 398 pairs, 327 were included in the analysis. PSS scores of AIDS orphans showed significant correlations with depressive symptoms (ρ =-0.31, psiblings (β=3.044, p=0.016), were also associated with higher PSS scores. In particular, HIV-infected children (n=37) had higher scores of PSS from a special person (β=2.208, p=0.004), and children living with biological siblings (n=269) also had higher scores of PSS from both a special person (β=1.411, p=0.029) and friends (β=1.276, p=0.039). In conclusion, this study showed that PSS is positively associated with the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans. Siblings and special persons can be effective sources of social support for AIDS orphans, which help to promote their psychological well-being.

  6. The Humor Styles Questionnaire in Italy: Psychometric Properties and Relationships With Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Sirigatti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ and the relation between humor and psychological well-being within the context of Italy. A total of 293 (178 females, 115 males Italian high school and undergraduate university students – whose ages ranged from 14 to 25 years – completed the Italian versions of the HSQ and the Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being scales (RPWB. The HSQ scale reliabilities were generally acceptable, and intercorrelations among the scales were rather low; the confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure. Males reported significantly more use of Aggressive humor than did females; no differences were found between adolescents and young adults in the use of humor styles. Affiliative and Self-enhancing humor styles were positively associated with the six dimensions of the RPWB, whereas Self-defeating humor was negatively correlated with the RPWB scales. SEM analysis showed a significant and positive relationship between humor as measured by the HSQ and psychological well-being as assessed by the RPWB. Overall, the findings supported the theoretical structure and usefulness of the HSQ in an Italian context and the differential role of humor components in the various dimensions of psychological well-being.

  7. Psychology's contribution to the well-being of older americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Association of different forms of bullying victimisation with adolescents' psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hannah J; Chan, Gary C K; Scott, James G; Connor, Jason P; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    The frequency and emotional response to bullying victimisation are known to be associated with adolescent mental ill health. A potentially important under-investigated factor is the form of bullying. Four common forms of bullying behaviours are name-calling, physical threats or harm, rumour spreading and social exclusion. To more comprehensively understand bullying victimisation in adolescence, we examined the association of all three factors (frequency, emotional response, form) to psychological distress and emotional wellbeing. A stratified, random sample of adolescents (n = 10, 273; mean age = 14.33 years, standard deviation = 1.68 years) completed validated measures of bullying victimisation (Gatehouse Bullying Questionnaire), psychological distress (K10) and emotional wellbeing (Mental Health Inventory) in classroom time. Associations between the form of bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes were examined. Adolescents reported a high prevalence of all four forms of bullying: teased or called names (30.6%), rumour spreading (17.9%), social exclusion (14.3%) and physical threats or harm (10.7%). Victimisation was independently associated with significantly higher levels of psychological distress and reduced levels of emotional wellbeing for all forms of bullying. In particular, social exclusion had a strong association with mental ill health. Adolescents who experienced frequent bullying that was upsetting reported higher psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. Different forms of bullying victimisation were independently associated with psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. In particular, frequent and upsetting social exclusion requires a targeted and measured response by school communities and health practitioners. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Education, Welfare Reform and Psychological Well-Being: A Critical Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Laura Anne; Burman, Erica; Hanley, Terry; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Mccoy, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    There are established links between education and well-being, and between poverty and education. This article draws on interviews with parents of school-aged children impacted by a policy in the UK commonly referred to as the 'bedroom tax'. A critical psychology perspective to education is put forward, acknowledging the complex interrelationships…

  10. Psychological well-being as a predictor of dropout among recently qualified Danish eldercare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giver, Hanne; Faber, Anne; Hannerz, Harald

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The eldercare sector is characterized by a shortage of labour and a high turnover rate, which constitutes a major challenge for the ageing societies of western Europe. The aim of the present study was to investigate if a low level of psychological well-being at the time of graduation...... predicts dropout among eldercare workers two years later. METHODS: We included 4,968 female eldercare trainees in this prospective study, recruited from 27 of the 28 Danish colleges for eldercare. Psychological well-being in 2004 was measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) of the 36......-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). We linked the survey data with national register data to obtain information about labour market attachment two years after qualification. RESULTS: In 2006, 37% of all participants had left the eldercare sector. Compared to participants with high psychological well...

  11. Body image and psychological well-being in adolescents: the relationship between gender and school type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfabbro, Paul H; Winefield, Anthony H; Anderson, Sarah; Hammarström, Anne; Winefield, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents (N=1281; M age = 15.2 years, SD = 0.51 years) from a state-wide sample of schools provided information about their psychological well-being, family functioning, extraversion, and perceived physical attractiveness and weight, using a questionnaire completed at school. Consistent with previous research, girls were significantly more likely than boys to be dissatisfied with their weight and physical appearance, and these factors explained significantly more variation in self-esteem than in life satisfaction or other measures of psychological well-being. The strong relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem for adolescent girls was not moderated by school type (single sex or educational). However, girls who were dissatisfied but psychologically well adjusted tended to be more extraverted, have more close friends and receive greater family support.

  12. Stressors, locus of control, and social support as consequences of affective psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K; Guppy, A

    1997-04-01

    Tests of the influence of affective psychological well-being on stressors, locus of control, and social support in a 1-month follow-up study of 210 male and 34 female British accountants is reported. There was a marginally significant association between the level of psychological symptoms and subsequent reports of intensity of quantitative workload stressors. A significant interaction between psychological symptoms and a measure of depression-enthusiasm was found to predict subsequent locus of control. The results indicate a differential pattern of associations between aspects of affective well-being and subsequent reports of social support. The results also indicate that initially more frequent stressors are associated with subsequently less intense stressors of the same type. The findings highlight the dynamic and reciprocal nature of the occupational stress process.

  13. The relationship between psychological well-being and perceived wellness in graduate-level counseling students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magy Martin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Research has established that individuals who provide personal therapy to others should have stable personal and professional lives, and possess a keen and accurate perception of wellness. Unfortunately, sometimes students pursuing careers in counseling and psychotherapy have unresolved psychological issues that, if unresolved, could later affect them in their professional lives. Thus, the purpose of the study was to understand psychological well-being and perceived wellness in a sample of graduate students (N = 97 preparing to become counselors in a CACREP-accredited counseling program at a state university in Pennsylvania. It measured the participants' psychological well- being by the Scales of Psychological Well-Being (SPWB and their perception of wellness by the Perceived Wellness Survey (PWS. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between psychological well-being and perceived wellness of counselors-in-training. The results of this study could have implications for additional problems such as the failure of self-care among counselors or the nonexistence or nonuse of adequate wellness assessment tools during counselor development. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i2.91

  14. Influence of work-family-school role conflicts and social support on psychological wellbeing among registered nurses pursuing advanced degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Song, Rhayun

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how work-family-school role conflict and social support influence psychological well-being among registered nurses pursuing an advanced degree. A cross-sectional, correlational study design was used. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 320 registered nurses pursuing an advanced nursing degree at 13 hospitals in Korea, from June to October 2011. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling with the AMOS program. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate the measurement model prior to the testing of study hypotheses before and after controlling for extraneous variables. The fit parameters of the modified model (χ(2)/df=2.01, GFI=0.91, AGFI=0.89, CFI=0.92, SRMR=0.068, and RMSEA=0.065) indicated its suitability as the research model. This model explained 45% of the variance in work-related psychological well-being and 52% of the variance in general psychological well-being. Both social support and work-family-school role conflict exerted significant effects on work-related psychological well-being and general psychological well-being. The findings of the present study imply that work-family-school role conflict influences the psychological well-being of registered nurses pursuing an advanced degree. It is necessary for nursing administrators to develop strategies to help registered nurses to manage their multiple roles and improve both their work-related psychological well-being and their general psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anxiety, Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in Spanish Families with Blind Children. A Change in Psychological Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesus; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, Maria Teresa; Sanchez-Alcoba, Manuel Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relation between levels of anxiety, self-esteem and subjective psychological well-being is analyzed in a Spanish sample of 28 fathers and 33 mothers of blind children. The results reveal a positive correlation between subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem, and a negative correlation between anxiety and subjective…

  16. Work support, psychological well-being and safety performance among nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenchi C K

    2018-02-06

    This study investigated the mediating role of psychological well-being between work support and safety performance of 314 Hong Kong nurses, using self-reported questionnaires. Results showed that psychological well-being mediated the effects of work support on safety performance. The findings illustrate that work support was an important element to improve psychological well-being. This could generate better safety performance of the nurses. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  17. Psychological well-being in people with multiple sclerosis in an Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Dehnavi, Sedigheh Rezaei; Heidarian, Fatemeh; Ashtari, Fereshteh; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: To date, few results on well-being in individuals with neurological disease have been published, while several studies in other groups have indicated that well-being may not be the only absence of psychological distress, but also positive psychological function. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychological well-being (PWB) between the people with Multiple sclerosis (MS) and normal individuals and identify correlated demographic factors to PWB in people with MS dis...

  18. Dietary behaviour, psychological well-being and mental distress among adolescents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seo Ah; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Dietary intake is important for physical and mental health. The aim of this investigation was to assess associations between dietary behaviours and psychological well-being and distress among school-going adolescents in Korea. In a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, 65,212 students (Mean age = 15.1 years, SE = 0.02 and 52.2% male and 47.8% female) responded to a questionnaire that included measures of dietary behaviour, psychological well-being and mental distress. In logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, school level, school types, Body Mass Index, physical activity, and substance use, positive dietary behaviours (regular breakfast, fruit, vegetable, and milk consumption) were positively and unhealthy dietary behaviours (intake of caffeine, soft drinks, sweet drinks and fast food consumption) were negatively associated with self-reported health, happiness and sleep satisfaction. Positive dietary behaviours (regular breakfast, fruit, vegetable, and milk consumption) were negatively associated with perceived stress and depression symptoms. Unhealthy dietary behaviours (consumption of fast food, caffeine, sweetened drinks and soft drinks) were associated with perceived stress and depression symptoms. The study found strong cross-sectional evidence that healthy dietary behaviours were associated with lower mental distress and higher psychological well-being. It remains unclear, if a healthier dietary behaviour is the cause or the sequela of a more positive well-being.

  19. Vocational Psychology: Agency, Equity, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed.

  20. [Relationships between psychological well-being, lifestyle factors and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Enikő; Szabó, Gábor; F Szigeti, Judit; Balog, Piroska

    2015-03-22

    10 to 15% of the Hungarian fertile age population struggles with reproductivity problems. Previous researches have shown that psychological well-being and lifestyle factors play a pivotal role in overall health status, which is closely related to fertility. The aim of the study was to examine fertility-related psychological and lifestyle factors in a Hungarian sample. 194 women (115 infertile and 79 fertile) took part in the study. Standardized, validated questionnaires were used for the assessment of psychological factors and self-administered questions were used for exploring lifestyle factors. The results show that infertile women are younger (33.98±4.89 vs. 36.43±5.81 years, pfertile counterparts. The number of their depressive (BDI 14.00±12.21 vs. 7.79±9.17, p40.25±10.65, pfertile women. Findings related to lifestyle factors show that lower level of fluid consumption (1.71±0.67 vs. 1.95±0.68, pfertile group (OR = 1.65, CI = 2.58-1.06), independently of body mass index and age. The results confirm the findings of international researches showing that women struggling with infertility are in worse psychological condition than their fertile counterparts. The authors conclude that the findings demand further investigations and follow-up studies in order to more specifically determine the relationship between fluid consumption and fertility.

  1. Long-Term Cognitive Functioning and Psychological Well-Being in Surgically Treated Patients with Low-Grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Fabio; Palese, Alvisa; Del Missier, Fabio; Moreale, Renzo; Ius, Tamara; Shallice, Tim; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an in-depth investigation of the impact of low-grade gliomas (LGG) and their surgery on patients' cognitive and emotional functioning and well-being, carried out via a comprehensive and multiple-measure psychological and neuropsychological assessment. Fifty surgically treated patients with LGG were evaluated 40 months after surgery on their functioning over 6 different cognitive domains, 3 core affective/emotional aspects, and 3 different psychological well-being measures to obtain a clearer picture of the long-term impact of illness and surgery on their psychological and relational world. Close relatives were also involved to obtain an independent measure of the psychological dimensions investigated. Cognitive status was satisfactory, with only mild short-term memory difficulties. The affective and well-being profile was characterized by mild signs of depression, good satisfaction with life and psychological well-being, and good personality development, with patients perceiving themselves as stronger and better persons after illness. However, patients showed higher emotional reactivity, and psychological well-being measures were negatively affected by epileptic burden. Well-being was related to positive affective/emotional functioning and unrelated to cognitive functioning. Good agreement between patients and relatives was found. In the long-term, patients operated on for LGG showed good cognitive functioning, with no significant long-term cognitive sequelae for the extensive surgical approach. Psychologically, patients appear to experience a deep psychological change and maturation, closely resembling that of so-called posttraumatic growth, which, to our knowledge, is for the first time described and quantified in patients with LGG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Religion and psychological well-being and distress in Israeli Jews: findings from the Gallup World Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates religious predictors of psychological well-being and psychological distress in a five-year national probability sample of Israeli Jews (N = 4,073). Data were taken from the 2006-2010 annual surveys of Israel as a part of the multinational Gallup World Poll. Analyses identified religious predictors of five-item scales of well-being and distress, adjusting for effects of several covariates, including health satisfaction. Additional analyses examined differences in religion, well-being and distress, and their interrelationships by categories of Jewish religious identity and observance (hiloni, masorti, dati, and haredi). Levels of religiousness and of well-being increase as one moves "rightward" across Jewish observance. Self-ratings of importance of religion and religious attendance are significantly associated with well-being, overall, and a religious harmony scale is associated with both wellbeing (positively) and distress (inversely), and with these measures' respective items, overall and across Jewish observance. Religious indicators are significant predictors of both psychological well-being and psychological distress in Israeli Jews, regardless of Jewish religious observance.

  3. Association between second-hand smoke and psychological well-being amongst non-smoking wageworkers in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jin; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Park, Shin-Goo; Lee, Bum-Joon; Moon, So-Hyun; Park, Sung-Min; Jang, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been responsible for more than 0.6 million deaths and 10.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) lost in never smokers in 2004. The world health organization (WHO) reported smoking-related death of 58,000 per year in South Korea. There is recent emerging evidence of the associations of SHS exposure with anxiety or depression and poor mental health. Although exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with various physical health conditions and mental health, we are unaware of any studies examining its association with psychological well-being as mental factor. This study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported exposure to SHS and well-being among non-smoking wageworkers. The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS, 2011) was conducted on a representative sample of economically active population aged 15 years or over, who were either employees or self-employed at the time of interview. In this study, after removing inconsistent data, 19,879 non-smoking wageworkers among 60,054 workers were participated. Psychological well-being was measured through the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (1998 version). Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of SHS exposure with psychological well-being. The unadjusted OR of poor psychological well-being (OR: 1.594, 95 % CI: 1.421-1.787) was significantly higher for SHS exposure group compared to non-exposure group. Multiple logistic regression analysis results indicated that these relationships were still significant after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted OR: 1.330, 95 % CI: 1.178-1.502). Exposure to SHS was associated with poor well-being measured by the WHO-5 well-being index, indicating the importance of reducing SHS exposure at the workplace for psychological well-being amongst non-smoking wageworkers.

  4. Perceived emotion suppression and culture: Effects on psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heewon; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2018-04-03

    Whether the negative effects of emotion suppression on psychological well-being are applicable cross-culturally is a long-debated topic. The present study attempted to shed light on this debate, focusing on the effects of perceived emotion suppression and examining the psychological processes leading from perceived emotion suppression to lower psychological well-being. We used a scale manipulation to lead 196 American and 213 Chinese participants to perceive themselves as having suppressed their emotions to a greater or lesser extent and then measured their life satisfaction. As expected, both the American and Chinese participants reported lower life satisfaction in the high-suppression condition than in the low-suppression condition; this negative effect was mediated by positive affect and moderated by self-esteem. Specifically, perceived high emotion suppression decreased positive affect, which in turn led to lower well-being. This effect was observed only for those with low self-esteem, but the patterns and mechanisms were consistent cross-culturally. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Relationship between bicultural identity and psychological well-being among American and Japanese older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Yamaguchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a large national sample of American and Japanese older adults, this study investigated how bicultural identity affects perception of health and well-being in 11 individual psychological variables (i.e. positive well-being: self-esteem, optimism, subjective well-being Japanese equivalent, gratitude, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–positive adjectives, and satisfaction with life; negative well-being: depression, pessimism, social anxiety, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–negative adjectives, and perceived stress. This sample consisted of 1248 Americans from the Midlife in the United States survey, 2004–2006, and 380 Japanese from the Midlife in Japan survey in Tokyo, Japan, 2008–2010. Results showed that bicultural individuals (having both highly independent and interdependent self-construals in both countries tend to exhibit higher scores across most perceived health and well-being measures when compared to other groups (i.e. marginal, interdependent, and independent. Cultural-specific aspects of self-construal, health, and well-being are explained to support the findings. Discussion of these findings and their implications is also provided.

  6. Tai Chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Tammy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and exercise appear to improve psychological health. However, the quantitative effects of Tai Chi on psychological well-being have rarely been examined. We systematically reviewed the effects of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance in eastern and western populations. Methods Eight English and 3 Chinese databases were searched through March 2009. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies reporting at least 1 psychological health outcome were examined. Data were extracted and verified by 2 reviewers. The randomized trials in each subcategory of health outcomes were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. The quality of each study was assessed. Results Forty studies totaling 3817 subjects were identified. Approximately 29 psychological measurements were assessed. Twenty-one of 33 randomized and nonrandomized trials reported that 1 hour to 1 year of regular Tai Chi significantly increased psychological well-being including reduction of stress (effect size [ES], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 1.09, anxiety (ES, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.03, and depression (ES, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.80, and enhanced mood (ES, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.69 in community-dwelling healthy participants and in patients with chronic conditions. Seven observational studies with relatively large sample sizes reinforced the beneficial association between Tai Chi practice and psychological health. Conclusions Tai Chi appears to be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and increased self-esteem. Definitive conclusions were limited due to variation in designs, comparisons, heterogeneous outcomes and inadequate controls. High-quality, well-controlled, longer randomized trials are needed to better inform clinical decisions.

  7. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well-being

  8. The impact of a 'green' building on employees' physical and psychological wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Milner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Multiple claims and some empirical findings suggest that 'green' buildings should be healthier (psychologically and physically) and promote greater productivity than conventional buildings. The empirical evidence in this regard over the last decade or so has been inconclusive suggesting either that the studies are flawed or that there are specific aspects of green buildings that promote wellbeing and productivity and others that do not. This study looks at a longitudinal comparison of two groups; a group that moved into South Africa's first GreenStar-accredited building and a group that did not. Measures were taken before the move and six months later. Results demonstrated that the 'green' building did not produce significantly better physical or psychological wellbeing, or higher perceived productivity. These results are discussed in relation to suggestions for what design features to focus on that may produce significant results.

  9. Obesity and psychological wellbeing in patients undergoing fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodino, Iolanda S; Byrne, Susan; Sanders, Katherine A

    2016-01-01

    Obesity negatively affects reproductive functioning and psychological wellbeing. Distress experienced by infertile women with elevated body mass index (BMI) was investigated. Infertile women (n = 403) were stratified according to World Health Organization (2000) BMI categories (normal, overweight and obese) and infertility category (polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS] or non-PCOS). Participants anonymously completed a Demographics Questionnaire, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, Fertility Problem Inventory, Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Women in the obese BMI group were no more psychologically vulnerable to general mood (depression, anxiety and stress) or fertility-specific distress than normal or overweight BMI women. Independent of their PCOS status, obese women reported more frequent episodes of binge eating, shape concerns and low self-esteem symptoms associated with disordered eating. Women with PCOS had elevated shape concerns and anxiety independent of their BMI category compared with women who did not have PCOS. Obese infertile women presenting with the characteristics of binge eating, low self-esteem and body shape concerns may represent a vulnerable subgroup that could benefit from accessing targeted psychological interventions as do women with PCOS who have body shape concerns. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Danilo; Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective wel...

  11. The Relative Importance of Psychological Acceptance and Emotional Intelligence to Workplace Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson-Feilder, Emma J.; Bond, Frank W.

    2004-01-01

    Psychological acceptance (acceptance) and emotional intelligence (EI) are two relatively new individual characteristics that are hypothesised to affect well-being and performance at work. This study compares both of them, in terms of their ability to predict various well-being outcomes (i.e. general mental health, physical well-being, and job…

  12. Psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors in Brazil and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alice Vilas Boas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental health in work domain?”. This paper assesses psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors working in these two countries and test for their differences. The sample consists of 354 Brazilian professors and 317 Canadian professors. Data were collected through an on-line questionnaire assessing the following mental health indicators: anxiety, depression, loss of control, general positive affect and emotional ties. We compared the components of psychological distress and psychological well-being to analyse their relations. Additionally, we compared these components with work-life balance indicator. Reliability analyses demonstrated that all tested components are consistent to evaluate mental health. There are small mean differences between Brazilian and Canadian professors in all five components of mental health, but these differences are not statistically significant. Mean differences for work-life balance, gender, age, and bias of conformity are statistically different, although the size effects are small. Linear regression analysis, step by step, controlled for life events, showed that general positive affect, anxiety and emotional ties predict 31.5% of the scores of work-life balance. Additionally, we observed that Brazilian professors find more balance between professional and private life than do their Canadian colleagues. Promoting mental health is a challenge for public management sector, thus, public managers and governmental organizations can

  13. Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gates N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance

  14. Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shyh Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

  15. Relationships between Psychological Wellbeing of Thai College Students, Goal Orientations, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosik, John J.; Chun, Jae Uk; Koul, Ravinder

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined the direct and interaction effects of students' learning and performance-avoidance goal orientations on their psychological wellbeing and a moderating role of students' gender in these relationships. Using 564 self-reports of freshman college students in a Thai university, we found students' psychological wellbeing to be…

  16. NATURE’S MEANINGS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article makes an introduction for an interdisciplinary theme: the connection between well-being and nature. This theme will be explored starting from highlighting the importance of the concept of well-being in the health and illness models, and the transition it allows from an atomist point of view to a holistic approach. Results of previous academic studies will help understand that, by examining the effects of natural environment on several aspects of psychological and psychosomatic functioning, a holistic approach would become possible. Results of public data will be discussed as a way of expanding the explanation framework. Also a theoretical framework will be presented so that all these would have a meaning for practitioners. Finally, acknowledging the fact that the environments’ benefits have been known and consciously used for human growth in several aspects, as in yoga or martial arts, some recent application will be discussed such as those in psychotherapy (nature psychotherapy or unification experiential psychotherapy.

  17. Relationship between dependence on modern communication tools and psychological well-being in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Afradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays due to technological advance and its direct impact on the quality of human life, addressing the issue of health and its determinants is very important. Maintaining public health is one of the most fundamental issues in each community. The aim of the study was to survey relationship between dependence on modern communication tools (internet and mobile phones and psychological well-being. 300 university students was selected according to cluster sampling method. The questionnaires were distributed to the students and 141 completed questionnaires were collected. The Young Internet addiction test and mobile phone addiction index were used to measure the predictor variables and the Ryff psychological well-being scale was used for the criterion variable. Multiple regression analysis gave a multiple correlation coefficient (R of 0.347 and adjusted coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.120. According to the calculated Beta values, the variable of dependence on mobile phones with the value of 0.196 showed the greatest power for explaining the autonomy component. The results showed a significant negative relationship between independent variables, i.e. dependence on the Internet and mobile phones, and dependent variables, i.e. psychological well-being and its components.

  18. Time perspective and psychological well-being in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Lee Pethtel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the present fatalistic time perspective as a mechanism that may partially account for age differences in purpose in life and personal growth. An additional purpose of this study was to explore the relations among age, time perspective, and psychological well-being. Seventy-five older adults (M=73.43, SD=7.91 and 77 younger adults (M=19.58, SD=1.19 completed surveys measuring time perspective (past positive, past negative, present fatalistic, present hedonistic, future and psychological well-being (autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the present fatalistic time perspective predicted purpose in life and personal growth above and beyond age and income. Several significant correlations were found among the time perspective and psychological well-being variables. Results showed that age was positively correlated with the past negative and present fatalistic time perspectives, but negatively correlated with the future time perspective. Results showed that age negatively correlated with purpose in life and personal growth, but positively correlated with autonomy. Results are discussed in light of socioemotional selectivity theory, theory of time perspective, and implications for incorporating time perspective into mental health counseling.

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in parent-reported and teacher-reported psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah; Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether there are differences in the social gradient of parent-reported and teacher-reported child psychological well-being. Secondary data analysis comparing ratings of child psychological well-being (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) in the UK Millennium Cohort Study at 7 years by socioeconomic circumstances (SEC). A number of measures of SEC were tested; results are reported for maternal education. From a sample of 13,168 singletons who participated at the age of 7 years, complete data were available for 8207 children. There was a social gradient in SDQ scores reported by parents and teachers, with 'borderline/abnormal' scores more prevalent in children with lower-educated mothers. However, the gradient was more marked in parent report compared with teacher report, and discrepancies between parent and teacher reports were greatest for children from higher SECs. The social gradient in child psychological well-being, although present, was weaker in teacher report compared with parent report. This may be because children behave differently in school and home settings, or parents and teachers demonstrate reporting bias. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Perceived discrimination and mental health among older African Americans: the role of psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eunkyung; Coburn, Corvell; Spence, Susie A

    2018-01-15

    Examine the effect of perceived discrimination (both racial and non-racial) on the mental health of older African Americans and explore the buffering role of psychological well-being (purpose in life and self-acceptance). Using an older African American subsample from the National Health Measurement Study (n = 397), multiple regression model by gender was used to estimate the effects of two types of discrimination (every day and lifetime) on SF-36 mental component and mediating role of two concepts of psychological well-being. With no gender difference on the everyday discrimination, older men experienced more lifetime discrimination than older women. The older men's model found that the depressive symptomology was significantly explained by only everyday discrimination and mediated by self-acceptance. The older women's model was significant, with everyday discrimination and both self-acceptance and purpose in life emerging as mediating variables. The prevalence of institutional lifetime discrimination for older African American men is consistent with previous research. Inconsistency with past research indicated that only everyday discrimination is statistically associated with depressive symptoms. Considering the buffering role of psychological well-being served for mental health problems, practitioners need to emphasize these factors when providing services to older African Americans. Equally important, they must address racial discrimination in mental health care settings.

  1. Relations between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael

    2016-02-01

    This study attempted to understand the relationship between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter. The study employed a cross-sectional design using a web survey distribution mode to gain information related to causal attributions and psychological well-being of 348 adults who stutter. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine relationships between participants' causal attributions (i.e. locus of causality, external control, personal control, stability, biological attributions, non-biological attributions) for stuttering and various measures of psychological well-being including self-stigma, self-esteem/self-efficacy, hope, anxiety and depression. Results indicated that higher perceptions of external control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy and higher ratings of anxiety and depression. Higher perceptions of personal control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of self-stigma and higher ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy. Increased biological attributions were significantly related to higher ratings of permanency and unchangeableness of stuttering and lower ratings of personal control of stuttering. The findings demonstrate the importance of instilling a sense of control in PWS regarding their ability to manage their stuttering. Findings also raise questions regarding the benefits of educating PWS about the biological underpinnings of stuttering.

  2. An alternative view of psychological well-being in cardiac rehabilitation: Considering temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David; Douglas, Kitrina; Fox, Kenneth; McKenna, Jim

    2006-09-01

    Research suggests that personality is related to recovery from cardiac events, yet few conceptions of personality provide hope or possibility of improvement for patients with the least adaptive personality types. Psychobiological theory of personality has potential in this regard, but, to date, no research has investigated temperament and character in cardiac settings. To explore relationships between temperament, character and psychological well-being among cardiac patients. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to a convenience sample of 81 cardiac patients to obtain data on personality (TCI [Cloninger CR, Przybeck T, Svrakic D, & Wetzel RD. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A guide to its development and use. St Louis (MO), Center for Psychobiology of Personality, Washington University;1994]), anxiety and depression (HADS [Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983;67(6): 361-70]) and satisfaction with life [Diener E, Emmons RA, Larsen RJ, Griffin S. The satisfaction with life scale. J Pers Assess 1985;49(1):71-5]. The interaction of two personality dimensions (harm avoidance and self-directedness) was significantly related to measures of psychological well-being. Patients with low self-directedness combined with high harm avoidance reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression and lower levels of satisfaction with life. This exploratory study suggests that psychobiological theory of personality may be useful for practitioners in cardiac rehabilitation seeking to identify patients at risk of poor psychological well-being.

  3. Emotional mediators of psychological capital on well-being: The role of stress, anxiety, and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Rahimnia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have tried to investigate multiple factors affecting employees' social, emotional, and psychological well-being. In this study particularly, nurses' emotional and psychological well-being is considered. Of most important factors affecting well-being in place of work has known to be busy work and stress, constructive and destructive emotions, and psychological capital which. Present study considered to test a developed model of psychological capital, constructive and destructive emotions, stress, anxiety, and depression as antecedents of well-being. 296 nurses took part in the survey, using path analysis method hypotheses were tested, and the proposed model was evaluated. Results indicated that nurses' high psychological capital increases their constructive emotions, reduces destructive emotions and eventually increase their well-being. The role of destructive emotions was more prominent in increasing wellbeing as well. Furthermore, stress had an incremental influence on well-being. In general, research results emphasize the need for more attention to the components of psychological capital, and intervention and coping strategies. The conclusions of a more detailed is that to improve nurses' well-being the more emphasize should be on decreasing destructive emotions than increasing constructive ones. In addition, keeping an optimal level of stress is necessary for good functioning and improvement of overall well-being.

  4. Do motivations for using Facebook moderate the association between Facebook use and psychological well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R.; Lonborg, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users’ motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being. PMID:26124733

  5. Do motivations for using Facebook moderate the association between Facebook use and psychological well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R; Lonborg, Susan D

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users' motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.

  6. Do Motivations for Using Facebook Moderate the Association Between Facebook Use and Psychological Well-Being?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eRae

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g. time spent online and underlying motivations (e.g. making new friends of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users’ motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N=119, we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed for connection purposes (e.g. making new friends. We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g. anxiety and life satisfaction. The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.

  7. Distinguishing Relational Aspects of Character Strengths with Subjective and Psychological Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hausler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that character strengths are positively linked with well-being in general. However, there has not been a fine-grained analysis up to date. This study examines the individual relational aspects between the 24 character strengths, subjective well-being (SWB, and different aspects of psychological well-being (PWB at two times of measurement (N = 117. Results showed that overall the “good character” was significantly stronger related with PWB than with SWB. The character strength “hope” was at least moderately correlated with the PWB aspects meaning, optimism and autonomy, and “zest” with the PWB aspects relationships and engagement. “Persistence” showed the highest correlation with the PWB aspect mastery. Out of the 24 character strengths, the happiness-related strengths (hope, zest, gratitude, curiosity, and love were more likely to correlate with PWB and SWB than any other character strength. This study offers a more fine-grained and thorough understanding of specific relational aspects between the 24 character strengths and a broad range of well-being aspects. Future studies should take up a detailed strategy when exploring relationships between character strengths and well-being.

  8. Well-being therapy in depression: New insights into the role of psychological well-being in the clinical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A; Cosci, Fiammetta; Guidi, Jenny; Tomba, Elena

    2017-09-01

    A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), has been developed and validated in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life, and a sense of self-determination. The evidence supporting the use of WBT and its specific contribution when it is combined with other psychotherapeutic techniques is still limited. However, the insights gained by the use of WBT may unravel innovative approaches to assessment and treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, to be confirmed by controlled studies, with particular reference to decreasing vulnerability to relapse and modulating psychological well-being and mood. An important characteristic of WBT is self-observation of psychological well-being associated with specific homework. Such perspective is different from interventions that are labeled as positive but are actually distress oriented. Another important feature of WBT is the assumption that imbalances in well-being and distress may vary from one illness to another and from patient to patient. Customary clinical taxonomy and evaluation do not include psychological well-being, which may demarcate major prognostic and therapeutic differences among patients who otherwise seem to be deceptively similar since they share the same diagnosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Internalized mental illness stigma and subjective well-being: The mediating role of psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least pstigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A cross sectional, observational survey to assess levels and predictors of psychological wellbeing in adults with epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Dures

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa (EB describes a cluster of genetically determined skin disorders. Symptoms can be painful, disabling and disfiguring, yet there is little research on the psychological impact of the disease. The study aim was to measure psychological wellbeing in adults with EB; and to examine the association between psychological wellbeing and self efficacy, health locus of control and adjustment to appearance in an observational, cross sectional survey. Questionnaire packs comprising the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLOC, and the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-24, were sent to approximately 385 adults with EB. The data were analysed using SPSS. Eighty-seven participants responded. Scores on the GHQ-12 showed non-problematic psychological health in 36% of the sample; levels bordering on clinical disorder in 32.1% and severe psychological distress in 31.9%. No correlations were found between demographic factors (age and sex or clinical factors (EB type and perceived severity and psychological well-being. Scores on the GSE, the internal locus of control sub-scale of the MHLOC and the DAS-24 showed them to be statistically significant correlates of psychological wellbeing (P<0.001; P<0.018; and P<0.001 respectively. In a regression analysis, adjustment to appearance and self efficacy accounted for 24% of the variation in psychological wellbeing. Adults with EB might be at risk of experiencing poor psychological health. Interventions designed to enhance disease self management, self efficacy and improve body image are likely to be beneficial in this clinical group.

  11. Psychosocial working conditions and psychological well-being among employees in 34 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Malard, Lucile; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial working conditions and psychological well-being among employees in 34 European countries. Another objective was to examine whether these associations varied according to occupation and country. The study was based on data from the European Working Conditions Survey 2010 including 33,443 employees, 16,512 men and 16,931 women, from 34 European countries. Well-being was measured by the WHO-5 well-being index. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were constructed including job demands, role stressors, work hours, job influence and freedom, job promotion, job insecurity, social support, quality of leadership, discrimination and violence at work, and work-life imbalance. The associations between these factors and well-being were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Different models were performed including interaction tests. When all 25 psychosocial work factors were studied simultaneously in the same model with adjustment variables, 13 showed a significant association with poor well-being among both genders: quantitative demands, demands for hiding emotions, low possibilities for development, low meaning of work, low role conflict, low quality of leadership, low social support, low sense of community, job insecurity, low job promotion, work-life imbalance, discrimination, and bullying. The association with low sense of community on poor well-being was particularly strong. A large number of psychosocial work factors were associated with poor well-being. Almost no country and occupational differences were found in these associations. This study gave a first European overview and could be useful to inform cross-national policy debate.

  12. Measuring Well-Being and Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. D'Acci (Luca)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWell-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes

  13. Alternative Measure of Wellbeing: Bhutan's Gross National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is growing demand for innovative yet rigorous measures of national wellbeing beyond gross domestic product. In 2008, the Centre for Bhutan Studies - Bhutan's main policy research centre - posted data from a preliminary survey of the country's Gross National Happiness (GNH). The Centre for Bhutan Studies ...

  14. Factors That Influence the Decision to Undergo Labiaplasty: Media, Relationships, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of women are undergoing labiaplasty procedures; however, very little is known about the psychological factors that motivate women to seek out this procedure. To investigate the factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. Women seeking to undergo labiaplasty (n = 35) were compared with women who were not (n = 30). Standardized measures were employed to assess the patients' media exposure (television, the Internet, advertising, pornography), relationship quality, and psychological well-being. Women's motivations for deciding to undergo a labiaplasty procedure were characterized as "appearance," "functional," "sexual," or "psychological" motivations, with concerns about the labia's appearance being the most commonly reported motivation. Correspondingly, women seeking labiaplasty were significantly less satisfied with the appearance of their genitals than the comparison group (P media exposure and relationship status as important factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. 3 Risk. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Relationships Between Spiritual Well-Being, Quality of Life, and Psychological Factors Before Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sara J; Chen, Yiyi; Paik, Kyungjeen; Mirly, Brandy; Thomas, Charles R; Hung, Arthur Y

    2017-10-01

    Given shifting trends of religious identities in the USA, better understanding the impact of patients' religious identities on health-related quality of life (QOL) may help tailor the use of psychological interventions. Men with prostate cancer (N = 43) completed measures of quality of life (QOL), spiritual well-being in two domains (i.e., Faith and Meaning/Peace), psychological state, and psychological trait before undergoing radiotherapy. We hypothesized that (1) higher existential Meaning/Peace would correlate with higher QOL and psychological trait protective factors (e.g., Agreeableness) and that (2) higher existential Meaning/Peace would correlate with lower depression, anxiety, and Neuroticism (i.e., a psychological trait risk factor). We did not anticipate similar relationships between religious Faith and QOL, depression, anxiety, or psychological traits and consider related analyses to be exploratory in nature. Meaning/Peace was indeed negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and Neuroticism. Meaning/Peace was positively correlated with Physical, Social, Functional, and Emotional well-being, as well as Extraversion. Religious Faith was positively associated with Functional well-being, but not the other state, trait, or QOL domains. In sum, prostate cancer patients' sense of existential Meaning/Peace prior to radiotherapy was associated with well-being in many domains, whereas religious Faith appeared less so.

  16. DENTAL STUDENTS' PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING DURING EXAMINATION PERIOD AND HOLIDAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preoteasa, Cristina Teodora; Imre, Marina; Preoteasa, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being is recognized as an important health component, which influences the behavior, ability to cope with stressful events, work performance, and generally the ability to achieve one's full potential. To comparatively assess the psychological well-being of dental students during the summer semester examination period and summer holiday. A single-arm, prospective study was conducted in second year dental students from the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Bucharest. The psychological well-being was assessed using the WHO-Five Well-being Index. Students' psychological well-being was statistically significantly better during the summer holiday (median=19) than during the summer semester examination period (median = 11.5), Z = 3.69, p holiday, but it was significantly correlated with the WHO-Five Well-being Index score corresponding to the summer holiday, and no association was observed with the WHO-Five Well-being Index score corresponding to the summer semester examination period. Within the limits of this study, psychological well-being is likely to be negatively influenced, on a fairly large scale, by the semester examination period. Therefore, it is recommended to identify the most appropriate methods of examination with regards to the psychological load that might be a threat to the validity of students' evaluation. Additionally, training students about adequate coping strategies, designed as interventions at individual or group level, may be required.

  17. Expat University Professors' State of Psychological Well-Being and Academic Optimism towards University Task in UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guanzon Rile Jr.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the state of psychological well-being and academic optimism in relation to university tasks among one hundred sixty-nine (169 professors in selected UAE universities, utilizing mixed quantitative and qualitative research approaches. The quantitative aspect primarily employed descriptive correlation method which used quantifiable data through survey instruments on psychological well-being, academic optimism, and university tasks. The qualitative analysis was used through a focused group discussion among nineteen (19 key informants. Six (6 areas of psychological wellbeing: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations, purpose in life, and selfacceptance were measured through the Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Academic optimism scale measured three (3 subscales: efficacy, trust, and academic emphasis. University tasks were categorized into three (3 major areas: student centered work, professional development work, and community centered work. The moderator variables considered were age, gender, length of teaching experience, length of experience in the UAE, and area of specialization. The results showed that the participants tend towards high scores in the subscales of autonomy, self-acceptance, and purpose in life. The academic optimism scale showed prominent high scores in efficacy and trust. Among the university tasks, student-centered work was the most fulfilled. Using the focused-group discussion, most expat university professors lament on the lack of time, management support, and lack of funding to pursue professional development, particularly research and publication. The regression analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between psychological well-being and academic optimism. Both psychological well-being and academic optimism predicts fulfillment of university tasks.

