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Sample records for psychological symptoms symptom

  1. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Allergic Reaction to Food Symptoms of an Allergic Reaction to Food Learn about the mild and severe ... the food to which you are allergic. An allergic reaction to food can affect the skin, the gastrointestinal ...

  2. The Burden of Psychological Symptoms in Gynaecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is an increasing evidence of significant psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) among a large percentage of women with gynaecological conditions. These symptoms are often neglected in the course of management of physical problems, thus leading to an increased morbidity and unresolved ...

  3. Psychological distress and symptoms among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...

  4. Political Ideology and Psychological Symptoms Following Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the associations between political ideology and level of psychological symptoms in youth exposed to terror attacks. The study included 2,999 7th to 10th graders from various parts of Israel. Political ideology was examined in two ways: (a) as a content dimension: "political stand"--holding right, centrist, or left…

  5. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim eCerejeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long term hospitalization, misuse of medication and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes

  6. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  7. Psychological symptoms and subsequent sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, B.; van Rhenen, W.; Anema, J.R.; Taris, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mental health problems are associated with sickness absence (SA). The present study aimed at establishing which symptoms - distress, depression, anxiety, or somatization - at which symptom levels were associated with SA frequency and duration. Moreover, a number of possible confounders or

  8. Validation of the four-dimensional symptom questionnaire (4DSQ) and prevalence of psychological symptoms in orthopedic shoulder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C. T.; Terluin, Berend; van't Riet, Esther; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.

    Psychological problems are common in shoulder patients. A validated psychological questionnaire measuring clinically relevant psychological symptoms (including distress, depression, anxiety, and somatization) in shoulder patients is lacking. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a

  9. Prodromal psychotic symptoms and psychological distress among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than half (55.3%) reported having had a lifetime experience of major life event (20.9% in the preceding 6 months) while 13.9% had experienced bullying or abuse (5.1% in the preceding 6 months). The prevalence of prodromal symptoms was 20.9% (95% CI 0.174–0.244). Abnormal scores in emotional and conduct ...

  10. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygan, Maryam; Böger, Andreas; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. Methods Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms). Results ANOVA (analysis of variance) results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors. Conclusion Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. The findings are discussed in term of differential response bias in patients with versus without verified neuropathic sensory symptoms by clinical examination, medical tests, or underlying pathology of

  11. Menstrual cycle effects on psychological symptoms in women with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillni, Yael I; Pineles, Suzanne L; Patton, Samantha C; Rouse, Matthew H; Sawyer, Alice T; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2015-02-01

    The menstrual cycle has been implicated as a sex-specific biological process influencing psychological symptoms across a variety of disorders. Limited research exists regarding the role of the menstrual cycle in psychological symptoms among women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the severity of a broad range of psychological symptoms in both the early follicular (Days 2-6) and midluteal (6-10 days postlutenizing hormone surge) phases of the menstrual cycle in a sample of trauma-exposed women with and without PTSD (N = 49). In the sample overall, total psychological symptoms (d = 0.63), as well as depression (d = 0.81) and phobic anxiety (d = 0.81) symptoms, specifically, were increased in the early follicular compared to midluteal phase. The impact of menstrual cycle phase on phobic anxiety was modified by a significant PTSD × Menstrual Phase interaction (d = 0.63). Women with PTSD reported more severe phobic anxiety during the early follicular versus midluteal phase, whereas phobic anxiety did not differ across the menstrual cycle in women without PTSD. Thus, the menstrual cycle appears to impact fear-related symptoms in women with PTSD. The clinical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. Published 2015. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Psychological factors driving the symptoms of Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Aim: It has been reported that various psychological factors, including stress, associate with the clinical features of fibromyalgia. This project proposed that a top down process, comprising of a number of contributing psychological factors, plays a pivotal role in the establishment of fibromyalgia. The project specifically examined whether a number of psychological factors would contribute significantly to the core clinical features of fibromyalgia, and if so whether these...

  13. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaygan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of

  14. Symptoms of disease and psychological adaptation in Brazilian scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Catarina Correia; Maia, Ângela Costa

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the prevalence and impact of symptoms of scleroderma in Brazilian patients and to describe their satisfaction with medical care and psychological symptoms. One-hundred and twenty eight Brazilian scleroderma patients participated in an online survey by filling out a Portuguese version of the Canadian Scleroderma Patient Survey of Health Concerns and Research Priorities. The mean age of participants was 38 years old (SD = 12.33), and most of the participants were females (n = 108, 88%). Hardening/tightening of skin, itchy skin and joint pain were symptoms reported as being most frequent, whereas muscle pain and difficulty climbing stairs were symptoms reported as having a higher impact. Participants reported dissatisfaction regarding the medical care. Psychological evaluations suggested that participants who scored above clinical values for depression was significantly high (90%; n = 77). In addition, 48% (n = 42) of participants fit the clinical criteria for anxiety disorder, and 40% (n = 35) of participants fit the clinical criteria of social phobia. Finally, body image disturbance was reported by 69% (n = 88) of participants. The physical and psychological symptoms associated with scleroderma have a significant impact on patient quality of life. The Brazilian patients in the current sample report higher levels of dissatisfaction with medical care than patients from Canada and European countries. These Brazilian patients also report more psychopathology, particularly symptoms of depression. The current results suggest that there is a need for professionals to consider and attend to the individual problems of scleroderma patients.

  15. Psychological Distress and Psychiatric Symptoms among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was carried out among patients attending the chest clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. ... About half of the participants suffered from somatisation, neuroticism, depression and anxiety and as regards GHQ scores, more than half (51.9%) indicated psychological distress. Likewise ...

  16. Psychopathological Symptoms and Psychological Wellbeing in Mexican Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariel; de León, Ana Mariela; Martínez, Estela; Peña, Elsa Melissa; Marques, Luana; Gallegos, Julia

    2017-06-01

    College life involves a process of adaptation to changes that have an impact on the psycho-emotional development of students. Successful adaptation to this stage involves the balance between managing personal resources and potential stressors that generate distress. This epidemiological descriptive and transversal study estimates the prevalence of psychopathological symptomatology and psychological well-being among 516 college students, 378 (73.26%) women and 138 (26.74%) men, ages between 17 and 24, from the city of Monterrey in Mexico. It describes the relationship between psychopathological symptomatology and psychological well-being, and explores gender differences. For data collection, two measures were used: The Symptom Checklist Revised and the Scale of Psychological Well-being. Statistical analyses used were t test for independent samples, Pearson's r and regression analysis with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v21.0). Statistical analyses showed that the prevalence of psychopathological symptoms was 10-13%, being Aggression the highest. The dimension of psychological well-being with the lowest scores was Environmental Mastery. Participants with a higher level of psychological well-being had a lower level of psychopathological symptoms, which shows the importance of early identification and prevention. Gender differences were found on some subscales of the psychopathological symptomatology and of the psychological well-being measures. This study provides a basis for future research and development of resources to promote the psychological well-being and quality of life of university students.