  18. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Freire

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress.

  19. Relationship between Body Image and Psychological Well-being in Patients with Morbid Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Negar; Hosseini, Sayed Vahid; Amini, Masood; Sobhani, Zahra; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Khazraei, Hajar

    2018-04-01

    Morbid obesity is rising around the world. It can cause unpleasant appearance and body image. Most of the studies have aimed to evaluate the psychopathology of overweight and obesity and paying attention to mental well-being in morbid obese individuals is rare. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the relationship between body image and psychological well-being in morbid obese patients. This cross-sectional study, using simple random sampling method, was done on 124 morbid obese patients who referred to obesity clinic in Shiraz from 2016 to 2017. The data were collected by body image index and psychological well-being questionnaire. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient test, ANOVA, and Regression analysis. The results showed a significant relationship between body image and psychological well-being (r=0.43) (Pimage and all the subscales of psychological well-being except autonomy and purpose in life (Pimage (Pimage and those of psychological well-being in different categories of body mass index (BMI) (P>0.05). Final results indicated that body image defects caused by obesity could lie in negative psychological well-being in all aspects. This study can promote health clinicians' knowledge in supporting of mental status of obese individuals. It is suggested that preventing and supporting intervention should be performed as effective methods for encountering and coping with psychological effects of obesity.

  20. Potential predictors of psychological distress and well-being in medical students: a cross-sectional pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bore M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Miles Bore,1 Brian Kelly,2 Balakrishnan Nair2 1School of Psychology, 2School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Purpose: Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods: In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127 completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout; and personality traits. Results: Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion: The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. Keywords: medical student, well-being, psychological distress, personality

  1. Parental Locus of Control and Psychological Well-Being in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Tracey; Hastings, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychological mechanisms may help to explain the variance observed in parental psychological adjustment in parents of children with intellectual disability (ID). In this study, parental locus of control and its role in relation to maternal psychological well-being was explored. Method: Questionnaires were sent to 91 mothers of children…

  2. Social Psychological Conditions of Psychological Well-Being in Individuals Who Have Experienced Critical Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergamenshchik L.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of maintaining psychological well-being in individuals who have experienced critical events. The research presented in this paper was carried out within the paradigm of salutogenesis, according to which the most crucial factors in preserving one’s mental and physical health are the realization of the inner potential, cognitive and physical activity, orientation towards healthy life goals, and self-actualization, and not only the absence of illness and disabilities. The authors describe a procedure of methodological triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data that enabled them to outline the social psychological conditions necessary for the positive functioning of individuals who have experienced critical events.

  3. Does social desirability influence psychological well-being: perceived physical health and religiosity of Italian elders? A developmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Hitchcott, Paul Kenneth; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2017-04-01

    This study was mainly aimed at exploring the relationship between psychological well-being and lifestyle, religion, perceived physical health and social desirability of Italian elders. Four hundred and six cognitively healthy 65-99 years old participants were recruited from the Italian isle of Sardinia, where a high prevalence of centenarians is registered. Participants were presented with several tools assessing psychological well-being, lifestyle, social desirability, religiosity and subjective physical health. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the social desirability measure is the best predictor of general subjective well-being, whereas further predictors are age, perceived physical health and gardening. A significant but moderate relationship was also found between psychological well-being, subjective physical health and religiosity, while controlling for social desirability. Social desirability seems to contaminate the self-rating of psychological well-being in late adulthood. Moreover, from a developmental perspective, age-related factors, life style and perceived physical health are strictly related to and therefore influence the perception of life quality in the third and fourth age.

  4. [Personal resources relevant to psychological well-being in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M; Aparicio-Zaldívar, E G

    2016-01-01

    To determine differences in social support, resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among intensive care nursing and nursing staff of other hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in these professionals where relevant personal resources to PWB were included. Correlational and cross-sectional study. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n=133), nursing assistants (n=61), and midwives (n=14), of whom 44 worked in intensive care unit, 50 in other special units, and 114 in wards. Social Support Subscale, 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping), Scales of PWB, and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found and showed that social support, resilience, and coping determined PWB of nursing professionals. The most important personal resource was coping strategies, which determined PWB directly (β=0.68). Social support influenced PWB directly (β=0.33), and indirectly (β=0.32), whereas resilience influenced it indirectly (β=0.57). Differences in PWB, coping, social support and resilience are not determined by hospital service. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive), social support, and resilience, constitute three relevant personal resources that determine the PWB of nursing staff, which can be developed and improved by specific programs. The most important PWB dimensions are self-acceptance and environment mastery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of recurrent changes in the work environment on nurses' psychological well-being and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Rik; Vlerick, Peter; Gemmel, Paul; Van Maele, Georges; De Backer, Guy

    2006-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study of how the occurrence and appraisal of recurrent changes in the work environment of hospital nurses affect psychological well-being (i.e. job satisfaction, eustress and distress) and absence through illness. Many researchers have demonstrated the impact of major organizational changes on employees' psychological well-being, but only a few have focused on the permanent consequences in work conditions. In a contemporary healthcare setting, an increased number of recurrent operational changes has become a normal characteristic of nurses' work environment. Specific work situations have frequently been associated with occupational stress, whereas employees' appraisal of recurrent changes as stressors and their relation to psychological well-being and health outcomes (i.e. sickness absence) have been dismissed. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2003 with 2094 Registered Nurses in 10 general hospitals. Logistic regressions were used to investigate the impact on psychological well-being and prospectively measured rates of sickness absence (frequency and duration). The occurrence of changes in the work environment (in the past 6 months) had had a negative impact on staff psychological well-being. Nurses who had been confronted with changes scored statistically significantly higher for distress. Changes appraised as threatening were negatively related to job satisfaction and eustress, and positively related to distress and sickness absence (frequency and duration). Changes appraised as challenging were positively related to job satisfaction and eustress but had no impact on distress and sickness absence. Future research should take into consideration the impact of the occurrence and appraisal of recurrent changes in the work environment of healthcare employees (i.e. Registered Nurses) on psychological well-being and sickness absence. This should also be considered by managers when dealing with these nursing workforce

  6. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  7. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  8. Psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress / well-being: the mediating role of personal goal facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Violani, Cristiano; Lazzari, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of personal goal facilitation through work (PGFW), defined as perceptions of the extent to which one's job facilitates the attainment of one's personal goals, in the association between psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress and job-related well-being. Questionnaire data from 217 nurses (84% female, with a mean age of 42.7 years, SD=7.2) were analyzed. Participants completed the following measures: the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Workplace Goal Facilitation Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (short version). A cross-sectional study design was applied. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that unfavorable psychosocial job characteristics (high demands, low control, and low social support) were associated with lower PGFW. Furthermore, personal goal facilitation through work explained significant additional variance (from 2 to 11%) in psychological distress (somatic complaints and emotional exhaustion) and job-related well-being (personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and work engagement), controlling for demographic indicators and psychosocial job characteristics. Finally, the results provided support for the mediating effects of PGFW between all psychosocial job characteristics and all outcomes, except in the case of depersonalization. This study suggests that hindered personal goal facilitation may be a mechanism through which psychosocial job characteristics have a negative impact on employees' well-being.

  9. Essentialist beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Ross, Michael W; Costa, Daniel S J; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and their implications for sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in a sample of gay men. A combination of targeted sampling and snowball strategies were used to recruit 639 gay identifying men for a cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sexual orientation beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and psychological wellbeing outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether essentialist beliefs were associated with psychological wellbeing indirectly via their effect on sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity. A unique pattern of direct and indirect effects was observed in which facets of essentialism predicted sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing. Of note, viewing sexual orientation as immutable/biologically based and as existing in discrete categories, were associated with less sexual identity uncertainty. On the other hand, these beliefs had divergent relationships with internalized homonegativity, with immutability/biological beliefs associated with lower, and discreteness beliefs associated with greater internalized homonegativity. Of interest, although sexual identity uncertainty was associated with poorer psychological wellbeing via its contribution to internalized homophobia, there was no direct relationship between identity uncertainty and psychological wellbeing. Findings indicate that essentializing sexual orientation has mixed implications for sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity and wellbeing in gay men. Those undertaking educational and clinical interventions with gay men should be aware of the benefits and of caveats of essentialist theories of homosexuality for this population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Does Emotions Communication Ability Affect Psychological Well-Being? A Study with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) v2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to provide evidence regarding the relationship between emotions communication ability--in terms of emotional intelligence (EI)--and psychological well-being. Additionally, the study explored the moderating effect of sex on this relationship. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, General Health Questionnaire, Psychological General Well-Being Index, and Depression Questionnaire. Results showed the moderating role of sex in the relationship between EI ability and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the associations between EI and psychological well-being measures were generally higher for men than for women, supporting the idea that sex needs to be taken into account when considering EI measures. The potential helpfulness of EI and emotions communications ability in promoting mental health is discussed.

  11. Impact of virtual reality games on psychological well-being and upper limb performance in adults with physical disabilities: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D K A; Rahman, N N A; Seffiyah, R; Chang, S Y; Zainura, A K; Aida, S R; Rajwinder, K H S

    2017-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the effects of interactive virtual reality (VR) games on psychological and physical well-being among adults with physical disabilities. We aimed to examine the impact of VR games on psychological well-being, upper limb motor function and reaction time in adults with physical disabilities. Fifteen participants completed the intervention using Wii VR games in this pilot study. Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) and Capabilities of Upper Extremity (CUE) questionnaires were used to measure psychological well-being and upper limb motor function respectively. Upper limb reaction time was measured using reaction time test. Results showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in DASS questionnaire and average reaction time score after intervention. There is a potential for using interactive VR games as an exercise tool to improve psychological wellbeing and upper limb reaction time among adults with disabilities.

  12. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being.

  13. Teachers’ occupational attributes and their psychological wellbeing, job satisfaction, occupational self-concept and quitting intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Korpershoek, Hanke; Wang, Hui; Morin, Alexandre J.S.

    Little is known about the determinants of teachers' psychological wellbeing, job satisfaction, occupational self-concept and quitting intentions. In this paper, teachers' occupational attributes (i.e. professional and personal characteristics) were investigated as determinants. Henceforth, the

  14. Psychological and physical well-being of Lithuanian youth: Relation to emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Antinienė

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The study revealed that the factors such as subjective assessment of physical and mental health, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being were reliable predictors of certain EI indexes.

  15. Does empowerment mediate the effects of psychological factors on mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Annmarie; Tai, Sara; Hunter, Andrew; Emsley, Richard; Murrells, Trevor; Morrison, Anthony P

    2017-09-01

    There is consensus that empowerment is key to recovery from mental health problems, enabling a person to take charge of their life and make informed choices and decisions about their life. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which empowerment affects mental health in young people. The current study involved young people aged 16-29 years and examined empowerment as a potential mediator of the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, cognition, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from personal problems. A cross-sectional, Internet-based questionnaire study recruited 423 young people aged between 16 and 29 attending universities in England (n = 336) and Ireland (n = 87). Psychological factors, mental well-being, empowerment, and recovery from personal problems were measured using self-report measures. Mediation analysis in both the single and one over-arching mediator models revealed that empowerment mediates the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, self-efficacy, thinking style, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from general life problems. This study demonstrates the importance of empowerment, showing that it mediates the relationship between psychological processes and mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people. Clinical implications for working with young people within mental health services, and facilitating their empowerment are discussed. Empowerment is currently a poorly defined concept. This study demonstrates how empowerment mediates the relationship between psychological processes and mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people. Clinicians working with young people might benefit from a structured means of understanding and assessing the different ways in which individuals manage their thinking styles. Empowerment in young people is influenced by the manner in which clinicians facilitate them in establishing social

  16. [Activity involvement and extraversion as predictors of psychological wellbeing in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Laura; Dumitrache, Cristina G; Rubio-Herrera, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between extraversion and wellbeing has been discussed in the literature, however, the impact that this trait has on the wellbeing of older people has been studied to a lesser extent. The relationship between extraversion, participation in activities and psychological wellbeing in older people is analysed in this study. The sample comprised 139 individuals over 55 years from rural and urban areas of the province of Granada who completed the extraversion subscale of the NEO-FFI and the Ryff Scales of the Psychological Wellbeing, as well as responding to questions that evaluated their social participation. A greater social participation was found in rural areas and among women. The activities more frequently performed by the participants were educational and religious activities, walking, everyday chores, crafts, and home improvements. A low positive correlation between extraversion and wellbeing was observed. The multiple regression analysis revealed that extraversion explained 19.9% of the variance in psychological wellbeing, which increased to 25.3% when social participation, gender, and the origin of the sample were considered. Psychological wellbeing appears to be associated with personality traits, such as extraversion. In addition this personality trait is linked to the number and type of activities the elderly perform which also contributes to wellbeing in old age. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. When forgiving enhances psychological well-being: The role of interpersonal commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karremans, J.C.T.M.; van Lange, P.A.M.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.; Kluwer, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present research addresses the question of when and why forgiving might enhance psychological well-being. The authors predict that forgiving is associated with enhanced well-being but that this association should be more pronounced in relationships of strong rather than weak commitment. This

  18. Psychological well-being in older adults suffering from chronic headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelicic, M.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.; Passchier, J.

    Objective. - The aim of this study was to examine two components of psychological well-being - life satisfaction and affective well-being - in community-dwelling elderly with (n = 321) and without chronic headache (n = 4955). Methods. - A checklist of chronic; medical conditions was used to

  19. The relation between short-term emotion dynamics and psychological well-being: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Marlies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Not only how good or bad people feel on average, but also how their feelings fluctuate across time is crucial for psychological health. The last 2 decades have witnessed a surge in research linking various patterns of short-term emotional change to adaptive or maladaptive psychological functioning, often with conflicting results. A meta-analysis was performed to identify consistent relationships between patterns of short-term emotion dynamics-including patterns reflecting emotional variability (measured in terms of within-person standard deviation of emotions across time), emotional instability (measured in terms of the magnitude of consecutive emotional changes), and emotional inertia of emotions over time (measured in terms of autocorrelation)-and relatively stable indicators of psychological well-being or psychopathology. We determined how such relationships are moderated by the type of emotional change, type of psychological well-being or psychopathology involved, valence of the emotion, and methodological factors. A total of 793 effect sizes were identified from 79 articles (N = 11,381) and were subjected to a 3-level meta-analysis. The results confirmed that overall, low psychological well-being co-occurs with more variable (overall ρ̂ = -.178), unstable (overall ρ̂ = -.205), but also more inert (overall ρ̂ = -.151) emotions. These effect sizes were stronger when involving negative compared with positive emotions. Moreover, the results provided evidence for consistency across different types of psychological well-being and psychopathology in their relation with these dynamical patterns, although specificity was also observed. The findings demonstrate that psychological flourishing is characterized by specific patterns of emotional fluctuations across time, and provide insight into what constitutes optimal and suboptimal emotional functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Facebook Paradox: Effects of Facebooking on Individuals? Social Relationships and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Andrew; Siwek, Nicholas; Wilder, David

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that Facebooking can be both beneficial and detrimental for users’ psychological well-being. The current study attempts to reconcile these seemingly mixed and inconsistent findings by unpacking the specific effects of Facebooking on users’ online–offline social relationship satisfaction and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, pathways were examined between Facebook intensity, online–offline social relationship satisfaction, perceived social support, soc...

  1. GPs' mental wellbeing and psychological resources: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marylou Anna; Cardwell, Chris; Donnelly, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The negative impact of work has been the traditional focus of GP surveys. We know little about GP positive mental health and psychological resources. To profile and contextualise GP positive mental health and personal psychological resources. Cross-sectional survey of GPs working in Northern Ireland (NI). A questionnaire comprising the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) and measures of resilience, optimism, self-efficacy, and hope, and sociodemographic information was posted to 400 GPs randomly selected from a publicly available GP register. The response rate was 55% (n = 221 out of 400). Mean value for GP wellbeing (WEMWBS) was 50.2 (standard deviation [SD] 8) compared to UK vets 48.8 (SD 9), UK teachers 47.2 (SD 9), and the population of NI 50.8 (SD 9). After adjustment for confounding, mean WEMWBS was 2.4 units (95% CI = 0.02 to 4.7) higher in female GPs than males ( P = 0.05), and 4.0 units (95% CI = 0.8 to 7.3) higher in GPs ≥55 years than GPs ≤44 years ( P = 0.02). Optimism was 1.1 units higher in female GPs than male GPs (95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), and 1.56 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.2 to 2.9) than in those ≤44 years. Hope was 3 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.4 to 5.7) than in those aged 45-54 years. Correlation between WEMWBS and psychological resources was highest with hope ( r = 0.65, P mental health that are comparable to the local population and better than other occupational groups, such as vets and teachers. Male and younger GPs may have most to gain from wellbeing interventions. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  2. Autonomy support, basic psychological needs and well-being in Mexican athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Walle, Jeanette; Balaguer, Isabel; Castillo, Isabel; Tristán, José

    2012-11-01

    Based on Basic Needs Theory, one of the mini-theories of Self-determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002), the present study had two objectives: (a) to test a model in the Mexican sport context based on the following sequence: perceived coach autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and psychological well-being, and b) to analyze the mediational effect of the satisfaction of perceived coach autonomy support on indicators of psychological well-being (satisfaction with life and subjective vitality). Six hundred and sixty-nine young Mexican athletes (Boys = 339; Girls = 330; M(age) = 13.95) filled out a questionnaire assessing the study variables. Structural equations analyses revealed that perceived coach autonomy support predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Furthermore, basic need satisfaction predicted subjective vitality and satisfaction with life. Autonomy, competence and relatedness partially mediated the path from perceived coach autonomy support to psychological well-being in young Mexican athletes.

  3. Authentic leadership and psychological well-being at work of nurses: The mediating role of work climate at the individual level of analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nelson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Authentic leadership has been purported to influence psychological well-being through its impact on work climate. Using a sample of 406 nurses, a time-lagged study design was employed to determine the mediational role of work climate in explaining the impact of authentic leadership. Two self-reported questionnaires were completed to ascertain: (1 authentic leadership; and (2 work climate at baseline. In addition, nurses completed a measure to determine their level of psychological well-being at work at the 6 month time period. A mediation analysis with the use of a bootstrapping technique reveals that work climate mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and psychological well-being at work. These findings indicate that authentic leadership impacts the work climate in a positive manner; thereby, increasing levels of psychological well-being at work. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the findings for future research as well as outline some limitations.

  4. Measuring Poverty and Wellbeing in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys—income, co......Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys......—income, consumption, health, demographics, labour force, household enterprise, and others. And the information base in developing countries with respect to poverty and wellbeing has improved dramatically. Nevertheless, appropriate measurement of poverty remains complex and controversial; this chapter lays out...... for the reader the issues and challenges. This is particularly true in developing countries where (i) the stakes with respect to poverty reduction are high; (ii) the determinants of living standards are often volatile; and (iii) related information bases, while much improved, are often characterized...

  5. Changes in spiritual well-being and psychological outcomes in ovarian cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lauren Z; Cuneo, Michaela; Thaker, Premal H; Goodheart, Michael J; Bender, David; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2018-02-01

    Because of the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer and concomitant distress, understanding contributors to positive well-being is critical. This study examines spiritual growth as a domain of posttraumatic growth and its contribution to longitudinal emotional outcomes in ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer patients (N = 241) completed measures assessing spirituality (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being-12; subscales: faith, meaning, and peace), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), cancer-specific anxiety (Impact of Event Scale), and total mood disturbance (TMD; Profile of Mood States) prior to surgery and 1-year postsurgery. Stressful life events in the year after diagnosis were measured at 1-year postsurgery. Regressions examined the association between changes in spirituality and depression, anxiety, and TMD at 1-year postsurgery. Additionally, spiritual change was examined as a moderator of the effect of recent life events on mood. Increases in peace were related to lower depression (β = -.40, P spiritual growth in cancer patients. Furthermore, changes in peace appear to moderate the effect of life events on psychological well-being. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The influences of childlessness on the psychological well-being and social network of the oldest old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikström Josefin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ELSA 85 project is a population-based study with the purpose to learn more about the "elderly elderly". The aim of this part of the ELSA 85 study is to explore the effects of childlessness on the psychological wellbeing, living situation and social support of 85-year old individuals. Methods A postal questionnaire was sent to all (650 85-year old men and women living in Linköping Municipality in 2007. Psychological well-being and social network was measured using a number of questions. Results 496 individuals participated in the study. No differences in psychological wellbeing were found between the 85-year olds who were childless and those who were parents. The childless 85-year olds were less likely to have relatives close by and to receive help than those who were parents. Individuals of both groups were equally likely to end up in institutional care, to have friends close by and to be in contact with neighbours. Conclusions Even though elderly childless individuals have social networks of less support potential than those who are parents there are no differences in certain psychological wellbeing indicators between the two groups. Apparently, childless elderly individuals find ways to cope with whatever negative effects of childlessness they may have experienced.

  7. Confronting as autonomy promotion: Speaking up against discrimination and psychological well-being in racial minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Himmelstein, Mary S; Young, Danielle M; Albuja, Analia F; Garcia, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have considered confrontation in the context of coping with discriminatory experiences. These studies test for the first time whether confronting racial discrimination is associated with greater psychological well-being and physical health through the promotion of autonomy. In two separate samples of racial minorities who had experienced racial discrimination, confrontation was associated with greater psychological well-being, and this relationship was mediated by autonomy promotion. These findings did not extend to physical health symptoms. These studies provide preliminary evidence that confrontation may aid in the process of regaining autonomy after experiencing discrimination and therefore promote well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Happiness and its relation to psychological well-being of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heizomi, Haleh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Safaian, Abdolrasul

    2015-08-01

    In the present decade, adolescents' mental problems are known as critical problems which have many destructive consequences. This study aimed to measure students' happiness and psychological well-being status in a sample of high school students. The cross sectional study consisted of 403 randomly selected high school students in Tabriz, Iran. Numerous variables including general health status, happiness, self-efficacy, perceived stress, hopefulness and life satisfaction were measured by using self-reported written questionnaires. Significant relation observed between happiness and psychological well-being (r=0.48). Those students with good relationship and those who had reported to enjoy attending social events indicated better mental health status. No causal inferences were investigated due to the non-experimental nature of the study. The findings also revealed that students with higher happiness score have a better school performance. Integration of happiness promotion initiatives into the comprehensive school health programs is recommended to have pleasant environments for a healthy population of adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancing the Educational Subject: Cognitive Capitalism, Positive Psychology and Well-Being Training in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…

  10. Contributions of Positive Psychology to Peace: Toward Global Well-Being and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, J. Christopher; Christie, Daniel J.; White, Mathew P.; Das, Chaitali

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an…

  11. Positive Psychology in SLA: An Agenda for Learner and Teacher Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article begins with an outline of the developments in Positive Psychology (PP) generally and specifically within SLA focusing on theoretical, empirical and practical developments. It moves on to consider PP's potential contribution to language teaching focusing on how it can help promote emotional, social and psychological wellbeing for…

  12. An International Partnership Promoting Psychological Well-Being in Sri Lankan Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka N. S.

    2014-01-01

    This article illustrates the application of psychological and educational consultation in an international setting. With the goal of promoting psychological well-being of the school-age population, a partnership was formed between an American school psychologist and a Sri Lankan educational sociologist and teacher educator. The partners, or…

  13. A report on psychological well-being and physical self-perception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research compared psychological well-being and physical self-perceptions of convenience samples of health club members, hockey players, runners, soccer players, surfers and a control group of non-sports persons. All sports groups perceived themselves to be significantly more psychologically well than the control ...

  14. Work routines moderate the association between eveningness and poor psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Felipe Gutiérrez; de Souza, Camila Morelatto; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza

    2018-01-01

    Well-being is a useful screening method for the detection of mood disorders. Evidence associating psychological well-being with sleep-wake patterns exists, as well as associations with sleep-wake patterns, work-related parameters, and perceived self-efficacy. Despite the growing research regarding the relationship between these factors and mental health, there are few studies that analyze them together. To investigate if the association between sleep-wake patterns and psychological well-being is mediated or moderated by perceived self-efficacy, work flexibility and work routines. This cohort study was performed in southern Brazil. A sample of 987 individuals was analyzed (66.9% women; mean age = 43.9 years). Work routines parameters and work schedule flexibility were evaluated, most participants were farmers (46%) and most worked 7 days a week (69.1%). Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) was administered for evaluation of sleep-wake patterns, General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) for assessment the participants' beliefs about how they coped with daily hassles, and World Health Organization Five-item Well-being Index (WHO-5) for evaluation of psychological well-being levels. Moderation and mediation models were tested. The moderation model showed influences of work end time on the relationship between sleep onset time and psychological well-being (R2 = 0.147; F = 24.16; ppsychological well-being with sex (Beta = -0.086; p = 0.004), sleep onset time (Beta = -0.086; p = 0.006), and self-efficacy (Beta = 0.316; ppsychological well-being with sleep-wake patterns and self-efficacy, and show an interaction between work routines and sleep-wake patterns. Our results draw attention to the importance of the interplay between individual and social rhythms in relation to psychological well-being.

  15. Investigating the effect of the London living wage on the psychological wellbeing of low-wage service sector employees: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Ellen; Cummins, Steven; Wills, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Working poverty has become a major public health concern in recent times, and low-paid, insecure employment has been widely linked to poor psychological wellbeing. The London Living Wage (LLW) campaign aims to ensure employees receive adequate pay. The objective of this study is to investigate whether working for a LLW employer predicted higher levels of psychological wellbeing among low-wage service sector employees. Workplace interviews were conducted with 300 service sector employees in London; 173 of whom were in LLW workplaces. Positive psychological wellbeing was measured using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess whether working for a LLW employer was associated with greater psychological wellbeing, adjusting for hypothesised confounding and mediating factors. After adjustment, respondents working for LLW employers had wellbeing scores 3.9 units higher on average than those who did not (95% CI: 1.8, 6.0). These empirical results are complemented by methodological findings regarding the difficulties associated with accessing the study group. Those who worked for a LLW employer had significantly higher psychological wellbeing on average than those who did not. This was shown to be irrespective of any differences in the socioeconomic or demographic composition of these two groups. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Centeredness Theory: Understanding and Measuring Well-Being Across Core Life Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zephyr T. Bloch-Jorgensen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Centeredness Theory (CT is proposed as a new mental health paradigm that focuses on well-being at a systems-level, across the core life domains of the self, the family unit, relationships, community, and work. The current studies aimed to validate the psychometric properties of a new scale that measures CT against existing well-being and mental health measures.Methods: Study 1 included 488 anonymous online respondents (46% females, 28% males, 25% unknown with median age between 31 and 35 years across 38 countries who completed the CT scale. Study 2 included 49 first-year psychology students (90% females, mean age of 19 years from Sydney Australia that completed the CT scale and other well-being and mental health questionnaires at baseline and 2-weeks follow-up.Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a refined 60-item CT scale with five domains, each with four sub-domains. The CT scale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability, and showed evidence of convergent validity against other well-being measures (e.g., COMPAS-W Wellbeing Scale, SWLS scale, and Ryff's Psychological Well-being scale.Conclusions: The CT scale appears to be a reliable measure of well-being at a systems-level. Future studies need to confirm these findings in larger heterogeneous samples.

  17. Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being at Advanced Age: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Quintana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the connection between psychological well-being and Internet use in older adults. The study is based on a sample of 2314 participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. The subjects, aged 50 years and older, were interviewed every two years over the 2006–2007 to 2014–2015 period. The connection between the use of Internet/Email and the main dimensions of psychological well-being (evaluative, hedonic and eudaimonic was analyzed by means of three generalized estimating equation models that were fitted on 2-year lagged repeated measurements. The outcome variables, the scores on three well-being scales, were explained in terms of Internet/Email use, controlling for covariates that included health and socioeconomic indicators. The results support the existence of a direct relationship between Internet/Email use and psychological well-being. The connection between the main predictor and the score of the participants on the scale used to measure the eudaimonic aspect was positive and statistically significant at conventional levels (p-value: 0.015. However, the relevance of digital literacy on the evaluative and the hedonic components could not be confirmed (p-values for evaluative and hedonic dimensions were 0.078 and 0.192, respectively.

  18. Predictors of Psychological Well-Being during Behavioral Obesity Treatment in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N. Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association of autonomy-related variables, including exercise motivation, with psychological well-being and quality of life, during obesity treatment. Middle-aged overweight/obese women (n=239 participated in a 1-year behavioral program and completed questionnaires measuring need support, general self-determination, and exercise and treatment motivation. General and obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety were also assessed. Results showed positive correlations of self-determination and perceived need support with HRQOL and self-esteem, and negative associations with depression and anxiety (P<.001. Treatment autonomous motivation correlated positively with physical (P=.004 and weight-related HRQOL (P<.001, and negatively with depression (P=.025 and anxiety (P=.001. Exercise autonomous motivation was positively correlated with physical HRQOL (P<.001, mental HRQOL (P=.003, weight-related HRQOL (P<.001, and self-esteem (P=.003, and negatively with anxiety (P=.016. Findings confirm that self-determination theory's predictions apply to this population and setting, showing that self-determination, perceived need support, and autonomous self-regulation positively predict HRQOL and psychological well-being.

  19. [Adiposity and psychological well-being: effects of physical activity on university students in Valencia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isabel; Molina-García, Javier

    2009-10-01

    To determine, through the use of a structural equation model, the relationships that exist between physical activity, body fat, perceived physical ability, and three indicators of psychological well-being, in a sample of Spanish university students. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 639 students 18-29 years of age representative of the universities of Valencia, Spain, during the 2005-2006 term. Physical exercise was rated by taking an inventory of healthy behaviors among students. The following scales were applied: self-perceived physical ability, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and subjective vitality. Body fat was expressed as the percentage of fat mass (PFM). A theoretical model was devised using six measured variables. The participants' level of physical activity was moderate; they perceived themselves to be physically competent; had high self-esteem; were satisfied with life; and had high vitality. Physical activity was negatively correlated with PFM in men and women alike; and negatively associated with perceived physical ability; while perceived physical ability was positively associated with self-esteem, life satisfaction, and subjective vitality. The effect of physical activity on perceived competence was mediated in part by PFM in men. In women, exercise was directly correlated to PFM, as well as perceived ability, without PFM mediation. Increased physical activity is of great value to public health because, in addition to helping to reduce body fat, it improves psychological well-being and self-image.

  20. Assessing teachers' positive psychological functioning at work: Development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L; Long, Anna C J; Cook, Clayton R

    2015-06-01

    This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (TSWQ) with 2 samples of educators-a general sample of 185 elementary and middle school teachers, and a target sample of 21 elementary school teachers experiencing classroom management challenges. The TSWQ is an 8-item self-report instrument for assessing teachers' subjective wellbeing, which is operationalized via subscales measuring school connectedness and teaching efficacy. The conceptualization and development processes underlying the TSWQ are described, and results from a series of preliminary psychometric and exploratory analyses are reported to establish initial construct validity. Findings indicated that the TSWQ was characterized by 2 conceptually sound latent factors, that both subscales and the composite scale demonstrated strong internal consistency, and that all scales demonstrated convergent validity with self-reported school supports and divergent validity with self-reported stress and emotional burnout. Furthermore, results indicated that TSWQ scores did not differ according to teachers' school level (i.e., elementary vs. middle), but that they did differ according to unique school environment (e.g., 1 middle school vs. another middle school) and teacher stressors (i.e., general teachers vs. teachers experiencing classroom management challenges). Results also indicated that, for teachers experiencing classroom challenges, the TSWQ had strong short-term predictive validity for psychological distress, accounting for approximately half of the variance in teacher stress and emotional burnout. Implications for theory, research, and the practice of school psychology are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The interplay between psychological well-being, university adjustment and previous experience of traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that traumatic event that happened long ago does not have univocal connection with the current condition (intensity of post traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression, adjustment (as personality trait in general and university adaptation. Psychological well-being is not only a result of good adjustment, but at first contributes to socio-psychological adaptation of a person being connected with the way of perception and appraisal of life events. Psychological well-being is a part of adjustment potential and also reflects the level of adaptation. The most stressful events are death and/or serious illness of close others, or abuse. Special characteristics of students are described in the paper depending on the intensity of their suicidal thoughts. It is shown that the intensity of suicidal thoughts is connected with characteristics of psychological well-being showing itself in current condition, adjustment (as personality trait, university adaptation and choice of defense strategies

  2. Mindfulness, psychological well-being and doping in talented young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kim

    Psychological factors play an important part in sport participation. Besides influencing ... An area that is rapidly gaining more attention concerning the important role psychology plays in health and ..... The psychology of enhancing human performance. The ... Journal of Sport Management, 26(4): 322-334. JACKSON, S.A. ...

  3. Discriminant validity of well-being measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R E; Diener, E; Suh, E

    1996-09-01

    The convergent and discriminant validities of well-being concepts were examined using multitrait-multimethod matrix analyses (D. T. Campbell & D. W. Fiske, 1959) on 3 sets of data. In Study 1, participants completed measures of life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, and optimism on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart and also obtained 3 informant ratings. In Study 2, participants completed each of the 5 measures on 2 occasions 2 years apart and collected informant reports at Time 2. In Study 3, participants completed 2 different scales for each of the 5 constructs. Analyses showed that (a) life satisfaction is discriminable from positive and negative affect, (b) positive affect is discriminable from negative affect, (c) life satisfaction is discriminable from optimism and self-esteem, and (d) optimism is separable from trait measures of negative affect.

  4. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.

  5. Psychosocial conditions on and off the job and psychological ill health: depressive symptoms, impaired psychological wellbeing, heavy consumption of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michélsen, H; Bildt, C

    2003-07-01

    Psychiatric epidemiology has revealed a number of associations between gender, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric disorders. To examine psychosocial conditions on and off the job in relation to psychological ill health. Longitudinal design with 24 year follow up of employed persons (190 women, 177 men). Interview and questionnaire data on work and leisure conditions were collected in 1969 and 1993. Risk analyses were performed in relation to three outcomes in 1993: depression within the preceding 12 months, impaired psychological wellbeing, and heavy alcohol use. Thirteen per cent of the women and 11% of the men showed symptoms of depression, 21% and 22% had impaired psychological wellbeing, and 7% and 15% respectively were heavy alcohol users. Dissatisfaction with the quality (women) or quantity (men) of social contacts 24 years earlier was a significant risk factor for depression. Dissatisfaction with the quality of social contacts was also associated with impaired psychological wellbeing (among women), and dissatisfaction with leisure time activities was associated with heavy alcohol use (among men). Frequent overtime work 24 years earlier was associated with heavy alcohol use among women. Cross sectional analyses also showed associations between psychological ill health and some work related factors (mentally demanding work and lack of job pride). Perceived inadequacies in social contacts, and practical obstacles to social relationships are viewed as risk factors for depression. In this longitudinal study, work related factors, including mental demands and time pressure, do not appear sufficiently associated with psychological ill health.

  6. Effects of cumulative risk on behavioral and psychological well-being in first grade: moderation by neighborhood context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Julie; Caughy, Margaret; Nettles, Saundra M; O'Campo, Patricia J

    2010-10-01

    This study builds upon existing research by examining whether risk indices for child psychological well-being behave in the same way in different types of neighborhoods. Specifically, we sought to determine if neighborhood characteristics acted to exacerbate or, alternatively, to buffer risk factors at the family and/or child level. Families with a child entering first grade in Fall 2002 were recruited from Baltimore City neighborhoods, defined as census block groups. This study included 405 children, and data came from an interview with the primary caregiver and an assessment of the first grader. The dependent variables were externalizing behavior and internalizing problems. A family risk index consisting of 13 measures, and a child risk index consisting of three measures were the main independent variables of interest. We examined the effects of these indices on child psychological well-being and behavior across two neighborhood characteristics: neighborhood potential for community involvement with children and neighborhood negative social climate. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that cumulative family risk was associated with an increase in both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Perceived negative social climate moderated the effect of family risks on behavior problems such that more risk was associated with a larger increment in both externalizing behavior problems and psychological problems for children living in high versus low risk neighborhoods. These findings further emphasize the importance of considering neighborhood context in the study of child psychological well-being. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Narrating spiritual well-being in relationship to positive psychology and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Rooyen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Constructed as new and located in the discourse of positive psychology, “spiritual well-being” is a signifier with a (hisstory in which one possible reading is highlighted in this postmodern (deconstructive narrative. The construction of “spiritual + well-being” could be narrated as a secularisation of the religious by positivist psy-complex knowledges, where spiritual well-being is reconstructed as a measurable outcome. Or it could be nar-rated as a “spiritualisation” of the psy-complex by religious knowledges, with measurable well-being becoming dependent on the pursuit of the postmodern, multiple-storied spiritual/ religious features. As the psy-complex has followed medicine from a focus on pathology to a focus on holistic wellness, it has found itself in the religious realm which it has simultaneously centred and marginalised. Additionally, as the psy-complex has moved from measuring illness to measuring wellness, it could be described as having constructed new categories of non-well-being or ill-being.

  8. Psychological well-being among religious and spiritual-identified young gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit (N = 351 ages 18–29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM’s psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations. PMID:28163799

  9. The relevance of memory sensitivity for psychological well-being in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffalini, Enrico; Borella, Erika; Cornoldi, Cesare; De Beni, Rossana

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between memory sensitivity, which describes a positive attitude to autobiographical memory and the presence of behaviors devoted to saving memories of the personal past, and psychological well-being; in particular, we tested whether their relationship would change across age groups. Three hundred eighteen participants, divided in four groups: young to middle-aged adults (20-55 years old), young-old adults (65-74 years old), old adults (75-84 years old), and old-old adults (85-97 years old), completed questionnaires on their memory sensitivity and psychological well-being. Memory sensitivity slightly decreased with age and had a positive relationship with psychological well-being that was critically moderated by age. Specifically, the relationship between memory sensitivity and psychological well-being became increasingly stronger as age increased. While memory sensitivity may have little or no particular relevance in the case of young to middle-aged adults, it has an increasingly important positive relationship with psychological well-being at later age. It is thus suggested that memory sensitivity represents a dimension that should be considered in the study and interventions on quality of life in the elderly population.

  10. Relationship between Body Image and Psychological Well-being in Patients with Morbid Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Yazdani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morbid obesity is rising around the world. It can cause unpleasant appearance and body image. Most of the studies have aimed to evaluate the psychopathology of overweight and obesity and paying attention to mental well-being in morbid obese individuals is rare. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the relationship between body image and psychological well-being in morbid obese patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study, using simple random sampling method, was done on 124 morbid obese patients who referred to obesity clinic in Shiraz from 2016 to 2017. The data were collected by body image index and psychological well-being questionnaire. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient test, ANOVA, and Regression analysis. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between body image and psychological well-being (r=0.43 (P0.05. Conclusion: Final results indicated that body image defects caused by obesity could lie in negative psychological well-being in all aspects. This study can promote health clinicians’ knowledge in supporting of mental status of obese individuals. It is suggested that preventing and supporting intervention should be performed as effective methods for encountering and coping with psychological effects of obesity.

  11. Twenty-five years later--what do we know about religion/spirituality and psychological well-being among breast cancer survivors? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Judith A; Brockopp, Dorothy Y

    2012-03-01

    A diagnosis of cancer is a life-changing event for most people. The trauma and uncertainties of a breast cancer diagnosis can affect survivors' psychological well-being. Religion and/or spirituality can provide a means of support for many women as they live with the realities of a diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of this focused review is to critically analyze and synthesize relationships among psychological well-being, religion, and spirituality among women with breast cancer. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Cochrane CENTRAL, and PsycINFO databases were searched: January 1985-March 2010. The search terms religi*(religious/religion), spiritu*(spiritual/spirituality), breast cancer, psychological adjustment, psychological outcomes, psychological distress, psychological well-being, and outcomes were searched for separately and in combination. Eighteen quantitative studies were analyzed in order to examine associations among religion, spirituality, and psychological well-being for women diagnosed with breast cancer. These three variables were operationally defined as follows: (a) religious practice, religious coping, and perception of God; (b) spiritual distress, spiritual reframing, spiritual well-being, and spiritual integration; and (c) combined measure of both the religion and spirituality constructs. Results of this review suggest that within this population, limited relationships exist among religion, spirituality, and psychological well-being. Given the various definitions used for the three variables, the strength and clarity of relationships are not clear. In addition, the time of assessment along the course of the disease varies greatly and in some instances is not reported. Diagnosis and/or prognosis, factors that could influence psychological well-being, are frequently not factored into results. There does, however, appear to be sufficient evidence to include a brief, clinically focused assessment of women diagnosed with

  12. Materialism and well-being among Chinese college students: the mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongjie; Yao, Meilin; Yan, Wenfan

    2014-10-01

    Based on self-determination theory, this study explored the potential mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction in the relationship between materialism and well-being among Chinese college students. The results showed that basic psychological need satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between materialism and life satisfaction and fully mediated the relationships among materialism and emotional well-being, subjective vitality, and self-actualization. The findings indicated the importance of considering both subjective and psychological well-being and the interpretative power of basic psychological need satisfaction and Chinese culture in the flow from materialism to well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. A multidimensional approach to measuring well-being in students: Application of the PERMA framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L.; Waters, Lea E.; Adler, Alejandro; White, Mathew A.

    2015-01-01

    Seligman recently introduced the PERMA model with five core elements of psychological well-being: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. We empirically tested this multidimensional theory with 516 Australian male students (age 13–18). From an extensive well-being assessment, we selected a subset of items theoretically relevant to PERMA. Factor analyses recovered four of the five PERMA elements, and two ill-being factors (depression and anxiety). We then explored the nomological net surrounding each factor by examining cross-sectional associations with life satisfaction, hope, gratitude, school engagement, growth mindset, spirituality, physical vitality, physical activity, somatic symptoms, and stressful life events. Factors differentially related to these correlates, offering support for the multidimensional approach to measuring well-being. Directly assessing subjective well-being across multiple domains offers the potential for schools to more systematically understand and promote well-being. PMID:25745508

  14. Pre- and postnatal psychological wellbeing in Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alexandra; Ayers, Susan; Smith, Helen

    2010-06-01

    Perinatal mental health disorders are recognised as an important public health issue in low-income countries as well as in developed countries. This paper reviews evidence on the prevalence and risk factors of maternal mental health disorders in African women living in Africa. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies were mainly located through computerised databases, and additionally through hand searching references of identified articles and reviews. Thirty-five studies, with a total of 10,880 participants, were identified that reported prevalence rates of maternal psychological health in eight African countries. Depression was the most commonly assessed disorder with a weighted mean prevalence of 11.3% (95% CI 9.5%-13.1%) during pregnancy and 18.3% (95% CI 17.6%-19.1%) after birth. Only a small number of studies assessed other psychological disorders. Prevalence rates of pre- and postnatal anxiety were 14.8% (95% CI 12.3%-17.4%) and 14.0% (95% CI 12.9%-15.2%), respectively; and one study reported the prevalence of PTSD as 5.9% (95% CI 4.4%-7.4%) following childbirth. Lack of support and marital/family conflict were associated with poorer mental health. Evidence relating sociodemographic and obstetric variables to mental health was inconclusive. Most studies included in this review were cross-sectional and measures of mental health varied considerably. This paper demonstrates that maternal mental health disorders are prevalent in African women, and highlights the importance of maternal mental health care being integrated into future maternal and infant health policies in African countries. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EFFECTS OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP ON EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shania Dwi Rantika

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaders who promote ethical behavior are believed to affect their employees’ well-being. This study was conducted to examine psychological empowerment as the intervening variable that connects ethical leadership to employees’ well-being, work engagement, and emotional exhaustion. By using a mail survey, we distributed questionnaires to 219 auditors from 11 public accounting firms in Jakarta. All the hypotheses in this study were supported. Ethical leadership has a positive effect on psychological empowerment. Thus, psychological empowerment positively relates to work engagement and negatively relates to emotional exhaustion. The result demonstrated that psychological empowerment partially mediates the effect of ethical leadership on work engagement and fully mediates the effect on ethical leadership and emotional exhaustion. The findings reveal that ethical leadership stimulates the psychological empowerment of the employee, thus, it enhances work engagement and also minimizes emotional exhaustion.

  16. Psychological wellbeing, physical impairments and rural aging in a developing country setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Melanie A; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Jirapramupitak, Tawanchai; Tangchonlatip, Kanchana; Leese, Morven

    2009-07-16

    There has been very little research on wellbeing, physical impairments and disability in older people in developing countries. A community survey of 1147 older parents, one per household, aged sixty and over in rural Thailand. We used the Burvill scale of physical impairment, the Thai Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. We rated received and perceived social support separately from children and from others and rated support to children. We used weighted analyses to take account of the sampling design. Impairments due to arthritis, pain, paralysis, vision, stomach problems or breathing were all associated with lower wellbeing. After adjusting for disability, only impairment due to paralysis was independently associated with lowered wellbeing. The effect of having two or more impairments compared to none was associated with lowered wellbeing after adjusting for demographic factors and social support (adjusted difference -2.37 on the well-being scale with SD = 7.9, p effect of paralysis was -2.97, p = 0.001). In this Thai setting, received support from children and from others and perceived good support from and to children were all independently associated with greater wellbeing whereas actual support to children was associated with lower wellbeing. Low received support from children interacted with paralysis in being especially associated with low wellbeing. In this Thai setting, as found in western settings, most of the association between physical impairments and lower wellbeing is explained by disability. Disability is potentially mediating the association between impairment and low wellbeing. Received support may buffer the impact of some impairments on wellbeing in this setting. Giving actual support to children is associated with less wellbeing unless the support being given to children is perceived as good, perhaps reflecting parental obligation to support adult children in need. Improving community disability

  17. Centrality of women's multiple roles: beneficial and detrimental consequences for psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, L M; Stephens, M A; Townsend, A L

    2000-03-01

    Theorists have proposed that greater centrality (personal importance) of a social role is associated with better psychological well-being but that role centrality exacerbates the negative effects of stress in that same social role on well-being. The present study found evidence to support both hypotheses in a sample of 296 women who simultaneously occupied the roles of parent care provider, mother, wife, and employee. Greater centrality of all four roles was related to better psychological well-being. As predicted, wife centrality exacerbated the effects of wife stress on life satisfaction, and employee centrality exacerbated the effects of employee stress on depressive symptoms. Contrary to prediction, centrality of the mother role buffered women from the negative effects of mother stress on depressive symptoms. These findings point to an aspect of role identity that can benefit well-being but that has complex effects in the context of role stress.

  18. "Social jetlag" in morning-type college students living on campus: implications for physical and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Ng, Eddie Chi Wai; Hui, Chi-chiu Harry; Cheung, Shu Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying

    2013-08-01

    Although on-campus residence allows easier access to campus facilities, existing studies showed mixed results regarding the relationship between college residence and students' well-being indicators, such as sleep behaviors and mood. There was also a lack of studies investigating the role of chronotype in the relationship between on-campus residence and well-being. In particular, the temporal relationships among these factors were unclear. Hence, this longitudinal study aims to fill in these gaps by first reporting the well-being (measured in terms of mood, sleep, and quality of life) among students living on and off campus across two academic semesters. We explored factors predicting students' dropout in university residences. Although students living on campus differ in their chronotypes, activities in campus residence (if any) are mostly scheduled in the nighttime. We therefore tested if individual differences in chronotype interact with campus residence in affecting well-being. Our final sample consisted of 215 campus residents and 924 off-campus-living students from 10 different universities or colleges in Hong Kong or Macau. Their mean age was 20.2 years (SD=2.3); 6.5% of the participants are female. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires online on their sleep duration, sleep quality, chronotype, mood, and physical and psychological quality of life. Across two academic semesters, we assessed if students living on and off campus differed in our well-being measures after we partialed out the effects of demographic information (including age, sex, family income, and parents' education) and the well-being measures at baseline (T1). The results showed that, campus residents exhibited longer sleep duration, greater sleep efficiency, better sleep quality, and less feeling of stress than off-campus-living students. From one semester to the next, around 10% of campus residents did not continue to live on campus. Logistic regression showed that a morning

  19. Robots for the psychological wellbeing of the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallego Pérez, J.; Lohse, M.; Evers, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines the potential robots may have to motivate and support elderly people psychologically. Two short- and long-term research scenarios are proposed where a robot interacts with an elderly person offering psychological support. We describe one experiment that was carried out

  20. A social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Arab; Najmeh Sedrpoushan; Afsaneh Javadzade

    2013-01-01

    We present a social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being among third year high school female students in city of Khomeinishahr, Iran during the year of 2012. The study selects a sample of 300 students from 1260 female students who were enrolled in third year high school education, randomly. The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parentin...

  1. Awareness of the Family History as a Factor in Psychological Well-being in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakimova T.V.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the study of connection of psychological well-being of adolescents with their awareness of their own family history. We briefly overview the main trends and individual empirical studies on the influence of family history of psychological well-being of the individual. In the present study, we focuses not on pathological influence of family history, but on its resource and supporting effect during the difficulties of adolescence. The study involved 32 teenagers. The empirical study is based on data obtained using a questionnaire designed to examine the links of teenager with extended family members and his awareness of family history. We found that adolescents who know their family history, have an interest in it and keep in touch with the extended family, are characterized by high values of the level of psychological well-being.

  2. Psychological Well-being Trajectories of Individuals with Dyslexia Aged 3-11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Julie-Ann; Dyer, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Dyslexia has been associated with a range of psychological well-being issues in childhood. However, it is unclear if these difficulties stem from coping with academic struggles at school, or from other pre-existing diagnoses that sometimes co-occur with dyslexia. Using UK Millennium Cohort Study data (n = 7224) from 2003 to 2011, the present study compared psychological well-being development from ages 3-11 years for children with (1) dyslexia only; (2) special educational needs excluding dyslexia; (3) comorbid dyslexia and other special educational needs; and (4) no special educational needs. Growth curve modelling results controlling for race, gender, age and family income suggested that with the exception of conduct difficulties, psychological well-being issues related to dyslexia do not occur preschool; rather, they commence upon starting school. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Leisure Activities and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…

  4. From authentic happiness to well-being: the flourishing of Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Scorsolini-Comin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to present paradigm shifts from the authentic happiness theory (2002 to the well-being theory (2011, both developed in Positive Psychology by Martin Seligman. The well-being theory adds fulfillment and interpersonal relationships to the elements already included in the first theory (positive emotions, engagement and meaning, highlighting that well-being does not depend only on individual aspects but on issues related to context and interpersonal relationships. Whereas authentic happiness seeks life satisfaction, well-being aspires to flourishing - a more complex and dynamic construct. Well-being theory opens the possibility of developing public policies related to promotion of quality of life without ruling out the need for constant review of such approach.

  5. Association of coping style and psychological well-being in hospital nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing jobs are among the occupations experiencing high levels of stress. Level of psychological well-being and coping style with stressful situations among nurses has large impact on their job performance. Limited information exists about the relationship between coping styles and psychological well-being among nurses, so the present study examined the way of coping and the level of psychological well-being as well as their relationships among nurses. Methods: In this correlational study, 100 nurses from Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2012. Lazarus and Folkman's coping styles and Ryff's psychological well-being Questionnaires were completed by self-report method. Collected data were entered software SPSS ver. 13 and then analyzed using Pearson correlation test. Results: The results showed EFCSwere more used but PFCSstyle was less used with a little difference by mean (SD of 87.91 (10.76 vs. 73.12 (12.15. Between EFCSand some psychological well-being dimensions such as purpose in life (P=0.01, r= - 0.28 and personal development (P= 0.03, r= - 0.024, a significant negative association and between PFCSstyle and purpose in life, a significant positive relationship was found (P=0.006, r= 0.31. Conclusion: Considering that PFCSstyle is more effective in solving problems and job stress, as well as, the increased use of EFCSis associated with adverse health consequences, improvement of nurses' coping strategies to cope better with stressful events by skill training and promotion of nurses' psychological well-being level is recommended.

  6. Ethnic differences in psychological well-being in adolescence in the context of time spent in family activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Maria J; Harding, Seeromanie

    2010-01-01

    In Britain and elsewhere there is ethnic variation in mental health in adulthood but less is known about adolescence. Few studies examining the role of family life in adolescent mental well-being have been based on a multi-ethnic UK sample. We explored whether family activities explain ethnic differences in mental health among adolescents in London, UK. These analyses are based on 4,349 Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi and White UK boys and girls aged 11-13, in 51 schools. Psychological well-being was measured as the total difficulties score from Goodman's strengths and difficulties questionnaire (increasing score represents increasing difficulties). Participation in family activities varied by ethnicity. Compared with the White UK group, all minority groups were more likely to visit friends and relatives and go other places as a family. Black Caribbeans and Nigerian/Ghanaians were less likely and South Asian groups more likely to eat a meal together as a family. In multivariate analyses all minority groups had better well-being scores compared to Whites, independent of family type and socio-economic status (SES). Although adjusting for family activities slightly attenuated the association for South Asians, the minority ethnic advantage in psychological well-being remained [regression coefficients for Black Caribbeans = -0.66 (95% CI = -1.13, -0.20); Nigerian/Ghanaians = -1.27 (-1.81, -0.74); Other Africans = -1.43 (-2.00, -0.86); Indians = -1.15 (-1.73, -0.58); Pakistani/Bangladeshis = -0.66 (-1.20, -0.12)]. In analyses based on the whole group, all activity variables were independent correlates of psychological well-being. Multivariate models, stratified by ethnicity, showed that family meals was associated with poorer mental health for all groups, except Black Caribbeans, independent of family type and SES. Despite ethnic patterning of the frequency of family activities, adjusting for differences in these variables did not

  7. Advances in Children's Rights and Children's Well-Being Measurement: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita; Jiang, Xu; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Huebner, E. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have brought important changes to the profession of school psychology, influenced by larger social, scientific, and political trends. These trends include the emergence of children's rights agenda and advances in children's well-being measurement. During these years, a growing public attention and commitment to the notion of…

  8. The Psychology of Sustainability and Sustainable Development for Well-Being in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the contribution of the psychology of sustainability and sustainable development to well-being in organizations from a primary prevention perspective. It deals with sustainability not only in terms of the ecological, economic, and social environment but also in terms of improving the quality of life of every human being. The psychology of sustainability and sustainable development is seen as a primary prevention perspective that can foster well-being in organizations at all the different levels going from the worker, to the group, to the organization, and also to inter-organizational processes. The possibilities for further research and interventions are also discussed.

  9. The psychological well-being of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mednick Sarnoff

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53 and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child.

  10. Psychological need-satisfaction and subjective well-being within social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Bettencourt, B Ann

    2002-03-01

    Five candidate measures of psychological need-satisfaction were evaluated as predictors of high positive and low negative mood within the group, intrinsic motivation for group activities, and high commitment to the group. Consistent with self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1991), personal autonomy and interpersonal relatedness both predicted positive outcomes. Consistent with optimal distinctiveness theory (Brewer, 1991), feeling included within the group, feeling personally distinctive within the group, and feeling that the group is distinctive compared to other groups, also predicted positive outcomes. Simultaneous regression analyses indicated that the five needs were differentially related to the different well-being indicators, and also suggested that group inclusion may be the most important need to satisfy within group contexts. Supplementary analyses showed that members of formal groups felt less personal autonomy, but more group distinctiveness, compared to informal group members.

  11. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being.

  12. Prayer, Attachment to God, and Changes in Psychological Well-Being in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Kent, Blake Victor

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prayer and attachment to God on psychological well-being (PWB) in later life. Using data from two waves of the nationwide Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, we estimate the associations between frequency of prayer and attachment to God at baseline with cross-wave changes in three measures of PWB: self-esteem, optimism, and life satisfaction. Prayer does not have a main effect on PWB. Secure attachment to God is associated with improvements in optimism but not self-esteem or life satisfaction. The relationship between prayer and PWB is moderated by attachment to God; prayer is associated with improvements in PWB among securely attached individuals but not those who are insecurely attached to God. These findings shed light on the complex relationship between prayer and PWB by showing that the effects of prayer are contingent upon one's perceived relationship with God.

  13. Assessing Anxiety, Depression and Psychological Wellbeing Status of Urban Elderly Under Represent of Tehran Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Alizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the present study describes assessing mental health status (anxiety, depression, and psychological wellbeing of old people in different age groups in tehran metropolitan city. The outcomes of this study could help to health policy makers to develop of better health policy in gerontology field by determine of priorities of mental care in different age groups of old people. Methods & Materials: this was a cross sectional study in 2010. The participants were (n=402 aged 60 years old and over which have underrepresented from Shahid Beheshti University. The survey methods were via face-to-face interviews, and just in a few cases as telephone interviews. The instrument to data collection included demographic questionnaire, k6 and yeild tools. Data analyzed by Stata and SPSS ver.15 through t-test, one-way anova. Regression models applied as well. Results: based on results in the past 4 weeks,10.9% of elderly had sever anxiety or depression symptoms and about half of them (46.5% had moderate psychological distress. The rate of psychological distress increased with age growing, specifically in 60- 79 years old however, this rate declined from age of 80 years and over. Psychological distress levels among elderly women were more than old men in all age groups, except of 60-69 years old people. Regarding psychological wellbeing, feeling of tireless, lone less, and depression are the most common complain of house dowelling old people in tehran metropolitan area. As the results show 43.1% elderly participants were in moderate level and 17% of them were in the bad level of psychological wellbeing. Based on regression model, sex (P=0.012, housing (P=0.004, and retirement salary (P=0.048 were significant variables that effect on psychological distress. The income rate was only important component that effect on psychological wellbeing of elderly participants. There was no significant different between aged groups 60-64 and 65-69 in psychological

  14. Employment, Leaving School, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winefield, Tony

    1985-01-01

    The author sums up the findings of research on the psychological effects of unemployment and of a variety of work experience schemes in which unemployed people participate. The article focuses on school leavers in Australia. (CT)

  15. Psychological well-being in elderly adults with extraordinary episodic memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cook Maher

    Full Text Available The Northwestern University SuperAging Program studies a rare cohort of individuals over age 80 with episodic memory ability at least as good as middle-age adults to determine what factors contribute to their elite memory performance. As psychological well-being is positively correlated with cognitive performance in older adults, the present study examined whether aspects of psychological well-being distinguish cognitive SuperAgers from their cognitively average-for-age, same-age peers.Thirty-one SuperAgers and 19 cognitively average-for-age peers completed the Ryff 42-item Psychological Well-Being questionnaire, comprised of 6 subscales: Autonomy, Positive Relations with Others, Environmental Mastery, Personal Growth, Purpose in Life, and Self-Acceptance.The groups did not differ on demographic factors, including estimated premorbid intelligence. Consistent with inclusion criteria, SuperAgers had better episodic memory scores. Compared to cognitively average-for-age peers, SuperAgers endorsed greater levels of Positive Relations with Others. The groups did not differ on other PWB-42 subscales.While SuperAgers and their cognitively average-for-age peers reported similarly high levels of psychological well-being across multiple dimensions, SuperAgers endorsed greater levels of positive social relationships. This psychological feature could conceivably have a biological relationship to the greater thickness of the anterior cingulate gyrus and higher density of von Economo neurons previously reported in SuperAgers.

  16. Psychological Well-being and Parenting Styles as Predictors of Mental Health among Students: Implication for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad reza khodabakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls of Boukan's high schools. The participants were asked to complete psychological well-being inventory and mental health parenting style questionnaire. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results showed that psychological well-being and authoritative parenting styles were significantly related with mental health; also, Permissive parenting styles has significant positive relationship with mental health. The regression analysis indicated that mental health is predictable by psychological well-being and parenting styles. Conclusion: The knowledge of parenting styles and psychological well-being and their relationships with general well-being can provide the significant implications on the provision of students' health. Parenting styles and psychological well-being, as significant variables in general well-being, needs more clinical research.

  17. THE EFFECT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING ON THE STUDENT’S INTEGRAL INDIVIDUALITY STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Orlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. New Federal State Standards of the higher education impose increased requirements not only to the level of professional competence of university graduates, but also to their personal readiness for implementation of successful professional activity. Psychological well-being is one of the integrative personal bases defining effective and full realization of labour functions by an expert. This has caused the research relevance stated in the article.The aim of this article is to analyze the specifics of the relationships of students’ integrated individuality of depending with the expression level of psychological well-being.Methodology and research methods. Methodological base of work involve the concept of psychological well-being by K. Riff, and the theory of integrated identity by V. S. Merlin. The research was conducted with the use of a package of diagnostic methods: «Scales of psychological well-being» by K. Ryff modified by D. G. Orlova; methods of studying the temperament by J. Strelau (adaptation by N. N. Danilova and A. G. Shmelyov; Structure Of Temperament Questionnaire by V. M. Rusalov (STQ; Five-Factor Personal Questionnaire (5PFQ in A. B. Khromov’s adaptation.Results and scientific novelty. The retrospective analysis of researches on a psychological well-being phenomenon in foreign and Russian psychology is carried out. The author made an attempt to show the principle of polymorphism as one of the fundamental principles of the integrated identity theory on the example of studying the role of psychological well-being in the structure of a student identity. An empirical part of the present research, carried out on the basis of four higher educational institutions of Perm, showed the existence of general characteristics and significant distinctions on indicators of neurodynamic, psychodynamic and personal levels of integrated identity between two groups of respondents – students with low and high values of

  18. Arranged Marriage, Identity and Psychological Wellbeing among British Asian Gay Men

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2013-01-01

    The cultural expectation of an arranged heterosexual marriage poses social and psychological challenges for British Asian gay men. This article examines the diary accounts of twelve British Asian gay men concerning their perceptions and feelings concerning marriage in face of familial pressure to get married and the implications for identity processes and psychological wellbeing. Data were analyzed qualitatively using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Identity Process Theory. The f...

  19. Self-esteem stability in relation to narcissism and psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Saša Zorjan; Katja Košir

    2013-01-01

    The concept of self-esteem stability has an important role in the understanding of interpersonal and psychological functioning of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem stability, narcissism and psychological well-being. A total of 178 participants (77% female) participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 20, with the ages ranging from 18 to 26 years. The participants completed the following scales and questionnaires: ...

  20. Potential predictors of psychological distress and well-being in medical students: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Miles; Kelly, Brian; Nair, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127) completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout); and personality traits. Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students.

  1. Early Childhood Teachers' Psychological Well-Being: Exploring Potential Predictors of Depression, Stress, and Emotional Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Grant, Ashley A.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: Early childhood teachers' psychological well-being influences the nurturing and learning classroom climate in early care and education as well as children's development. However, less is known about predictors of teachers' psychological well-being in preschool. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between…

  2. Relationships between Psychological Well-Being, Happiness, and Educational Satisfaction in a Group of University Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbatir, Rasim Erol

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on music students' psychological well-being and happiness. The purpose was to assess the psychological well-being, happiness and educational satisfaction among a group of university music students. Students participated voluntarily and filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale…

  3. [Differences in self-assessment of health and psychological wellbeing between healthy and unhealthy young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, D S; Kozlov, A I; Otavina, M L

    2016-01-01

    Self-assessment of health is the one out of the most important characteristics, which gives an idea about the health of the respondent as a psychophysiological continuum. The purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between indices of self-rated health and characteristics of the psychological well-being. Sample 344 young adults - students at an average age of 20.9 ± 1.6 years. Methods. “Self-assessment of health” questionnaire was used; MOSSF36 questionnaire and “Psychological wellbeing scale” developed by K. Riff. Respondents were divided into groups: (1) without chronic diseases; (2) having one or more chronic diseases of any etiology. Results. The presence of chronic diseases was shown to negatively effect on the self-estimation of physical and psychological state. The significant positive correlation (p psychological wellbeing as unrelated to each other characteristics. In contrast, in cases with even mild chronic health problems there is pronounced the relationship between somatic and psychological health, which forms a complex of physical and psychological factors determining the general state of a person.

  4. Employee well-being, intention to leave and perceived employability: A psychological contract approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni van der Vaart

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Employability emerged as a “new psychological contract” that may have beneficial effects on both individual and organisational outcomes. The study set out to investigate the relationship between perceived employability and employee well-being on the one hand and perceived employability and employees’ intention to leave on the other. The role of the state of the psychological contract, in terms of retaining employable employees while improving their well-being, was also investigated. Cross-sectional data were obtained from employees representing various organisations (N = 246. Contrary to expectations, structural equation modelling (SEM indicated no significant relationship between perceived employability and well-being. Perceived employability was a significant predictor of employees’ intention to leave the organisation. Results also indicated that the state of the psychological contract does not moderate the relationship between perceived employability and employee well-being and their intention to leave, respectively. The study stresses the importance of fulfilling promises made to employees ensuring that promises are fair and continuing to fulfil promises. The importance of interventions on individual-level, to enhance well-being in the workplace, is also emphasised.

  5. Does self-regulation capacity predict psychological well-being in physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christopher R; Durand-Bush, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing research on physician well-being, factors appearing to account for individual variation in levels of optimal functioning are largely unclear. One such factor could be self-regulation, which reflects how individuals effectively manage their thoughts, emotions and behaviours, and cope with adversity in their environment. The purpose of this study was to determine if self-regulation capacity could significantly predict psychological well-being in a sample of Canadian physicians. A total of 132 physicians completed the Scales of Psychological Well-Being and the short form of the Self-Regulation Questionnaire. Regression analyses confirmed the hypothesis that a significant amount of variance in levels of psychological well-being would be explained by self-regulation capacity. There was a particularly strong relationship between self-regulation capacity and the dimensions of purpose in life and environmental mastery, which suggests that physicians who effectively self-manage may be better able to preserve a sense of purpose and an adequate work-life balance in their daily life. Physicians today face consistently growing demands stemming from increasingly challenging work environments. Results of this study mark an important step in increasing our understanding of a potentially valuable skill that may help physicians to achieve well-being.

  6. Assessing psychological well-being: a holistic investigation of NHS employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretto, W; Popham, F; Platt, S; Pavis, S; Hardy, G; MacLeod, L; Gibbs, J

    2005-10-01

    A substantial body of research has investigated the effects of work on the psychological well-being of employees. However, there has been little assessment of the ways in which workplace factors (such as job demands, working conditions, inter-personal relations and workplace change) interact with personal factors (such as work-life balance, family circumstances, key personality traits or demographic characteristics) to affect psychological health. This article reports findings from a study which aimed to construct and test a comprehensive model of the influences on employee well-being within the UK National Health Service (NHS). The results show that psychological well-being is influenced by a complex array of personal, environmental and work factors. A key finding is that there are clear associations between workplace change and well-being and between work-life (im)balance and well-being. These effects appear to be independent of one another and therefore require separate attention from managers and employers.

  7. Mindfulness-oriented meditation for primary school children: Effects on attention and psychological well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano eCrescentini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being used as methods to promote psychological well-being of clinical and nonclinical adult populations. Much less is known, however, on the feasibility of these forms of mental training on healthy primary school students. Here, we tested the effects of a mindfulness-meditation training on a group of 16 healthy children within 7–8 years of age from an Italian primary school. An active control condition focused on emotion awareness was employed on a group of 15 age-matched healthy children from the same school. Both programs were delivered by the same instructors three times per week, for 8 total weeks. The same main teacher of the two classes did not participate in the trainings but she completed questionnaires aimed at giving comprehensive pre-post training evaluations of behavior, social, emotion, and attention regulation skills in the children. A children’s self-report measure of mood and depressive symptoms was also used. From the teacher’s reports we found a specific positive effect of the mindfulness-meditation training in reducing attention problems and also positive effects of both trainings in reducing children's internalizing problems. However, subjectively, no child in either group reported less depressive symptoms after the trainings. The findings were interpreted as suggestive of a positive effect of mindfulness-meditation on several children’s psychological well-being dimensions and were also discussed in light of the discrepancy between teacher and children’s reports. More generally, the results were held to speak in favor of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for healthy primary school children.

  8. The eudaimonic component of satisfaction with life and psychological well-being in Spanish cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Darío; Stavraki, María; Blanco, Amalio; Gandarillas, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    In the study of well-being there are two partially overlapping traditions that have been developed in parallel. Subjective well-being (SWB) has been associated with the hedonistic approach of well-being, and psychological well-being (PWB) with the eudaimonistic one. However, satisfaction with life, the most common SWB indicator, is not strictly a hedonic concept and contains many eudaimonic components. The objective of this research is to examine whether a Eudaimonic Well-being G-Factor of Satisfaction with Life (SWLS) and Psychological Well-being Scales (PWBS) emerges. 400 people from the general population of Colombia (Study 1) and 401 from Spain (Study 2), recruited via advertisement, voluntarily participated and filled in a booklet containing, in order of appearance, the PWBS and the SWLS. According to our hypothesis, parallel analysis, eigenvalues, scree plot graphs and exploratory factor analysis (Study 1) suggested the existence of a one-factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (Study 2) indicated that this one-factor model provided excellent data fit. Results of a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis confirmed cross-cultural factor invariance. These results question the view that the satisfaction with life indicator is uniquely hedonic and point to the need for a greater integration between hedonic and eudaimonic traditions.

  9. Impact of the Application of Redecision Methods in Executive Coaching Workshops on Psychological Wellbeing: a Quantitative Evaluation of Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that participants in redecision marathons experience increased personal growth and improvements in psychological well-being (McNeel, 1982; Noriega-Gayol, 1997; Widdowson & Rosseau, 2014. In this article, the authors conducted a quantitative analysis based on the use of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Wellbeing to determine whether participants (n=49 at an executive coaching redecision marathon would experience an increase in psychological well-being. The findings show statistically significant improvements in psychological well-being overall, and specifically within the sub-scales of autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth and self-acceptance, suggesting that redecision-based workshops are effective for improving subjective psychological well-being.

  10. Decreases in Psychological Well-Being Among American Adolescents After 2012 and Links to Screen Time During the Rise of Smartphone Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Martin, Gabrielle N; Campbell, W Keith

    2018-01-22

    In nationally representative yearly surveys of United States 8th, 10th, and 12th graders 1991-2016 (N = 1.1 million), psychological well-being (measured by self-esteem, life satisfaction, and happiness) suddenly decreased after 2012. Adolescents who spent more time on electronic communication and screens (e.g., social media, the Internet, texting, gaming) and less time on nonscreen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, attending religious services) had lower psychological well-being. Adolescents spending a small amount of time on electronic communication were the happiest. Psychological well-being was lower in years when adolescents spent more time on screens and higher in years when they spent more time on nonscreen activities, with changes in activities generally preceding declines in well-being. Cyclical economic indicators such as unemployment were not significantly correlated with well-being, suggesting that the Great Recession was not the cause of the decrease in psychological well-being, which may instead be at least partially due to the rapid adoption of smartphones and the subsequent shift in adolescents' time use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eDi Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect, high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect, low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect, and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect. The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS, and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM were administered to the participants. In the second study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale (SES, the Life Orientation Test - revised (LOT-r were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles.

  12. Grandparent Caregiving and Psychological Well-Being Among Chinese American Older Adults-The Roles of Caregiving Burden and Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Tang, Fengyan; Li, Lydia W; Dong, Xin Qi

    2017-07-01

    Though ample research on grandparent caregiving and psychological well-being outcomes exist in Western literature, little attention has been focused on Chinese American grandparents. Based on role enhancement and role strain theories, this study examined grandparent caregiving and psychological well-being among Chinese American older adults and tested whether caregiving burden or pressure from adult children moderated such association. We used the data from the Population Study of ChINese Elderly in Chicago (PINE), a population-based survey of community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Grandparents with grandchildren younger than 16 years old were selected for present study (N = 2,775). Negative binominal regression and logistic regression models were used to test the relationships of grandparent caregiving time and psychological well-being measured by depressive symptoms and quality of life. Grandparents reported an average of 11.96 hours a week for caring for grandchildren. Caregiving time had a significantly negative association with depressive symptoms, but not with quality of life. The association between grandparent caregiving and depressive symptoms was moderated by the perception of caregiving burden. No moderating effect of caregiving pressure from adult children was found. More time spending on grandparent caregiving is generally beneficial to Chinese American grandparents' psychological well-being, thus supporting role enhancement theory. However, this association depends on whether this experience is a burden to the grandparents, therefore role strain theory is also supported. Policies and programs are discussed to address the grandparenting experience in the Chinese American older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles.

  14. Psychological well-being and sexarche in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, J.E.; de Koning, C.M.; Pastoor, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Valkenburg, O.; Ramakers, M.J.; Passchier, J.; de Klerk, C.; Laven, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) such as hyperandrogenism and anovulation can be highly stressful and might negatively affect psychological well-being and sexuality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between PCOS characteristics and

  15. Researching Pupil Well-Being in UK Secondary Schools: Community Psychology and the Politics of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Paul; Sixsmith, Judith; Kagan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between a school, its staff and its pupils and the impact of these relationships on school pupils' well-being. The authors adopted a community psychological perspective and applied critical, social constructionist epistemologies and participatory, multi-method research tools. The article discusses the…

  16. Economic Hardship in the Family of Origin and Children's Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Past research consistently indicates that poverty and economic hardship have negative consequences for children. Few studies, however, have examined whether these consequences persist into adulthood. This study addresses this gap by assessing whether economic resources in the family of origin have long-term effects on psychological well-being in…

  17. Bidirectional Associations Between Adolescents' Sexual Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein

    Purpose: Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. Methods:

  18. Meaning in life, resilience, and psychological well-being among children affected by parental HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2017-11-01

    Meaning in life has been posited to improve psychological well-being. People facing adversities can reduce psychological distress through pursuing a sense of purpose in life. However, the effectiveness of meaning in life in promoting psychological well-being has been found varied, and what factors may affect the function of meaning in life remain unclear. In this paper, the authors suggest that resilience, the positive adaptation during or following significant adversity, can strengthen the protective effects of meaning in life on psychological well-being. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed data from a sample of 518 vulnerable children of parents living with HIV about their meaning in life, resilience, depression, and loneliness. Results showed that resilience moderated the relationship between meaning in life and depression, and between meaning in life and loneliness. Meaning in life was associated with lower levels of depression and loneliness among children high in resilience, in comparison to children low in resilience. Future interventions targeting meaning in life and well-being should consider children's resilience, which can allow for better individualization of the treatment.