  17. Late psychological symptoms after awareness among consecutively included surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Peter; Brudin, Lars; Sandin, Rolf H

    2007-01-01

    Awareness during general anesthesia can cause late psychological symptoms. Selection bias may have affected the results in previous retrospective studies. The authors used prospective consecutive collection to recruit patients with previous awareness. In a cohort of 2,681 consecutive patients scheduled to undergo general anesthesia, 98 considered themselves to have been aware during previous surgery. Six patients died before inclusion, and another 13 were excluded (4 cases of stroke or dementia, 7 declined to participate, and 2 could not be located). Seventy-nine patients were interviewed by telephone, and medical records were checked in uncertain cases. The interview followed a structured protocol, including seven late symptoms (anxiety, chronic fear, nightmares, flashbacks, indifference, loneliness, and lack of confidence in future life). Three persons independently assessed the interviews for classification, to determine whether awareness had occurred. Four cases were performed using regional anesthesia, and another 29 were not considered as awareness by the assessors. Therefore, the final analyses included 46 patients. Twenty (43%) had experienced pain, and 30 (65%) described acute emotional reactions during the awareness episode. Fifteen (33%) patients had experienced late psychological symptoms afterward. In 6 of those cases, the symptoms lasted for more than 2 months, and 1 patient had a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder. Acute emotional reactions were significantly related to late psychological symptoms (Paffect the result. The authors found fewer and milder problems, despite a similar degree of initial problems as in previous studies.

  18. Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo

    2015-04-01

    With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Studying the Physical and Psychological Symptoms of Patients With Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memnun Seven

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives; Aim of the descriptive study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of physical and psychological symptoms so as to determine palliative care needs of cancer patients. Methods; Total 142 patients who were treated in oncology clinic at an university hospital were enrolled in the cross sectional research. “Descriptive Information Questionnaire” was developed by the authors and the adapted “Beck Depression Inventory (BAI” and “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BDI”, “Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS” to evaluate psychological and physical symptoms were used to collect data. Results; The mean age was 49,35±36,61 years and 54.9% of them were out-patients. %16.2 of the patients were diagnosed with colon and 13.4% breast cancer. The mean BDI score was 8.59±6.36, and 88.7% the patients have depressive symptoms. The mean BAI score was 11.39±7.53. The three most frequent problems were fatigue (87.3%, breathlessness (76.1%, and insomnia (67.6%. The mean of the highest-ranking problems were anorexia (6.02+2.77, fatigue (5.33+2.09 and insomnia (0.04+2.42. Conclusion: The study shows that some symptoms might be experienced by majority of the cancer patients as well as some symptoms might be felt more severe by fewer patients. Therefore, It should be assessed that both the frequency and severity of symptoms that patients experienced associated with cancer and its’ treatment individually and focusing on primary care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 219-224

  20. What Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia Affect Caregiver Burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi-Taniguchi, Kazuko; Becker, Carl B; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2017-11-16

    Patients' irritability and aggression have been linked to caregiver depression, but the behaviors that most burden caregivers are not yet definitively identified. This study examines the connection between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the burnout of caregivers caring for home-dwelling elders with dementia symptoms in Japan. 80 Japanese rural and urban family caregivers completed detailed questionnaires about their experiences in caring for demented family members. We statistically analyzed the results for correlations between types of dementia, Pines Burnout, and Caregiver Distress. BPSD symptom severity significantly correlated with caregiver distress. The dementia symptoms most strongly correlated with caregiver burnout were: aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucinations. Among the commonest symptoms, apathy, anxiety, and depression did not seriously aggravate caregiver burnout. Caregivers displayed higher burnout facing agitation/aggression, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, and hallucinations. Caregivers' reported distress was surprisingly dissimilar to their burnout scores; patients' delusions and anxiety led to higher distress reporting but not to burnout. Advance diagnosis of BPSD symptoms should be helpful to support nurses and caregivers of dementia patients. Particular support should be considered for caregivers and nurses of patients expressing aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucination.

  1. Relationship Between Religiosity and Psychological Symptoms in Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar; Nadeem, Masood; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress are among major psychiatric conditions being prevalent in contemporary youth. This study intended to examine the role of three religious orientations (Allport and Ross 1967) in students demonstrating these psychological symptoms. A sample comprising 502 Pakistani girls studying at university level was randomly selected. Age Universal I-E Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were used to collect data. Findings reveal an inverse relationship between extrinsic personal religious orientation and symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among the respondents. Results support the integration of religious orientations in mental health care of young adults in Pakistan.

  2. Longitudinal course of physical and psychological symptoms after a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wahlström

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: After disaster, physical symptoms are common although seldom recognized due to lack of knowledge of the course of symptoms and relation to more studied psychological symptoms. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the change in the reporting of different physical symptoms after a disaster, including possible factors for change, and whether psychological symptoms predict physical symptoms reporting at a later point in time. Method: A longitudinal study of citizens of Stockholm who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A total of 1,101 participants completed questionnaires on somatic symptoms, general distress, posttraumatic stress, exposure, and demographic details 14 months and 3 years after the disaster. Physical symptoms occurring daily or weekly during the last year were investigated in four symptom indices: neurological, cardiorespiratory, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis to determine odds ratios for a change in symptoms, and pathway analysis to predict the influence of psychological symptoms on physical symptoms. Results: There was a general decrease of reporting in all physical symptom indices except the musculoskeletal symptom index. The change in the neurological symptom index showed the strongest association with exposure, and for women. General distress and posttraumatic stress at 14 months postdisaster predicted physical symptoms at 3 years. Conclusion: Physical symptoms were predicted by psychological symptoms at an earlier time point, but in a considerable proportion of respondents, physical symptoms existed independently from psychological symptoms. Physicians should be observant on the possible connection of particular pseudoneurological symptoms with prior adversities.

  3. Integrative Medicine Patients Have High Stress, Pain, and Psychological Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Goel, Nikita S; Roberts, Rhonda S; Caldwell, Karen; Kligler, Benjamin; Dusek, Jeffery A; Perlman, Adam; Dolor, Rowena; Abrams, Donald I

    2015-01-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) is a rapidly growing field whose providers report clinical success in treating significant stress, chronic pain, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. While IM therapies have demonstrated efficacy for numerous medical conditions, IM for psychological symptoms has been slower to gain recognition in the medical community. This large, cross-sectional study is the first of its kind to document the psychosocial profiles of 4182 patients at 9 IM clinics that form the BraveNet Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN). IM patients reported higher levels of perceived stress, pain, and depressive symptoms, and lower levels of quality of life compared with national norms. Per provider reports, 60% of patients had at least one of the following: stress (9.3%), fatigue (10.2%), anxiety (7.7%), depression (7.2%), and/or sleep disorders (4.8%). Pain, having both physiological and psychological components, was also included and is the most common condition treated at IM clinics. Those with high stress, psychological conditions, and pain were most frequently treated with acupuncture, IM physician consultation, exercise, chiropractic services, diet/nutrition counseling, and massage. With baseline information on clinical presentation and service utilization, future PBRN studies can examine promising interventions delivered at the clinic to treat stress and psychological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using health psychology techniques to manage chronic physical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-12-08

    Chest pain and palpitations, non-malignant pain, breathlessness and fatigue often endure despite the receipt of appropriate nursing and medical care. This is distressing for patients, impacts on their quality of life and ability to function and is associated with high healthcare usage and costs. The cognitive behavioural approach offers nurses a model to understand how people's perceptions and beliefs and their emotional, behavioural and physiological reactions are linked. Common 'thinking errors' which can exacerbate symptom severity and impact are highlighted. Understanding of this model may help nurses to help patients cope better with their symptoms by helping them to come up with alternative more helpful beliefs and practices. Many Improving Access to Psychological Therapy services offer support to people with chronic physical symptoms and nurses are encouraged to sign post patients to them.