  19. Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment and Psychological Well-Being: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaccio, Alexandra; Vandenberghe, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data (N=220), we examined the contribution of perceived organizational support and four mindsets of organizational commitment (affective, normative, perceived sacrifice associated with leaving and perceived lack of alternatives) to employee psychological well-being. In order to assess the contribution of support and commitment…

  20. Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: The Contribution of Interpersonal Relations and Experience of Being Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsano, Paola; Majorano, Marinella; Champretavy, Lorella

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of loneliness and relationships with parents and friends on the psychological well-being or adolescent malaise. Data were collected via two questionnaires (LLCA--Marcoen, Goossens & Caes, 1987; TRI--Bracken, 1996) from a sample of 330 Italian adolescents, males and females, aged between 11 and 19. As…

  1. Investigating the Psychological Well-Being and Job Satisfaction Levels in Different Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgör, Isa Yücel; Haspolat, Namik Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and psychological well-being levels of different occupational employees (education, security, health, justice, worker, engineer, and religious official) carrying on their duties in different institutions and organizations in a mid-scale provincial center of…

  2. How Does the Economic Crisis Affect the Psychological Well-Being? Comparing College Students and Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Kathrin; Mertens, Anne; Röbken, Heinke

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about differences in the impact of economic stress on students as compared to persons holding secure job positions. Besides the macroeconomic effects, an economic downturn can also affect individual's physical health and psychological well-being (Aytaç & Rankin, 2009). Prior research showed that socio-demographic…

  3. Internet Use and Psychological Wellbeing: A Study of International Students in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Oindrila; Chye, Stefanie Yen Leng

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between psychological wellbeing (as indicated by participants' level of loneliness, perceived academic stress and depression) and generalized problematic internet use. Data was collected from a sample of 103 international students studying in Singapore. Statistical analyses revealed that depression was the most…

  4. The effects of reminiscence on psychological well-being in older adults: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlmeijer, E.; Roemer, M.; Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of reminiscence on psychological well-being across different target groups and treatment modalities. Fifteen controlled outcome studies were included. An overall effect size of 0.54 was found, indicating a moderate

  5. The effects of reminiscence on psychological well-being in older adults: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlmeijer, E.; Roemer, M.; Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of reminiscence on psychological well-being across different target groups and treatment modalities. Fifteen controlled outcome studies were included. An overall effect size of 0.54 was found, indicating a moderate

  6. Quality of Life after Total Laryngectomy: Functioning, Psychological Well-Being and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Alison; Casey, Erica; Cotton, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QoL) is an important construct when assessing treatment outcomes. Aims: To examine the relative contributions of functioning, psychological well-being and self-efficacy on self-perceived QoL with a sample of total laryngectomy patients in Australia who had surgery for advanced laryngeal cancer. Methods &…

  7. Creativity, Bipolar Disorder Vulnerability and Psychological Well-Being: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostoli, Sara; Cerini, Veronica; Piolanti, Antonio; Rafanelli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the relationships between creativity, subclinical bipolar disorder symptomatology, and psychological well-being. The study method was of descriptive, correlational type. Significant tests were performed using multivariate regression analysis. Students of the 4th grade of 6 different Italian colleges…

  8. Adolescents' psychological well-being and self-esteem in the context of relationships at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim

  9. Metacognitive Skills, Academic Success and Exam Anxiety as the Predictors of Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgör, Isa Yücel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the predicting effect of high school students' metacognitive skills, exam anxiety and academic success levels upon their psychological well-being in a provincial center with a medium-scale population in Eastern Anatolian Region. The research group included totally 251 high school students including…

  10. Relationship between Psychological Well-Being and Smartphone Addiction of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcagiz, Hatice; Gündüz, Yüksel

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine the relationship between university students' levels of psychological well-being and smartphone addiction. The study group consists of a total of 408 students (303 female and 105 male) selected by random sampling method and studying at the departments of Primary Education, Science Teaching, Art and Crafts…

  11. The Effect of Sports on the Psychological Well-Being Levels of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Özgür; Çaglayan, Hakan Salim; Akandere, Mehibe

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of sports education on psychological well-being levels of high school students in terms of individual, environmental and self-determination. This study group consists of totally 187 high school students, in other words 97 students (n[subscript male] = 48, n[subscript female] = 49) receive education in…

  12. East Asian International Students and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Xiao, Feiya

    2014-01-01

    The present article reports a systematic review of the studies related to psychological well-being among East Asian international students. A total of 18 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2011 were reviewed. Our review revealed three major results: (1) a majority of researchers (n = 13, 72.2%) tend to choose…

  13. Ethnic Identity, Sense of Community, and Psychological Well-Being among Northern Plains American Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…

  14. Psychological well-being and sexarche in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. de Niet; C.M. de Koning; H. Pastoor; H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); O. Valkenburg (Olivier); M.J. Ramakers; J. Passchier (Jan); C. de Klerk (Cora); J.S.E. Laven (Joop)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground The characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) such as hyperandrogenism and anovulation can be highly stressful and might negatively affect psychological well-being and sexuality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between PCOS characteristics

  15. Self managing teamwork and psychological wellbeing: review of a multilevel research domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we present a qualitative discussion of 28 empirical studies on self-managing team-work and psychological well-being. We address three questions: (a) Which variables did they include and which results did they obtain?; (b) How did authors deal with issues of level of theory,

  16. Self-managing teamwork and psychological well-being: Review of a multilevel research domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, H. van; Rutte, C.G.; Vermunt, J.K.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we present a qualitative discussion of 28 empirical studies on self-managing team-work and psychological well-being. We address three questions: (a) Which variables did they include and which results did they obtain?; (b) How did authors deal with issues of level of theory,

  17. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  18. The impact of advertising on children’s psychological wellbeing and life satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It is generally believed that children’s advertising exposure decreases life satisfaction. This paper aims to investigate whether and how it does by examining the relation between advertising exposure and life satisfaction (Aim 1), as well as the mediating roles of psychological wellbeing

  19. The impact of advertising on children's psychological wellbeing and life satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It is generally believed that children's advertising exposure decreases life satisfaction. This study aims to investigate whether and how it does by examining the relation between advertising exposure and life satisfaction (aim 1), as well as the mediating roles of psychological wellbeing

  20. Mindfulness and psychologic well-being : Are they related to type of meditation technique practiced?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormans, D.; Nyklicek, I.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether practitioners of two meditation types differ on self-reported mindfulness skills and psychologic well-being. Design: This was a cross-sectional study comparing two convenience meditation groups drawn from local meditation centers, one group practicing

  1. Mindfulness and psychologic well-being: are they related to type of meditation technique practiced?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormans, Dounya; Nyklíček, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether practitioners of two meditation types differ on self-reported mindfulness skills and psychologic well-being. This was a cross-sectional study comparing two convenience meditation groups drawn from local meditation centers, one group practicing mindfulness meditation (MM),

  2. Associations between assertiveness, psychological well-being, and self-esteem in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Klein, Daniel; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    This study explored the associations between adolescents assertive behavior, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,023 students (14.9 +/-.51; 47.6% boys). Two dimensions of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (distress and performance), 2 factors of the General Health

  3. Ethnic Identity and Psychological Well-Being of International Transracial Adoptees: A Curvilinear Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Research in general has shown a beneficial effect of ethnic identity on adoptees' psychological well-being. However, studies also indicate that overemphasis on birth culture and racial/ethnic differences may negatively impact adoptees' overall adjustment. Using Rojewski's (2005) and Brodzinsky's (1987) propositions of a balanced approach to…

  4. Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in the Context of Relationships at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore whether there is a…

  5. Mental balance and well-being: building bridges between Buddhism and Western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, B Alan; Shapiro, Shauna L

    2006-10-01

    Clinical psychology has focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of mental disease, and only recently has scientific attention turned to understanding and cultivating positive mental health. The Buddhist tradition, on the other hand, has focused for over 2,500 years on cultivating exceptional states of mental well-being as well as identifying and treating psychological problems. This article attempts to draw on centuries of Buddhist experiential and theoretical inquiry as well as current Western experimental research to highlight specific themes that are particularly relevant to exploring the nature of mental health. Specifically, the authors discuss the nature of mental well-being and then present an innovative model of how to attain such well-being through the cultivation of four types of mental balance: conative, attentional, cognitive, and affective. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Racism, ethnic density and psychological well-being through adolescence: evidence from the Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J.; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Design. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11–16 years in 51 London (UK) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, racism, gender, age, migrant generation, socioeconomic circumstances, family type and indicators of family interactions (shared activities, perceived parenting). Contextual variables were per cent eligible for free school-meals, neighbourhood deprivation, per cent own-group ethnic density, and ethnic diversity. Results. Ethnic minorities were more likely to report racism than Whites. Ethnic minority boys (except Indian boys) and Indian girls reported better psychological well-being throughout adolescence compared to their White peers. Notably, lowest mean TDS scores were observed for Nigerian/Ghanaian boys, among whom the reporting of racism increased with age. Adjusted for individual characteristics, psychological well-being improved with age across all ethnic groups. Racism was associated with poorer psychological well-being trajectories for all ethnic groups (p ethnic density and diversity were not consistently associated with TDS for any ethnic group. Living in more deprived neighbourhoods was associated with poorer psychological well-being for Whites and Black Caribbeans (p ethnic density and deprivation in schools or neighbourhoods, was an important influence on psychological well-being. However, exposure to racism did not explain the advantage in psychological well-being of ethnic minority groups over Whites. PMID:22332834

  7. Racism, ethnic density and psychological well-being through adolescence: evidence from the Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J.; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Design. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11–16 years in 51 London (UK) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, r...

  8. Predictive validity of social support relative to psychological well-being in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Diana H

    2013-11-01

    Compare predictive validity (relative to psychological well-being) of long and short versions of 2 measures of social support for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Sixty-nine men with SCI completed (a) a long and short version of the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL), (b) a structured interview regarding the frequency with which a person receives 11 kinds of support from each of their most important supporters (maximum of 5), and (c) a global measure of the same 11 kinds of support. Approximately 3 years later they completed 4 measures of psychological well-being--the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CESD), the Life Satisfaction Index A (LSIA), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Comparisons were made among the social support measures with regard to their ability to predict each of the 4 measures of psychological well-being at a later point in time. The long version of the ISEL had more predictive power than the long version of the structured interview. The long version of the ISEL is a good choice for measuring social support in persons with SCI and the short ISEL may be an acceptable choice when minimizing respondent burden is critical if the number of response options is increased to 4. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Psychological wellbeing of Dutch incarcerated women: importation or deprivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, A.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Menting, B.

    2011-01-01

    In light of the dramatic increase over the past decade in the number of women incarcerated in the Netherlands, we examined 251 female inmates' psychological reactions to imprisonment with a survey that taps importation and deprivation factors and related life experiences. While depressive

  10. Psychological wellbeing, physical impairments and rural aging in a developing country setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangchonlatip Kanchana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been very little research on wellbeing, physical impairments and disability in older people in developing countries. Methods A community survey of 1147 older parents, one per household, aged sixty and over in rural Thailand. We used the Burvill scale of physical impairment, the Thai Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. We rated received and perceived social support separately from children and from others and rated support to children. We used weighted analyses to take account of the sampling design. Results Impairments due to arthritis, pain, paralysis, vision, stomach problems or breathing were all associated with lower wellbeing. After adjusting for disability, only impairment due to paralysis was independently associated with lowered wellbeing. The effect of having two or more impairments compared to none was associated with lowered wellbeing after adjusting for demographic factors and social support (adjusted difference -2.37 on the well-being scale with SD = 7.9, p Conclusion In this Thai setting, as found in western settings, most of the association between physical impairments and lower wellbeing is explained by disability. Disability is potentially mediating the association between impairment and low wellbeing. Received support may buffer the impact of some impairments on wellbeing in this setting. Giving actual support to children is associated with less wellbeing unless the support being given to children is perceived as good, perhaps reflecting parental obligation to support adult children in need. Improving community disability services for older people and optimizing received social support will be vital in rural areas in developing countries.

  11. Racism, ethnic density and psychological well-being through adolescence: evidence from the Determinants of Adolescent Social Well-Being and Health longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11-16 years in 51 London (U.K.) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, racism, gender, age, migrant generation, socio-economic circumstances, family type and indicators of family interactions (shared activities, perceived parenting). Contextual variables were per cent eligible for free school-meals, neighbourhood deprivation, per cent own-group ethnic density, and ethnic diversity. Ethnic minorities were more likely to report racism than whites. Ethnic minority boys (except Indian boys) and Indian girls reported better psychological well-being throughout adolescence compared to their white peers. Notably, lowest mean TDS scores were observed for Nigerian/Ghanaian boys, among whom the reporting of racism increased with age. Adjusted for individual characteristics, psychological well-being improved with age across all ethnic groups. Racism was associated with poorer psychological well-being trajectories for all ethnic groups (pwell-being for whites and black Caribbeans (pwell-being. However, exposure to racism did not explain the advantage in psychological well-being of ethnic minority groups over whites.

  12. Feeling right is feeling good: Psychological well-being and emotional fit with culture in autonomy- versus relatedness-promoting situations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozefien eDe Leersnyder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current research tested the idea that it is the cultural fit of emotions, rather than certain emotions per se, that predicts psychological well-being. We reasoned that emotional fit in the domains of life that afford the realization of central cultural mandates would be particularly important to psychological well-being. We tested this hypothesis with samples from three cultural contexts that are known to differ with respect to their main cultural mandates: a European American (N = 30, a Korean (N = 80, and a Belgian sample (N = 266. Cultural fit was measured by comparing an individual’s patterns of emotions to the average cultural pattern for the same type of situation on the Emotional Patterns Questionnaire (De Leersnyder, Mesquita, & Kim, 2011. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found evidence for universality without uniformity: In each sample, psychological well-being was associated with emotional fit in the domain that was key to the cultural mandate. However, cultures varied with regard to the particular domain involved. Psychological well-being was predicted by emotional fit a in autonomy-promoting situations at work in the U.S., b in relatedness-promoting situations at home in Korea, and c in both autonomy-promoting and relatedness-promoting situations in Belgium. These findings show that the experience of culturally appropriate patterns of emotions contributes to psychological well-being. One interpretation is that experiencing appropriate emotions is itself a realization of the cultural mandates.

  13. Feeling right is feeling good: psychological well-being and emotional fit with culture in autonomy- versus relatedness-promoting situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Kim, Heejung; Mesquita, Batja

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the idea that it is the cultural fit of emotions, rather than certain emotions per se, that predicts psychological well-being. We reasoned that emotional fit in the domains of life that afford the realization of central cultural mandates would be particularly important to psychological well-being. We tested this hypothesis with samples from three cultural contexts that are known to differ with respect to their main cultural mandates: a European American (N = 30), a Korean (N = 80), and a Belgian sample (N = 266). Cultural fit was measured by comparing an individual's patterns of emotions to the average cultural pattern for the same type of situation on the Emotional Patterns Questionnaire (De Leersnyder et al., 2011). Consistent with our hypothesis, we found evidence for "universality without uniformity": in each sample, psychological well-being was associated with emotional fit in the domain that was key to the cultural mandate. However, cultures varied with regard to the particular domain involved. Psychological well-being was predicted by emotional fit (a) in autonomy-promoting situations at work in the U.S., (b) in relatedness-promoting situations at home in Korea, and (c) in both autonomy-promoting and relatedness-promoting situations in Belgium. These findings show that the experience of culturally appropriate patterns of emotions contributes to psychological well-being. One interpretation is that experiencing appropriate emotions is itself a realization of the cultural mandates.

  14. Psychological well-being among individuals aging with HIV: the value of social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavandadi, Shahrzad; Zanjani, Faika; Ten Have, Thomas R; Oslin, David W

    2009-05-01

    Utilizing a heterogenous sample of adults diagnosed with HIV infection, the current study sought to explore associations among age, various dimensions of social support, and psychological and functional well-being. Cross-sectional data capturing subjective and instrumental support, social interaction, behavioral health service utilization, and psychological well-being (ie, positive affect and depressive symptomatology), and physical functioning, were collected from 109 men and women living with HIV. To explore age group differences, participants were stratified by age (social interaction. However, older adults reported higher subjective support, which in turn was associated with lower depressive symptomatology, greater positive affect, and nonutilization of behavioral health services. More attention should be paid to the social environment of individuals diagnosed with HIV as the quality of social relationships may be particularly important for successful psychological adaptation to HIV.

  15. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  16. Positive cross-cultural psychology: Exploring similarity\\ud and difference in constructions and experiences of wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Lomas, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Critical theorists have accused positive psychology of paying insufficient attention to cultural variation in the way wellbeing is constructed and experienced. While there may be some\\ud merit to this claim, the field has developed a more nuanced appreciation of culture than its critics suggest. However, it could also be argued that positive psychology has not sufficiently appreciated or absorbed the wealth of literature within cross-cultural psychology pertaining to\\ud wellbeing. This paper ...

  17. Associations of Psychological Well-Being With Carotid Intima Media Thickness in African American and White Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Leila; Karavolos, Kelly; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lewis, Tené T; Matthews, Karen A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Powell, Lynda H

    2016-05-01

    The present cross-sectional study aimed to a) examine associations between measures of psychological well-being, specifically life satisfaction and life engagement, and intima media thickness, a subclinical marker of atherosclerosis; b) investigate if the interaction of psychological well-being and life events correlated with intima media thickness; and c) explore these relationships across race. A sample of 485 women (38% African American and 62% white; mean [standard deviation] age = 50.2 [2.9] years) underwent ultrasonography to assess carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT). The women completed self-report measures of life satisfaction, life engagement, and life events. Average (standard deviation) IMT was 0.666 (0.10) mm. Life satisfaction showed a significant, independent, inverse relationship with IMT, after controlling for demographic, behavioral, psychological, and cardiovascular covariates (β = -0.105, p = .039), such that each 1-point higher life satisfaction score was correlated with a significant 0.008-mm lower level of mean IMT. No significant association was seen between life events and IMT (r = 0.05, p = .32), and life satisfaction did not interact with life events on IMT (β = -0.036, p = .46). No significant interaction between life satisfaction and race on IMT was observed (β = 0.068, p = .37). In contrast to life satisfaction, life engagement was not a significant correlate of IMT (r = -0.07, p = .12). Life satisfaction, a measure of psychological well-being, is an important independent correlate of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged women.

  18. What determines psychological well-being among Iranian female adolescents? Perceived stress may overshadow all determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Heizomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems, as one of the most neglected issues among adolescents,are common during adolescence and emerging adulthood. The aim of present study was to investigate the determinants of psychological well being among female adolescents in Tabriz,Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 289 female high school students to participate in the study during 2013–2014. A 3-section questionnaire was applied to collect data. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied to illustrate the variations in psychological wellbeing score on the basis of socio-demographic and psychological variables.Results: Self-efficacy, hopefulness, happiness and life satisfaction were positively correlated (r> 0.400 and perceived stress was negatively associated with psychological well-being (r =-0.689. In the first model, satisfaction with family lifestyle (β = 0.168, P < 0.001 and perceived stress (β = -0.470, P < 0.001 were the most significant positive and negative predictors for psychological wellbeing, respectively (R2 = 0.595, P < 0.001. In the second model (step 6,physical activity (β = -0.109, P < 0.019, have/had boyfriend (β = 0.237, P < 0.001, hopefulness(β = -0.130, P < 0.05 and happiness (-β = 0.387, P < 0.001 were significant predictors for perceived stress (R2 = 0.453, P < 0.001.Conclusion: Considering the various behavioral, mental and social predictors of psychological wellbeing, it seems that perceived stress has overshadowed the influence of a majority of the other factors. Such influence may be due to the specific cultural and context-based rules enforced for female adolescents in the Iranian community.

  19. The 2008 financial crisis: Changes in social capital and its association with psychological wellbeing in the United Kingdom - A panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Giordano, Giuseppe N

    2016-03-01

    The global financial crisis of 2008 was described by the IMF as the worst recession since the Great Depression. This historic event provided the backdrop to this United Kingdom (UK) longitudinal study of changes in associations between social capital and psychological wellbeing. Past longitudinal studies have reported that the presence of social capital may buffer against adverse mental health outcomes. This study adds to existing literature by employing data from the British Household Panel Survey and tracking the same individuals (N = 11,743) pre- and immediately post-crisis (years 2007-09). With longitudinal, multilevel logistic regression modelling, we aimed to compare the buffering effects of individual-level social capital (generalised trust and social participation) against worse psychological wellbeing (GHQ-12) during and immediately after the 2008 financial crisis. After comparing the same individuals over time, results showed that stocks of social capital (generalised trust) were significantly depleted across the UK during the crisis, from 40% trusting others in 2007 to 32% in 2008. Despite this drop, the buffering effect of trust against worse psychological wellbeing was pronounced in 2008; those not trusting had an increased risk of worse psychological wellbeing in 2008 compared with the previous year in fully adjusted models (OR = 1.49, 95% CI (1.34-1.65). Levels of active participation increased across the timeframe of this study but were not associated with psychological health. From our empirical evidence, decision makers should be made aware of how events such as the crisis (and the measures taken to counter its effects) could negatively impact on a Nation's trust levels. Furthermore, past research implies that the positive effects of trust on psychological wellbeing evident in this study may only be short-term; therefore, decision makers should also prioritise policies that restore trust levels to improve the psychological wellbeing of the

  20. What's up doc? A national cross-sectional study of psychological wellbeing of hospital doctors in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Blánaid; Prihodova, Lucia; Walsh, Gillian; Doyle, Frank; Doherty, Sally

    2017-10-16

    To measure levels of psychological distress, psychological wellbeing and self-stigma in hospital doctors in Ireland. National cross-sectional study of randomised sample of hospital doctors. Participants provided sociodemographic data (age, sex, marital status), work grade (consultant, higher/basic specialist trainee), specialty and work hours and completed well-being questionnaires (the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, WHO Well-being Index, General Health Questionnaire) and single-item scales on self-rated health and self-stigma. Irish publicly funded hospitals and residential institutions. 1749 doctors (response rate of 55%). All hospital specialties were represented except radiology. Half of participants were men (50.5%). Mean hours worked per week were 57 hours. Over half (52%) rated their health as very good/excellent, while 50.5% reported positive subjective well-being (WHO-5). Over a third (35%) experienced psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire 12). Severe/extremely severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress were evident in 7.2%, 6.1% and 9.5% of participants (Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale 21). Symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety and stress were significantly higher and levels of well-being were significantly lower in trainees compared with consultants, and this was not accounted for by differences in sociodemographic variables. Self-stigma was present in 68.4%. The work hours of doctors working in Irish hospitals were in excess of European Working Time Directive's requirements. Just over half of hospital doctors in Ireland had positive well-being. Compared with international evidence, they had higher levels of psychological distress but slightly lower symptoms of depression and anxiety. Two-thirds of respondents reported self-stigma, which is likely to be a barrier to accessing care. These findings have implications for the design of support services for doctors, for discussions on quality of patient care and for future

  1. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement.

  2. Association of Enjoyable Leisure Activities With Psychological and Physical Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Sarah D.; Matthews, Karen A.; Cohen, Sheldon; Martire, Lynn M.; Scheier, Michael; Baum, Andrew; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether engaging in multiple enjoyable activities was associated with better psychological and physiological functioning. Few studies have examined the health benefits of the enjoyable activities that individuals participate in voluntarily in their free time. Method Participants from four different studies (n = 1399 total, 74% female, age = 19–89 years) completed a self-report measure (Pittsburgh Enjoyable Activities Test (PEAT)) assessing their participation in ten different types of leisure activities as well as measures assessing positive and negative psychosocial states. Resting blood pressure, cortisol (over 2 days), body mass index, waist circumference, and perceived physiological functioning were assessed. Results Higher PEAT scores were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, waist circumference, and body mass index, and perceptions of better physical function. These associations withstood controlling for demographic measures. The PEAT was correlated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression and negative affect. Conclusion Enjoyable leisure activities, taken in the aggregate, are associated with psychosocial and physical measures relevant for health and well-being. Future studies should determine the extent that these behaviors in the aggregate are useful predictors of disease and other health outcomes. PMID:19592515

  3. Association of enjoyable leisure activities with psychological and physical well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Sarah D; Matthews, Karen A; Cohen, Sheldon; Martire, Lynn M; Scheier, Michael; Baum, Andrew; Schulz, Richard

    2009-09-01

    To examine whether engaging in multiple enjoyable activities was associated with better psychological and physiological functioning. Few studies have examined the health benefits of the enjoyable activities that individuals participate in voluntarily in their free time. Participants from four different studies (n = 1399 total, 74% female, age = 19-89 years) completed a self-report measure (Pittsburgh Enjoyable Activities Test (PEAT)) assessing their participation in ten different types of leisure activities as well as measures assessing positive and negative psychosocial states. Resting blood pressure, cortisol (over 2 days), body mass index, waist circumference, and perceived physiological functioning were assessed. Higher PEAT scores were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, waist circumference, and body mass index, and perceptions of better physical function. These associations withstood controlling for demographic measures. The PEAT was correlated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression and negative affect. Enjoyable leisure activities, taken in the aggregate, are associated with psychosocial and physical measures relevant for health and well-being. Future studies should determine the extent that these behaviors in the aggregate are useful predictors of disease and other health outcomes.

  4. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Is envy harmful to a society's psychological health and wellbeing? A longitudinal study of 18,000 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujcic, Redzo; Oswald, Andrew J

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 100 years ago, the philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell warned of the social dangers of widespread envy. One view of modern society is that it is systematically developing a set of institutions -- such as social media and new forms of advertising -- that make people feel inadequate and envious of others. If so, how might that be influencing the psychological health of our citizens? This paper reports the first large-scale longitudinal research into envy and its possible repercussions. The paper studies 18,000 randomly selected individuals over the years 2005, 2009, and 2013. Using measures of SF-36 mental health and psychological well-being, four main conclusions emerge. First, the young are especially susceptible. Levels of envy fall as people grow older. This longitudinal finding is consistent with a cross-sectional pattern noted recently by Nicole E. Henniger and Christine R. Harris, and with the theory of socioemotional regulation suggested by scholars such as Laura L. Carstensen. Second, using fixed-effects equations and prospective analysis, the analysis reveals that envy today is a powerful predictor of worse SF-36 mental health and well-being in the future. A change from the lowest to the highest level of envy, for example, is associated with a worsening of SF-36 mental health by approximately half a standard deviation (p < .001). Third, no evidence is found for the idea that envy acts as a useful motivator. Greater envy is associated with slower -- not higher -- growth of psychological well-being in the future. Nor is envy a predictor of later economic success. Fourth, the longitudinal decline of envy leaves unaltered a U-shaped age pattern of well-being from age 20 to age 70. These results are consistent with the idea that society should be concerned about institutions that stimulate large-scale envy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The potential role of fruit and vegetables in aspects of psychological well-being: a review of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Ciara; McKinley, Michelle C; Woodside, Jayne V

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review the literature investigating the potential relationship between fruit and vegetables (FV) and psychological well-being. The rising prevalence of mental ill health is causing considerable societal burden. Inexpensive and effective strategies are therefore required to improve the psychological well-being of the population, and to reduce the negative impact of mental health problems. A growing body of literature suggests that dietary intake may have the potential to influence psychological well-being. For example, studies have suggested that particular dietary constituents, including vitamins and minerals, might be beneficial to psychological health. However, in order to better reflect normal dietary intake, health-based research has increasingly begun to focus on whole foods and dietary patterns, rather than individual nutrients. One food group that has received increasing attention with regard to psychological health is FV. This is probably a result of the strong evidence base, which exists in relation to their protective association with a number of chronic diseases, as well as the fact that they are a rich source of some of the nutrients which have been linked to psychological health. While some promising findings exist with regards to FV intake and psychological well-being, overall, results are inconsistent. Possible reasons for this, such as methodological issues related to study design and the measurement of psychological well-being and FV intake, are discussed within this review. Based on the predominantly observational nature of existing literature, the present paper concludes that future well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to investigate the relationship further.

  7. The Role of Wellbeing and Wellness: A Positive Psychological Model in Supporting Young People With ASCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years sport psychology expanded its applicability in a variety of fields which have helped to address some of the challenges related to high level performance and sport competition. When we talk about performance in its wider sense, sport psychology is able to help develop a better understanding on how strategies can be adopted in improving general human performance levels. This includes increasing the knowledge of key concepts such as motivation, self-confidence and resilience. Furthermore performance in its wider sense helps in the understanding of the impact of stress and arousal and how these can affect both positively and negatively performance levels including appreciating individual differences as well as dynamics between groups of individuals. In this paper performance rather than solely be related to the field of competitive or professional sport has been discussed in people with ASCs and aims to explore how by adopting a positive psychological model in the formulation of individual assessments and subsequent interventions have led to improvement in individual skills, participation, engagement and ultimately quality of life. Positive psychological principles, such as the role of wellbeing and wellness, the PERMA Model has increased our understanding of human potentials, performance and wellbeing. The aim of this paper is to present and reflect on the applicability and benefits of adopting sport psychology models, the PERMA model and positive psychological principles in special education and care settings with the presentation and discussion of their theoretical and some practical implementation in two case studies.

  8. The role of gender affirmation in psychological well-being among transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Tiffany R; Gamarel, Kristi E; Kahler, Christopher W; Iwamoto, Mariko; Operario, Don; Nemoto, Tooru

    2016-09-01

    High prevalence of psychological distress, including greater depression, lower self-esteem, and suicidal ideation, has been documented across numerous samples of transgender women and has been attributed to high rates of discrimination and violence. According to the gender affirmation framework (Sevelius, 2013), access to sources of gender-affirmative support can offset such negative psychological effects of social oppression. However, critical questions remain unanswered in regards to how and which aspects of gender affirmation are related to psychological well-being. The aims of this study were to investigate the associations between three discrete areas of gender affirmation (psychological, medical, and social) and participants' reports of psychological well-being. A community sample of 573 transgender women with a history of sex work completed a one-time self-report survey that assessed demographic characteristics, gender affirmation, and mental health outcomes. In multivariate models, we found that social, psychological, and medical gender affirmation were significant predictors of lower depression and higher self-esteem while no domains of affirmation were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Findings support the need for accessible and affordable transitioning resources for transgender women in order to promote better quality of life among an already vulnerable population. As the gender affirmation framework posits, the personal experience of feeling affirmed as a transgender person results from individuals' subjective perceptions of need along multiple dimensions of gender affirmation. Personalized assessment of gender affirmation may thus be a useful component of counseling and service provision for transgender women.

  9. Perceived discrimination and psychological well-being: the mediating and moderating role of sense of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Small, Brent J

    2008-01-01

    Being discriminated against is an unpleasant and stressful experience, and its connection to reduced psychological well-being is well-documented. The present study hypothesized that a sense of control would serve as both mediator and moderator in the dynamics of perceived discrimination and psychological well-being. In addition, variations by age, gender, and race in the effects of perceived discrimination were explored. Data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey (N=1554; age range = 45 to 74) provided supportive evidence for the hypotheses. The relationships between perceived discrimination and positive and negative affect were reduced when sense of control was controlled, demonstrating the role of sense of control as a mediator. The moderating role of sense of control was also supported, but only in the analysis for negative affect: the combination of a discriminatory experience and low sense of control markedly increased negative affect. In addition, age and gender variations were observed: the negative impact of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being was more pronounced among younger adults and females compared to their counterparts. The findings elucidated the mechanisms by which perceived discrimination manifested its psychological outcomes, and suggest ways to reduce adverse consequences associated with discriminatory experiences.

  10. The Impact of Parental Detention on the Psychological Wellbeing of Palestinian Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Shehadeh

    Full Text Available Since 1967, the Palestinian Occupied Territories are marked by a political conflict between Palestinians and Israel. During this conflict, about one fifth of the Palestinian population has been detained; about one quarter of these are parents. Although we know that father's incarceration might impact their children's psychological wellbeing, little is known about the impact of father's imprisonment on young children (under 11 years old, and when the incarceration is framed in contexts of political conflict. Therefore, this study aimed at gaining insight into the impact of parental detention on young children's psychological wellbeing, and the impact of witnessing the detention process itself.Based on the list of imprisoned Palestinian men with children living in the West Bank, a group of 79 (3- to 10-years old children was randomly composed. Above, through schools and health centers, a comparison sample of 99 children who didn't experience imprisonment of a family member was selected. Mothers of these children completed two cross-culturally validated questionnaires on their children's psychological wellbeing, the UCLA-PTSD-Index and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ.Results showed higher levels of PTSD and general mental health problems associated with father's capturing. Above, when the children watched the arrest process of their fathers, scores still increased further. Younger children tended to show higher SDQ scores, and children living in villages reported higher posttraumatic stress scores compared to children living in urban areas or refugee camps. Little gender differences were found.This study shows the important impact of parental detention on the psychological wellbeing for young children and urges for more psychological care and support for family members--in particular children--of detainees.

  11. Music, neuroscience, and the psychology of wellbeing: a précis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Croom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Flourish, the positive psychologist Martin Seligman (2011 identifies five commonly recognized factors that are characteristic of human flourishing or wellbeing: (1 positive emotion, (2 relationships, (3 engagement, (4 achievement, and (5 meaning (p. 24. Although there is no settled set of necessary and sufficient conditions neatly circumscribing the bounds of human flourishing (Seligman, 2011, we would mostly likely consider a person that possessed high levels of these five factors as paradigmatic or prototypical of human flourishing. Accordingly, if we wanted to go about the practical task of actually increasing our level of wellbeing, we ought to do so by focusing on practically increasing the levels of the five factors that are characteristic of wellbeing. If, for instance, an activity such as musical engagement can be shown to positively influence each or all of these five factors, this would be compelling evidence that an activity such as musical engagement can positively contribute to one’s living a flourishing life. I’m of the belief that psychological research can and should be used, not only to identify and diagnose maladaptive psychological states, but identify and promote adaptive psychological states as well. In this article I advance the hypothesis and provide supporting evidence for the claim that musical engagement can positively contribute to one’s living a flourishing life. Since there has not yet been a substantive and up-to-date investigation of the possible role of music in contributing to one’s living a flourishing life, the purpose of this article is to conduct this investigation, thereby bridging the gap and stimulating discussion between the psychology of music and the psychology of wellbeing.

  12. The Impact of Parental Detention on the Psychological Wellbeing of Palestinian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Amer; Loots, Gerrit; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Derluyn, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Since 1967, the Palestinian Occupied Territories are marked by a political conflict between Palestinians and Israel. During this conflict, about one fifth of the Palestinian population has been detained; about one quarter of these are parents. Although we know that father's incarceration might impact their children's psychological wellbeing, little is known about the impact of father's imprisonment on young children (under 11 years old), and when the incarceration is framed in contexts of political conflict. Therefore, this study aimed at gaining insight into the impact of parental detention on young children's psychological wellbeing, and the impact of witnessing the detention process itself. Based on the list of imprisoned Palestinian men with children living in the West Bank, a group of 79 (3- to 10-years old) children was randomly composed. Above, through schools and health centers, a comparison sample of 99 children who didn't experience imprisonment of a family member was selected. Mothers of these children completed two cross-culturally validated questionnaires on their children's psychological wellbeing, the UCLA-PTSD-Index and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results showed higher levels of PTSD and general mental health problems associated with father's capturing. Above, when the children watched the arrest process of their fathers, scores still increased further. Younger children tended to show higher SDQ scores, and children living in villages reported higher posttraumatic stress scores compared to children living in urban areas or refugee camps. Little gender differences were found. This study shows the important impact of parental detention on the psychological wellbeing for young children and urges for more psychological care and support for family members--in particular children--of detainees.

  13. Does a Coeliac School increase psychological well-being in women suffering from coeliac disease, living on a gluten-free diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring Jacobsson, Lisa; Friedrichsen, Maria; Göransson, Anne; Hallert, Claes

    2012-03-01

    To assess the effects of an active method of patient education on the psychological well-being of women with coeliac disease in remission. Despite remission with a gluten-free diet, adults with coeliac disease and especially women experience a subjective poor health. Self-management education seems to be promising tool to help patients suffering from coeliac disease to cope with their disorder. A randomised controlled trial. A total of 106 women, ≥ 20 years, with confirmed coeliac disease, who had been on a gluten-free diet for a minimum of five years. The intervention group (n = 54) underwent a 10-session educational programme, 'Coeliac School', based on problem-based learning. The controls (n = 52) received information regarding coeliac disease sent home on a regular basis. The primary outcomes were psychological general well-being measured with a validated questionnaire. Participants in the Coeliac School reported a significant improvement in psychological well-being at 10 weeks, whereas the controls given usual care reported a worsening in psychological well-being. After six months, a significant improvement remained for the index of vitality. Patient education increased psychological well-being in women with coeliac disease. There is a need to refine the methods of patient education to make the effects of well-being more pronounced over time. Patient education using problem-based learning promotes self-management in coeliac disease by improving the well-being of patients who have been struggling with the gluten-free diet for years. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Psychological well-being and social participation assessment in visually impaired subjects playing Torball: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, A; Iuliano, E; Aquino, G; Fiorilli, G; Battaglia, C; Giombini, A; Calcagno, G

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between blind Torball players and non-players. Thirty blind male participants were recruited, 17 Torball players (aged 36.27±3.46) and 13 non-players (aged 34.80±2.53), and evaluated for social participation level, psychological well-being and symptomatic psychological disorders, using three validated self-report questionnaires: Participation Scale (PS), Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWBS) and Symptom Checklist 90 R (SCL-90-R) respectively. ANOVA showed significant overall differences between the two groups. The social restriction score in the non-player group was significantly higher (ppsychological well-being and social skills of visually impaired people and their Torball practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The heritability of mental health and wellbeing defined using COMPAS-W, a new composite measure of wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Justine M; Burton, Karen L O; Schofield, Peter R; Bryant, Richard A; Williams, Leanne M

    2014-09-30

    Mental health is not simply the absence of mental illness; rather it is a distinct entity representing wellness. Models of wellbeing have been proposed that emphasize components of subjective wellbeing, psychological wellbeing, or a combination of both. A new 26-item scale of wellbeing (COMPAS-W) was developed in a cohort of 1669 healthy adult twins (18-61 years). The scale was derived using factor analysis of multiple scales of complementary constructs and confirmed using tests of reliability and convergent validity. Bivariate genetic modeling confirmed its heritability. From an original 89 items we identified six independent subcomponents that contributed to wellbeing. The COMPAS-W scale and its subcomponents showed construct validity against psychological and physical health behaviors, high internal consistency (average r=0.71, Wellbeing r=0.84), and 12-month test-retest reliability (average r=0.62, Wellbeing r=0.82). There was a moderate contribution of genetics to total Wellbeing (heritability h(2)=48%) and its subcomponents: Composure (h(2)=24%), Own-worth (h(2)=42%), Mastery (h(2)=40%), Positivity (h(2)=42%), Achievement (h(2)=32%) and Satisfaction (h(2)=43%). Multivariate genetic modeling indicated genetic variance was correlated across the scales, suggesting common genetic factors contributed to Wellbeing and its subcomponents. The COMPAS-W scale provides a validated indicator of wellbeing and offers a new tool to quantify mental health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological, social and welfare interventions for psychological health and well-being of torture survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimisha; Kellezi, Blerina; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2014-11-11

    symptoms (SMD -0.52, 95% CI -0.97 to -0.07). However, the quality of evidence was very low, and risk of bias resulted from researcher/therapist allegiance to treatment methods, effects of uncertain asylum status of some people and real-time non-standardised translation of assessment measures. No measures of adverse events were described, nor of participation, social functioning, quantity of social or family relationships, proxy measures by third parties or satisfaction with treatment. Too few studies were identified for review authors to attempt sensitivity analyses. Very low-quality evidence suggests no differences between psychological therapies and controls in terms of immediate effects on post-traumatic symptoms, distress or quality of life; however, NET and CBT were found to confer moderate benefits in reducing distress and PTSD symptoms over the medium term (six months after treatment). Evidence was of very low quality, mainly because non-standardised assessment methods using interpreters were applied, and sample sizes were very small. Most eligible trials also revealed medium to high risk of bias. Further, attention to the cultural appropriateness of interventions or to their psychometric qualities was inadequate, and assessment measures used were unsuitable. As such, these findings should be interpreted with caution.No data were available on whether symptom reduction enabled improvements in quality of life, participation in community life, or in social and family relationships in the medium term. Details of adverse events and treatment satisfaction were not available immediately after treatment nor in the medium term. Future research should aim to address these gaps in the evidence and should include larger sample sizes when possible. Problems of torture survivors need to be defined far more broadly than by PTSD symptoms, and recognition given to the contextual influences of being a torture survivor, including as an asylum seeker or refugee, on psychological and

  17. The Importance of Distinguishing the Belief in a Just World for Self Versus for Others: Implication for Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, Isaac M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two studies examined whether the relationship between the belief in a just world (BJW) and psychological well-being would benefit by distinguishing between the just world for self, for others, and in general. When various measures of the construct were examined jointly, only the BJW for self emerged as the most powerful and consistent predictor of…

  18. Effects of Bullying Experience on Psychological Well-Being Mediated by Conflict Management Styles and Psychological Empowerment among Nursing Students in Clinical Placement: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liping; Kim, Hyunli

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to test a proposed structural equation model in which bullying experience, conflict management styles and psychological empowerment predict psychological well-being among Chinese nursing students in clinical placement. Three hundred and sixty-six nursing students recruited from five hospitals in J city and Y city were assessed with self-report questionnaires on bullying experience, conflict management styles, psychological empowerment and psychological well-being including depression, self-esteem, and academic major satisfaction. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and AMOS version 22.0. The evaluation parameters included the comparative fit index at .90, the goodness of fit index at .93, the root mean square error of approximation at .07, and χ²/df ratio at 2.66, indicating that the proposed structural equation model provided a good fit to the data. Experience of being bullied during clinical placement, conflict management styles and psychological empowerment explained 93.0% of the variance and had significant effects on psychological well-being, with conflict management styles and psychological empowerment mediating the association between bullying and psychological well-being. The findings indicated that mediation by conflict management styles and psychological empowerment alleviated the negative influence of bullying on psychological well-being. To limit bullying and its negative effects, development of effective guidelines to deal with bullying will be a critical tool for both Chinese nursing students and their instructors. Further research should incorporate conflict management styles and psychological empowerment into the specific intervention strategies for handling bullying behaviors among nursing students and staff nurses and promoting nursing students' psychological well-being. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  19. Psychological well-being and weight efficacy lifestyle of adults with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Mehar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Obesity is a growing phenomena and various psychological constructs need to be addressed in obesity as psychological aspects play an important role in the development and maintenance of obesity. Psychological constructs related to obesity such as weight efficacy lifestyle play a dynamic role. There is a dearth of studies on weight efficacy lifestyle and psychological well-being among obese adults especially in the Indian setting. The aim at the present study was to examine the differences in psychological well-being and weight efficacy lifestyle in obese and normal weight Indian adults. Methods: The sample involved 200 obese adults aged 18 to 42 years and 100 normal adults belonging to age group 18 to 42 years. Body mass index, Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL scale and Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being (PWB scale were used to collect the data. t-test was used to study the differences between the two groups of obese adults and normal weight adults. Results and conclusions: The findings revealed that there were significant differences in WEL scale for two sub-domains (negative emotions, t=3.133, p<0.01 and social pressure, t=2.934, p<0.01 between the obese adults and the normal weight adults indicating that the obese adults experienced lesser negative emotions and social pressure as compared to the normal weight adults. On the PWB scale there were significant differences in three sub-domains such as autonomy (t=2.735, p<0.01, environmental mastery (t=2.496, p<0.05, and self-acceptance (t=2.190, p<0.05 between the obese adults and the normal weight adults indicating that obese adults had lower autonomy, poorer environmental mastery, and lesser self-acceptance than the normal weight adults.