  5. Psychology of medically unexplained symptoms: A practical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirous Mobini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS or functional neurological symptoms (FNS are commonly seen in the medical and rehabilitation settings. Clinicians often tend to describe patients with MUS as the “most difficult to help”. This practical review discusses epidemiology, clinical presentations, assessment and diagnosis of these psychiatric and neurological conditions, and summarises psychological models that have been linked to the development and maintenance of MUS. The final purpose of the present paper was to review the current literature in the treatment on the management and treatment of MUS. It concludes that future research should focus on a more integrated treatment approach which addresses various biological, psychological and social factors contributing to the onset and maintenance of these debilitating conditions.

  6. Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms in Poststroke Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD cause significant patient and caregiver morbidity in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Objectives. To study and compare the occurrence and severity of BPSD between multi-infarct dementia (MID, subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD, and strategic infarct subtypes of poststroke VCI and to evaluate the relationship of these symptoms with the severity of cognitive impairment. Methods. Sixty patients with poststroke VCI were classified into MID, SIVD, and strategic infarct subtypes. BPSD were studied by the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI. The severity of cognitive impairment was evaluated by the clinical dementia rating scale (CDR. Results. 95% of cases had at least one neuropsychiatric symptom, with depression being the commonest, irrespective of subtype or severity of VCI. Strategic infarct patients had the lowest frequency of all symptoms. SIVD showed a higher frequency and severity of apathy and higher total NPI scores, compared to MID. Apathy and appetite disturbances occurred more commonly with increasing CDR scores. The total NPI score correlated positively with the CDR score. Conclusion. Depression was the commonest neuropsychiatric symptom in VCI. The neuropsychiatric profiles of MID and SIVD were similar. The frequency and severity of apathy and the net burden of BPSD increased with increasing cognitive impairment.

  7. Psychological Symptoms and Stress Coping Styles in College Students with Somatization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jee Young Lee

    2014-01-01

    ...The purpose of this study was to identify stress coping styles and psychological symptoms and to examine the influences of stress coping styles and psychological symptoms on somatization in college students...

  8. Acupuncture in the treatment of cancer-related psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nadia Elisabeth; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-09-01

    Acupuncture is being adopted by cancer patients for a wide range of cancer-related symptoms including highly prevalent psychological symptoms like depression, anxiety, insomnia, and impairment in quality of life. Pharmacological treatment of prevalent symptoms like anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance can contribute to the high chemical burden already carried by cancer patients, creating additional side effects. As a result, patients and providers alike are interested in evidence-based nonpharmacologic alternatives like acupuncture for these symptoms. This article reviews the current literature (January 2000 through April 2013) for acupuncture in cancer-related psychological symptoms with attention to both efficacy and acupuncture-specific methodology. All published studies that met our review criteria demonstrate a positive signal for acupuncture for the treatment of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and for improving quality of life with most results showing statistical significance. However, there are only a handful of acupuncture studies that were specifically designed to evaluate depression, sleep disturbance, and quality of life as primary outcomes, and no studies were found that looked at anxiety as a primary outcome in this population. Published studies in cancer patients and survivors show that acupuncture treatment is not only safe but also more acceptable with fewer side effects than standard of care pharmacological treatments like antidepressants. Finally, there is wide variability in both the implementation and reporting of acupuncture methods in the literature, with only 2 of 12 studies reporting full details of acupuncture methods as outlined in the revised Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture guidelines, published in 2010 and providing an essential framework for the reporting of acupuncture methodology. This lack of methodological detail affects outcomes, generalizability, and validity of research

  9. Management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hersch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, Sharon FalzgrafVA Puget Sound Health Care System, Tacoma, Washington, USAAbstract: More than 50% of people with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. BPSD are distressing for patients and their caregivers, and are often the reason for placement into residential care. The development of BPSD is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline, greater impairment in activities of daily living, and diminished quality of life (QOL. Evaluation of BPSD includes a thorough diagnostic investigation, consideration of the etiology of the dementia, and the exclusion of other causes, such as drug-induced delirium, pain, or infection. Care of patients with BPSD involves psychosocial treatments for both the patient and family. BPSD may respond to those environmental and psychosocial interventions, however, drug therapy is often required for more severe presentations. There are multiple classes of drugs used for BPSD, including antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA modulators, but the evidence base for pharmacological management is poor, there is no clear standard of care, and treatment is often based on local pharmacotherapy customs. Clinicians should discuss the potential risks and benefits of treatment with patients and their surrogate decision makers, and must ensure a balance between side effects and tolerability compared with clinical benefit and QOL.Keywords: dementia, management, behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms

  10. Evaluation of Psychological Symptoms in Premenstrual Syndrome using PMR Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Veena; Purohit, Geetanjali; Mendpara, Sameer; Palan, B M

    2014-04-01

    The mood changes surrounding menstrual cycle mainly during luteal phase, known as premenstrual syndrome, have been described as early as the time of the ancient Greeks. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) are used to study psychological symptoms of anxiety and depression. To study the psychological parameters and effects of PMR on females with premenstrual syndrome. It was an experimental study. Sixty participants aged between 18 and 40 years, volunteered for this study. Relaxation technique, PMR was given to the study group (Group A, Mean age 24.13±5.69) for one month and control group (Group B, Mean age 28.96±9.42) was evaluated without any intervention. Paired students t test. Alpha error was set at 1% level. PMR Group A showed significant decrease in Both BDI II and STAI scores (p<0.001), showing benefits of relaxation in reducing anxiety and depression. We conclude that PMR helps to alleviate symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and decreases anxiety and depression as shown by changes in scores of both questionnaires.

  11. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in Down syndrome : Early indicators of clinical Alzheimer's disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Alain D.; Strydom, Andre; Coppus, Antonia M. W.; Nizetic, Dean; Vermeiren, Yannick; Naude, Petrus J. W.; Van Dam, Debby; Potier, Marie-Claude; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are a core symptom of dementia and are associated with suffering, earlier institutionalization and accelerated cognitive decline for patients and increased caregiver burden. Despite the extremely high risk for Down syndrome (DS) individuals

  12. [Sleep difficulties and psychological symptoms in medicine students in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafoya, Silvia A; Jurado, María M; Yépez, Norma J; Fouilloux, Mariana; Lara, María C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe sleep difficulties in first year medical students associated with psychopathological symptoms. A cross-sectional study in 572 Medicine students, who were assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), was performed. A 3.5% of students reported having a hard time sleeping, 6.3% had difficulty staying asleep and 11.4% waking up very early. Sleep difficulties were significantly associated with all psychopathological symptoms. The best predictors of sleep difficulties were anxiety, hostility and interpersonal sensitivity. In conclusion, the symptoms associated with stress, anger, worry, cognitive hyperarousal and hypervigilance are the best predictors for sleep difficulties in this population.

  13. Dysphoric symptoms in relation to other behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, among elderly in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbo, Agnes; Gustafsson, Maria; Isaksson, Ulf; Sandman, Per-Olof; Lövheim, Hugo

    2017-09-07

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common and varied in the elderly. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between BPSD and dysphoric symptoms at different levels of cognitive impairment. Assessments of 4397 elderly individuals living in nursing homes in Sweden were performed. Data on cognitive function and BPSD were collected using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). The relationships between dysphoria and eight BPSD factors were plotted against cognitive function to investigate how dysphoria affects BPSD throughout the dementia disease. Overall, dysphoric symptoms were most prevalent in persons with moderate cognitive impairment. However, moderate to severe dysphoric symptoms showed no clear variation with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, aggressive behavior, verbally disruptive/attention-seeking behavior, hallucinatory symptoms and wandering behavior were more common with concurrent dysphoria regardless of cognitive function. In contrast, passiveness was more common with concurrent dysphoria in mild cognitive impairment but not in moderate to severe cognitive impairment. BPSD, including aggressive behavior and hallucinations, were more common with concurrent dysphoric symptoms, providing insight into behavioral and psychological symptoms among individuals with cognitive impairment. Apathy was more commonly associated with concurrent dysphoria at early stages of cognitive decline but not at later stages, indicating that apathy and dysphoria represent separate syndromes among elderly patients with moderate to severe cognitive impairment.