  20. Psychological well-being, dental esthetics, and psychosocial impacts in adolescent orthodontic patients: A prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao; Wang, Yun-Ji; Deng, Feng; Liu, Pang-Li; Wu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    We examined the role of adolescent orthodontic patients' psychological well-being attributes (self-esteem, general body image, and positive and negative affects) and the clinical indicators of dental esthetics (orthodontists' ratings on the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need-Aesthetic Component [IOTN-AC]), and their changes from pretreatment to posttreatment as predictors of the psychosocial impact of dental esthetics. In this prospective longitudinal study, 1090 adolescent orthodontic patients seeking treatment at the Stomatological Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in China (mean age, 14.25 years; SD, 2.03 years) were assessed before treatment, and 68.99% (n = 752) were assessed after treatment. All subjects completed a questionnaire measuring psychological well-being attributes and 3 components of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics (perceptive, cognitive-affective, and social-functional). Clinical indicators of dental esthetics were measured by 3 orthodontists using the IOTN-AC. Substantial enhancement from pretreatment to posttreatment was found in all 3 Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Aesthetics components, confirming the positive effects of orthodontic treatment on oral health-related quality of life. Psychosocial impact of dental esthetics at baseline and improvement from pretreatment to posttreatment were found to be predicted by the patients' psychological well-being attributes (self-esteem, general body image, and negative affect) and the clinical indicators (orthodontists' rating on the IOTN-AC) at baseline, as well as their pretreatment to posttreatment change. Psychological well-being attributes had comparable or greater contribution to the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics at baseline as well as greater improvement after treatment than the clinical indicators. These biopsychological models explained 29% to 43% of the variances in psychosocial impacts of dental esthetics outcome at baseline and about 33% of the variance in

  1. Understanding the Relationship Between State Forgiveness and Psychological Wellbeing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Sadaf; Dolan, Alan; Barlow, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 20 years, increasing attention has been given to associations between dispositional forgiveness and specific mental health problems. However, few studies have assessed whether forgiving real-life interpersonal hurts may be related to diverse psychological health outcomes. The present study addresses this gap by investigating, in depth, relationships between perceptions about state forgiveness and a variety of mental wellbeing outcomes as well as exploring perceptions about the factors that may modify such effects. Developing an understanding of a forgiveness wellbeing relationship is of relevance to healthcare workers, researchers and policy makers with an interest in improving public health. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted, and data were analysed using grounded theory methods. From England and Ireland, eleven adults who were affiliated with religious/spiritual and secular/atheist groups were recruited using purposive and convenience sampling methods. Key themes that appeared to be related to the effects of unforgiveness were: increases in negative affect; reduction in cognitive abilities and barriers to psychological and social growth. For the majority of participants, state forgiveness had strong ties to participants perceived sense of mental wellbeing, including reductions in negative affect, feeling positive emotions, positive relations with others, spiritual growth, a sense of meaning and purpose in life as well as a greater sense of empowerment. The data also revealed a number of factors that may positively or negatively influence a forgiveness-wellbeing link such as: viewing an offender as spiritually similar or different, responsibility/karma, blaming, wanting restitution/apology as well as practices such as meditation and prayer. The findings suggest that forgiving a range of real-life interpersonal offences may be an important determinant of psychological wellbeing, particularly among religious/spiritual populations

  2. Psychological well-being of individuals after divorce: the role of social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kołodziej-Zaleska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Divorce is a transition period in which divorcing individuals face restructuring of the family system and adjustment to changes. The psychological well-being of divorcees can serve as an important indicator of the adjustment process. The achievement of well-being does not come easily for many reasons, one of which is the experience related to a sense of loss associated with the marriage break-up. Social support is a major relational resource for overcoming the crisis and successfully adjusting to post-divorce life. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 157 individuals after divorce: 120 women and 37 men (mean age = 41.29. Instruments employed in the study included the Sense of Loss Scale (DS, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ-23, and sociodemographic data. Results Our results show that perceived social support is a partial mediator of the relationship between the sense of loss associated with divorce and the psychological well-being of individuals after divorce. For the vast majority of the respondents their parents, friends and acquaintances were the major source of support. About one third of the participants were given support by their siblings and their own children. Conclusions The study confirms the mediating role of support in building well-being after experiencing loss related to dissolution of marriage. This means that for divorced women and men perceived social support is one of the key resources that have a significant impact on achieving psychological well-being after divorce, since it is related to mitigating the negative impact of the sense of loss associated with marriage break-up.

  3. Total Participation Management: Toward Psychological Determinants of Subjective Well-Being at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to determine which management practice has the strongest influence on the subjective well-being (SWB of employees, three workplaces were assessed with reference to different levels of total participation management (TPM, an innovative approach to human resource management. The study examined whether the level of TPM is positively related with SWB, defined according to Diener’s (1984 affective and cognitive facets of work. The psychological explanation of the predicted dependence was the level of satisfaction of three basic needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness distinguished by Deci and Ryan (2000a. The hypothesis about a positive relationship between SWB and TPM was confirmed. Results indicate that the least participative company has employees with the lowest subjective well-being and with the lowest satisfaction of basic psychological needs.

  4. Relational self-esteem, psychological well-being, and social support in children affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Vietnamese-Australian grandparenthood: the changing roles and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Thanh-Xuan, J; Rice, P L

    2000-01-01

    This study attempts to understand the Vietnamese-Australian grandparenthood and their changing roles and psychological well-being. Using a qualitative approach, thirty-six grandparents participated in four focus group interviews. The findings reveal that Vietnamese grandparents play many important roles such as those of living ancestor, family historian, role model, teacher, mentor, nurturer, crony and mediator although at a reasonably modest level. Through assisting the parents, it creates a vital bridge between grandparents and grandchildren. Grandparents' most important roles are the maintenance of good emotional relationships and support, and the construction of harmony and continuity in their modified extended families. To be able to assume these roles grandparents need to actively explore and accept new values and to adapt values to new cultural context. A successful grandparenthood brings happiness to the family and this in turn positively influences grandparents' life satisfaction and psychological well-being and enhances their quality of life.

  6. Time Spent on Social Network Sites and Psychological Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2017-06-01

    This meta-analysis examines the relationship between time spent on social networking sites and psychological well-being factors, namely self-esteem, life satisfaction, loneliness, and depression. Sixty-one studies consisting of 67 independent samples involving 19,652 participants were identified. The mean correlation between time spent on social networking sites and psychological well-being was low at r = -0.07. The correlations between time spent on social networking sites and positive indicators (self-esteem and life satisfaction) were close to 0, whereas those between time spent on social networking sites and negative indicators (depression and loneliness) were weak. The effects of publication outlet, site on which users spent time, scale of time spent, and participant age and gender were not significant. As most included studies used student samples, future research should be conducted to examine this relationship for adults.

  7. Self-Disclosure and Spiritual Well-Being in Pastors Seeking Professional Psychological Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Erik D; Underwood, Lee A; Dy-Liacco, Gabriel S; Arveson, Kathleen R

    2017-01-01

    Pastoral mental health is a topic that has only rarely been researched empirically in the psychological literature, yet a pastor's mental health can have a significant impact on churches, communities, and even nations (Royal and Thompson, Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 31 (3), 195-204, 2012). One of the thoughts prompting this research is that evangelical pastors might be expected to resist the findings of psychological research and lack understanding of specific mental illnesses they are potentially facing. Combined with historical and cultural dynamics that could influence resistance to professional psychological help, evangelical pastors have personal, internal factors that could also strengthen resistance, including the researched issues of self-disclosure flexibility and spiritual well-being. A correlational research design with multivariate regression was used to determine potentially significant or predictive relationships between the relevant factors. Among evangelical seminary students ( N  = 251) preparing for parish-based pastoral ministry, this research determined that no significant relationship, predictive or otherwise, existed between self-disclosure flexibility, spiritual well-being, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Implications include a shift in focus toward external factors influencing pastors' help-seeking attitudes, such as the need for the mental health community to develop connections with evangelical pastors and the development of more support for Christian mental health professionals in the larger evangelical community.

  8. Adolescent Psychological Well-Being by Identity Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tommy M.; Pittman, Joe F.

    2007-01-01

    High school-age adolescents (N=262) in two samples completed a measure of identity style, along with measures of self-esteem, hopelessness, delinquent attitudes, educational expectations, and optimism/efficacy. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the relationship between identity style and the other psychosocial variables. Participants…

  9. De-growth and critical community psychology: Contributions towards individual and social well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Natale, Alfredo; Di Martino, Salvatore; Procentese, Fortuna; Arcidiacono, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    This contribution sets out to combine the perspective of the degrowth paradigm with that of Critical Community psychology. Following the degrowth argument, the advancement of human well-being calls for a shift from growth-based societies to ones grounded in the ethos of degrowth. In this regard, we acknowledge the necessity for both theoretical principles and examples of good practice, which can lead to this transition. To this end, the article combines some of the underlying principles of th...

  10. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescents – BMI, Body Image and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Sujoldžić, Anita; De Lucia, Amelia

    2007-01-01

    Physical, psychological and social changes that occur during adolescence can markedly affect dietary habits and nutritional health. Physical changes including rapid growth place extra nutritional requirements on adolescents, while culture and society require adjustments in all of the aspects of daily living, including psychosocial well-being. Adolescents become focused on the physical appearance and any deviation from the ideal figure can result in negative dieting behavior, socia...

  11. The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamba, Nishtha; Jadva, Vasanti Harish; Kadam, K; Golombok, Susan Esther

    2018-01-01

    Study question: How does the psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of Indian surrogates differ from a comparison group of mothers? Summary answer: Surrogates had higher levels of depression during pregnancy and post-birth, displayed lower emotional connection with the unborn baby, and greater care towards the healthy growth of the foetus, than the comparison group of mothers. What is already known: Studies in the West have found that surrogates do not suffer long-term psychol...

  12. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  13. The Structural Model of Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being for Pregnancy-Specific Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatian, Mahrokh; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Dilgony, Taibeh; Shams, Jamal; Zaeri, Farid

    2017-12-01

    Women experience different types of stress in their lifetime. The present study was conducted to examine the structural model of spirituality and psychological well-being for pregnancy-specific stress. The present descriptive correlational study was conducted on 450 pregnant Iranian women (150 women from each trimester) in Dehdasht city in 2015. Data were collected using the personal-social questionnaire, the pregnancy-specific stress questionnaire, the spirituality questionnaire and the psychological well-being questionnaire and were then analyzed in SPSS-16 and Lisrel-8.8 for carrying out a path analysis. The fit indices of the model indicate the good fit and high compatibility of the model and rational relationships between the variables (GFI = 0.94, NFI = 0.85, CFI = 0.94 and RMSEA = 0.048). Of the variables that affected pregnancy-specific stress through both paths, spirituality had a positive effect (B = 0.11) and the personal-social variable a negative effect (B = -0.37). Psychological well-being affected pregnancy-specific stress negatively and directly and through one path only (B = -0.59). The results obtained through the model confirm the effect of spirituality and psychological well-being in reducing pregnancy-specific stress. Given that handling stress has a major role in the quality of daily life in pregnant women, stress management skills are recommended to be promoted among pregnant women so as to mitigate stress and its negative consequences.

  14. Psychological and physical well-being of Lithuanian youth: Relation to emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinienė, Dalia; Lekavičienė, Rosita

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this article is to unveil the ways in which the emotional intelligence (EI) of a young person is linked with subjective assessment of physical state, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being, as well as to determine whether these factors are reliable predictors of EI constituents. The study was conducted using an original EI test (EI-DARL-V1/V2), which consisted of a traditional 73-item questionnaire; tasks of emotional, social and interpersonal situations; and identification of emotions in facial expressions (pictures). Questionnaire items were multiplexed into 5 subscales using multi-step factor analysis. Special questionnaires were devised and presented to participants together with the EI questionnaire in order to assess subjective assessment of physical and mental health, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being. There were 1430 participants from various regions of Lithuania who participated in the study. The age of participants varied from 17 to 27 years. Established inverse linear correlation showed that those participants who experienced certain somatic symptoms or unpleasant psychological states had lower EI; a particularly strong correlation was observed between poor subjective assessment of health and understanding and control of one's own emotions. Depressed and anxious participants possessed poorer understanding and ability to regulate emotions of others as well as their own. Also, these participants performed worse when resolving emotional, social, and interpersonal situations. A direct relationship between EI and psychological well-being was established according to three EI indexes i.e. (a) understanding of own emotions; (b) understanding of emotions of other people; (c) control of emotions of others. As perception of psychological well-being increased, participants were able to understand emotions of others better and demonstrated even better ability to understand and control their own emotions. The study

  15. Psychological well-being in people with multiple sclerosis in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Rezaei Dehnavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, few results on well-being in individuals with neurological disease have been published, while several studies in other groups have indicated that well-being may not be the only absence of psychological distress, but also positive psychological function. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychological well-being (PWB between the people with Multiple sclerosis (MS and normal individuals and identify correlated demographic factors to PWB in people with MS disorder. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed in July 2012 on 55 people with MS who were referred to MS clinic (located at the Kashani Hospital, Isfahan Neurosciences Research Centre and 83 normal individuals with matched mean of age, level of education, and gender. The participants filled up the 18-item Ryff′s PWB and demographic profile. The data were analyzed by SPSS software based on the independent t-test, and ANOVA. Results: There is significant different in all PWB dimensions between people with MS and normal groups. There were no significant differences in PWB in people with MS in relation to gender and marital status, but individuals with higher level of education scored higher in total PWB, positive relationship with others and purpose in life. Conclusion: People with MS are at risk of lower level of PWB. Interventional programs for improving PWB are strongly recommended.

  16. Nutrition and psychological well-being among long-term care residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muurinen, S; Savikko, N; Soini, H; Suominen, M; Pitkälä, K

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship between nutritional status of service housing and nursing home residents with dementia and their psychological well-being (PWB), and the associations of nutritional care and PWB. This cross-sectional nutrition study was carried out in 2011. The study included all older long-term care residents (N=4966) living in nursing homes and service housing units (N=61) in Helsinki. The response rate of was 72%. Of the respondents, only persons who had a diagnosis of dementia were included in this analysis (N=2379). The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool and a structured questionnaire were used in assessing the residents. Six dimensions of PWB were included in the questionnaire. Information was also retrieved from medical records. Of residents 9% were well-nourished and 28% malnourished according to the MNA. PWB was good in 50% (score ≥ 0.80) and poor in 10% (score snacks were associated with poor PWB. Mild cognitive impairment was more often associated with poor PWB, whereas moderate or severe impairment was more often associated with good PWB. Nutritional status and nutritional care of residents with dementia were significantly associated with their psychological well-being. The residents suffering from malnutrition had the poorest psychological well-being.

  17. Antecedents of perceived coach autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors: coach psychological need satisfaction and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.

  18. Moderated Mediation between Work Life Balance and Employee Job Performance: The Role of Psychological Wellbeing and Satisfaction with Coworkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Haider

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examined a moderated mediation model for answering how and why work-life balance affects employee job performance, and how satisfaction with coworkers is contingent upon it by enhancing employee’s psychological wellbeing. Data were collected from subordinates and their supervisors in the banking sector (N = 284. Empirical results indicate that psychological wellbeing mediates the link between work-life balance and job performance, and employees’ satisfaction with coworkers enhances job performance by strengthening the effect of work-life balance on psychological wellbeing. This research contributes to personnel management literature by describing moderated mediation mechanisms through which work-life balance influences employee job performance, and guides practitioners by emphasizing that employees with greater work-life balance perform better when their psychological wellbeing is reinforced by their satisfaction with coworkers.

  19. Psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities in Zimbabwean inclusive community settings: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Mpofu

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study should enable inclusive communities’ policy-makers and researchers to better understand the psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities living in inclusive communities.

  20. [Adult mother-daughter relationships and psychological well-being: attachment to mothers, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kotomi

    2008-06-01

    This study examined how daughter's reported quality of their mother-daughter relationships during childhood and adulthood is related to their psychological well-being (depressive symptoms and self-esteem). A cross-sectional sample of 363 women, age 26 to 35 years, completed questionnaires. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on the daughters' marital and parental status. Regression estimates suggested that among single daughters and married daughters with children, childhood attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) significantly contributed to psychological well-being, even after controlling for the effects of current closeness and excessive dependence. Current closeness, and excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother contributed to the psychological well-being of single daughters and married daughters without children, even after controlling for the effects of childhood attachment.

  1. The Relationship between Psychological Well-being and Mental Toughness Among Elders: Mediator Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sohrabi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion In accordance with the results of this study, the elders should be encouraged to perform physical activities, which in turn improves aspects of mental health such as psychological well-being and mental toughness

  2. Psychological well-being and incident frailty in men and women: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, C R; Cooper, C; Deary, I J; Aihie Sayer, A

    2014-03-01

    Observations that older people who enjoy life more tend to live longer suggest that psychological well-being may be a potential resource for healthier ageing. We investigated whether psychological well-being was associated with incidence of physical frailty. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the prospective relationship between psychological well-being, assessed using the CASP-19, a questionnaire that assesses perceptions of control, autonomy, self-realization and pleasure, and incidence of physical frailty or pre-frailty, defined according to the Fried criteria (unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, slow walking speed and low physical activity), in 2557 men and women aged 60 to ≥ 90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Men and women with higher levels of psychological well-being were less likely to become frail over the 4-year follow-up period. For a standard deviation higher score in psychological well-being at baseline, the relative risk ratio (RR) for incident frailty, adjusted for age, sex and baseline frailty status, was 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.54]. There was a significant association between psychological well-being and risk of pre-frailty (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.63-0.77). Examination of scores for hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (control, autonomy and self-realization) well-being showed that higher scores on both were associated with decreased risk. Associations were partially attenuated by further adjustment for other potential confounding factors but persisted. Incidence of pre-frailty or frailty was associated with a decline in well-being, suggesting that the relationship is bidirectional. Maintaining a stronger sense of psychological well-being in later life may protect against the development of physical frailty. Future research needs to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings.

  3. Friendship networks and psychological well-being from late adolescence to young adulthood: a gender-specific structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miething, Alexander; Almquist, Ylva B; Östberg, Viveca; Rostila, Mikael; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2016-07-11

    The importance of supportive social relationships for psychological well-being has been previously recognized, but the direction of associations between both dimensions and how they evolve when adolescents enter adulthood have scarcely been addressed. The present study aims to examine the gender-specific associations between self-reported friendship network quality and psychological well-being of young people during the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood by taking into account the direction of association. A random sample of Swedes born in 1990 were surveyed at age 19 and again at age 23 regarding their own health and their relationships with a maximum of five self-nominated friends. The response rate was 55.3 % at baseline and 43.7 % at follow-up, resulting in 772 cases eligible for analysis. Gender-specific structural equation modeling was conducted to explore the associations between network quality and well-being. The measurement part included a latent measure of well-being, whereas the structural part accounted for autocorrelation for network quality and for well-being over time and further examined the cross-lagged associations. The results show that network quality increased while well-being decreased from age 19 to age 23. Females reported worse well-being at both time points, whereas no gender differences were found for network quality. Network quality at age 19 predicted network quality at age 23, and well-being at age 19 predicted well-being at age 23. The results further show positive correlations between network quality and well-being for males and females alike. The strength of the correlations diminished over time but remained significant at age 23. Simultaneously testing social causation and social selection in a series of competing models indicates that while there were no cross-lagged associations among males, there was a weak reverse association between well-being at age 19 and network quality at age 23 among females. The study

  4. Psychological Well-Being of Mothers and Siblings in Families of Girls and Women with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianfaglione, Rina; Hastings, Richard P.; Felce, David; Clarke, Angus; Kerr, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Few published studies have reported on the psychological well-being of family members of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT). Eighty-seven mothers of girls and women with RTT completed a questionnaire survey about their daughters' behavioral phenotype, current health, and behavior problems, and their own and a sibling's well-being. Mothers…

  5. The Impact of Resource Constraints on the Psychological Well-Being of Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeble, Marisa L.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of resource constraints on the psychological well-being of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), testing whether resource constraints is one mechanism that partially mediates the relationship between IPV and women's well-being. Although within-woman changes in resource constraints did not mediate the…

  6. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, NL; Lyubomirsky, S

    2009-01-01

    Do positive psychology interventions - that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions - enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.2...

  7. Moderated Mediation between Work Life Balance and Employee Job Performance: The Role of Psychological Wellbeing and Satisfaction with Coworkers

    OpenAIRE

    Sajid Haider; Shaista Jabeen; Jamil Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    This research examined a moderated mediation model for answering how and why work-life balance affects employee job performance, and how satisfaction with coworkers is contingent upon it by enhancing employee’s psychological wellbeing. Data were collected from subordinates and their supervisors in the banking sector (N = 284). Empirical results indicate that psychological wellbeing mediates the link between work-life balance and job performance, and employees’ satisfaction with coworkers enha...

  8. Current Australian speech-language pathology practice in addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Jasvinder K; Douglas, Jacinta; Rose, Miranda L

    2015-06-01

    Psychological well-being is essential to overall health; however, there is a paucity of research on how to address psychological well-being in stroke survivors with aphasia. This study describes the current beliefs, attitudes and practices of Australian speech-language pathologists in addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia after stroke. A 26-item web-based survey consisting of open and closed questions was distributed to Australian speech-language pathologists through four electronic databases. Australian speech-language pathologists (n = 111) utilized counselling and clinical approaches to address psychological well-being in people with post-stroke aphasia. The majority of speech-language pathologists did not feel comfortable with addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia and sought support from other health professionals in this practice. Self-perception of being under-skilled was the main barrier identified to adequate practice in this domain, followed by inadequate time, inadequate staffing and people with aphasia declining referral to counselling. The main facilitators reported by speech-language pathologists to address psychological well-being included personal interest, personal and professional experience and availability of counselling health professionals for people with aphasia. There were small-to-medium statistically significant correlations between speech-language pathologists reporting additional training in counselling and perceived knowledge of, confidence in and satisfaction with managing psychological well-being in people with aphasia. This study identifies factors requiring attention in order to enable speech-language pathologists to facilitate improved psychological well-being in people with aphasia.

  9. Psychological Well-being and Parenting Styles as Predictors of Mental Health among Students: Implication for Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad reza khodabakhsh; Fariba kiani; Soliman Ahmedbookani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls) of Boukan's hi...

  10. Does gender identity influence children's psychological well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunger, Jennifer L; Carver, Priscilla R; Perry, David G

    2004-07-01

    This study examined influences of gender identity on change in preadolescents' adjustment over time. In each of two successive years, three measures of gender identity (felt gender typicality, contentment with gender assignment, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and four measures of adjustment (self-esteem, internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and acceptance by peers) were collected. Low gender typicality, low gender contentedness, and high felt pressure all foreshadowed deterioration on one or more indexes of adjustment. The combination of low gender typicality with high felt pressure was especially conducive to internalizing problems, underscoring the importance of the cognitive organization of the gender identity variables. The advantages of a multidimensional perspective on gender identity are discussed. Copyright 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Possible Selves and Self-Regulatory Beliefs: Exploring the Relationship Between Health Selves, Health Efficacy, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark-Freudeman, Alissa; West, Robin L

    2016-03-01

    The present study identified middle-aged (ages 40-64) and older individuals (ages 65-90) who reported a highly important possible self related to health. The relationship between age, physical health, health efficacy, and psychological well-being were examined among these individuals. We tested a model in which health efficacy predicted both positive and negative psychological well-being. For both age groups, self-reported health predicted health self-efficacy; however, the direct effects of health efficacy on both positive and negative psychological well-being were also significant. Higher levels of health efficacy were associated with higher levels of positive psychological well-being and lower levels of negative well-being, as predicted. Physical health indirectly predicted well-being through its impact on health self-efficacy for middle-aged and older individuals who valued their health highly. Overall, these results support the notion that health efficacy related to a most important health self is a predictor of psychological well-being in mid and late life. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. The true cost of the economic crisis on psychological well-being: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hal G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guido Van Hal Medical Sociology and Health Policy, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium Abstract: The recent economic crisis has led to many negative consequences, not the least having to do with the mental health and well-being of the populations involved. Although some researchers say it is still too early to speak about a relationship between the economic crisis and a rise in mental health problems resulting in suicides, there is solid evidence for the existence of such a relationship. However, several moderating or mediating mechanisms can also play a role. The main reactions of most policy makers to the economic crisis are (severe austerity measures. These measures seem to have, however, a detrimental effect on the mental health of the population: Just when people have the highest need for mental help, cost-cutting measures in the health care sector lead to a (substantial drop in the supply of services for the prevention, early detection, and cure of mental health problems. Policy makers should support moderating mechanisms such as financial and psychological coping and acculturation and the role of primary health care workers in the early detection of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide in times of economic recession. Several examples show that the countries best off regarding the mental health of their populations during the economic crisis are those countries with the strongest social safety net. Therefore, instead of cutting back on health care and social welfare measures, policy makers should in the future invest even more in social protection measures during economic crises. Keywords: economic recession, mental health, suicide, social protection, austerity, review

  13. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Han Lee; Mack Shelley; Ching-Ti Liu; Yen-Chang Chang

    2018-01-01

    China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Surve...

  14. Trends in measurement models and methods in understanding occupational health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrick, Lois E

    2017-07-01

    Measurement of occupational health psychology constructs is the cornerstone to developing our understanding of occupational health and safety. It also is critical in the design, evaluation, and implementation of interventions to improve employees and organizations well-being. The purpose of this article is a brief review of the current state of measurement theory and practice in occupational health psychology. Also included are a discussion of development of newer measurement models and methods, which are in use in other disciplines of psychology, but have not been incorporated into the occupational health psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Deafness-related self-perceptions and psychological well-being in deaf adolescents with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mance, Jennifer; Edwards, Lindsey

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between psychological well-being and self-perception in adolescents with cochlear implants, in relation to their perceptions of hearing, deaf signing, and orally communicating deaf peers. Self-perceptions were examined in 22 cochlear implant users aged 12-18 years, using the repertory grid technique that allows the respondent to generate personally relevant 'identity' constructs. Psychological well-being was assessed using the Beck Youth Inventory, a series of five self-report questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, disruptive behaviour, anger, and self-esteem. Correlational analyses indicated that perceiving oneself as close to any peer, irrespective of which peer, was associated with better psychological well-being. There was also a significant positive association between perceived degree of similarity specifically to hearing peers, and psychological well-being. The closer the implanted adolescents perceived themselves to be to their hearing peers, the better their overall psychological well-being. In contrast, perceiving oneself as more similar to deaf signing peers or deaf oral peers was not significantly associated with psychological well-being. The findings are discussed in the context of previous research on social comparison, Deaf identity, and the aims of cochlear implantation.

  16. The affective profiles, psychological well-being, and harmony: environmental mastery and self-acceptance predict the sense of a harmonious life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. An important outcome from the debate on whether wellness equals happiness, is the need of research focusing on how psychological well-being might influence humans’ ability to adapt to the changing environment and live in harmony. To get a detailed picture of the influence of positive and negative affect, the current study employed the affective profiles model in which individuals are categorised into groups based on either high positive and low negative affect (self-fulfilling; high positive and high negative affect (high affective; low positive and low negative affect (low affective; and high negative and low positive affect (self-destructive. The aims were to (1 investigate differences between affective profiles in psychological well-being and harmony and (2 how psychological well-being and its dimensions relate to harmony within the four affective profiles.Method. 500 participants (mean age = 34.14 years, SD. = ±12.75 years; 187 males and 313 females were recruited online and required to answer three self-report measures: The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; The Scales of Psychological Well-Being (short version and The Harmony in Life Scale. We conducted a Multivariate Analysis of Variance where the affective profiles and gender were the independent factors and psychological well-being composite score, its six dimensions as well as the harmony in life score were the dependent factors. In addition, we conducted four multi-group (i.e., the four affective profiles moderation analyses with the psychological well-being dimensions as predictors and harmony in life as the dependent variables.Results. Individuals categorised as self-fulfilling, as compared to the other profiles, tended to score higher on the psychological well-being dimensions: positive relations, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and purpose in life. In addition, 47% to 66% of the variance of the harmony in life was

  17. Childlessness, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction among the elderly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiguo; Liu, Guiping

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of childlessness on the well-being of persons aged 65 and above in China. It is based on an application of ordered-logit regression in the analysis of the data from the 2002 wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) conducted in 22 provinces of China (N = 13,447). It compares parents with the childless elderly, focusing on three dimensions of psychological well-being, namely feelings of anxiety, loneliness, and uselessness, and on life satisfaction. The findings include the following. First, with control of social demographic variables of age, gender and education, childlessness is significantly associated with life satisfaction, feeling of anxiety and loneliness, but not feeling of uselessness. The childless elderly are less satisfied with their lives and feel more anxious and lonely than do parents, but they do not necessarily feel significantly more useless. Second, when controlled with social-demographic variables and additional socioeconomic variables of residence, living arrangement, availability of pension and medical services, childlessness is no longer significantly related to anxiety and loneliness, and it is related at only a marginally-significant level to life satisfaction. Third, individual education, place of residence, living arrangements, economic security and access to medical services are consistently related to life satisfaction and psychological well-being among the elderly. We conclude that providing social investments in education in early life and economic security and medical insurance in later life for both the childless and parents are crucial for improving individual psychological well-being and life satisfaction for the elderly.

  18. Gratitude and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E S; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study's aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents' SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed.

  19. Gratitude and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E. S.; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study’s aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents’ SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. PMID:27708601

  20. Measurement of well-being in the workplace: the development of the work well-being questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon B; Hyett, Matthew P

    2011-06-01

    Because there has been a lack of a single comprehensive measure for assessing workplace well-being, we elected to develop such a self-report measure. Provisional items were extracted from the literature on "positive psychology" and were adapted to capture their workplace application. The provisional 50-item set was completed by a nonclinical sample of 150 adults. A second and third sample was recruited to examine its reliability and any impact of depressed mood and sociodemographic and work-related variables, respectively. Factor analysis identified four domains, "Work Satisfaction," "Organizational Respect for the Employee," "Employer Care," and a negative construct-"Intrusion of Work into Private Life." High test-retest reliability was demonstrated for the final 31-item measure, whereas there was no distinct impact of depressed mood on the scale scores. Work Satisfaction scale scores were influenced by job type. Gender effects were found for two of the four scales, whereas a longer period of employment inversely linked to Organizational Respect for the Employee and Employer Care scores and was conversely associated with higher Intrusion of Work into Private Life scores. The refined measure should enable individuals and employers to quantify the levels of support and well-being provided by employing organizations.

  1. Application of Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE Model on Women’s Psychological Well-being in the Menopausal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Moshki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Positive psychology introduce mental health as a positive psychological functioning and represent it as wellbeing psychology and having positive characteristics such as self-esteem, positive social relationships, and life satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological wellbeing of postmenopausal women based on the behavioral analysis phase of PRECEDE model. Materials and Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey and carried out through random sampling in the case of 110 postmenopausal women at Ferdows city, Iran in 2014. The psychological wellbeing variable was studied by Ryff test, including 84 questions and six components containing autonomy, purposeful in life, dominance on environment, personal development, positive relationships with others, and self-acceptance. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS v.20 using descriptive statistics and analytic statistics through correlation and ANOVA. Results The mean age of participants and the average number of their children were 51.62 ± 4.26 and 3.42 ± 1.38, respectively. 61.80 percent of participants had primary education. Pearson correlation test indicated a positive and significant relationship between psychological wellbeing and predisposing factors (knowledge, attitude toward menopause, environmentalbehavioral factors, enabling factors and reinforcing factors (P < 0.01. Conclusion The results indicated that increasing awareness, creating positive attitude and promoting healthy behaviors are the effective steps to improve the psychological wellbeing in postmenopausal women. * Corresponding Author: Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Public Health. Email: Fpf357@gmail.com

  2. Measurement of Psychological Entitlement in 28 Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M.; Piotrowski, J.; Cieciuch, J.; Calogero, R.M.; Van Hiel, A.; Argentero, P.; Baltatescu, S.; Baran, T.; Bardhwaj, G.; Bukowski, M.; Chargazia, M.; Clinton, A.; Halik, M.H.; Ilisko, D.; Khachatryan, N.; Klicperová-Baker, Martina; Košťál, Jaroslav; Kovacs, M.; Letovancova, E.; Liik, K.; Marganski, A.; Michałowski, J.; Nord, I.; Paspalanova, E.; de Leon, P.P.; Techera, J.; Rojas, M.; Różycka, J.; Sawicka, A.; Seibt, B.; Semkiv, I.; Tiliouine, H.; Truong, H.K.; Van den Bos, K.; Wills-Herrera, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2017), s. 207-217 ISSN 1015-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11062S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : psychological entitlement * Entitlement Attitudes Questionnaire * cross-cultural research * measurement invariance Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 2.328, year: 2016 http://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/abs/10.1027/1015-5759/a000286

  3. Toward a mediation model for nurses' well-being and psychological distress effects of quality of leadership and social support at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Mulder, Regina H; König, Christoph; Anselmann, Veronika

    2017-04-01

    Given the lack of active nurses in industrialized countries throughout the world, in combination with demographic changes, it is of utmost importance to protect nurses' well-being and to prevent psychological distress, because of their strong association with premature occupational leave. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quality of leadership and social support at work on well-being and psychological distress of nurses and to determine whether nurses' overcommitment mediates the relationship between the abovementioned determinants and the outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design was used to gather our data. This study utilized part of the database of the Nurses' Early Exit Study. A total of 34,771 nurses (covering all nurse qualifications) working in hospitals, nursing homes, and home-care institutions in 8 European countries filled out a questionnaire (response rate = 51.4%). For all model variables (job satisfaction, satisfaction with salary, positive affectivity, personal burnout, negative affectivity, quality of leadership, social support from immediate supervisor, social support from near colleagues, and overcommitment), psychometrically sound, that is, valid and reliable measures were used. Outcomes from testing a structural equation mediation model indicated that, respectively, positive and negative influences of leadership quality and social support from supervisor and colleagues on nurses' well-being and psychological distress are partially mediated, that is, reduced, by nurses' overcommitment. Social work environment is highly important in relation to nurses' well-being and psychological distress.

  4. Systematic review protocol of interventions to improve the psychological well-being of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marylou; Murray, Lois; Donnelly, Michael

    2015-09-22

    The challenges and complexities faced by general practitioners are increasing, and there are concerns about their well-being. Consequently, attention has been directed towards developing and evaluating interventions and strategies to improve general practitioner well-being and their capacity to cope with workplace challenges. This systematic review aims to evaluate research evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve general practitioner well-being. Eligible studies will include programmes developed to improve psychological well-being that have assessed outcomes using validated tools pertaining to well-being and related outcomes. Only programmes that have been evaluated using controlled study designs will be reviewed. An appropriately developed search strategy will be applied to six electronic databases: the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies will be screened in two stages by two independent reviewers. A third reviewer will arbitrate when required. Pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria will be assessed during a pilot phase early on in the review process. The Cochrane data extraction form will be adapted and applied to each eligible study by two independent reviewers, and each study will be appraised critically using standardised checklists from the Cochrane Handbook. Methodological quality will be taken into account in the analysis of the data and the synthesis of results. A narrative synthesis will be undertaken if data is unsuited to a meta-analysis. The systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidance. This will be the first systematic review on this topic, and the evidence synthesis will aid decision-making by general practitioners, policy makers and planners regarding ways in which to improve GP well-being. Findings will be disseminated at general practitioner meetings

  5. Shift work, emotional labour and psychological well-being of nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Vermaak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effect of emotional labour and the psychological experience of shift work on the psychological well-being at work (PWBW of long term care nursing staff (n = 206. The ‘psychological experience of shift work’ construct defines the perception of the negative effect that working shifts has on the employees’ daily life. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted. Support was found for the negative relationships between the psychological experience of shift work and PWBW, as well as the emotional labour dimension of surface acting and PWBW. A hierarchical regression analysis suggested that, when controlling for the effect of emotional labour and certain demographic variables (including number of dependents, tenure and actual shift worked, a significant amount of unique variance in PWBW, could be accounted for by the psychological experience of shift work. These results indicate that the PWBW of nursing staff is not only influenced by which shift the individual is on (i.e. day or night shift, but more so by the individuals’ psychological experience of shift work.

  6. Physical activity and psychological well-being in obese pregnant and postpartum women attending a weight-gain restriction programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Ing-Marie; Klein, Sofia; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    the objective of the study was to compare the differences in psychological well-being and quality of life during pregnancy and post partum of obese physically active women and obese physically inactive women enroled in a weight gain restriction programme. We also wanted to explore whether physical activity influences weight change or health status during pregnancy. a prospective intervention study. antenatal care clinic. a total of 74 obese pregnant women in a physically active group and 79 obese women in a physically inactive group. the women kept diaries of their physical activity during pregnancy and answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Medical Study Short-Form Health Survey in gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks post partum. Physical activity was measured in metabolic equivalents. the physically active women experienced fewer depressive symptoms and estimated an improved quality of life during their pregnancies as measured by physical functioning, bodily pain, social functioning, role limitations due to emotional problems and general mental health as compared with the physically inactive women. There were no differences between the groups in gestational weight gain or weight change from early pregnancy to post partum or in prevalence of complications. physical activity among obese pregnant women provides better psychological well-being and improved quality of life, but does not prevent weight change. staff at Antenatal Care Clinics that face obese pregnant women, should encourage and emphasise the benefits of being physically active throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of family relationships in the psychological wellbeing of interracially dating adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Kathryn Harker; Miller, Byron

    2017-07-01

    We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine the role of family relationships in explaining why interracially dating youth have poorer psychological wellbeing than youth with same-race partners. Results indicate that interracial daters experience more symptoms of depression and anxiety and poorer family relationships than do same-race daters. The additive effects of their lower levels of family support and poorer quality parent-child relationships, however, do little to explain interracial daters' more negative wellbeing outcomes. The negative effects of interracial dating hold similarly for boys and girls and among White and Black youth. Interracial dating less negatively effects the depressive symptomatology of Hispanics, though, and actually appears to "protect" Asian youth from depressive symptoms. Our findings highlight the psychological wellbeing risks faced by many interracially dating youth and the protective benefits of close and supportive family relationships for romantically-involved adolescents in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lawton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262 aged 18–71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1 who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp. Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship.

  9. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Emma; Brymer, Eric; Clough, Peter; Denovan, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262) aged 18–71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1) who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp). Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship. PMID:28694788

  10. Academic Attitudes and Psychological Well-Being of Black American Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uqdah, Aesha L.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; DeLoach, Chante

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore the relationships between academic self-concept, perception of competency in related domains, and academic motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation), and reported anxiety and depression among Black American psychology graduate students. The major research question asks whether there is a relationship…

  11. Predictability of cardiovascular risks by psychological measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Kebza, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 241-241 ISSN 0887-0446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/06/0747 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : CVD risks * psychological measures * physiological risks Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  12. Measuring School Psychology Trainee Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Adam B.; Mcclure, John; Sealander, Karen; Baker, Courtney N.

    2017-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need for school psychology training programs to demonstrate their ability to produce competent practitioners. One method of addressing this need is through the assessment of self-efficacy. However, little research on self-efficacy in school psychology exists likely due to the lack of a psychometrically sound measure of…

  13. Children's Daily Well-Being: The Role of Mothers', Teachers', and Siblings' Autonomy Support and Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Mabbe, Elien

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the unique relations between multiple sources (i.e., mothers, teachers, and siblings) of perceived daily autonomy support and psychological control and children's basic psychological needs and well-being. During 5 consecutive days, 2 children from 154 families (M[subscript age] youngest child = 8.54 years; SD = 0.89 and…

  14. Turkish College Students' Subjective Wellbeing in Regard to Psychological Strengths and Demographic Variables: Implications for College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish college students' subjective wellbeing in regard to psychological strength and demographic variables. A sample of Turkish college students (N?=?1,052) aged 17-32 (mean age = 21, SD = 1.79) was administered various psychological strength instruments--the Gratitude Scale, the Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory, the…

  15. SELF-CONCEPT DIFFERENTIATION AND SELF-CONCEPT CLARITY ACROSS ADULTHOOD: ASSOCIATIONS WITH AGE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING*

    Science.gov (United States)

    DIEHL, MANFRED; HAY, ELIZABETH L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the identification of conceptually meaningful groups of individuals based on their joint self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC) scores. Notably, we examined whether membership in different SCD-SCC groups differed by age and also was associated with differences in psychological well-being (PWB). Cluster analysis revealed five distinct SCD-SCC groups: a self-assured, unencumbered, fragmented-only, confused-only, and fragmented and confused group. Individuals in the self-assured group had the highest mean scores for positive PWB and the lowest mean scores for negative PWB, whereas individuals in the fragmented and confused group showed the inverse pattern. Findings showed that it was psychologically advantageous to belong to the self-assured group at all ages. As hypothesized, older adults were more likely than young adults to be in the self-assured cluster, whereas young adults were more likely to be in the fragmented and confused cluster. Thus, consistent with extant theorizing, age was positively associated with psychologically adaptive self-concept profiles. This study examined whether conceptually meaningful subgroups of individuals can be identified based on their joint scores on self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC). Specifically, we considered whether individuals within such subgroups differed systematically from one another on measures of positive and negative psychological well-being (PWB). Of interest to us was also whether there were age differences in the distribution of adults across the SCD-SCC groups and whether age moderated the association between PWB and SCD-SCC grouping. PMID:22010361

  16. Parental Sexual Orientation and Children's Psychological Well-Being: 2013-2015 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Mays, Vickie M; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Björkenstam, Emma; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Cochran, Susan D

    2017-11-08

    Debate persists about whether parental sexual orientation affects children's well-being. This study utilized information from the 2013 to 2015 U.S., population-based National Health Interview Survey to examine associations between parental sexual orientation and children's well-being. Parents reported their children's (aged 4-17 years old, N = 21,103) emotional and mental health difficulties using the short form Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children of bisexual parents had higher SDQ scores than children of heterosexual parents. Adjusting for parental psychological distress (a minority stress indicator) eliminated this difference. Children of lesbian and gay parents did not differ from children of heterosexual parents in emotional and mental health difficulties, yet, the results among children of bisexual parents warrant more research examining the impact of minority stress on families. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. The impact of statins on psychological wellbeing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Adrienne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol-lowering medications such as statins have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which may be beneficial for treating depression and improving mood. However, evidence regarding their effects remains inconsistent, with some studies reporting links to mood disturbances. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to determine the impact of statins on psychological wellbeing of individuals with or without hypercholesterolemia. Methods Articles were identified using medical, health, psychiatric and social science databases, evaluated for quality, and data were synthesized and analyzed in RevMan-5 software using a random effects model. Results The 7 randomized controlled trials included in the analysis represented 2,105 participants. A test for overall effect demonstrated no statistically significant differences in psychological wellbeing between participants receiving statins or a placebo (standardized mean difference (SMD = -0.08, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.12; P = 0.42. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to separately analyze depression (n = 5 and mood (n = 2 outcomes; statins were associated with statistically significant improvements in mood scores (SMD = -0.43, 95% CI -0.61 to -0.24. Conclusions Our findings refute evidence of negative effects of statins on psychological outcomes, providing some support for mood-related benefits. Future studies could examine the effects of statins in depressed populations.

  18. Effects of online group exercises for older adults on physical, psychological and social wellbeing: a randomized pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Baez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Intervention programs to promote physical activity in older adults, either in group or home settings, have shown equivalent health outcomes but different results when considering adherence. Group-based interventions seem to achieve higher participation in the long-term. However, there are many factors that can make of group exercises a challenging setting for older adults. A major one, due to the heterogeneity of this particular population, is the difference in the level of skills. In this paper we report on the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes of a technology-based intervention that enable online group exercises in older adults with different levels of skills. Methods A total of 37 older adults between 65 and 87 years old followed a personalized exercise program based on the OTAGO program for fall prevention, for a period of eight weeks. Participants could join online group exercises using a tablet-based application. Participants were assigned either to the Control group, representing the traditional individual home-based training program, or the Social group, representing the online group exercising. Pre- and post- measurements were taken to analyze the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes. Results After the eight-weeks training program there were improvements in both the Social and Control groups in terms of physical outcomes, given the high level of adherence of both groups. Considering the baseline measures, however, the results suggest that while in the Control group fitter individuals tended to adhere more to the training, this was not the case for the Social group, where the initial level had no effect on adherence. For psychological outcomes there were improvements on both groups, regardless of the application used. There was no significant difference between groups in social wellbeing outcomes, both groups seeing a decrease in loneliness despite the presence of social features in the

  19. Effects of online group exercises for older adults on physical, psychological and social wellbeing: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Marcos; Khaghani Far, Iman; Ibarra, Francisco; Ferron, Michela; Didino, Daniele; Casati, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Intervention programs to promote physical activity in older adults, either in group or home settings, have shown equivalent health outcomes but different results when considering adherence. Group-based interventions seem to achieve higher participation in the long-term. However, there are many factors that can make of group exercises a challenging setting for older adults. A major one, due to the heterogeneity of this particular population, is the difference in the level of skills. In this paper we report on the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes of a technology-based intervention that enable online group exercises in older adults with different levels of skills. A total of 37 older adults between 65 and 87 years old followed a personalized exercise program based on the OTAGO program for fall prevention, for a period of eight weeks. Participants could join online group exercises using a tablet-based application. Participants were assigned either to the Control group, representing the traditional individual home-based training program, or the Social group, representing the online group exercising. Pre- and post- measurements were taken to analyze the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes. After the eight-weeks training program there were improvements in both the Social and Control groups in terms of physical outcomes, given the high level of adherence of both groups. Considering the baseline measures, however, the results suggest that while in the Control group fitter individuals tended to adhere more to the training, this was not the case for the Social group, where the initial level had no effect on adherence. For psychological outcomes there were improvements on both groups, regardless of the application used. There was no significant difference between groups in social wellbeing outcomes, both groups seeing a decrease in loneliness despite the presence of social features in the Social group. However, online social interactions

  20. Approach and Avoidance Sexual Goals in Couples with Provoked Vestibulodynia: Associations with Sexual, Relational, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Impett, Emily A; Boudreau, Gillian K

    2015-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that is triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. PVD adversely impacts women's and their partners' sexual relationship and psychological well-being. Over 80% of women with PVD continue to have intercourse, possibly because of sexual goals that include wanting to pursue desirable outcomes (i.e., approach goals; such as a desire to maintain intimacy) and avoid negative outcomes (i.e., avoidance goals; such as avoiding a partner's disappointment). The aim of this study was to investigate associations between approach and avoidance sexual goals and women's pain, as well as the sexual, relational, and psychological well-being of affected couples. Women with PVD (N = 107) and their partners completed measures of sexual goals, sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and depression. Women also completed measures of pain during intercourse and sexual functioning. (1) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale, (2) Dyadic Adjustment Scale-Revised or the Couple Satisfaction Index, (3) Beck Depression Inventory-II, (4) numerical rating scale of pain during intercourse, and (5) Female Sexual Function Index. When women reported higher avoidance sexual goals, they reported lower sexual and relationship satisfaction, and higher levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, when partners of women reported higher avoidance sexual goals, they reported lower relationship satisfaction. When women reported higher approach sexual goals, they also reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. Targeting approach and avoidance sexual goals could enhance the quality and efficacy of psychological couple interventions for women with PVD and their partners. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using the experience-sampling method to examine the psychological mechanisms by which participatory art improves wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicola J

    2018-01-01

    To measure the immediate impact of art-making in everyday life on diverse indices of wellbeing ('in the moment' and longer term) in order to improve understanding of the psychological mechanisms by which art may improve mental health. Using the experience-sampling method, 41 artists were prompted (with a 'beep' on a handheld computer) at random intervals (10 times a day, for one week) to answer a short questionnaire. The questionnaire tracked art-making and enquired about mood, cognition and state of consciousness. This resulted in 2,495 sampled experiences, with a high response rate in which 89% of questionnaires were completed. Multi-level modelling was used to evaluate the impact of art-making on experience, with 2,495 'experiences' (experiential-level) nested within 41 participants (person-level). Recent art-making was significantly associated with experiential shifts: improvement in hedonic tone, vivid internal imagery and the flow state. Furthermore, the frequency of art-making across the week was associated with person-level measures of wellbeing: eudemonic happiness and self-regulation. Cross-level interactions, between experiential and person-level variables, suggested that hedonic tone improved more for those scoring low on eudemonic happiness, and further that, those high in eudemonic happiness were more likely to experience phenomenological features of the flow state and to experience inner dialogue while art-making. Art-making has both immediate and long-term associations with wellbeing. At the experiential level, art-making affects multiple dimensions of conscious experience: affective, cognitive and state factors. This suggests that there are multiple routes to wellbeing (improving hedonic tone, making meaning through inner dialogue and experiencing the flow state). Recommendations are made to consider these factors when both developing and evaluating public health interventions that involve participatory art.

  3. The association between mothers' psychopathology, childrens' competences and psychological well-being in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B; Munsch, S; Meyer, A; Isler, E; Schneider, S

    2008-09-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is rapidly increasing, and many obese children suffer from emotional and behavior problems and mental disorders. Associations with social stigmatization of obesity, maternal psychopathology, socioeconomic status (SES) and resilience factors are discussed. We hypothesize maternal psychopathology to have an impact on the psychological well-being of an obese child. We further hypothesize that competence factors within the child are important key factors that influence the way a child deals with the psychological burden of obesity. A referred clinical sample of 59 obese children with their mothers was assessed using a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis and questionnaires for child and maternal psychopathology, SES, body mass index (BMI), and percent overweight. Correlations, hierarchical linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze associations between mothers and child and the impact of potential predictors. Mental disorders were found in 37.3% of the obese children in our sample. Maternal anxiety predicted the mother reported child's internalizing problems as well as the child's depression and anxiety self report scores. The mental disorder status of the mother predicted the child's internalizing problems, and maternal binge eating disorder (BED) had an impact on the mental disorder of the child. If the child's total competences were included in the hierarchical regression model they predicted the child's outcome in all three subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), thereby reducing the effect of maternal anxiety to influencing the child's depression score only. Neither SES nor the child's percent overweight accounted for the child's wellbeing. Although maternal psychopathology and diagnosis of mental disorder had some impact on the psychological well-being of the child, the child's competences showed a significant negative association with the problem scales. More research on parental and

  4. Factors impacting on psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Robinson, Eddie; Penman, Joy; Hills, Danny

    2017-09-01

    There are increasing numbers of international students undertaking health professional courses, particularly in Western countries. These courses not only expose students to the usual stresses and strains of academic learning, but also require students to undertake clinical placements and practice-based learning. While much is known about general issues facing international students, less is known about factors that impact on those studying in the health professions. To explore what is known about factors that influence the psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions. A scoping review. A range of databases were searched, including CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Proquest and ERIC, as well as grey literature, reference lists and Google Scholar. The review included qualitative or quantitative primary peer reviewed research studies that focused on international undergraduate or postgraduate students in the health professions. The core concept underpinning the review was psychological issues, with the outcome being psychological and/or social wellbeing. Thematic analysis across studies was used to identify key themes emerging. A total of 13 studies were included in the review, from the disciplines of nursing, medicine and speech-language pathology. Four key factor groups emerged from the review: negotiating structures and systems, communication and learning, quality of life and self-care, and facing discrimination and social isolation. International health professional students face similar issues to other international students. The nature of their courses, however, also requires negotiating different health care systems, and managing a range of clinical practice issues including with communication, and isolation and discrimination from clinical staff and patients. Further research is needed to specifically explore factors impacting on student well-being and how international students can be appropriately prepared and supported for their

  5. Relationship between Personality Traits and Psychological Well-Being with Respect to the Mediating Role of Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Taghvaininia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background and aim: Psychological well-being has been raised in the field of positive psychology and has focused on mental health from an individual's growth and efficiency angle rather than being patient. Identifying the personality building of individuals and adopting appropriate patterns is also of considerable importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits and psychological well-being with mediation as the role of forgiveness. Methods: The present research was a descriptive and causal correlation study. The statistical population consisted of all students of Yasuj University, among which 301 students (171 girls, 130 boys were selected by multi-stage random sampling. The instruments used were Reiff Psychological Well-being Questionnaire (PVBS, NEO Personality Questionnaire (NEO and Hartland Forgiveness Questionnaire (HFS. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling (SEM. Results: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between personality traits (extraversion = p <0.01, r = 0.32, agreement (p <0.01, r = 0.33, openness to experience (p <0.01, and conscientiousness There was a positive and significant relationship between psychological well-being and psychological well-being (r = 0.41, r = 0.41, r = 0.41, r = 0.41. Also, the results showed that the relationship between forgiveness (forgiveness R = 0.27, r = 0.27, r = 0.27, forgiveness in position (r = 0.20, r = 0.23 was positive and significant with psychological well-being. The results obtained from structural equation modeling also indicated that the path coefficient of features Personality to psychological well-being (β = 0.33 and forgiveness for psychological well-being Β = 258/0 is significant at the level of p≤0.01. Also, the results of indirect relations, the role of forgiveness mediators and the significance of these relationships have been confirmed

  6. Leisure-time physical activity and psychological well-being in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, J; Castillo, I; Queralt, A

    2011-10-01

    An analysis of psychological well-being (self-esteem and subjective vitality) of 639 Spanish university students was performed, while accounting for the amount of leisure-time physical activity. The Spanish versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Subjective Vitality Scale were employed. Participants were divided into four groups (Low, Moderate, High, and Very high) depending on estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity. Men and women having higher physical activity rated higher mean subjective vitality; however, differences in self-esteem were observed only in men, specifically between Very high and the other physical activity groups.

  7. New nurses burnout and workplace wellbeing: The influence of authentic leadership and psychological capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather K. Spence Laschinger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of burnout on nurses’ health and wellbeing are well documented and positive leadership has been shown to be an important organizational resource for discouraging the development of burnout. Intrapersonal resources also play a protective role against workplace stressors. This study investigated the influence of authentic leadership, an organizational resource, and psychological capital, an intrapersonal resource, on new graduate burnout, occupational satisfaction, and workplace mental health over the first year of employment (n = 205. Results supported the protective role of organizational and intrapersonal resources against burnout, job dissatisfaction, and mental health.

  8. The psychological well-being of employees who handle cash in a bank in inner city Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvunguma, Patricia; Gwandure, Calvin

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the psychological well-being of bank employees who handled cash and those who did not. The study assessed employees' levels of work stress, burnout and life satisfaction. The Job Stress Survey Scale was used to measure work stress, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure burnout and the Congruity Life Satisfaction Scale was used to measure life satisfaction. Two independent sample t tests were run on Statistical Analysis Software. The results showed that the two groups differed significantly in terms of work stress, emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and overall burnout. The findings of this study suggest the need for organisational support, skills development and the provision of wellness programmes for bank employees.

  9. Social support and psychological well-being in gender dysphoria: a comparison of patients with matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Determinants of subjective well-being in people with psychosis referred for psychological therapy in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyd, Annabel; Jolley, Suzanne; Johns, Louise

    2016-11-01

    Improving subjective well-being (SWB) for people with mental health problems is a United Kingdom national health priority and is increasingly important in justifying funding of mental health services. Aside from the economic advantages, maximizing SWB confers obvious individual and clinical benefits for people with severe mental illness, such as psychosis. Gaining a better understanding of well-being and its determinants will enable current evidence-based interventions to be targeted and refined appropriately. This study therefore sought to identify the cross-sectional correlates of SWB in an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness psychosis demonstration site, to inform a future longitudinal investigation. Participants with a psychosis or bipolar spectrum diagnosis referred to the demonstration site (n = 410) rated SWB as part of their initial assessment before starting psychological therapy. Potential influencing factors including age, gender, ethnicity, employment status, illness duration, perceived social support, perceived coping, and psychotic symptoms (voices and beliefs) were also assessed. Regression analyses showed that unemployment (β = -.16, p therapy to meet national requirements to prioritize well-being outcomes. Average well-being in people with psychosis was lower than SWB previously reported for the general population. Unemployment, lack of social support, poorer coping, and distressing beliefs were all associated with lower levels of well-being in people with psychosis. Psychological interventions targeting the positive symptoms of psychosis may impact on well-being. Greater focus on promoting social contact and inclusion and facilitating a return to employment may further improve well-being outcomes following psychological intervention. The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for firm conclusions about the causal relationship between well-being and associated factors in psychosis. The

  11. Family Functioning, Psychological Distress, and Well-Being in Parents with a Child Having ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyfrid Larsen Moen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Children with ADHD have difficulties regarding the regulation of their emotions and activities and of the maintenance of attention and impulse control. Families with children with ADHD encounter many challenges, and the public health nurse is highlighted as helping and supporting these families. The aim of this study was to investigate families with a child having ADHD from the parents’ perspective. A cross-sectional study was performed. In total, N = 264 parents of children with ADHD, 217 mothers and 47 fathers (48.2%, responded on a questionnaire regarding psychological distress, family sense of coherence, and family functioning. Parents with ADHD and parents with children not medicated for ADHD seemed most vulnerable. Parents’ well-being and psychological distress seem to influence family functioning the most, with the behavior of the child with ADHD and support from the community health services had importance.

  12. Quality of life and psychological well-being of breast cancer survivors in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Helalah, Munir; Al-Hanaqta, Motasem; Alshraideh, Hussam; Abdulbaqi, Nada; Hijazeen, Jameel

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Jordanians. Breast cancer patients suffer from several negative consequences after treatment and these include pain, fatigue, sexual problems, appearance and body image concerns, with psychological dysfunction. This could affect the patient quality of life and psychological well-being. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published quantitative data on the quality of life and psychological well-being of breast cancer patients in Jordan. The objective of this study was to obtain such data and assess predictors with calculated scores. In this cross-sectional study conducted among breast cancer patients in Jordan diagnosed in 2009 and 2010, assessment was performed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Breast Module (QLQ-BR23) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical, demographic and psychosocial indicators that could predict patient quality of life scores were collected. The number of patients interviewed was 236 (mean age=50.7±10.7 years). The mean Global Health score for the QLQ-C30 was 63.7±20.2 SD. Among functional scales, "social functioning" scored the highest (mean=78.1±28.6 SD), whereas "emotional functioning" scored the lowest (mean=59.0±SD 33.5). For the QLQ-BR23, the worst scores within the functional scales were for "body image" (mean=52.1±36.8 SD) and "future perspective" (mean=52.9±38.5 SD) . The worst symptom was "upset by hair loss" (mean=69.8±43.0). The mean HADS scores was 18.±9.0 SD. Out of study participants, 53% scored abnormal on the anxiety scale and 45% on the depression scale. Severe depression and severe anxiety were detected among 8% and 14% of study participants, respectively. Statistically significant predictors for individual scores were similar to those reported in published studies, such as the presence of recurrence since baseline, family history of cancer, low educational

  13. The effects of economic deprivation on psychological well-being among the working population of Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Stefan; Endrass, Jerome; Schweizer, Ivo; Teng, Hsun-Mei; Rossler, Wulf; Gallo, William T

    2006-01-01

    Background The association between poverty and mental health has been widely investigated. There is, however, limited evidence of mental health implications of working poverty, despite its representing a rapidly expanding segment of impoverished populations in many developed nations. In this study, we examined whether working poverty in Switzerland, a country with substantial recent growth among the working poor, was correlated with two dependent variables of interest: psychological health and unmet mental health need. Methods This cross-sectional study used data drawn from the first 3 waves (1999–2001) of the Swiss Household Panel, a nationally representative sample of the permanent resident population of Switzerland. The study sample comprised 5453 subjects aged 20–59 years. We used Generalized Estimating Equation models to investigate the association between working poverty and psychological well-being; we applied logistic regression models to analyze the link between working poverty and unmet mental health need. Working poverty was represented by dummy variables indicating financial deficiency, restricted standard of living, or both conditions. Results After controlling other factors, restricted standard of living was significantly (p psychological well-being; it was also associated with approximately 50% increased risk of unmet mental health need (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.17 – 2.06). Conclusion The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the potential psychological impact of material deprivation on working Swiss citizens. Such knowledge may aid in the design of community intervention programs to help reduce the individual and societal burdens of poverty in Switzerland. PMID:16952322

  14. The Wellbeing of Italian Peacekeeper Military: Psychological Resources, Quality of Life and Internalizing Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yura Loscalzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Working as a peacekeeper is associated with the exposure to acute and/or catastrophic events and chronic stressors. Hence, the meager literature about peacekeepers’ wellbeing has mainly analyzed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. This study aims to deep the analysis of the wellbeing of peacekeepers military. Based on the few studies on this population, we hypothesized that Italian peacekeeper military officers and enlisted men (n = 167; 103 males, 6 females, 58 missing exhibit lower levels of internalizing symptoms (i.e., PTSD, depression, general anxiety, obsessions, and somatization as compared to a control group (n = 60; 32 males, 28 females. Moreover, we hypothesized that peacekeepers have higher levels of psychological resources (i.e., self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support and quality of life (i.e., higher life satisfaction and lower general stress. We compared the groups by means of MANOVAs on the subscales of the Psychological Treatment Inventory (PTI; Gori et al., 2015. We found that Italian peacekeepers have lower internalizing symptoms and higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem than the control group; however, no statistically significant differences were observed on perceived social support. Finally, peacekeepers have a higher quality of life: scores reflect higher life satisfaction and lower distress than the control group. This study is in line with previous literature supporting the claim that Italian peacekeeper military officers have sufficient psychological resources for coping with the stressful situations implied in peacekeeping missions. Future studies should deepen the analysis of the military’s psychological characteristics by comparing war veterans and peacekeeper military.

  15. Perceived parenting and psychological well-being in UK ethnic minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, M J; Harding, S

    2010-09-01

    Warm, caring parenting with appropriate supervision and control is considered to contribute to the best mental health outcomes for young people. The extent to which this view on 'optimal' parenting and health applies across ethnicities, warrants further attention. We examined associations between perceived parental care and parental control and psychological well-being among ethnically diverse UK adolescents. In 2003 a sample of 4349 pupils aged 11-13 years completed eight self-reported parenting items. These items were used to derive the parental care and control scores. Higher score represents greater care and control, respectively. Psychological well-being was based on total psychological difficulties score from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, increasing score corresponding to increasing difficulties. All minority pupils had lower mean care and higher mean control scores compared with Whites. In models stratified by ethnicity, increasing parental care was associated with lower psychological difficulties score (better mental health) and increasing parental control with higher psychological difficulties score within each ethnic group, compared with reference categories. The difference in psychological difficulties between the highest and lowest tertiles of parental care, adjusted for age, sex, family type and socio-economic circumstances, was: White UK =-2.92 (95% confidence interval -3.72, -2.12); Black Caribbean =-2.08 (-2.94, -1.22); Nigerian/Ghanaian =-2.60 (-3.58, -1.62); Other African =-3.12 (-4.24, -2.01); Indian =-2.77 (-4.09, -1.45); Pakistani/ Bangladeshi =-3.15 (-4.27, -2.03). Between ethnic groups (i.e. in models including ethnicity), relatively better mental health of minority groups compared with Whites was apparent even in categories of low care and low autonomy. Adjusting for parenting scores, however, did not fully account for the protective effect of minority ethnicity. Perceived quality of parenting is a correlate of

  16. The association between psychological well-being and problematic use of Internet communicative services among young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Silvia; Lecchi, Stefano; Fioravanti, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on problematic Internet use have focused almost exclusively on the fact that presence of negative functioning, such as social anxiety, depressive symptoms, or loneliness, represents a risk factor for unhealthy use of the web. For this reason the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between psychological well-being dimensions and problematic use of Internet communicative services. In the current study 495 undergraduate students were recruited. The Italian adaptations of the Psychological Well-being Scales and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) were used to assess psychological well-being dimensions and generalized problematic Internet use, respectively. Psychological well-being dimensions explained a significant portion of variance for the GPIUS2 total score levels, after controlling for sex, age, and occupational status. The levels of Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, and Positive Relations with Others acted as significant negative predictors of the tendency to use the web for regulating negative feelings, compulsive use of the web, and the negative outcomes that can arise as a result. The overall findings of the present study provide preliminary evidence that low psychological well-being is associated with problematic use of Internet communicative services.

  17. The mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alfonso; Ferrer, Rodrigo; Godoy, Nidia; Leppes, Francisca; Trujillo, Carlos; Osorio, Camila; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in South American immigrants in Chile. An analytical, cross sectional, non-experimental design was used. We evaluated 853 Peruvians and Colombians living in the northern cities of Arica, Antofagasta, and Santiago de Chile, the capital located in the center of the country. The instruments used were the Ryff Psychological Well-being Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Perceived Discrimination Scale by Basabe, Paez, Aierdi and Jiménez-Aristizabal. We used the estimation method (RWLS) and polychoric correlation matrices, to estimate the effect size and overall fit of the direct effect models of discrimination and self-esteem on psychological well-being, and indirect and total effects of discrimination mediated by self-esteem. While both populations reported similar levels of perceived discrimination, it was found that the means in psychological well-being and self-esteem of the Colombian population were significantly higher than that of the Peruvian population. Regarding self-esteem, the results provided evidence for the possible mediating effect on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being. This research aims to contribute to the development of interventions seeking to strengthen self-esteem in order to circumvent possible negative consequences of perceived discrimination, as a consequent, improving immigrants´ personal resources to successfully cope with the diverse demands of their new context.

  18. Religious Identity, Religious Participation, and Psychological Well-Being in Asian American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard F; Kiang, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Religiosity plays a prominent spiritual and social role in adolescents' lives. Yet, despite its developmental salience, few studies have examined normative changes in religiosity or the implications of these changes for psychological well-being. We explored longitudinal variation in and associations between religiosity, as defined by private regard, centrality, and participation in religious activities, and diverse indicators of well-being including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, positive and negative affect, and both the presence of and search for meaning in life. The participants were two cohorts of Asian American high school students (N = 180; 60 % female) followed for 4 years and living in the southeastern US. Using hierarchical linear modelling and controlling for gender and generational status, results revealed that religious identity (i.e., regard, centrality) did not normatively increase or decrease over time, but participation increased. Religious identity was significantly associated with higher self-esteem, greater positive affect, the presence of meaning in life, and reduced depressive symptoms (for females), and participation was positively associated with positive affect and the presence of meaning. Our results and discussion emphasize the utility of further examining how religion plays a role in health and well-being, particularly among immigrant youth.

  19. Psychological well-being and metacognition in the fourth age: an explorative study in an Italian oldest old sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2014-07-01

    The research largely aimed at exploring the impact of marital status, cognitive efficiency, gender, physical health and sociocultural context on self-rated emotional competence, depression, memory and cognitive measures. Ninety-four healthy adults aged 75-99 were recruited in the Sardinian province of Ogliastra, where a collectivistic culture prevails, and in northern Italy, which in turn is characterized by the prevalence of individualistic cultural traits. Participants were administered self-referent metacognitive efficiency, subjective wellness and depression measures. Sardinian elders self-rated lower levels of depression and cognitive failures and had greater levels of emotional competence. Perceived psychological well-being, metacognitive efficiency and depression seem to be affected by sociocultural context.

  20. The influence of cognitive development and perceived racial discrimination on the psychological well-being of African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on the cognitive development measure, youth were categorized as having pre-formal or formal reasoning abilities. The results indicate no significant differences in perceptions of individual, cultural or collective/institutional racism between pre-formal reasoning and formal reasoning adolescents. However, the results do suggest that perceptions of collective/institutional racism were more harmful for the self-esteem of pre-formal reasoning youth than the self-esteem of formal reasoning youth. The implications for the racial discrimination literature among African American adolescents are discussed.

  1. Psychological well-being of parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment in south India: influence of behavioural problems in children and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu

    2014-08-01

    Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.

  2. Effect of Exercise on Psychological Well-being in T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Najafipoor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM experience health problems including psychiatric and psychological complications that influence their general health. Since exercise has an additional effect on psychological improvement, we aimed to establish the role of exercise as improvement of psychological problems. Methods: 80 subjects with T2DM were assigned to take exercise for 90 minutes per session, 3 times a week for a period of 4 months. They answered the GHQ-12 questionnaire before and after the study project. Results: Questionnaires were scored by Likert model and entered the statistical analysis. Our findings demonstrate a significant decrease in the mean GHQ-12 scores. [13.39 ± 5.89 to 8.52 ± 5.12 (p < 0.001]. Factor analysis by Graetz's three-factor model suggests that factor I (anxiety and depression associates with more improvement than the other factors.Conclusion: Exercise improves psychological distress in T2DM and results in improved well-being.

  3. Mode of birth and women’s psychological and physical wellbeing in the postnatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Ingrid J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and psychological problems after childbirth are common, and may have a significant negative and long-term impact on women’s wellbeing and daily functioning. The method of birth may be a particularly important factor influencing women’s health and wellbeing following birth, however, population-wide evidence is limited. This study uses data from 5,332 women who responded to a national survey of women’s experiences of maternity care in England. We examined women’s postnatal wellbeing in the first three months after birth, and whether these varied by mode of birth. Methods This is a secondary analysis of survey data using a random sample of women selected from birth registration. We used multinomial logistic regression models to examine the association between women’s self-reported psychological symptoms, health problems and mode of birth. Results Women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births and unplanned caesarean section births reported the poorest health and wellbeing, while those of women who had unassisted vaginal births and planned caesarean section births were less affected by the birth process. Most women’s physical and emotional health appeared to improve with time, however, those who had a forceps-assisted vaginal birth were more likely to report ongoing posttraumatic-type symptoms several months after the birth. Conclusions Mode of birth was associated with differences in outcomes at three months. By comparison to women who had unassisted vaginal births, the risk of reduced postnatal health and wellbeing was higher amongst the women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births but not amongst women who had ventouse-assisted vaginal births. This would suggest that it is important to differentiate the different types of instrumental birth in outcome studies. Of concern was the higher rate of posttraumatic-type symptoms among women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births relative to the other modes of

  4. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Giancarlo A; Khoshnevis, Matin; Gale, Jesse; Frousiakis, Starleen E; Hwang, Tiffany J; Poincenot, Lissa; Karanjia, Rustum; Baron, David; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support. A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13-65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR) on a 21-point psychometric scale from -10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR. Subjects were additionally asked about the use of low vision aids and sources of emotional support. A total of 103 participants (mean age =26.4±11.2 years at LHON diagnosis; mean ± standard deviation) completed the questionnaire. Nearly half (49.5%) met the depression criteria after vision loss. Negative impacts on interpersonal interactions (median IR = -5) and career goals (median IR = -6) were observed; both ratings were worse ( P negative interpersonal IR and career IR. Sixty-eight percent of subjects used electronic vision aids; controlling for age, social well-being index was higher among these individuals than for those who did not use electronic aids ( P =0.03). Over half of the participants (52.4%) asserted that they derived emotional support from their ophthalmologist. Profound vision loss in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults is associated with significant negative psychological and psychosocial effects, which are influenced by

  5. The relationship between passion and the psychological well-being of professional dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padham, Melissa; Aujla, Imogen

    2014-03-01

    The Dualistic Model of Passion defines passion as an intense desire or enthusiasm for a self-defining activity that people love, consider important, and devote significant amounts of time and energy to. The model proposes two distinct types of passion, harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP). HP occurs when the activity is autonomously internalized into the individual's life and identity, while OP is a result of a controlled internalization of the activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of passion professional dancers have for dance in relation to their psychological well-being, specifically eating attitudes, self-esteem, and perfectionism. Participants were 92 professional dancers, aged 19 to 35 years (M = 27.03, SD = 3.84), and mostly from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. Results revealed that HP positively predicted self-esteem (SE), while OP positively predicted self-evaluative perfectionism (SEP), conscientious perfectionism (CP), and disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26). Additionally, SEP was found to mediate the relationship between OP and EAT-26, suggesting that OP may lead to SEP, which could in turn motivate disordered eating. Overall, the results of this study have supported and extended previous research suggesting that the two types of passion can have divergent effects on aspects of psychological well-being. Findings indicate that HP should be encouraged and OP discouraged among dancers, for example, via autonomy supportive behaviors of teachers.

  6. Social ties and psychological well-being in late life: the mediating role of relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R

    2015-01-01

    The current paper examines whether quantitative aspects of social support (i.e., support network characteristics) indirectly influence psychological well-being via older adults' qualitative perceptions of support (i.e., satisfaction with social relationships). A sample of 416 adults aged ≥60 was drawn from the Social Integration and Aging Study, a community-based survey conducted in a small US (Midwestern) city. The survey assessed social networks, social support, and physical and mental health among older adults. Bootstrapping was used to examine mediation models. Greater support network size predicted lower perceived stress, fewer depressive symptoms, and better life satisfaction, yet this association was fully mediated by relationship satisfaction. For support network composition, greater proportion kin was associated with lower stress and better life satisfaction, though not depressive symptoms, however, relationship satisfaction did not mediate this link. Findings highlight the complex interplay of support network characteristics and satisfaction, and suggest the greater import of support satisfaction for older adults' psychological well-being.

  7. Effects of Peers and Social Environment on Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Hussey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We use data from Add Health to estimate models of peer effects and effects of social environment on adolescent psychological well-being. Past literature has focused mostly on the role of peers on adolescents, notably on schooling (GPA, high school graduation, etc. and risk behavioral (smoking, drinking, drug use, etc. outcomes. Our study’s core innovation lies in the conceptual testing of the hypothesis that an enlarged adolescent social environment encompasses support from peers, school, parents, and the neighborhood. In this paper, we isolate the effects of each of these groups on adolescent psychological well-being and find significant effects of support from schools and parents. However, peer effects are insignificant except for the baseline Ordinary Least Squares (OLS model. Separate models for males and females and different age groups are also estimated and similar results are found, although the effects are greatest during late adolescence. Given the likely endogeneity of peer group formation, we also use an instrumental variables (IV approach. The IV results indicate that peer effects are not statistically significant, but otherwise mimic OLS estimates, supporting the presence of a multi-faceted social network influencing adolescent health. These results, reinforced by further statistical testing, suggest that past work limiting influence on adolescent behavior or outcome to only the peers tends to be incomplete.

  8. Sleep disturbances predict prospective declines in resident physicians’ psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice A. Min

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical residency can be a time of increased psychological stress and sleep disturbance. We examine the prospective associations between self-reported sleep quality and resident wellness across a single training year. Methods: Sixty-nine (N=69 resident physicians completed the Brief Resident Wellness Profile (M=17.66, standard deviation [SD]=3.45, range: 0–17 and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (M=6.22, SD=2.86, range: 12–25 at multiple occasions in a single training year. We examined the 1-month lagged effect of sleep disturbances on residents’ self-reported wellness. Results: Accounting for residents’ overall level of sleep disturbance across the entire study period, both the concurrent (within-person within-occasion effect of sleep disturbance (B=−0.20, standard error [SE]=0.06, p=0.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.33, −0.07 and the lagged within-person effect of resident sleep disturbance (B=−0.15, SE=0.07, p=0.037, 95% CI: −0.29, −0.009 were significant predictors of decreased resident wellness. Increases in sleep disturbances are a leading indicator of resident wellness, predicting decreased well-being 1 month later. Conclusions: Sleep quality exerts a significant effect on self-reported resident wellness. Periodic evaluation of sleep quality may alert program leadership and the residents themselves to impending decreases in psychological well-being.

  9. Comparison of psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normally-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasempour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Families who have a child with hearing deficiency deal with different challenges, and mothers have a greater responsibility towards these children because of their traditional role of caregiver; so, they deal with more psychological problems. The aim of this study was to compare the psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional and post event study (causal-comparative method, 30 mothers of deaf students and 30 mothers of normal students from elementary schools of Ardabil, Iran, were selected using available sampling. The Ryff psychological well-being (1989 and Billings and Moos coping styles (1981 questionnaires were used in this study. The data were analyzed using MANOVA test.Results: We found that in mother's of deaf children, psychological well-being and its components was significantly lower than mothers of normal children (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in terms of cognitive coping style, too (p<0.01. However, mothers of deaf children used less cognitive coping style.Conclusions: It seems that child's hearing loss affects on mothers psychological well-being and coping styles; this effect can be visible as psychological problems and lower use of adaptive coping styles.

  10. Psychological well-being and independent living of young adults with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmesheimer, Rodica Mia; Lange, Karin; Dölle, Michael; Heger, Sabine; Mueller, Iris

    2017-08-01

    To assess the psychological well-being and social integration of adults with craniopharyngioma diagnosed in childhood. A cross-sectional study of a nationwide cohort of young adults with craniopharyngioma in Germany was performed. A structured questionnaire covered the sociodemographic, clinical data, and subjective effects of the condition on social integration. Psychological well-being was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results were compared to young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The study included 59 participants (29 females, 30 males; mean age 25y 2mo [SD 5y 10mo]), mean age at first surgery 10y 2mo [SD 3y 7mo]. Compared to the T1DM group, significantly more young people with craniopharyngioma aged 25 to 35 years lived at their parents' homes (craniopharyngioma 43.34%; T1DM 13.7%; χ 2 =4.14, p=0.049), and fewer lived in a relationship (craniopharyngioma 8.69%; T1DM 54.7%; χ 2 =15.74, p<0.001). The HADS revealed a score for depression above the cut-off in 20.69 per cent of young adults with craniopharyngioma and in 6 per cent of young adults with T1DM (χ 2 =13.42, p<0.001). Young adults with craniopharyngioma reported subjective disadvantages in professional and social integration. Further, they presented with reduced well-being and increased depression rates. Better psychosocial support and self-management education might reduce the long-term burden of the disease. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Psychological need satisfaction and well-being in adults aged 80 years and older living in residential homes: using a self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Martinent, Guillaume; Durmaz, Neriman

    2014-08-01

    Based on the self-determination theory (SDT), this study aims to examine the psychological needs satisfaction of the elderly living in residential homes and their relationship with indicators of well-being, and then to test the contribution of each need on these indicators. Participants (N=100; Mage=86.7 years, SD=3.78) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, purpose in life, personal growth and geriatric depression. Cluster analyses showed two distinct profiles: one profile with a high satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs and another profile with a low satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs. These profiles did not differ in terms of residents' characteristics, health problems and functional limitations. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that the participants with the profile of a high satisfaction of psychological needs have significantly higher levels of purpose in life and personal growth than participants with the profile of a low satisfaction of psychological needs, and no effect of cluster membership on depressive feelings was reported. Moreover, for all participants, relatedness need satisfaction was significantly and positively related to personal growth, and autonomy and relatedness needs satisfaction was related to purpose of life. In conclusion, our results offer evidence that old age can be fruitful and, in consistent with SDT, show that autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction is positively associated with indicators of well-being such as purpose in life and personal growth, considered as essential components of optimal functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On the conceptual foundations of psychological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, Andrew; Wilson, Mark; Irribarra, David Torres

    2013-01-01

    Measurement has long been an important element of epistemology in the physical sciences and natural philosophy. More recently, the psychological sciences have developed a variety of techniques that purport to be instances of measurement as well. However, it is not clear how the understanding of measurement invoked in psychological science applications accords with the understanding of measurement found in other scientific disciplines. A sharper focus on conceptual clarity and coherence across the psychological and physical sciences has the potential to add a great deal to efforts to improve such practices. In this paper, we argue that it is possible to formulate a philosophically coherent account of how measurement works in both the physical and the human sciences

  13. On the conceptual foundations of psychological measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Andrew; Wilson, Mark; Torres Irribarra, David

    2013-09-01

    Measurement has long been an important element of epistemology in the physical sciences and natural philosophy. More recently, the psychological sciences have developed a variety of techniques that purport to be instances of measurement as well. However, it is not clear how the understanding of measurement invoked in psychological science applications accords with the understanding of measurement found in other scientific disciplines. A sharper focus on conceptual clarity and coherence across the psychological and physical sciences has the potential to add a great deal to efforts to improve such practices. In this paper, we argue that it is possible to formulate a philosophically coherent account of how measurement works in both the physical and the human sciences.