  14. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS such as depression, apathy, aggression, and psychosis are now recognized as core features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and there is a general consensus that greater symptom severity is predictive of faster cognitive decline, loss of independence, and even shorter survival. Whether these symptoms result from the same pathogenic processes responsible for cognitive decline or have unique etiologies independent of AD-associated neurodegeneration is unclear. Many structural and metabolic features of the AD brain are associated with individual neuropsychiatric symptoms or symptom clusters. In addition, many genes have been identified and confirmed that are associated with symptom risk in a few cases. However, there are no single genes strongly predictive of individual neuropsychiatric syndromes, while functional and structural brain changes unique to specific symptoms may reflect variability in progression of the same pathological processes. Unfortunately, treatment success for these psychiatric symptoms may be lower when comorbid with AD, underscoring the importance of future research on their pathobiology and treatment. This review summarizes some of the most salient aspects of NPS pathogenesis.

  15. Psychological symptoms among 2032 youth living with HIV: a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K; Whiteley, Laura; Harper, Gary W; Nichols, Sharon; Nieves, Amethys

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and patterns of psychological symptoms in adolescents and young adults living with HIV (YLWH) in medical care and relationships between psychological symptoms, route and duration of infection, and antiretroviral treatment (ART). A clinic-based sample of 2032 YLWH (mean age 20.3 years), recruited from 20 adolescent medicine HIV clinics, completed a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors and psychological symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Overall, 17.5% of youth reported psychological symptoms greater than the normative threshold on the Global Severity Index. A wide variety of symptoms were reported. The prevalence of clinical symptoms was significantly greater in youth with behaviorally acquired HIV compared to those with perinatally acquired infection (20.6% vs. 10.8%, OR=2.06 in Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR)), and in those not taking ART that had been prescribed (29. 2% vs. 18.8%, OR=1.68 in MLR). Knowing one's HIV status for more than one year and disclosure of HIV status were not associated with fewer symptoms. A large proportion of YLWH have psychological symptoms and the prevalence is greatest among those with behaviorally acquired infection. The high rate of psychological symptoms for youth not taking ART that is prescribed is a cause for concern. Symptoms do not appear to be a transient reaction to diagnosis of HIV.

  16. Specific Pharmacological Effects of Paroxetine Comprise Psychological but Not Somatic Symptoms of Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Schalet

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of placebo-controlled trials of SSRIs suggest that only a small portion of the observable change in depression may be attributed to "true" pharmacological effects. But depression is a multidimensional construct, so treatment effects may differ by symptom cluster. We tested the hypothesis that SSRIs uniquely alter psychological rather than somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety.Outpatients with moderate to severe MDD were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (n = 120 or placebo (n = 60.Paroxetine significantly outperformed placebo on all psychological subscales of the syndrome measures, but not on any of the somatic subscales. The difference in score reduction between paroxetine and placebo was more than twice as great for the psychological symptoms compared to the somatic symptoms.Paroxetine appears to have a "true" pharmacological effect on the psychological but not on the somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Paroxetine's influence on somatic symptoms appears to be mostly duplicated by placebo.

  17. Specific Pharmacological Effects of Paroxetine Comprise Psychological but Not Somatic Symptoms of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalet, Benjamin D; Tang, Tony Z; DeRubeis, Robert J; Hollon, Steven D; Amsterdam, Jay D; Shelton, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analyses of placebo-controlled trials of SSRIs suggest that only a small portion of the observable change in depression may be attributed to "true" pharmacological effects. But depression is a multidimensional construct, so treatment effects may differ by symptom cluster. We tested the hypothesis that SSRIs uniquely alter psychological rather than somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Outpatients with moderate to severe MDD were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (n = 120) or placebo (n = 60). Paroxetine significantly outperformed placebo on all psychological subscales of the syndrome measures, but not on any of the somatic subscales. The difference in score reduction between paroxetine and placebo was more than twice as great for the psychological symptoms compared to the somatic symptoms. Paroxetine appears to have a "true" pharmacological effect on the psychological but not on the somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Paroxetine's influence on somatic symptoms appears to be mostly duplicated by placebo.

  18. Shame, Guilt, Symptoms of Depression, and Reported History of Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…

  19. Psychological Symptoms and Concerns Experienced by International Students: Outreach Implications for Counseling Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazli, Senel

    2015-01-01

    This study examines psychological symptoms and concerns experienced by international students. Participants identified with a variety of psychological symptoms and concerns. The top three were related to academics (71%), career (60%), and stress (43%). In addition, 34% of the participants indicated being concerned about depression and/or anxiety.…

  20. The Temporal Relationship Between Environmental Factors and Psychological Symptoms in Native American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matt, Georgia Lee

    2007-01-01

    Native American youth often experience high rates of environmental risk factors that may put them at increased risk for developing psychological problems, yet research within this high-risk population is severely limited. The present study was designed to provide information on the rate of psychological symptoms in a sample of Native American youth, and evaluate the impact of environmental factors (risk, protective, and cultural) on psychological disorder symptoms over time. Data were coll...

  1. Atrial Fibrillation Symptoms and Sex, Race, and Psychological Distress: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Kelly T; Nazarian, Saman; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R

    2017-06-17

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) symptoms are a major component of treatment decisions for patients with AF and impact quality of life and functional ability yet are poorly understood. This review aimed to determine what is known about the prevalence of symptoms and the association of symptoms to AF characteristics, psychological distress, sex, and race. We performed a structured review of AF symptoms as of March 2016 using PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL and reference searches of retrieved articles. Full-text, published, peer-reviewed, English-language articles were examined. Articles were included if they reported original research data on symptom prevalence and type among patients with AF. The 3 most common symptoms were dyspnea, palpitations, and fatigue. The results suggested that, although AF characteristics are not a significant predictor of symptoms, tachycardia, female sex, race, and psychological distress have a positive association to symptoms. There is a scarcity of research examining symptoms in AF. Furthermore, the inconsistency in measurement methods and the failure to include diverse populations in AF research make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions from the current literature. Given the prevalence of AF in the United States and the impact of symptoms on quality of life and healthcare use, further research examining predictors of symptoms and interventions to alleviate symptoms is crucial.

  2. Behavioral and Psychologic Symptoms in Different Types of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jang Chiu

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: A strategy of targeting type-specific BPSD may be beneficial, such as environmental stimulus control for DLB patients who are prone to have hallucinations, design of a pacing path for patients with FTD who need support for symptoms of wandering and emotional support for patients with VaD who are susceptible to depression.