  14. Working for wellness: defining, measuring, and enhancing employee well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Kathryn May

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this thesis was on the utility of the workplace in promoting employee well-being. The thesis applied principles of positive psychology (PP) to the field of occupational health psychology (OHP). Paper 1 reviewed employee well-being with a focus on both general and work-related dimensions. Paper 2 developed a niche for positive employee well-being programs. It reviewed a number of strategies for improving employee health and well-being, including occupational health and safety leg...

  15. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Garcia; Alexander Jimmefors; Fariba Mousavi; Lillemor Adrianson; Patricia Rosenberg; Trevor Archer

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulat...

  16. Dieting in Moderation: The Role of Dietary Restraint in the Relationship between Body Dissatisfaction and Psychological Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M

    1997-10-01

    This study demonstrates the substantial conceptual consequences in distinguishing a variable's role as a moderator as opposed to a mediator. In particular, the study investigates the role of dietary restraint in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological well-being. Path analyses showed that, in addition to its mediating role, dietary restraint has a moderating role, such that there is a stronger relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological well-being when dietary restraint is high than when dietary restraint is low. In contrast, gender had only a direct effect on weight dissatisfaction. It was concluded that the same processes occur for both men and for women, whereby it is the individuals who diet who suffer loss of psychological well-being.

  17. Anxiety, depression and psychological well-being in a cohort of South African adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ramkisson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM has increased at alarming rates globally. South Africa has the second highest number of people in Africa living with DM, with prevalence rates being among the top five countries in Africa. Accordingly, psychological issues associated with DM have been a growing focus of attention. Studies have found that patients with DM have elevated levels of anxiety and depression, and decreased levels of well-being. In South Africa, there is a paucity of studies on the psychological issues associated with DM. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to explore the prevalence and association of anxiety, depressive features and psychological well-being in patients with Type 2 DM. Method: In a cross-sectional survey, patients with Type 2 DM were recruited from public and private facilities. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and WHO-5 Well-being Index (WHO-5 were administered. Results: Four hundred and one participants completed the questionnaires. On the WHO-5, 277 (69% reported good well-being, while 124 (31% indicated poor well-being and were considered at risk for depressive features. On the HADS, 186 (46% had mild-to-severe depressive features and 128 (32% had mild-to-severe anxiety. There was a strong negative correlation between the WHO-5, HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ scales, which indicated that an increase in anxiety and depressive features decreased psychological well-being. Conclusion: Health-care providers should identify and treat anxiety and depression as a standard part of diabetes care. Patients should also be referred to the appropriate mental health professional as part of the management of diabetes. Keywords: type 2 diabetes; anxiety;depression;psychological well-being; adults

  18. The relationship between wellbeing indicators and teacher psychological stress in Eastern Cape public schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik L.M. Vazi

    2013-07-01

    Research purpose: The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship between indicators of wellbeing and stress and to further assess the relative importance of these wellbeing indicators in explaining stress variance in a large sample of Eastern Cape primary and high school teachers in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The majority of teacher stress studies focus on the misfit between the individual’s resources and the environmental demands. There is a scarcity of studies reporting on protective factors in teaching and we know little about their possible role as possible protective factors against stress. This is important in developing stress prevention strategies. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey was used targeting public school teachers in the Eastern Cape. The sample size was 562 randomly selected teachers from both public primary and high schools. Main findings: The results revealed that stress is prevalent amongst teachers. Subjective and psychological wellbeing factors added significantly to the explained stress variance. Also, both negative affect and role problems had significant positive correlations with stress, whilst psychological wellbeing had a strong inverse relationship with stress. Practical/managerial implications: The results implied that interventions focusing on improving psychological wellbeing and reduction of negative affect can contribute to stress prevention. Contribution/value-add: The results contributed towards a better understanding of the relative importance of wellbeing constructs as protective factors against teacher stress.

  19. Life Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults With Cancer Experience: The Role of Optimism and Volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinmoo; Chun, Sanghee; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Junhyoung

    2016-09-01

    Promoting health and well-being among individuals of advancing age is a significant issue due to increased incidence of cancer among older adults. This study demonstrates the benefits of expecting positive outcomes and participating in volunteer activities among older adults with cancer. We used a nationally representative sample of 2,670 individuals who have experienced cancer from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. We constructed a structural equation model to explore the associations of optimism, volunteerism, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. The level of optimism was a significant predictor of volunteerism, which in turn affected life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The level of engagement in volunteer activities was found to have significant path coefficients toward both life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Our study provides evidence that older adults who have experienced cancer and maintained a positive outlook on their lives and engaged in personally meaningful activities tended to experience psychological well-being and life satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Transformational leadership and employee psychological well-being: A review and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kara A

    2017-07-01

    This review paper focuses on answering 2 research questions: (a) Does transformational leadership predict employee well-being? (b) If so, how and when does this prediction occur? A systematic computerized search and review of empirical papers published between January 1980 and December 2015 was conducted. Forty papers were found that met the criteria of reporting empirical results, being published in English, and focused on answering the above research questions. Based on these papers it appears that, in general, transformational leadership positively predicts positive measures of well-being, and negatively predicts negative measures of well-being (i.e., ill-being). However, recent findings suggest that this is not always such a simple relationship. In addition, several mediating variables have been established, demonstrating that in many cases there is an indirect effect of transformational leadership on employee well-being. Although some boundary conditions have been examined, more research is needed on moderators. The review demonstrated the importance of moving forward in this area with stronger research designs to determine causality, specifying the outcome variable of interest, investigating the dimensions of transformational leadership separately, and testing more complicated relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Gratitude, psychological well-being, and perceptions of posttraumatic growth in adults who lost a parent in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nathan; McGovern, Katie

    2017-08-01

    Findings from an online survey of 350 adults who experienced early parental death showed that current dispositional gratitude was positively correlated with psychological well-being and posttraumatic growth and negatively correlated with depression. Further, 281 participants produced textual responses indicating they could remember the time following their parent's death. Increases in gratitude attributable to the experience of losing a parent were reported by 79% of these participants. They associated their increased gratitude with a newfound belief that life is precious and with greater appreciation for loved ones. Direction of change in gratitude was associated with psychological well-being, posttraumatic growth, and depression.

  2. Self-rated and observer-rated measures of well-being and distress in adolescence: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovelli, Francesca; Albieri, Elisa; Ruini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of eudaimonic well-being in adolescence is hampered by the lack of specific assessment tools. Moreover, with younger populations, the assessment of positive functioning may be biased by self-report data only, and may be more accurate by adding significant adults' evaluations. The objective of this research was to measure adolescents' well-being and prosocial behaviours using self-rated and observer-rated instruments, and their pattern of associations. The sample included 150 Italian high school adolescents. Observed-evaluation was performed by their school teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescents completed Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scales and Symptom Questionnaire. Pearson' r correlations and Linear regression were performed. Self-rated dimensions of psychological well-being significantly correlated with all observer-rated dimensions, but Strengths and Difficulties Emotional symptom scale. Multiple linear regression showed that the self-rated dimensions Environmental Mastery and Personal Growth, and surprisingly not Positive Relations, are related to the observer-rated dimension Prosocial Behaviour. Adolescents with higher levels of well-being in specific dimensions tend to be perceived as less problematic by their teachers. However, some dimensions of positive functioning present discrepancies between self and observer-rated instruments. Thus, the conjunct use of self-reports and observer-rated tools for a more comprehensive assessment of students' eudaimonic well-being is recommended.

  3. A social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Arab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being among third year high school female students in city of Khomeinishahr, Iran during the year of 2012. The study selects a sample of 300 students from 1260 female students who were enrolled in third year high school education, randomly. The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parenting styles including authoritarian, indulgent and authoritative in Likert scale. The survey also uses Gottfredson’s questionnaire to examine occupational aspirations. The study examines whether there is any relationship between parenting style from one side and three personal characteristics including gender, career aspiration and wishes type on the other side. Using Chi-Square technique, the survey examines three hypotheses and the results confirm all three hypotheses of the survey.

  4. Quality of life and psychological well-being of colorectal cancer survivors in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Al-Hanaqta, Motasem Mohammad; Arqoub, Kamal Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal ranked first among cancers reported in males and ranked second amongst females in Jordan, accounting for 12.7% and 10.5% of cancers in males and females, respectively. Colorectal cancer patients can suffer several consequences after treatment that include pain and fatigue, constipation, stoma complications, sexual problems, appearance and body-image concerns as well as psychological dysfunction. There is no published quantitative data on the health-related quality of life and psychological wellbeing of Jordanian colorectal cancer survivors. This project was a cross-sectional study of colorectal cancer survivors diagnosed in 2009 and 2010. Assessment was performed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the colorectal cancer specific module (EORTC QLQ-CR 29) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data on potential predictors of scores were also collected. A total of 241 subjects completed the study with mean age of 56.7±13.6. Males represented 52.3% of study participants. A majority of participants reported good to high overall health; the mean Global health score was 79.74± 23.31 with only 6.64% of study participants scoring less than 33.3%. The striking result in this study was that none of the study participants participated in a psychosocial support group; only 4 of them (1.7%) were even offered such support. The mean scores for HADS, depression score, and anxiety score were 8.25±9, 4.35±4.9 and 3.9±4.6, respectively. However, 77.1% of study participants were within the normal category for the depression score and 81.7% were within this category for anxiety score; 5.4% of participants had severe anxiety and 5.4% of them had severe depression. Patients with colorectal cancer in Jordan have a good quality of life and psychological wellbeing scores when compared with patients from western countries. None of the colorectal cancer patients managed at the

  5. The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, N; Jadva, V; Kadam, K; Golombok, S

    2018-02-23

    How does the psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of Indian surrogates differ from a comparison group of mothers? Surrogates had higher levels of depression during pregnancy and post-birth, displayed lower emotional connection with the unborn baby, and greater care towards the healthy growth of the foetus, than the comparison group of mothers. Studies in the West have found that surrogates do not suffer long-term psychological harm. One study has shown that surrogates bond less with the foetus than expectant mothers. This study uses a prospective, longitudinal and cross-sectional design. Surrogates and a matched group of expectant mothers were seen twice, during 4-9 months of pregnancy and 4-6 months after the birth. Semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires were administered to 50 surrogates and 69 expectant mothers during pregnancy and 45 surrogates and 49 expectant mothers post-birth. All gestational surrogates were hosting pregnancies for international intended parents. Surrogates had higher levels of depression compared to the comparison group of mothers, during pregnancy and post-birth (P surrogacy and criticism from others were found to be predictive of higher depression in surrogates post-birth (P < 0.05). Regarding prenatal bonding, surrogates interacted less with and thought less about the foetus but adopted better eating habits and were more likely to avoid unhealthy practices during pregnancy, than expectant mothers (P < 0.05). No associations were found between greater prenatal bonding and greater psychological distress during pregnancy or after relinquishment. All surrogates were recruited from one clinic in Mumbai, and thus the representativeness of this sample is not known. Also, the possibility of socially desirable responding from surrogates cannot be ruled out. As this is the first study of the psychological well-being of surrogates in low-income countries, the findings have important policy implications. Providing

  6. The Evolution of Eupathics: The Historical Roots of Subjective Measures of Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Angner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper traces the historical roots of subjective measures of wellbeing, that is, measures designed to represent happiness, satisfaction, or other “positive” or desirable mental states. While it is often suggested that these measures are a modern invention, I argue that they have a long and rich history that conforms to Theodore M. Porter’s general account of measurement in social and behavioral science. Subjective measures emerged in marital success studies, educational psychology, and personality psychology in the 1920s and 30s, and were further shaped by the epidemiology of mental health, gerontology, and the social indicator movement in the 1960s and 70s. Consistent with Porter’s account, these measures emerged in applied rather than theoretical branches of social and behavioral science, and they did so not as a result of physics envy, but rather as a result of a moral impulse to improve society; quantification was intended to make up for perceived deficiencies in unaided human judgment; and radical disagreements about the nature of wellbeing did not impede efforts to measure it – indeed, in time, there was considerably more agreement about how to measure wellbeing than about how to define it.

  7. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Han; Shelley, Mack; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chang, Yen-Chang

    2018-03-07

    China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) with a cross-sectional study design ( n = 7970), we conducted multinomial logistic regression models to investigate the associations of food preferences, including fast food, salty snacks, fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages, with psychological well-being among Chinese middle-aged and older adults (age ≥ 45). Food preferences are mostly associated with psychological well-being ( p fast food, salty snacks, and sweetened beverages are associated not only with poorer psychological health status, but also with positive psychological well-being. We speculate that Chinese older adults may consume Westernized fast food and salty snacks as pleasure to the palate due to the recent Westernization in modern China. We also provide practical implications of results from this preliminary study.

  8. Assessing the Association of Food Preferences and Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Contemporary China-Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Han Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS with a cross-sectional study design (n = 7970, we conducted multinomial logistic regression models to investigate the associations of food preferences, including fast food, salty snacks, fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages, with psychological well-being among Chinese middle-aged and older adults (age ≥ 45. Food preferences are mostly associated with psychological well-being (p < 0.05. However, respondents’ preferences regarding fast food, salty snacks, and sweetened beverages are associated not only with poorer psychological health status, but also with positive psychological well-being. We speculate that Chinese older adults may consume Westernized fast food and salty snacks as pleasure to the palate due to the recent Westernization in modern China. We also provide practical implications of results from this preliminary study.

  9. Self-efficacy and overprotection are related to quality of life, psychological well-being and self-management in cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joekes, Katherine; Van Elderen, Thérèse; Schreurs, Karlein

    2007-01-01

    This repeated-measures study explores how self-efficacy and overprotection relate to psychological well-being, health-related quality of life and self-management. Eighty-two cardiac patients, suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF) or myocardial infarction (MI), completed questionnaires at T1 and three months later. Perceived overprotection is associated with concurrent levels of anxiety and depression, and lowered quality of life. Self-efficacy is related to psychological well-being in both patient groups, but only associated with quality of life in CHF patients. In addition, self-efficacy predicts MI patients' self-management behaviours in the medium term. Findings have implications for cardiac rehabilitation, where attention may usefully be focused on enhancing self-efficacy and dealing with issues of support and overprotection by the partner.

  10. The enhancement of adaptation and psychological well-being among victims of flooding and landslide in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Nongnut; Suntayakorn, Chanjar; Sangkaewsri, Roongsri; Longchupol, Chaowanee; Lohitpintu, Itsareat; Kumsri, Tongbai

    2010-03-01

    To explore the needs of potential enhancement for adaptation and to examine the effectiveness of the potential enhancement program for adaptation and psychological well-being among victims of flooding and landslide in Lublae district Uttaradit Province, Thailand. 3 step of research and development; the needs of potential enhancement for adaptation among victims of flooding and landslide were analyzed by focus group discussion, the potential enhancement program (PEP) was designed by brainstorming of three groups of stakeholder; victims, health volunteers and health personnel and the effectiveness of PEP was tested by the difference of adaptation and psychological well-being perception among victims of flooding and landslide between before and after intervention. Thumbun Maepou, Lublae district, Uttaradit Province, Thailand. The needs of potential enhancement among victims of flooding and landslide were set up warning network along the risk canal and mountain, first aid training for health volunteer, and program of psychological health promotion. The PEP composed of community flooding and landslide rehearsal training, health education and dissemination and knowledge management. Total adaptation and psychological wellbeing of samples after intervention were significantly higher than that of before intervention at 0.05 and 0.001, respectively. The restoration of adaptation and psychological well-being among victims of flooding and landslide were essential to maintained holistic health.

  11. Successful lumbar surgery results in improved psychological well-being: a longitudinal assessment of depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Carol A; Duculan, Roland; Cammisa, Frank P; Sama, Andrew A; Hughes, Alexander P; Lebl, Darren R; Girardi, Federico P

    2018-04-01

    Preoperative psychological symptoms predict surgical outcomes. The impact of surgical outcomes on psychological well-being, however, has not been delineated. This study aimed to compare pre- with postoperative depressive and anxiety symptoms based on success of surgery, defined as fulfilled expectations and improvement in disability and pain. A prospective 2-year longitudinal study in a tertiary care center was carried out. The sample consisted of 276 patients who underwent lumbar surgery. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were the outcome measures. Patients completed the following validated surveys several days before and again 2 years after surgery: the GDS with a set threshold for a positive screen for depression; the STAI with population norms used as threshold values; the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI); a numerical pain rating; and the Expectations Survey measuring amount of improvement expected. Dependent variables were pre- to postoperative within-patient change in GDS and STAI scores. Independent variables were three outcomes of surgery: proportion of expectations fulfilled, and changes in ODI scores and pain ratings. Analyses were conducted with GDS and STAI scores as continuous variables and according to threshold values, and for expectations, ODI and pain according to minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs). Mean age was 55, 56% were men, and 78% had degenerative diagnoses. For depressive symptoms, 41% screened positive preoperatively and 16% screened positive postoperatively; 72% had some improvement. In multivariable analysis adjusted for age, gender, comorbidity, diagnosis, and surgical invasiveness, depressive symptoms improved more for more expectations fulfilled (ppsychological well-being resulted after surgery among patients with favorable spine-specific outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Let them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well-being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlin S Conner

    Full Text Available This study tested the psychological benefits of a 14-day preregistered clinical intervention to increase fruit and vegetable (FV consumption in 171 low-FV-consuming young adults (67% female, aged 18-25. Participants were randomly assigned into a diet-as-usual control condition, an ecological momentary intervention (EMI condition involving text message reminders to increase their FV consumption plus a voucher to purchase FV, or a fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI condition in which participants were given two additional daily servings of fresh FV to consume on top of their normal diet. Self-report outcome measures were depressive symptoms and anxiety measured pre- and post-intervention, and daily negative and positive mood, vitality, flourishing, and flourishing behaviors (curiosity, creativity, motivation assessed nightly using a smartphone survey. Vitamin C and carotenoids were measured from blood samples pre- and post-intervention, and psychological expectancies about the benefits of FV were measured post-intervention to test as mediators of psychological change. Only participants in the FVI condition showed improvements to their psychological well-being with increases in vitality, flourishing, and motivation across the 14-days relative to the other groups. No changes were found for depressive symptoms, anxiety, or mood. Intervention benefits were not mediated by vitamin C, carotenoids, or psychological expectancies. We conclude that providing young adults with high-quality FV, rather than reminding them to eat more FV (with a voucher to purchase FV, resulted in significant short-term improvements to their psychological well-being. These results provide initial proof-of-concept that giving young adults fresh fruit and vegetables to eat can have psychological benefits even over a brief period of time.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615000183583.

  13. Future time perspective and awareness of age-related change: Examining their role in predicting psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Allyson; Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    This study examined how 2 distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime-future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC)-are associated with another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging, and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being. In all models, we tested for differences between middle-aged and older adults, and between adults from the United States and Germany. Analyses were conducted within a structural equation modeling framework on a cross-national, 2.5-year longitudinal sample of 537 community-residing adults (age 40-98 years). Awareness of age-related losses (AARC-Losses) at Time 1 predicted FTP at Time 2, but FTP did not predict AARC-Gains or AARC-Losses. Furthermore, future time perspective mediated the association between AARC-Losses and well-being. Moderation analyses revealed a buffering effect of awareness of age-related gains (AARC-Gains) in which perceptions of more age-related gains diminished the negative effect of a limited future time perspective on well-being. Effects were robust across age groups and countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived age-related loss experiences may sensitize individuals to perceive a more limited future lifetime which may then lead to lower psychological well-being. In contrast, perceived age-related gains may function as a resource to preserve psychological well-being, in particular when time is perceived as running out. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Sleep duration and subjective psychological well-being in adolescence: a longitudinal study in Switzerland and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Serge; Lemola,Sakari; Holsboer-Trachsler,Edith; Grob,Alexander; Kalak,Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,2 Serge Brand,1,3 Edith Holsboer–Trachsler,1 Alexander Grob21Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorder, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Sport and Health Science, Division of Sport Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Adolescents’ sleep duration and subjective psychological well-being are...

  15. Surrogate mothers 10 years on: A longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing and relationships with the parents and child

    OpenAIRE

    Jadva, Vasanti Harish; Imrie, S; Golombok, Susan Esther

    2014-01-01

    Study Question: How do surrogates psychological health and experiences of surrogacy change from one year to ten years following the birth of the surrogacy child? Summary answer: Surrogates’ psychological well-being did not change ten years following the birth, with the majority continuing to report good mental health andall surrogates remained positive about the surrogacy arrangement. What is known already: Studies have found that surrogates may find the weeks following the birth difficu...

  16. Happy and healthy: The hypothesis of correlation between subjective well-being and psychological health and its role in late adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Horbal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Subjective well-being as an emotional-cognitive assessment of person’s life is an important aspect of psychological health and positive functioning in general. The hypothesis of connection between subjective well-being, psychological well-being and psychological health is presented. This correlation is very important in late adulthood for ensuring happy obsolescence but has some specifi c peculiarities due to the elderly people’s age and individual traits. Subjective well-being is a background for effective inner work of summarizing person’s previous life that is the main purpose in old age.

  17. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoyang; Li, Shuting; Hu, Mingming; Dong, Dan; Tao, Sha

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred), psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development), and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14-20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive) and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  18. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoyang Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred, psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development, and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14–20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  19. Internalized Stigma and Psychological Well-Being in Gay Men and Lesbians in Italy and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Lorenzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that internalized homophobia is a risk factor for mental health illness in homosexual individuals, whereas the perception of social support is a protective factor for their psychological well-being. In line with those studies, the present research has investigated the levels of internalized homophobia, anxiety, depression and social support, among two groups of gay men and lesbian individuals living in two European countries (N = 194: 86 Italian and 108 Belgian, where legislations grant different civil rights to lesbian and gay individuals (LG. The main goal of this research has been to verify the possible differences between the two groups. Results showed some significant differences in terms of observed levels of internalized homophobia, which was higher in the Belgian gay men’s group compared to the Italian one. Furthermore, path analysis emphasized the role of social support as a potential factor of mediation between internalized homophobia and mental health.

  20. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia GA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo A Garcia,1,2 Matin Khoshnevis,1,3 Jesse Gale,1,4 Starleen E Frousiakis,1,5 Tiffany J Hwang,1,6 Lissa Poincenot,1 Rustum Karanjia,1,7–9 David Baron,6 Alfredo A Sadun1,7 1Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, NZ; 5Department of Ophthalmology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry & The Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 7Doheny Eye Centers, Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles California, CA, USA; 8Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 9Ottawa Hospital Health Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support.Methods: A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR

  1. Effects of Physical Exercise on Cognitive Functioning and Wellbeing: Biological and Psychological Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mandolesi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence shows that physical exercise (PE is a strong gene modulator that induces structural and functional changes in the brain, determining enormous benefit on both cognitive functioning and wellbeing. PE is also a protective factor for neurodegeneration. However, it is unclear if such protection is granted through modifications to the biological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration or through better compensation against attacks. This concise review addresses the biological and psychological positive effects of PE describing the results obtained on brain plasticity and epigenetic mechanisms in animal and human studies, in order to clarify how to maximize the positive effects of PE while avoiding negative consequences, as in the case of exercise addiction.

  2. Measuring the Subjective Well-being of Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch; Yutzil Tania Cadena Pedraza; María del Carmen Romero Sánchez; Monica Georgina Cinco Basurto

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and va...

  3. Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs, Self-Determined Exercise Motivation, and Psychological Well-Being in Mothers Exercising in Group-Based Versus Individual-Based Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Gordon, James A R; Mueller, Marcus B; Mulgrew, Kate; Sharman, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    We compared mothers who exercised predominantly in group settings, those who exercised predominantly in individual settings, and those who exercised equally in group and individual contexts among the following: (a) satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness); (b) self-determined exercise motivation; and (c) psychological well-being. With clear implications for mothers' exercise interventions we found that exercising either predominantly in group contexts or in mixed group and individual settings was associated with mothers having significantly higher satisfaction of basic psychological needs and self-determined exercise motivation than those exercising predominantly alone.

  4. Culture and Well-Being: A New Inquiry Into the Psychological Wealth of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2010-07-01

    What is a good society? Philosophers from Plato to Bentham have argued that a good society is a happy society-namely, a society in which most citizens are happy and free from fear. Since the publication of The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith in 1776, most economists have implicitly assumed that a happy society is a materially wealthy society. Thus, gross national product and related indices became the most popular indicators of the well-being of nations from the 1950s to date. Recently, however, prominent economists as well as political scientists, sociologists, and psychologists have shown that a happy society is not only a materially wealthy society but also a society in which citizens can trust one another, have a sense of freedom, and have close social relationships. The inquiry into the psychological wealth of nations, or the subjective well-being of nations, helps answer a fundamental question in philosophy and social sciences for millennia: "What is a good society?" © The Author(s) 2010.

  5. A Positive Psychological Intervention to Promote Well-Being in a Multicultural School Setting in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Dimitropoulou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the effectiveness of a Positive Psychology Intervention in enhancing well-being in a multicultural school setting. 121 5th and 6th grade primary school male and female students participated in the study. 57.9% were native Greeks and 42.1% were migrant children. 81 students were allocated to the positive intervention group, while 40 students partook in a control group with no positive orientation. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire battery a day prior to the interventions and also fifteen days later. Results indicated that only the positive intervention was effective in enhancing positive emotional experiences, optimism and self-efficacy in peer interactions two weeks after its implementation. The results were mostly undifferentiated for gender, migrant and socioeconomic status as far as positive emotions are concerned, while the patterns of influence of demographic variables on the efficacy of the intervention concerning the participants’ benefits in optimism and self-efficacy are discussed. The PPI group, as opposed to the control group, evaluated the intervention as particularly helpful with respect to all well-being variables, an effect maintained two weeks after the intervention. This positive intervention appears appropriate as a universal mental health promotion vehicle, especially within a demanding multicultural classroom context.

  6. A cross-cultural study of adolescents--BMI, body image and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujoldzić, Anita; De Lucia, Amelia

    2007-03-01

    Physical, psychological and social changes that occur during adolescence can markedly affect dietary habits and nutritional health. Physical changes including rapid growth place extra nutritional requirements on adolescents, while culture and society require adjustments in all of the aspects of daily living, including psychosocial well-being. Adolescents become focused on the physical appearance and any deviation from the ideal figure can result in negative dieting behavior, social withdrawal, poor self-esteem and increased health vulnerability. The paper presents some of the results of an international comparative study on risk and protective factors of adolescent health and well being, related to BMI, dieting behavior and body image and their relationship to psychosocial well-being (somatic stress, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction and self-esteem). Within an ecological cultural framework, it looks at group-specific differences of Albanian and Bosnian adolescents within different socio-cultural contexts across six European countries: two EU members (Italy and Austria) and four communities in the state of socioeconomic and political transition (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania and Kosovo). The survey collected data from 2000 adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age. The study demonstrated a strong relationship between BMI and body dissatisfaction, between body image and dietary habits, and strong effects of body image on all indicators of psychosocial health. In addition to expected marked gender differences in all countries, the obtained results indicate significant intracultural variations related to socioeconomic status as well as considerable intercultural variations due to variable influence specific social and cultural contexts.

  7. Evaluation of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy to Reduce Psychological Distress and to Promote Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McCay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT group intervention to reduce psychological distress as well as to strengthen self-esteem, resilience, and general well-being for individuals living with a chronic illness and/or other health challenges. This pilot study employed a pre–posttest design to evaluate the outcome of the intervention for individuals receiving care in a Community and Family Medicine department and a Women’s Health Centre located in an urban downtown hospital. A total of 42 patients were enrolled in the study and 35 participants completed the intervention. Thirty-five of 42 enrolled participants completed the intervention. Twenty-eight participants completed the pretest and posttest assessments, which demonstrated statistically significant improvement on most outcome measures, including the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Rating Scale (CES-D, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS, Affect Balance Scale (ABS, the Resilience Scale (RS, and the Five-Item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5. Large effect sizes were observed for the CES-D, the ABS, and the DASS Stress subscale. Observed improvements were sustained at 4 weeks posttreatment. Results are consistent with studies indicating that MBCT offers promise in alleviating psychological distress for those who are seeking care in primary health care settings. Continued focus on how to best implement MBCT in primary health care, particularly for those with comorbid physical and mental health conditions, supports the World Health Organization’s recommendation to integrate evidence-based mental health care within primary health care to promote equitable access to care for those most in need.

  8. Functions of reminiscence and the psychological well-being of young-old and older adults over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Cappeliez, Philippe; Claxton, Amy

    2011-03-01

    Existing cross-sectional research demonstrates an association between reminiscence functions and well-being in later life. The results of this study replicate and extend previous findings in separate participant samples above and below 70 years of age. Findings suggest a link between reminiscence functions and psychological well-being, and indirectly between reminiscence and well-being 16 months thereafter. Invariance analyses reveal few differences in association between reminiscence and well-being when young-old (n = 196) and older adults (n = 215) are compared. These findings suggest a direct positive association between self-positive reminiscence functions (identity, death preparation, and problem-solving) and a direct negative association between self-negative functions (boredom reduction, bitterness revival, and intimacy maintenance) and psychological well-being (life satisfaction, depressive, and anxiety symptoms). In contrast, prosocial reminiscence functions (conversation, teach/inform others) appear to have an indirect association with well-being (i.e., via self-positive and self-negative functions). These findings are discussed relative to evolving theory and research linking cognition and health.

  9. Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological well-being above the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) model of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yildirim; Hacer Belen

    2018-01-01

    Fear of happiness is an important psychological construct and has a significant effect on life outcomes such as well-being. This study sought to examine whether fear of happiness could explain variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being domains after controlling for Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) Model of Personality. A total of 243 participants (189 males and 54 females) completed Fear of Happiness Scale, Positive-Negative Affect ...

  10. Bright-light effects on cognitive performance in elderly persons working simulated night shifts: psychological well-being as a mediator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Veronika; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut; Griefahn, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined whether the relationship between light exposure and cognitive functioning is mediated by psychological well-being in elderly persons working night shifts. The role of psychological well-being has been neglected so far in the relationship between bright light and cognitive performance. Sleepiness and mood were applied as indicators of psychological well-being. Cognitive functioning was examined in terms of concentration, working memory, and divided attention. A total of thirty-two test persons worked in three consecutive simulated night shifts, 16 under bright light (3,000 lux) and 16 under room light (300 lux). Concentration, working memory, and divided attention were measured by computerised tasks. The hypothesised mediators were recorded by questionnaires. Mediation analyses were conducted for estimating direct, total, and indirect effects in simple mediation models. Results indicate that sleepiness and mood did not function as mediators in the prediction of concentration, working memory, and/or divided attention by light exposure. Sleepiness led to an underestimation of the positive bright-light effect on concentration performance. Mood showed only a random effect due to the positive bright-light effect on working memory. Sleepiness and mood could completely be excluded as mediators in the relationship between light exposure and cognitive functioning. This study underlines that psychological well-being of elderly persons is not a critical component in the treatment of bright light on cognitive performance in the night shift workplace. In summary, it becomes evident that bright light has a strong direct and independent effect on cognitive performance, particularly on working memory and concentration.

  11. DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS, LEVEL OF SELF-ESTEEM AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KROL, B; SANDERMAN, R; SUURMEIJER, T; DOEGLAS, D; VANRIJSWIJK, M; VANLEEUWEN, M

    1994-01-01

    The present study addresses the relationship between early rheumatoid arthritis and an element of personality i.e. the self-esteem, as an intervening variable on psychological well-being. From a sample of 292, more or less recently diagnosed RA-patients, the relationships between disease parameters,

  12. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…

  13. Chinese Immigrant Parents' Perspectives on Psychological Well-Being, Acculturative Stress, and Support: Implications for Multicultural Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chieh; Li, Huijun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated Chinese immigrant parents' perspectives on Chinese immigrant children's psychological well-being, acculturative stress, and sources of support. We conducted focus groups with 22 Chinese immigrant parents of school-aged children (16 mothers and 6 fathers); obtained participants' sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds and…

  14. Core Self-Evaluations, Worry, Life Satisfaction, and Psychological Well-Being: An Investigation in the Asian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Neerpal; Lee, Kidong

    2018-01-01

    The concept of core self-evaluations has been extensively investigated in Western and European countries, nonetheless its implications in Asian countries remains relatively unexplored. To void this gap, the current study investigated the association of core self-evaluations with worry, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being among South…

  15. Energy drinks: psychological effects and impact on well-being and quality of life-a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih William; Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill.

  16. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Change, Gender, and Psychological Well-Being of Mexican Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Studied the role of pubertal development on depression, externalizing behavior problems, self-esteem, and body-image of 951 Mexican early adolescents. Findings show that the acute experience of menarche adversely affected the psychological well-being of girls, specifically in terms of depressive symptomatology. Pubertal change in boys did not…

  17. Exploring Moderators to Understand the Association Between Vertical Collectivism and Psychological Well-Being Among Asian Canadian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sumin; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Lalonde, Christopher E.

    2017-01-01

    First, the authors investigated the direct associations of vertical collectivism, ethnic identity exploration, and ethnic identity commitment with psychological well-being among first-generation Asian Canadian university students in Canada (n = 78). Second, to gain a more nuanced understanding of the association between vertical collectivism and…

  18. Gender nonconformity, perceived stigmatization, and psychological well-being in Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults: A mediation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, L.; Beek, T.; Hille, H.; Zevenbergen, F.C.; Bos, H.M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults (106 females and 86 males, 16-24 years old) were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to

  19. Relationship of Psychological Well-Being with Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Social Support amongst University Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji

    The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic…

  20. Teacher Satisfaction with School and Psychological Well-Being Affects Their Readiness to Help Children with Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Värnik, Airi; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Feldman, Dana; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Tubiana, Alexandra; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In support of a whole-school approach to mental health promotion, this study was conducted to find out whether and how significantly teachers' satisfaction with school and their subjective psychological well-being are related to the belief that they can help pupils with mental health problems. Design: Cross-sectional data were collected…

  1. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  2. Self-Concepts and Psychological Well-Being Assessed by Beck Youth Inventory among Pupils with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeblad, Emma; Svensson, Idor; Gustafson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the self-image and psychological well-being in 67 children and adolescents age 10-16 years with severe reading difficulties and/or dyslexia. The participants were assessed with Beck Youth Inventory regarding symptoms of depression, anxiety, and negative self-image. The results showed that the participants do not depict…

  3. Non-genetic and non-gestational parenthood: consequences for parent-child relationships and the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers and children at age 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, S; Murray, C; Jadva, V; Lycett, E; MacCallum, F; Rust, J

    2006-07-01

    Findings are presented of the third phase of a longitudinal study of children conceived by assisted reproduction procedures involving surrogacy and/or donor conception. At the time of the child's third birthday, 34 surrogacy families, 41 donor insemination families and 41 oocyte donation families were compared with 67 natural conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of the parents, mother-child relationships and the psychological well-being of the child. The differences found between family types reflected higher levels of warmth and interaction between mothers and their 3-year-old children in assisted reproduction families than in families with a naturally conceived child. A higher proportion of surrogacy parents than donor conception parents had told their children about the nature of their birth. It appears that the absence of a genetic and/or gestational link between parents and their child does not have a negative impact on parent-child relationships or the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers or children at age 3.

  4. Measuring the Subjective Well-being of Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument applied to 183 Mexican teachers in the pilot test. Conclusions pint out to possible uses of this validated instrument for the design of strategies that favor the integral well-being of the future generations of teachers and a substantial improvement in the quality of education.