  3. Correlations between psychological symptoms and social relationships among medical undergraduates in Anhui Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Sun, Li-Na; Sun, Ye-Huan; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Wu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Cao, Hong-Yuan; Sun, Ying

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety) among Chinese medical students and to find the possible relationships between psychological symptoms and social relationships. A sample of 10,140 medical students was investigated with a structured questionnaire, that included the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Social Support Rating Scale, and Family APGAR Index (adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, resolve). The present study revealed that 16.8% of the medical students suffered from depressive symptoms and 14.1% from anxiety symptoms. Female students were more likely to have anxiety, the second-year students had higher levels of psychological symptoms than the first-year students. Likewise, significant differences were found among college, satisfaction of specialty, and economic condition of the family in anxiety and depression symptoms. Social support, family function, and all dimensions were significantly negatively associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression showed that less social support, poor family function, the second-year students, and unsatisfactory specialty were associated with more psychological symptoms, after adjusting the effects of sex, age, and college. Medical students have a relatively high level of depression and anxiety symptoms. These findings support the hypothesis that if medical students are better supported and cared for, negative psychosocial consequences might be prevented or at least reduced.

  4. Glaucoma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up You can help find a cure for glaucoma Give now Signs & Symptoms The most common types ... have completely different symptoms. Symptoms of Open-Angle Glaucoma Most people who develop open-angle glaucoma don’ ...

  5. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; van 't Riet, Esther; Gerritsen, Marleen J J; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K

    2016-01-01

    Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety and somatisation were associated with a change in function after shoulder surgery and postoperative patient perceived improvement of pain and function. In addition, the change of psychological symptoms after shoulder surgery was analyzed and the influence of postoperative symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery on the change in function after shoulder surgery and perceived postoperative improvement of pain and function. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed in a general teaching hospital. 315 consecutive patients planned for elective shoulder surgery were included. Outcome measures included change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and anchor questions about improvement in pain and function after surgery. Psychological symptoms were identified before and 12 months after surgery with the validated Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ). Psychological symptoms were encountered in all the various shoulder diagnoses. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders persisted after surgery in 56% of patients, 10% of patients with no symptoms of psychological disorders before surgery developed new psychological symptoms. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders were not associated with the change of DASH score and perceived improvement of pain and function after shoulder surgery. Patients with symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery were less likely to improve on the DASH score. Postoperative symptoms of distress and depression were associated with worse perceived improvement of pain. Postoperative symptoms of distress, depression and somatisation were

  6. Psychological symptoms and medical responses in nineteenth-century India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, P; Murthy, Pratima; Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

    2015-03-01

    The article documents medical approaches to mental illness in mid- to late-nineteenth-century India through examining the Indian Medical Gazette and other medical accounts. By the late nineteenth century, psychiatry in Europe moved from discussions around asylum-based care to a nuanced and informed debate about the nature of mental symptoms. This included ideas on phrenology and craniometry, biological and psycho-social causes, physical and drug treatments, many of which travelled to India. Simultaneously, indigenous socio-medical ideas were being debated. From the early to the mid-nineteenth century, not much distinction was made between the Western and the native 'mind', and consequently the diagnosis and investigation of mental symptoms did not differ. However, by the late nineteenth century Western medicine considered the 'Western mind' as more civilized and sophisticated than the 'native mind. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Individual differences in physical symptom burden and psychological responses in individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Flynn, Joseph M; Jones, Jeffrey; Byrd, John C; Andersen, Barbara L

    2016-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable illness, with some patients requiring no treatment until disease progression. Burden from physical symptoms has been associated with depression, anxiety, and stress in cancer patients. Additionally, patient factors, i.e., individual differences, have been associated with worse psychological outcomes. There are few psychological studies of CLL, with no examination of individual differences. A cross-sectional design studied the covariation of symptom burden with depressive and anxiety symptoms and cancer-specific stress, and tested patients' individual differences as predictors and as moderators. CLL patients (N = 112) receiving active surveillance participated. They were Caucasian (100 %) and predominately male (55 %) with a mean age of 61; most (62.5 %) had stage 0 disease. A composite measure of physical symptom burden (CLL symptoms, fatigue, pain, impaired functional status) was tested as a predictor of psychological responses. Individual differences in psychiatric history and social support were tested as moderators. Using multiple linear regression, greater symptom burden covaried with higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms and cancer stress (ps < .05). Those with a psychiatric history, low social support, and low relationship satisfaction with one's partner reported greater symptom burden and more psychological symptoms and stress (ps < .05). Findings suggest that CLL patients in surveillance with a psychiatric history and/or low social support are at risk for greater distress when coping with high symptom burden. These new data clarify the experience of CLL surveillance and identify characteristics of patients with heightened risk for symptom burden, stress, and anxiety or depressive symptoms.

  8. Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label.

  9. Psychological Interventions for Children with Functional Somatic Symptoms : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J; Kallesøe, Karen H; Janssens, Karin A M; Schröder, Andreas; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Rask, Charlotte U

    Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of psychological treatments on symptom load and associated disability in children with functional somatic symptoms, and to explore potential moderators of effects. Study design: Cochrane, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for randomized

  10. Somatic Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F

    2016-01-01

    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2......) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from.......9% of the respondents were bothered by one or more of the 19 somatic symptoms. The symptoms were associated in a complex structure. Still, recognisable patterns were identified within organ systems/body parts. When accounting for symptom co-occurrence; dizziness, pain in legs, respiratory distress and tiredness were...

  11. Psychological symptoms and quality of life among residents ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Elevated levels of air manganese (air-Mn) exposure have been associated with adverse health effects. This study examined the relationship of air-Mn concentrations with mood and quality of life.Participants and methods: 185 residents (age mean (M)=55.13±10.88; education yrs M=13.77±2.60; residence yrs M=41.01±16.91) exposed to long-term air-Mn from two Ohio towns, and 90 residents (age M=55.53±10.96; education yrs M=15.18±3.04; residence yrs M=33.59±17.25) from an unexposed Ohio town completed the Healthy Days Measures of the BRFSS, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). In the SCL-90-R, “caseness” is defined as at least two symptom dimensions at or above 90th percentile of the normative population. Air-Mn concentrations were estimated over ten years using the U.S. EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model. ANCOVA, chi-square and regression analyses were used with years of residence and education as covariates.Results: The exposed towns had proportionally more residents with ≥2 elevated SCL-90-R dimensions (“cases”) than the unexposed town (χ²=3.602, p=.058). Air-Mn concentrations were associated with higher levels of Anxiety (β=.162, p=.031) and higher Positive Symptom Distress (β=.147, p=.048). Obsessive-compulsive (β=.137, p=.071) and Psychoticism (β=.136, p=.072) approached significance. Air-Mn concentrations were associated with poor mental health in the past 30 days (β=.168, p=.026). Exposed “case” residents compared to

  12. Psychological Symptoms are Associated with Both Abstinence and Risky Sex among Men with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol T.; Solomon, Sondra E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Varni, Susan E.; Hodge, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual abstinence is often deemed the “safest behavior” in HIV prevention, but is sometimes associated with psychological symptoms (e.g., depression) just as sexually risky behavior is. This study explored whether sexual abstinence and risky sexual behavior among men with HIV are associated with similar constellations of psychological symptoms. Prior research has not addressed this issue because abstinent people often are not included in the sample, or when data are analyzed, researchers combine abstinent people with sexually active people who practice safer sex. Past research also neglects the co-morbidity of psychological symptoms. A latent class analysis of the psychological symptoms (assessed with the Symptom Check List 90-R; Derogatis, 1994) of 140 men with HIV, mostly from rural New England, revealed three latent classes; men who were asymptomatic on all symptom domains (28.8%), men who were symptomatic on all domains (34.1%), and men who were symptomatic on internalizing domains (37.1%), but were asymptomatic on the externalizing symptoms of hostility and paranoid ideation. Logistic regression showed that sexual behavior during the past 90 days of men in the all symptom class and the internalizing symptoms class was similar, with abstinence and risky sex predominating, and safer sex being relatively uncommon for both classes. The sexual behavior of men in the asymptomatic class differed, with safer sex being relatively more likely to occur compared to the symptomatic classes. These findings suggest that the psychological symptom profile of sexually abstinent people places them at risk for inconsistent condom use should they engage in sexual behavior. PMID:25614050

  13. Cybervictimization and somatic and psychological symptoms among Italian middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Lenzi, Michela; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Canale, Natale; Santinello, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Existing literature clearly documents the association between cybervictimization and psychological symptoms; less clear is the association between cybervictimization and somatic symptoms. This study aims to verify the association between cybervictimization and both psychological and somatic symptoms on a representative sample of Italian early adolescents. This study used data from 24 099 students aged 13 years participating in the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Self-completed questionnaires, devised by the HBSC international group, were administered in classrooms. Multilevel models of logistic regression (controlling for traditional bullying victimization, computer use and demographics) were used to investigate the association between cybervictimization and psychological and somatic symptoms. Overall, 3.1% of the students reported having been bullied frequently electronically and 8.7% occasionally (compared, respectively, to 4.0 and 9.2% victims of traditional forms of bullying). Overall, prevalence of students reporting psychological and somatic symptoms was 32.5 and 12.0%, respectively. Being victims of cyberbullying was positively associated to students' psychological and somatic symptoms, after controlling for traditional bullying victimization and computer use. Cybervictimization has similar psychological and somatic consequences for boys and girls, thus suggesting that intervention and prevention efforts should focus on both gender groups. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, L.A.A.; de Graaff, J; Meeus, W H J; Branje, S.J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/ S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms, through mothers’ psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents’ need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in tu...

  15. Eating and Psychological Profiles of Women with Higher Depressive Symptoms Who Are Trying to Lose Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bégin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether women with higher depressive symptoms differed from women with lower depressive symptoms on early weight-loss, eating behaviors and psychological profiles. Among a sample of 45 overweight/obese women who had undertaken a self-initiated weight-loss attempt, two groups were formed based on scores from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, one with lower depressive symptoms (BDI-II < 10; n=21 and one with higher depressive symptoms (BDI ≥ 10; n=24. Even if some women in the higher depressive symptom group did not reach the clinical cut-off for depression (BDI = 14, this group tended to lose less weight in the first two months of their weight-loss attempt and to show a more disturbed eating and psychological profile compared to the group with lower depressive symptoms. In addition, among women with higher depressive symptoms, eating and psychological variables were systematically related to one another whereas these variables were not related among the other group. Results highlight the relevance of considering the presence of depressive symptoms as a marker of clinical severity among the overweight/obese population, and suggest that the BDI-II could be an interesting screening instrument to identify this particular subgroup.

  16. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

  17. Characteristics of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, severity and levels of distress on caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taemeeyapradit, Unchulee; Udomittipong, Dussadee; Tepparak, Nualsakol

    2014-04-01

    To describe the characteristics of the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) and its severity among patients with dementia and their caregivers' stress. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 158 patients with Alzheimer's disease, mixed vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease, and unspecified dementia and caregivers in Songkhla Rajanakarindra Psychiatric Hospital were selected by a consecutive sampling. The BPSD and severity of dementia was assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire - Thai version (NPI-Q Thai), the Global Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR), the Mini Mental Status Thai version 2002 (MMSE Thai 2002), and a clinical diagnosis. Consensus of a psychiatrist and a neurologist according to diagnostic criteria of DSMIV-TR was achieved for every patient. Overall, 90.5% had at least one BPSD symptom. Common symptoms were irritability (60.8%), sleep problems (57%), depression (54.5%), anxiety (52%), and agitation/aggression (44.9%). The least common symptom was eating problems (23.5%). The caregivers rated the patient's physical symptoms as more severe than psychological symptoms. The symptom that caused the highest burden to caregivers was agitation/aggression, followed by dis-inhibition, aberrant motor behaviors, and sleep problems. The less burdensome symptoms included irritability, depression, and anxiety. BPSD were commonly found among patients with dementia. The top five symptoms were irritability, sleep problems, depression, anxiety, and agitation/aggression. Not only assessment of BPSD, but also feeling and suffering of the caregivers should be assessed by using the NPI-Q. This would help the clinician plan appropriate treatment. Physical symptoms were perceived by caregivers as causing the most anguish and distress, while psychological symptoms were perceived as less severe. Further studies should be done, such as the factors related to burden of caregivers of dementia with BPSD.

  18. Gay male sexual assault survivors: the relations among internalized homophobia, experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sari D; Marx, Brian P; Lexington, Jennifer M

    2007-03-01

    This study explored the relations among internalized homophobia (IH), experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity in a community sample of 74 gay male sexual assault survivors. Results indicated that IH is associated with both depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. IH accounted for more variance than assault severity in predicting both PTSD and depression symptom severity. IH and experiential avoidance similarly predicted PTSD symptom severity. In comparison with IH, however, experiential avoidance is a stronger predictor of depression symptom severity. Results also showed that experiential avoidance partially mediated the relation between IH and both depressive and PTSD symptom severity. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.

  19. Associations between problematic internet use and adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms: possible role of sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wan, Yuhui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xi; Tao, Fangbiao

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between problematic Internet use (PIU) and physical and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescents, and to investigate the possible role of sleep quality in this association. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted in 4 cities in China. The Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire of Adolescents, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and demographic variables were used to measure adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms and sleep quality, respectively, in 13,723 students (aged 12-20 years). Problematic Internet use was assessed by the 20-item Young Internet Addiction Test. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate the effects of sleep quality and PIU on physical and psychological symptoms, and to identify the mediating effect of sleep quality in adolescents. Prevalence rates of PIU, physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and poor sleep quality were 11.7%, 24.9%, 19.8%, and 26.7%, respectively. Poor sleep quality was found to be an independent risk factor for both physical and psychological symptoms. The effects of PIU on the 2 health outcomes were partially mediated by sleep quality. Problematic Internet use is becoming a significant public health issue among Chinese adolescents that requires urgent attention. Excessive Internet use may not only have direct adverse health consequences but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation.