  5. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI, mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  6. [Psychological well-being in nursing: relationships with resilience and coping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, Óscar; Pérez-García, Ana Maria; Aparicio-Zaldívar, Eva G

    2015-01-01

    To determine the differences in resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among nursing professionals of different hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in nursing staff where resilience and coping were included. Correlational and cross-sectorial study with probabilistic sampling. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n = 133), nursing assistants (n = 61), and midwives (n = 14), of whom 94 worked in special units and 114 worked in wards. 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping strategies), PWB scales (PWB dimensions), and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found where resilience was a precursor factor of coping that determined the PWB of the nurses. Resilience favoured strategies related to engagement coping with stressful situations (β = 0.56) that contributed to PWB (β = 0.43) (these relationships were inverted in the case of disengagement coping). Resilience is an inherent feature in nursing staff whether they work in special units or wards. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive) with the stressful situation determined nursing PWB (primarily self-acceptance and environment mastery dimensions). Resilience and coping strategies more adaptives constitute two personal resources that determine PWB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-12

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  8. Psychological well-being in out-patients with eating disorders: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Elena; Offidani, Emanuela; Tecuta, Lucia; Schumann, Romana; Ballardini, Donatella

    2014-04-01

    Positive functioning is widely neglected in research on eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this exploratory study was to assess psychological well-being (PWB) in out-patients with ED and in controls. The authors assessed PWB in 245 out-patients with EDs [105 with bulimia nervosa (BN), 57 with anorexia nervosa (AN), and 83 with binge eating disorder (BED) who met DSM-IV-TR] and 60 controls. They tested whether PWB was associated with eating attitude test (EAT) scores and if such associations differed among ED groups while taking into account confounding variables. Significant differences between groups in all PWB scales were found. While individuals with BN reported significantly lower scores in all PWB dimensions than healthy controls, patients with BED scored significantly lower than controls in PWB autonomy, environmental mastery, and self-acceptance scales. Patients with AN showed similar scores to controls in all PWB dimensions, except for positive relationships and self-acceptance. In all ED groups, most PWB dimensions resulted significantly and negatively associated with EAT scales, except for AN where oral control was found to positively correlate with a high sense of purpose in life. All results were maintained even after adjusting for possible confounding variables. Patients with EDs reported an impairment in PWB. The paucity of PWB was not necessarily dependent on the presence of high levels of psychological distress and on the severity of the disorder. Such assessments may therefore yield a more comprehensive evaluation in this clinical population. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Subjective and psychological well-being of students of a University of the Third Age: Benefits of continuing education for psychological adjustment in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thaís Bento; Cachioni, Meire

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to characterize the degree of general satisfaction with life and degree of satisfaction on four domains: health, physical capacity, mental capacity and social involvement, and to determine the characteristics of self-reports of individuals enrolled on the program in relation to their psychological well-being focusing on the dimensions: autonomy, personal growth, control, positive relationships with others, purpose, personal acceptance and generativity, and to analyse the effect of time studying on level of well-being. Method A total of 140 elderly students of a University for the Third Age took part in the study. The Global Satisfaction With Life Scale and the Self Development Scale (with six psychological well-being subscales) were applied. Continuous variables for the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship among numeric variables. Internal consistency of the instrument scales was analysed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Results Results showed that students who had attended the University of the Third Age for six months or longer had a higher level of satisfaction with life and greater psychological adjustment compared with new entrants to the same institution. Conclusion The study results confirmed the positive effects of continuing education on the well-being of elderly and its contribution to successful aging. PMID:29213747

  10. Cancer-related symptoms predict psychological wellbeing among prostate cancer survivors: results from the PiCTure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda; O'Leary, Eamonn; Kinnear, Heather; Gavin, Anna; Drummond, Frances J

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer treatments are associated with a range of symptoms and physical side-effects. Cancer can also adversely impact on psychological wellbeing. Because many prostate cancer-related symptoms and side-effects are potentially modifiable, we investigated associations between symptoms and psychological wellbeing among prostate cancer survivors. Postal questionnaires were distributed to men diagnosed with prostate cancer 2-18 years previously identified through cancer registries. General and prostate cancer-specific symptoms were assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25, with higher symptom scores indicating more/worse symptomatology. Psychological wellbeing was assessed by the DASS-21. Associations between symptoms and each outcome were investigated using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for socio-demographic and clinical factors. A total 3348 men participated (response rate = 54%). Seventeen percent (95%CI 15.2%-17.9%), 16% (95%CI 15.1%-17.8%) and 11% (95%CI 9.5%-11.8%) of survivors scored in the range for depression, anxiety and distress on the DASS scales, respectively. In multivariate models, risk of depression on the DASS scale was significantly higher in men with higher urinary and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-related symptoms, and higher scores for fatigue, insomnia and financial difficulties. Risk of anxiety on the DASS scale was higher in men with higher scores for urinary, bowel and ADT-related symptoms and fatigue, dyspnoea and financial difficulties. Risk of distress on the DASS scale was positively associated with urinary, bowel and ADT-related symptoms, fatigue, insomnia and financial difficulties. Cancer-related symptoms significantly predict psychological wellbeing among prostate cancer survivors. Greater use of interventions and medications and to alleviate symptoms might improve psychological wellbeing of prostate cancer survivors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Dynamics of context and psychological well-being : the role of subjective health perceptions, personality factors and spirituality / Qambeshile Michael Temane

    OpenAIRE

    Temane, Qambeshile Michael

    2006-01-01

    There is a lacuna in the field of positive psychology as far as the conceptualisation of influences of environmental contexts on psychological well-being is concerned, and there is also a lack of credible empirical findings on the dynamics of processes involved. The aim of the current study was to test various models on the possible mediating role of subjective perceptions of health, personality factors and spirituality in the dynamics of context and psychological well-being. ...

  12. Construction and validation of a measure of integrative well-being in seven languages: The Pemberton Happiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We introduce the Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI), a new integrative measure of well-being in seven languages, detailing the validation process and presenting psychometric data. The scale includes eleven items related to different domains of remembered well-being (general, hedonic, eudaimonic, and social well-being) and ten items related to experienced well-being (i.e., positive and negative emotional events that possibly happened the day before); the sum of these items produces a combined well-being index. Methods A distinctive characteristic of this study is that to construct the scale, an initial pool of items, covering the remembered and experienced well-being domains, were subjected to a complete selection and validation process. These items were based on widely used scales (e.g., PANAS, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, and Psychological Well-Being Scales). Both the initial items and reference scales were translated into seven languages and completed via Internet by participants (N = 4,052) aged 16 to 60 years from nine countries (Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and USA). Results Results from this initial validation study provided very good support for the psychometric properties of the PHI (i.e., internal consistency, a single-factor structure, and convergent and incremental validity). Conclusions Given the PHI’s good psychometric properties, this simple and integrative index could be used as an instrument to monitor changes in well-being. We discuss the utility of this integrative index to explore well-being in individuals and communities. PMID:23607679

  13. Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Mutz, Julian; Clough, Peter J; Papageorgiou, Kostas A

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. We systematically review empirical studies that explored the associations between the concept of MT and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, personality, and other psychological attributes. Studies that explored the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in MT are also reviewed. The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health. Approximately 50% of the variation in MT can be accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, the associations between MT and psychological traits can be explained mainly by either common genetic or non-shared environmental factors. Taken together, our findings suggest a 'mental toughness advantage' with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings.

  14. Parents' psychological well-being and parental self-efficacy in relation to the family's triadic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Riikka; Piha, Jorma; Otava, Riia; Lavanchy Scaiola, Chloé; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Junttila, Niina; Aromaa, Minna; Räihä, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether a parent's psychological well-being and/or self-efficacy relate to interaction within the family. This study is part of a Finnish follow-up study called Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-Being of Children (STEPS;). The study group included 120 families. Mother's and father's social anxiety and depression were assessed during pregnancy and at 18 months of the child's age using self-report questionnaires; the mother's and father's self-efficacy were assessed at 18 months using a parental self-efficacy scale validated within the STEPS study. Mother-father-child triadic interaction was studied at 18 months within a Lausanne Triadic Play setting. Results showed that maternal symptoms of depression during pregnancy and maternal social anxiety at 18 months were related to triadic interaction within the family. There was no relation between father's psychological well-being and triadic interaction within the family. Father's self-efficacy in teaching tasks and the Mother's self-efficacy in emotional support were associated with family interaction. The findings suggest that maternal psychological well-being and self-efficacy in emotional support may be important components of family triadic interaction whereas paternal self-efficacy in teaching tasks seems to support family coordination in triadic interaction. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Breakup-related appraisals and the psychological well-being of young adult gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglarek, Peter; Darbes, Lynae; Stephenson, Rob; Bauermeister, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Participation in romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood provides opportunities to explore one's sexuality, yet may also cause distress once these relationships dissolve. Although researchers have asserted that participation in same-sex relationships may be beneficial for young gay and bisexual men's (YGBM) psychosocial well-being, less is known about YGBM appraisals of breakups after participating in same-sex relationships. We examined the association between self-reported psychological well-being (e.g., symptoms of depression and anxiety; self-esteem, sense of personal competency) and YGBM's negative and positive appraisals of breakups within a sample of single YGBM (N=1,040; ages 18-24) who reported prior serious same-sex relationships. Negative appraisals were associated with lower psychological well-being. Positive appraisals were associated with greater anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and sense of personal competency. Our findings highlight the need to acknowledge how YGBM's differential responses to breakups may be associated with their psychological well-being.

  16. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact.

  17. Neurobehaviour between birth and 40 weeks' gestation in infants born parental psychological wellbeing: predictors of brain development and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; Thompson, Deanne K; Brown, Nisha C; Treyvaud, Karli; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Lee, Katherine J; Pace, Carmen C; Olsen, Joy; Allinson, Leesa G; Morgan, Angela T; Seal, Marc; Eeles, Abbey; Judd, Fiona; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-24

    Infants born long term neurodevelopmental problems compared with term born peers. The predictive value of neurobehavioural examinations at term equivalent age in very preterm infants has been reported for subsequent impairment. Yet there is little knowledge surrounding earlier neurobehavioural development in preterm infants prior to term equivalent age, and how it relates to perinatal factors, cerebral structure, and later developmental outcomes. In addition, maternal psychological wellbeing has been associated with child development. Given the high rate of psychological distress reported by parents of preterm children, it is vital we understand maternal and paternal wellbeing in the early weeks and months after preterm birth and how this influences the parent-child relationship and children's outcomes. Therefore this study aims to examine how 1) early neurobehaviour and 2) parental mental health relate to developmental outcomes for infants born preterm compared with infants born at term. This prospective cohort study will describe the neurobehaviour of 150 infants born at term equivalent age, and explore how early neurobehavioural deficits relate to brain growth or injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging, perinatal factors, parental mental health and later developmental outcomes measured using standardised assessment tools at term, one and two years' corrected age. A control group of 150 healthy term-born infants will also be recruited for comparison of outcomes. To examine the effects of parental mental health on developmental outcomes, both parents of preterm and term-born infants will complete standardised questionnaires related to symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress at regular intervals from the first week of their child's birth until their child's second birthday. The parent-child relationship will be assessed at one and two years' corrected age. Detailing the trajectory of infant neurobehaviour and parental psychological

  18. Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological well-being above the behavioral inhibition system (BIS and behavioral activation system (BAS model of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yildirim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fear of happiness is an important psychological construct and has a significant effect on life outcomes such as well-being. This study sought to examine whether fear of happiness could explain variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being domains after controlling for Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS and Behavioral Activation System (BAS Model of Personality. A total of 243 participants (189 males and 54 females completed Fear of Happiness Scale, Positive-Negative Affect Schedule, Psychological Well-being Scales and BIS/BAS personality scales. In terms of correlational analyses, fear of happiness revealed significant negative correlations with positive affect, all domains of psychological well-being except purpose in life (autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, and self-acceptance and BAS fun seeking dimension while a significant positive correlation was found with negative affect. With regard to hierarchical multiple regression analyses, fear of happiness accounted for a unique variance in both affective aspects of subjective well-being, namely positive and negative affect and three aspects of psychological well-being (autonomy, positive relations and self-acceptance after controlling for BIS/BAS personality model. These results suggested that fear of happiness is uniquely useful to both subjective and psychological well-being beyond the effect of the aspects of BIS/BAS personality.

  19. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Psychological Well-Being among US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Fan, Daisy

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on one of the most significant recent innovations in the conceptualization and measurement of religiousness and spirituality, the Daily Spiritual Experience scale (DSES; Underwood (2006) "Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv fur Religion Psychologie," 28, 181-218). Using data from 1998 and 2004 NORC General…

  20. Psychological well-being status among medical and dental students in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboalshamat, Khalid; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Strodl, Esben

    2015-04-01

    Medical and dental students experience poor psychological well-being relative to their peers. This study aimed to assess the psychological well-being among medical and dental students in Saudi Arabia, identify the high-risk groups and assess the association between the psychological well-being and the academic performance. In this cross-sectional study, 422 preclinical medical and dental students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia, were recruited to assess their depression, anxiety, stress, self-efficacy and satisfaction with life levels using 21-items Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), General Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Students' academic weighted grades were obtained later. Descriptive statistics and univariate general linear model were used to analyse data. High levels of depression (69.9%), anxiety (66.4%) and stress (70.9%) were indicated, whereas self-efficacy (mean = 27.22, sd = 4.85) and life satisfaction (mean = 23.60, sd = 6.37) were within the normal range. Female medical students had higher psychological distress in contrast to dental students. In general, third-year students were more depressed and stressed in comparison with second-year students, except for stress among dental students. Moreover, all females had higher self-efficacy than males. Life satisfaction was higher within the second-year and high family income students. Depression was the only psychological variable correlated with the academic performance. High levels of psychological distress were found. Female medical students had higher psychological distress than males, whereas male dental students had higher distress than female. Medical students at third year were more depressed and stressed. Dental students were more depressed in the third year, but more stressed in the second year. Attention should be directed towards reducing the alarming levels of depression, anxiety and stress among medical and dental students.

  1. Gender Policing During Childhood and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Sexual Minority Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Connochie, Daniel; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Meanley, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Hegemonic masculinities (i.e., sets of socially accepted masculine behaviors and beliefs within a given time and culture) may affect the well-being of sexual minority men, yet quantitative relationships between these masculinities and well-being remain largely unexplored. Using data from a national cross-sectional survey of young sexual minority men ( N = 1,484; ages 18-24 years), the current study examined the relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and subsequent substance use and psychological distress. Over one third of the sample (37.8%) reported their parent(s) or the person(s) who raised them had policed their gender, including the use of disciplinary actions. Using multivariable regression, this study examined the relationship between parental gender policing and psychological well-being and substance use, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and current student status. Gender policing during childhood and adolescence was associated with recent substance use behaviors and psychological distress in multivariable models. A linear association between substance use behaviors and psychological distress and the number of disciplinary actions experienced during childhood and adolescence was also observed. Parents' attempts to police their sons' gender expression were associated with markers of distress among young sexual minority men. The relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and distress among young sexual minority men are discussed.

  2. From undocumented to lawfully present: Do changes to legal status impact psychological wellbeing among latino immigrant young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patler, Caitlin; Laster Pirtle, Whitney

    2018-02-01

    Exclusionary immigration policies, as a form of structural racism, have led to a sizeable undocumented population that is largely barred from access to resources in the United States. Existing research suggests that undocumented immigration status detrimentally impacts mobility, yet few studies have tested the impacts of legal status on psychological wellbeing. Most importantly, we know little about how changes to legal status impact wellbeing. Announced in 2012, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program allows eligible undocumented youth to apply for temporary lawful status. Drawing on cross-sectional survey data from 487 Latino immigrant young adults in California collected in 2014 and 2015, we analyze the predictors of three specialized outcomes related to immigrants' psychological wellbeing-distress, negative emotions, and deportation worry before and after a transition from undocumented to lawfully present status. Results show that retrospective reports of past psychological wellness, when all respondents were undocumented, are predicted primarily by socioeconomic status. However, reports of current psychological wellness are predicted by DACA status. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the positive emotional consequences of transitioning out of undocumented status for immigrant young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Model of coping strategies, resilience, psychological well-being, and perceived health among military personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Jung Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Military personnel are confronted with physiological and psychological changes caused by stress and exposure to trauma. Although resilience may be protective against psychopathology, very few studies have explored the relationships between the resilience and coping strategies. The study aims to assess how different coping strategies affect resilience, psychological well-being (PWB, and perceived health among military personnel.Subjects and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey. Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC soldiers and nurses in the military medical center were recruited in Taiwan in November 2015. The survey comprised the Brief COPE Scale, Ryff's PWB Scale, and the Resilience Scale for Adults, which examined the relationships among coping strategies, PWB, resilience, and perceived health. Path analysis was applied.Results: We recruited 200 participants (145 male and 177 single aged 24.6 ± 4.7 years (range, 18–46 years. Resilience (coefficient = 0.60, P < 0.001 and PWB (coefficient = 0.33, P < 0.001 were better when using more approach-oriented coping strategies and fewer avoidant coping strategies, whereas the opposite pattern was seen when using avoidant coping (coefficient = −0.31, P < 0.001 for resilience and coefficient = −.20, P < 0.1 for PWB. PWB significantly predicted perceived health (coefficient = 0.45, P < 0.001.Conclusions: Resilience is higher when positive approach-oriented coping strategies are used, which directly affects PWB, and in turn, predicts better-perceived health. Our conceptual model indicates that interventions designed to promote approach-oriented coping strategies may help military personnel develop improved resilience, PWB, and perceived health status.

  4. Psychological capital, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction amongst educators in the Umlazi region in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hansen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Challenges faced by educators in South Africa are increasing due to their working conditions, which in turn affects the educators’ enthusiasm towards their jobs. Change will likely be witnessed when educators are able to attain a positive and rewarding life, develop and flourish as individuals. Research purpose: This study sought to investigate the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction and to explore whether PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Motivation for the study: The study is premised on the fact that enhancing the positive attributes and strengths of educators can have a positive impact not only on their performance and commitment, but also on the satisfaction of students. Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study used a biographical questionnaire, PsyCap questionnaire, satisfaction with life scale, burnout inventory and Minnesota job satisfaction questionnaire to collect data from 103 educators. Main findings: Findings indicated statistically significant relationships between PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction. PsyCap was found to mediate the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Managerial implications: PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Organisations can minimise burnout through the enhancement of positive capacities inherent in PsyCap and the aiding potential of subjective well-being. Contribution/value-add: The findings highlighted the aiding potential of subjective wellbeing as well as the possible resources PsyCap, subjective well-being and job satisfaction can provide in times of distress.

  5. Impact of the Charter of Quebec Values on psychological well-being of francophone university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghayda; Mekki-Berrada, Abdelwahed; Rousseau, Cécile; Lyonnais-Lafond, Gabrielle; Jamil, Uzma; Cleveland, Janet

    2016-07-14

    This paper discusses results from a pilot study conducted in the spring of 2014 among young adults living in Montreal. The main objective of this study was to assess the relation between perception of the Charter of Quebec Values, 1 self-identification, perception of intercommunity relations, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in young students enrolled in undergraduate or graduate programs of a francophone university in Montreal. A total of 441 students (30.5% male, 69.5% female) took part in a web survey designed by the research team. The data analyses and results suggest that the debate around the Charter of Quebec values was associated with a shift from a predominantly positive perception of intercommunity relations to a predominantly negative one, particularly among women, immigrants, and those who self-identified as cultural or religious minorities. In addition, more than 30% of participants reported having experienced some form of ethnic or religious discrimination since the Charter was released (personally or as a witness). This was particularly the case among immigrants, as well as those who self-identified as bicultural or from cultural or religious minority groups. This study's results thus highlight the exacerbation of intercommunity tensions linked to the public debate around identity and intercommunity relations in Quebec. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Positive correlation of employment and psychological well-being for veterans with major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, David J; Wendel, Christopher S; Skeps, Raymond; Rawl, Susan M; Grant, Marcia; Schmidt, C Max; Ko, Clifford Y; Krouse, Robert S

    2010-11-01

    Intestinal stomas (ostomies) have been associated negatively with multiple aspects of health-related quality of life. This article examines the relationship between employment status and psychological well-being (PWB) in veterans who underwent major bowel procedures with or without ostomy. Veterans from 3 Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers were surveyed using the City of Hope ostomy-specific questionnaire and the Short Form 36 item Veteran's version (SF-36V). Response rate was 48% (511 of 1,063). Employment and PWB relationship was assessed using multiple regression with age, income, SF-36V physical component summary (PCS), and employment status as independent variables. Employed veterans reported higher PWB compared with unemployed veterans (P = .003). Full-time workers also reported higher PWB than part-time or unemployed workers (P = .001). Ostomy was not an independent predictor of PWB. Employment among veterans after major abdominal surgery may have intrinsic value for PWB. Patients should be encouraged to return to work, or do volunteer work after recovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Parental practices predict psychological well-being in midlife: life-course associations among women in the 1946 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, F A; Abbott, R A; Ploubidis, G B; Richards, M; Kuh, D

    2010-09-01

    Certain parenting styles are influential in the emergence of later mental health problems, but less is known about the relationship between parenting style and later psychological well-being. Our aim was to examine the association between well-being in midlife and parental behaviour during childhood and adolescence, and the role of personality as a possible mediator of this relationship. Data from 984 women in the 1946 British birth cohort study were analysed using structural equation modelling. Psychological well-being was assessed at age 52 years using Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Parenting practices were recollected at age 43 years using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Extraversion and neuroticism were assessed at age 26 years using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. In this sample, three parenting style factors were identified: care; non-engagement; control. Higher levels of parental care were associated with higher psychological well-being, while higher parental non-engagement or control were associated with lower levels of psychological well-being. The effects of care and non-engagement were largely mediated by the offspring's personality, whereas control had direct effects on psychological well-being. The psychological well-being of adult women was at least as strongly linked to the parenting style of their fathers as to that of their mothers, particularly in relation to the adverse effects of non-engagement and control. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to examine the effects of parenting practices on psychological well-being in midlife. The effects of parenting, both positive and negative, persisted well into mid-adulthood.

  8. Predictors of psychological well-being in a diverse sample of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A; Radomsky, Adam S; Otto, Michael W; Salomon, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify variables relevant to psychological well-being in HIV patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Multiple stressors accompany living with HIV while managing a HAART regimen. However, a variety of cognitive and behavioral variables can protect against or augment the deleterious effects of stress in this population. The authors hypothesized that satisfaction with social support, coping styles, and maladaptive attributions about HIV would explain more variance in psychological well-being than stressful life events per se. Participants were individuals with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy-either starting a new HAART regimen or having difficulties adhering to their current regimen. Satisfaction with social support, coping styles, and punishment beliefs about HIV were uniquely associated with depression, quality of life, and self-esteem over and above the effects of stressful life events. These results provide support for continued psychosocial interventions that target these variables among patients with HIV.

  9. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was ...

  10. The implications of direct participation for organizational commitment, job satisfaction and affective psychological well-being: a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gallie, D; Zhou, Y; Felstead, Alan; Green, F; Henseke, G

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the implications of direct participation for employees’ organizational commitment, job satisfaction and affective psychological well-being. It focuses on both task discretion and organisational participation. Applying fixed effect models to nationally representative longitudinal data, the study provides a more rigorous assessment of the conflicting claims for the effects of participation which have hitherto been based primarily on cross-sectional evidence. Further, it tests...

  11. Adolescents' hypochondriacal fears and beliefs: Relationship with demographic features, psychological distress, well-being and health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, Laura; Ricci Garotti, Maria Grazia; Grandi, Silvana; Tossani, Eliana

    2015-10-01

    There is little previous literature on hypochondriacal attitudes in teens. We examined the relationship between adolescents' hypochondriacal fears and beliefs, demographic features, psychological distress and well-being, and health-related behaviors. Nine hundred and forty-eight students (53.4% males), aged 14-19years (mean 15.8±1.3years), completed the Illness Attitude Scales, the Symptom Questionnaire, and the Psychological Well-Being scales. Demographic features and health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit substance use, and sedentary, eating and sleep habits) were also collected. Hypochondriacal concerns were significantly higher among females and correlated with increased psychological distress and reduced well-being. One hundred and forty-nine participants (15.7% of the sample) reached the threshold of the "hypochondriacal responses", identified by Kellner as a screening method for clinically significant hypochondriacal symptoms. The "hypochondriacal responses" were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress, decreased well-being, and some unhealthy behaviors: smoking, use of illicit substances, physical inactivity, and short sleep. Female gender, physical inactivity, and higher levels of hostility independently predicted the "hypochondriacal responses" pattern. A substantial percentage of adolescents experience significant concerns about health. Excessive illness fears are associated with less healthy behaviors. A thorough assessment of illness-related concerns may be crucial for the prevention of both the development of more structured forms of abnormal illness behavior (e.g., severe health anxiety) and the engagement in some unhealthy lifestyles in adolescents. However, it may also be that unhealthy behaviors lead to increased preoccupation with one's own health through adolescents' implicit knowledge about possible consequences of such behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual Stigma, Psychological Well-Being and Social Engagement among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beirut, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore the sexual identity development of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beirut, the stigma experienced by these men, and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 MSM, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientatio...

  13. The Role of University Students' General Self-Efficacy, Depression and Psychological Well-Being in Predicting Their Exercise Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz, Gözde

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between exercise and general self-efficacy, depression, and psychological well-being of college students. Five hundred and twenty-two university students (n[subscript male] = 273; X[subscript age] = 23.33 ± 4.36 and n[subscript female] = 279; X[subscript age] = 25.91 ± 7.11) have participated…

  14. Does psychological strengths and subjective well-being predicting parental involvement and problem solving among Malaysian and Indian students?

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Tahir, Lokman Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the predictors of psychological strengths and subjective well-being for dealing with academic stress perceived by university engineering students. Sample of 400 Malaysian (N?=?180 boys and N?=?220 girls) age varies 18 to 25?years and 400 Indian students (N?=?240 boys and N?=?160 girls) age varies 18 to 25?years from public universities were participated. Quantitative method was used for data analysis. Findings shows that gender, religiosity and socioeconomic status ...

  15. Workaholism - Work And Extra-Work Satisfactions - And Psychological Well-Being Among Professors In Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KOYUNCU, Mustafa; FIKSENBAUM, Lisa; BURKE, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This research examined the relationship of three workaholism components identified by Spence and Robbins (1992) and work, extra-work and psychological health outcomes. Design/Methodology/Approach – Data were collected from 406 professors in Turkey (243 males and 165 females) using an internet-based survey. Measures included personal and situational characteristics, possible workaholism antecedents (beliefs and fears, organizational values supporting work personal life imbalance), wo...

  16. The measurement of psychological literacy: a first approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D; Heritage, Brody; Gasson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Psychological literacy, the ability to apply psychological knowledge to personal, family, occupational, community and societal challenges, is promoted as the primary outcome of an undergraduate education in psychology. As the concept of psychological literacy becomes increasingly adopted as the core business of undergraduate psychology training courses world-wide, there is urgent need for the construct to be accurately measured so that student and institutional level progress can be assessed and monitored. Key to the measurement of psychological literacy is determining the underlying factor-structure of psychological literacy. In this paper we provide a first approximation of the measurement of psychological literacy by identifying and evaluating self-report measures for psychological literacy. Multi-item and single-item self-report measures of each of the proposed nine dimensions of psychological literacy were completed by two samples (N = 218 and N = 381) of undergraduate psychology students at an Australian university. Single and multi-item measures of each dimension were weakly to moderately correlated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of multi-item measures indicated a higher order three factor solution best represented the construct of psychological literacy. The three factors were reflective processes, generic graduate attributes, and psychology as a helping profession. For the measurement of psychological literacy to progress there is a need to further develop self-report measures and to identify/develop and evaluate objective measures of psychological literacy. Further approximations of the measurement of psychological literacy remain an imperative, given the construct's ties to measuring institutional efficacy in teaching psychology to an undergraduate audience.

  17. Aerobic exercise improves quality of life, psychological well-being and systemic inflammation in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease has a destructive drawbacks on the patient and his/her entire family as this disease badly af fects the behavior, cognition and abilities to do activities of daily living (ADL). The physical and mental benefits of exercise are widely known but seldom available to persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to measure quality of life, systemic inflammation and psychological well-being response to aerobic exercises in Alzheimer's. Forty Alzheimer elderly subjects were enrolled in two groups; the first group received treadmill aerobic exercise, while the second group was considered as a control group and received no training intervention for two months. Assessment of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES),Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Profile of Mood States(POMS) and SF-36 health quality of life (SF-36 HRQL) were taken before and at the end of the study. There was a 25.2%, 19.4%, 23.5%, 21.3%, 17.7% , 11.7%, 12.5% and 10.1 % reduction in mean values of TNF-α, IL-6, BDI, POMS, health transition SF-36 subscale, bodily pain SF-36 subscale, role functioning: emotional SF-36 subscale and mental health SF-36 subscale respectively in addition to 15.7%, 13.1%, 12.6%, 11.1%, 13.2% and 11.2 % increase in mean values of RSES, physical functioning SF-36 subscale, role functioning:physical SF-36 subscale, general health SF-36 subscale, Vitality SF-36 subscale and Social functioning SF-36 subscale respectively in group (A) received aerobic exercise training, so that there was a significant reduction in the mean values of TNF-α, IL-6, BDI & POMS and increase in the mean values of SF-36 HRQL subscale scores, RSES in group (A) as a result of aerobic exercise training, while the results of group (B) who received no training intervention were not significant. Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) at

  18. Testing the dualistic model of passion using a novel quadripartite approach: A look at physical and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Benjamin J I; Verner-Filion, Jérémie; Gaudreau, Patrick; Bailis, Daniel S; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Vallerand, Robert J

    2018-03-10

    Passion research has focused extensively on the unique effects of both harmonious passion and obsessive passion (Vallerand, 2015). We adopted a quadripartite approach (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) to test whether physical and psychological well-being are distinctly related to subtypes of passion with varying within-person passion combinations: pure harmonious passion, pure obsessive passion, mixed passion, and non-passion. In four studies (total N = 3,122), we tested whether passion subtypes were differentially associated with self-reported general health (Study 1; N = 1,218 undergraduates), health symptoms in video gamers (Study 2; N = 269 video game players), global psychological well-being (Study 3; N = 1,192 undergraduates), and academic burnout (Study 4; N = 443 undergraduates) using latent moderated structural equation modeling. Pure harmonious passion was generally associated with more positive levels of physical health and psychological well-being compared to pure obsessive passion, mixed passion, and non-passion. In contrast, outcomes were more negative for pure obsessive passion compared to both mixed passion and non-passion subtypes. This research underscores the theoretical and empirical usefulness of a quadripartite approach for the study of passion. Overall, the results demonstrate the benefits of having harmonious passion, even when obsessive passion is also high (i.e., mixed passion), and highlight the costs associated with a pure obsessive passion. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Wadephul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their ‘normality’. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features.

  20. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadephul, Franziska; Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2016-06-08

    Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their 'normality'. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features.

  1. Existential Well-Being Spirituality or Well-Being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.

    Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality

  2. Intergenerational and cross-cultural differences in emotional wellbeing, mental health service utilisation, treatment-seeking preferences and acceptability of psychological treatments for Arab Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayrouz, Rony; Dear, Blake F; Johnston, Luke; Keyrouz, Liliane; Nehme, Edmond; Laube, Roy; Titov, Nickolai

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the intergenerational and cross-cultural differences in emotional wellbeing and acceptability of psychological treatments for Arab Australians. To contribute to the emerging data about the mental health status and needs of Arab Australians. An Internet survey examined psychological distress and functional impairment as measured by the Kessler 10 Item scale (K-10) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) among Arab Australians. Additional questions enquired about their help-seeking behaviours, barriers to accessing psychological treatments and preferences for delivery of psychological treatments. A total of 252 participants were recruited through public talks, media and online promotions. Forty-three percent of the respondents reported moderate-to-severe functional impairment (M = 9.5; standard deviation (SD) = 1.8), 32% reported high psychological distress (M = 28.5; SD = 5.4) and 30% were born overseas. First-generation Arab Australians experiencing high psychological distress (i.e. K-10 ≥ 22), reported a greater preference for Internet-delivered treatment when compared to their second-generation counterparts. Only 18% of the sample reported seeking help from a mental health professional in the past year. The significant barriers reported by respondents with high psychological distress were poor mental health literacy, lack of time and stigma. Respondents preferred face-to-face (90%) over Internet-delivered treatment (55%). Finally, Arab Australians experienced higher psychological distress and underutilised mental health services when compared to the Australian population. Targeted public health campaigns that make culturally relevant interventions such as modifying existing Internet-delivered treatment for Arab Australians may reduce barriers and increase treatment options for this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. The associations of illness perceptions and self-efficacy with psychological well-being of patients in preparation for joint replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magklara, Eleni; Morrison, Val

    2016-09-01

    Patient well-being on referral to surgery likely affects their surgical experience yet few studies examine pre-surgical correlates of well-being. Guided by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation and Social Cognitive theory, this study examined whether illness and emotional representations, general and domain self-efficacy were associated with pre-surgical well-being. The pre-surgical assessment of a three-wave prospective study is reported. Fifty-four hip and knee replacements patients (mean age = 69.33; SD = 8.57) were recruited in the pre-surgery educational clinic at a UK general hospital. Patients completed a questionnaire-pack including the Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Rehabilitation Outcome Scale, the Falls-Efficacy Scale, and the Short Form of Psychological Well-Being Index. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that above and beyond demographic and clinical characteristics, negative emotional representations were associated with lower psychological well-being while strong general self-efficacy beliefs were positively related to psychological well-being. Independent of demographic and clinical characteristics, joint replacement patients' psychological well-being was associated with their cognitions and emotional reactions to their condition before surgery. Early interventions could potentially target these modifiable factors to improve pre-surgical well-being in this group of patients, with potential for additional post-surgical benefit.

  4. The Impact of Affiliate Stigma on the Psychological Well-Being of Mothers of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities in India: The Mediating Role of Subjective Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Gazal; Ghosh, Subharati

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the impact of affiliate stigma on the wellbeing of caregivers to children with specific learning disability (SLD) in India is limited. To fill in this gap in knowledge a cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken to assess the impact of affiliate stigma on the psychological well-being of mothers with children with…

  5. The Interrelations among the Perception of Parental Styles and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAHIMI, Farnaz; HEAVEN, Patrick; CIARROCHI, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck’s psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. Methods: The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. Results: The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Conclusion: Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study. PMID:23967424

  6. Sisters in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families: communal coping, social integration, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehly, Laura M; Peters, June A; Kuhn, Natalia; Hoskins, Lindsey; Letocha, Anne; Kenen, Regina; Loud, Jennifer; Greene, Mark H

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the association between psychological distress and indices of social integration and communal coping among sisters from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. Sixty-five sisters from 31 HBOC families completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map, which identified members of participants' social support networks. Hierarchical linear models were used for all analyses to account for the clustering of sisters within families. Intra-family correlation coefficients suggested that sisters shared perceptions of breast cancer risk and worry, but not ovarian cancer risk and worry. Further, sisters demonstrated shared levels of anxiety and somatization, but not depressive symptoms. Communal coping indices quantifying shared support resources were negatively related to anxiety and somatization. The number of persons with whom cancer risk information was shared exhibited a positive trend with somatization. Social integration, as measured by the size of participants' emotional support network, was negatively associated with anxiety. Lower depression scores were observed among participants with more persons playing multiple support roles and fewer persons providing tangible assistance. Understanding how support relationships impact well-being among persons adjusting to HBOC risk, and the particular role of family in that process, will facilitate developing appropriate management approaches to help cancer-prone families adjust to their cancer risk.

  7. The Interrelations among the Perception of Parental Styles and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahimi, Farnaz; Heaven, Patrick; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck's psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study.

  8. A longitudinal study of work load and variations in psychological well-being, cortisol, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Lipsey, Z; Mills, R; Oliver, G; Jarvis, M; Kirschbaum, C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of variations in work load (indexed by paid work hours) on psychological well-being, cortisol, smoking, and alcohol consumption were examined in a sample of 71 workers (44 women, 27 men) in the retail industry. Measures were obtained on four occasions over a six-month period, and assessments were ranked individually according to hours of work over the past seven days. Job strain (demand/control) and job social support were evaluated as potential moderators of responses. Paid work hours ranged from a mean of 32.6 to 48.0 hours per week, and ratings of work-home conflict and perceived stress varied across assessments. Salivary cortisol was inversely associated with job strain and did not vary across sessions. Female but not male smokers consumed more cigarettes during periods of long work hours, and self-reported smoking and cotinine concentrations were greater among smokers with higher nicotine dependency scores. Men but not women with poor social supports consumed more alcohol as work hours lengthened. These data indicate that health behaviors are affected only to a limited extent by variations in work load. Results are discussed in the context of adaptation to work and the pathways linking stressful experience with health risk.

  9. Religious coping moderates the relation between racism and psychological well-being among Christian Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Feeling right is feeling good: psychological well-being and emotional fit with culture in autonomy- versus relatedness-promoting situations

    OpenAIRE

    De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Kim, Heejung; Mesquita, Batja

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the idea that it is the cultural fit of emotions, rather than certain emotions per se, that predicts psychological well-being – i.e., feeling good about oneself, having no symptoms of depression. We reasoned that emotional fit in the domains of life that afford the realization of central cultural mandates would be particularly important to psychological well-being. We tested this hypothesis with samples from three cultural contexts that are known to differ with res...

  11. Workplace bullying in a sample of italian and spanish employees and its relationship with job satisfaction, and psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Montani, Francesco; Mancuso, Serena; Perez, Javier Fiz; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence rate of workplace bullying in a sample of Italian and Spanish employees, and its differential consequences on employees’ job satisfaction and psychological well-being. The effects of workplace bullying on job satisfaction and psychological well-being were explored taking into account a contextualized approach. Design/Methodology/approach – Cross-sectional study was adopted, in which a sample of 1,151 employees in Italy and 705 i...

  12. The well-being questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited...

  13. Selecting instruments for assessing psychological wellbeing in Afghan and Kurdish refugee groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman-Hill Cheryl MR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghan and Iraqi refugees comprise nearly half of all those currently under United Nations protection. As many of them will eventually be resettled in countries outside the region of origin, their long term health and settlement concerns are of relevance to host societies, and will be a likely focus for future research. Since Australia and New Zealand have both accepted refugees for many years and have dedicated, but different settlement and immigration policies, a study comparing the resettlement of two different refugee groups in these countries was undertaken. The purpose of this article is to describe the instrument selection for this study assessing mental health and psychological well being with Afghan and Kurdish former refugees, in particular to address linguistic considerations and translated instrument availability. A summary of instruments previously used with refugee and migrant groups from the Middle East region is presented to assist other researchers, before describing the three instruments ultimately selected for the quantitative component of our study. Findings The Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (GPSE, and Personal Well-Being Index (PWI all showed good reliability (Cronbach's alphas of 0.86, 0.89 and 0.83 respectively for combined language versions and ease of use even for pre-literate participants, with the sample of 193 refugees, although some concepts in the GPSE proved problematic for a small number of respondents. Farsi was the language of choice for the majority of Afghan participants, while most of the Kurds chose to complete English versions in addition to Farsi. No one used Arabic or Turkish translations. Participants settled less than ten years were more likely to complete questionnaires in Farsi. Descriptive summary statistics are presented for each instrument with results split by gender, refugee group and language version completed. Conclusion

  14. The comparison of Educable and Normal Primary Students’ Parents Using Mental Health, Self-esteem and Psychological Well-being Structure in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jafari Nodoushan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of mentally retarded children in every family affects on the structure and mental health of family specially parents. The purpose of this research is the comparison of the mean of psychological well-being, mental health and self-esteem between parents of normal and educable students. Materials & Methods: This was causal- comparative and retrospective study and the instruments were three questionnaire of self-esteem, public mental health GHQ and psychological well-being. Self-esteem questionnaire is including three scales of academic performance, social evaluation and external evaluation. The GHQ questionnaire is consisted of 28 items while psychological well-being questionnaire include 19 item for life satisfaction, 13 item for happiness and optimism, 8 item for growth and development, 8 item for positive relationship with others and 10 item for autonomy. The results were analysed by SPSS software. Results: This research showed that normal students parents have more psychological well-being than educable students’ parents, moreover two groups of educable and normal students parents are equal in mental health and self-esteem structure and there isn't significant difference between them. Conclusion: This research showed that psychological well-being in educable students’ parents is lower than normal students’ parents. Thus it is suggested that educational organization of exceptional children arrange courses for improving psychological well-being of educable students’ parents.

  15. Perceived health locus of control, self-esteem, and its relations to psychological well-being status in Iranian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshki, M; Ashtarian, H

    2010-01-01

    Health locus of control (HLC) has been associated with a variety of ailments and health outcomes and designed to predict behaviors and cognitive processes relevant to mental and physical health. This study investigated the relationships between perceived health locus of control, self-esteem, and mental health status among Iranian students. In this analytical study the subjects were recruited from students in Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, who studied in the first year (N=154). Students completed the questionnaires for assessing demographic, perceived health locus of control, self - esteem and psychological well- being data. The statistical analysis revealed a negative relationship between perceived Internal HLC and self-esteem with psychological well-being. The positive correlation of the perceived Chance HLC with psychological well-being was statistically significant (r= 0.21, Pself-esteem was statistically significant (r= 0.25, Plow perceived Internal HLC, self-esteem and psychological problems was found among these students. The findings will be addressed in relation to their implications for effective mental health education based on health locus of control especially internal and powerful others beliefs associated with self-esteem for students. This will require additional monitoring and uninterrupted trying in order to be effective.