  20. Exploring correlations between positive psychological resources and symptoms of psychological distress among hematological cancer patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Yue; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Lie

    2016-07-01

    Hematological cancer patients experience high levels of psychological distress during diagnoses and intensive treatments. The aim of the present study is to explore the effects of positive psychological resources on depressive and anxiety symptoms in hematological cancer patients. This survey was conducted in a hospital during the period from July 2013 to April 2014. A total of 300 inpatients were recruited and finally 227 of them completed the questionnaires. Questionnaires included demographic and clinical variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Life Orientation Scale-Revised, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Resilience Scale-14. Results showed that the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 66.1 and 45.8%, respectively. Both optimism (β = -.479, p optimism (β = -.393, p  .05) was not significantly associated with anxiety symptoms, and self-efficacy was not significantly associated with depressive (β = -.032, p > .05) or anxiety symptoms (β = -.055, p > .05). The results suggest that hematological cancer patients who possess high levels of positive psychological resources may have fewer symptoms of psychological distress. The findings indicate that enhancing positive psychological resources can be considered in developing intervention strategies for decreasing depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  1. The effect of aromatherapy massage on the psychological symptoms of postmenopausal Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, S; Darsareh, F; Joolaee, S; Haghani, H

    2013-06-01

    Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. A randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of aromatherapy massage on psychological symptoms during menopause. The study population comprised 90 women. Each subject in the aromatherapy massage group received 30 min aromatherapy sessions with aroma oil, twice a week, for four weeks; each subject in the massage therapy group received the same treatment with odorless oil, while no treatment was provided to subjects in the control group. The outcome measures were psychological symptoms, as obtained through the psychological subscale of the Menopause Rating Scale. A total of 87 women were evaluated. A statistically significant difference was found between the participants' pre- and post-application psychological score in intervention groups, whereas the score in the control group did not differ significantly. Aromatherapy massage decreased the psychological score MD: -3.49 (95% Confidence Interval of Difference: -4.52 to -2.47). Massage therapy also decreased the psychological score MD: -1.20 (95% Confidence Interval of Difference: -2.19 to -0.08). To distinguish the effect of aromatherapy from massage separately, we compared the reduction in the psychological score. Aromatherapy massage decreased the psychological score more than massage therapy MD: -2.29 (95% Confidence Interval of Difference: -3.01 to -0.47). Both aromatherapy massage and massage were effective in reducing psychological symptoms, but, the effect of aromatherapy massage was higher than massage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Integrated Review of Psychological Stress in Parkinson's Disease: Biological Mechanisms and Symptom and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by complex symptoms and medication-induced motor complications that fluctuate in onset, severity, responsiveness to treatment, and disability. The unpredictable and debilitating nature of PD and the inability to halt or slow disease progression may result in psychological stress. Psychological stress may exacerbate biological mechanisms believed to contribute to neuronal loss in PD and lead to poorer symptom and health outcomes. The purpose of this integrated review is to summarize and appraise animal and human research studies focused on biological mechanisms, symptom, and health outcomes of psychological stress in PD. A search of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and CINAHL from 1980 to the present using the key words Parkinson's disease and stress, psychological stress, mental stress, and chronic stress resulted in 11 articles that met inclusion criteria. The results revealed significant associations between psychological stress and increased motor symptom severity and loss of dopamine-producing neurons in animal models of PD and between psychological stress and increased symptom severity and poorer health outcomes in human subjects with PD. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for these relationships, for the ultimate purpose of designing targeted interventions that may modify the disease trajectory. PMID:28058129

  3. Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

  4. Childhood maltreatment, psychological resources, and depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Boyle, Chloe C; Irwin, Michael R; Ganz, Patricia A; Crespi, Catherine M; Asher, Arash; Petersen, Laura; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with elevated risk for depression across the human lifespan. Identifying the pathways through which childhood maltreatment relates to depressive symptoms may elucidate intervention targets that have the potential to reduce the lifelong negative health sequelae of maltreatment exposure. In this cross-sectional study, 271 women with early-stage breast cancer were assessed after their diagnosis but before the start of adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, endocrine therapy). Participants completed measures of childhood maltreatment exposure, psychological resources (optimism, mastery, self-esteem, mindfulness), and depressive symptoms. Using multiple mediation analyses, we examined which psychological resources uniquely mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was robustly associated with lower psychological resources and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, lower optimism and mindfulness mediated the association between childhood maltreatment and elevated depressive symptoms. These results support existing theory that childhood maltreatment is associated with lower psychological resources, which partially explains elevated depressive symptoms in a sample of women facing breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. These findings warrant replication in populations facing other major life events and highlight the need for additional studies examining childhood maltreatment as a moderator of treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-24

    Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in

  6. Investigation of the relationship between suicide probability in inpatients and their psychological symptoms and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Sabanciogullar, Selma; Yilmaz, Feride T

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between suicide probability and psychological symptoms and coping strategies in hospitalized patients with physical illness. This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2014 in Bandirma State Hospital, Balikesir, Turkey. The sample of the study consisted of 470 inpatients who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study. The data were collected with the Personal Information Form, Suicide Probability Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and Ways of Coping with Stress Inventory. In the study, 74.7% were at moderate risk for suicide, whereas 20.4% were at high risk for suicide. According to the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, sub-dimensions of the Ways of Coping with Stress Inventory and Brief Symptom Inventory were the significant predictors of suicide probability. The majority of the patients with physical illness were at risk for suicide probability. Individuals who had psychological symptoms and used maladaptive coping ways obtained significantly higher suicide probability scores.

  7. CYBER BULLYING, CYBER VICTIMIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS: A STUDY IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Mustafa; AYDIN, Betul; Serkan Volkan SARI

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between cyber bullying, cyber victimization and psychological symptoms was investigated in adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 300 high school student adolescents who attend different types of high schools in Trabzon in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study, demographic data form, The Scale of Cyber bullying and Brief Symptom Inventory were used as data collection instruments. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients, One-Way ANOVA and independent samp...

  8. Association of Psychological Disorders with Extra-intestinal Symptoms in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mirbagher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available present study, we determined the relationship between psychological disorders and extraintestinal symptoms in patients with IBS.Methods: Adult patients with IBS referred to 4 gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan, Iran, completed the irritable bowel severity scoring system (IBSSS, extraintestinal symptoms scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Irritable Bowel SyndromeQuality of Life (IBS-QOL Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted.Results: The patients included 113 females and 45 males with mean age of 34.8 ± 11.1 years. Cumulative frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was 3.3 ± 2.4 (0 to 10. Anxiety and depression were present in 79.7% and 54.4% of the patients, respectively. Frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was correlated with anxiety and depression (r = 0.289 to 0.531, IBS severity (r = 0.373 to 0.505, and quality of life (r = -0.317 to -0.398. Severity of IBS was independently associated with extraintestinal digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = 0.248. Female gender, education level, and anxiety were independently associated with extraintestinal non-digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = -0.225 to 0.260. Severity of IBS and frequency of non-digestive symptoms were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.494 and -0.218. After controlling for psychological factors, IBS severity and depression were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.435 and -0.318.Conclusion: Extraintestinal symptoms and psychological disorders are common in patients with IBS and impact their quality of life. Psychological disorders are associated with extraintestinal symptoms, especially non-digestive symptoms. These results highlight the need for an integrated biopsychosocial approach to the management of IBS patients with physical and mental comorbidities.

  9. Animal Assisted Interactions to Alleviate Psychological Symptoms in Patients on Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Breanna; Bailey, Tanya; Prince-Paul, Maryjo

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a common life support intervention for critically ill patients that can cause stressful psychological symptoms. Animal assisted interactions have been used in variety of inpatient settings to reduce symptom burden and promote overall well-being. Due to the severity of illness associated with critical care, use of highly technological equipment, and heightened concern for infection control and patient safety, animal-assisted interaction has not been widely adopted in the intensive care unit. This case study of the therapeutic interaction between a canine and a mechanically ventilated patient provides support for the promotion of animal-assisted interactions as an innovative symptom management strategy in the intensive care unit.

  10. Contributions of risk and protective factors to prediction of psychological symptoms after traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Eve B; Palmieri, Patrick A; Field, Nigel P; Dalenberg, Constance J; Macia, Kathryn S; Spain, David A

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic experiences cause considerable suffering and place a burden on society due to lost productivity, increases in suicidality, violence, criminal behavior, and psychological disorder. The impact of traumatic experiences is complicated because many factors affect individuals' responses. By employing several methodological improvements, we sought to identify risk factors that would account for a greater proportion of variance in later disorder than prior studies. In a sample of 129 traumatically injured hospital patients and family members of injured patients, we studied pre-trauma, time of trauma, and post-trauma psychosocial risk and protective factors hypothesized to influence responses to traumatic experiences and posttraumatic (PT) symptoms (including symptoms of PTSD, depression, negative thinking, and dissociation) two months after trauma. The risk factors were all significantly correlated with later PT symptoms, with post-trauma life stress, post-trauma social support, and acute stress symptoms showing the strongest relationships. A hierarchical regression, in which the risk factors were entered in 6 steps based on their occurrence in time, showed the risks accounted for 72% of the variance in later symptoms. Most of the variance in PT symptoms was shared among many risk factors, and pre-trauma and post-trauma risk factors accounted for the most variance. Collectively, the risk factors accounted for more variance in later PT symptoms than in previous studies. These risk factors may identify individuals at risk for PT psychological disorders and targets for treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Personality Traits and Psychological Symptoms of Music and Art Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yöndem, Sadik; Yöndem, Zeynep Deniz; Per, Meral

    2017-01-01

    The qualities of artists and musicians have attracted the attention of personality psychologists and researchers studying creativity. Artistic activities are considered by some to be therapeutic, and may offer a buffer effect on psychological health. On the other hand, research has occasionally revealed a positive relationship between creativity…

  12. Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avant, Elizabeth M.; Swopes, Rachel M.; Davis, Joanne L.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that among college students, physical and sexual abuse in intimate relationships are associated with posttraumatic stress. Psychological abuse occurs in intimate relationships among college students, and though there is evidence that such abuse has a negative emotional impact, posttraumatic stress has not been extensively…

  13. EXPERIENCED STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS, SELF-RATED HEALTH AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SWEDISH UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaez, Marjan; Laflamme, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    ...) by self-administered questionnaires. Students' sociodemographic characteristics, their experience of stressors, psychological symptoms, and mental and general health ratings were linked to their academic achievement (degree completed...

  14. Representations of control and psychological symptoms in couples dealing with cancer: a dyadic-regulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Giannousi, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between illness representations of personal and treatment control and psychological symptoms (i.e. symptoms of anxiety and depression) in 72 married couples dealing with a recently diagnosed cancer. Patients were first-diagnosed with early stage (45.83%) or metastatic cancer (54.17%). Dyadic responses were examined with the actor-partner interdependence model. Also, in order to examine whether patients and spouses' representations of control moderate the relation of their partners' corresponding representations to psychological symptoms, we used the relevant bootstrapping framework developed by Hayes and Matthes [(2009). Computational procedures for probing interactions in OLS and logistic regression: SPSS and SAS implementations. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 924-936]. Patients' symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated with both partners' representations of control. Chi-square difference tests indicated that actor and partner effects were equal. Spouses' symptoms of anxiety and depression were related only to their own representations. Moreover, spouses' representations of personal control moderated the relation of patients' corresponding representations to depressive symptoms, whereas patients' representations of treatment control moderated the relation of their spouses' corresponding representations to both anxiety and depression. Findings suggest that both partners' representations of control are important for adaptation to illness. Moreover, they indicate that dyadic regulation may be equally important to self-regulation as far as adaptation to illness is concerned.

  15. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.

  16. Why not Seek Therapy? The Role of Stigma and Psychological Symptoms in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makilim Nunes Baptista

    Full Text Available Abstract: The decision to seek therapy can reduce psychological distress and factors like public stigma, self stigma, fear of self exposure to therapist, among others, may constitute barriers in this process. This study investigated: how is the group of variables described in the literature as predictors of seeking therapy, and the relationship of variables associated with stigma and depressive symptoms, anxiogenic symptoms and stress with this search. For this purpose, 272 students responded scales that assessed these variables. The principal component analysis indicated four clusters of variables (symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress; feelings of shame, inadequacy and inhibition; perception of benefits to seek therapy; self stigma and stigma by the others. These components are hierarchically inserted into the multiple regression, indicating that the symptoms have little importance compared to the attitude of seeking therapy and stigmas.

  17. Posttraumatic Psychological Symptoms are Associated with Reduced Inhibitory Control, not General Executive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; McCulloch, Bay; Rosenblatt, Andrew; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2015-05-01

    Although there is mounting evidence that greater PTSD symptoms are associated with reduced executive functioning, it is not fully understood whether this association is more global or specific to certain executive function subdomains, such as inhibitory control. We investigated the generality of the association between PTSD symptoms and executive function by administering a broad battery of sensitive executive functioning tasks to a cohort of returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with varying PTSD symptoms. Only tasks related to inhibitory control explained significant variance in PTSD symptoms as well as symptoms of depression, while measures of working memory, measures of switching, and measures simultaneously assessing multiple executive function subdomains did not. Notably, the two inhibitory control measures that showed the highest correlation with PTSD and depressive symptoms, measures of response inhibition and distractor suppression, explained independent variance. These findings suggest that greater posttraumatic psychological symptoms are not associated with a general decline in executive functioning but rather are more specifically related to stopping automatic responses and resisting internal and external distractions.

  18. Psychological symptoms and quality of life of dermatology outpatients and hospitalized dermatology patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Ibsen, Hans Henning

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to compare psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life of dermatology patients and healthy controls. The sample consisted of 333 consecutively recruited patients from four dermatology outpatient clinics, 172 hospitalized dermatological patients from...... and older patients, and patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis were more distressed than patients with urticaria and eczemas. Disease-related impairment of quality of life was the main predictor of psychological symptoms, when controlling for diagnosis, age, gender, disease duration and disease...... two university hospitals and 293 matched healthy controls. All patients and controls completed Beck's Depression Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Hospitalized patients were more distressed than outpatients and healthy controls and reported greater...

  19. Peer victimization predicts psychological symptoms beyond the effects of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Iffland, Benjamin; Neuner, Frank

    2014-12-30

    Experiences of peer victimization have been repeatedly associated with psychological symptoms and disorders. However, as peer victimization is correlated with child maltreatment occurring within the family, it remains unclear whether the pathological effect of peer victimization is an artifact that can be attributed to previous aversive events. To separate the effects of peer victimization from child maltreatment, we studied both event types as well as psychological symptoms in a mixed clinical sample of ambulant and psychiatric patients (N=168), a self-selected community sample recruited through the internet (N=995), and a student sample (N=272). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that, after controlling for child maltreatment, peer victimization accounted for an incremental proportion of the variance of different symptom dimensions in each sample. These results indicate that peer victimization is an independent predictor of psychopathology.

  20. Maternal Psychological Control and Child Internalizing Symptoms: Vulnerability and Protective Factors across Bioregulatory and Ecological Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Kelly, Ryan J.; Erath, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background: We examined ecological (family socioeconomic status (SES)) and bioregulatory (sleep duration, sleep efficiency) moderators of the link between maternal psychological control and children's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Method: A large socioeconomically diverse sample of third graders (N = 141) and their mothers participated.…

  1. Predicting Adjustment during the Transition to College: Alexithymia, Perceived Stress, and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Sandra; Johnson, Vanessa K.; Gans, Susan E.; Krumrine, Jodi

    2004-01-01

    Fifty-six incoming college students were assessed in a study of the contribution of alexithymia, stress, and psychological symptoms to college adjustment. Alexithymia predicted fall semester adjustment, suggesting that interventions aimed at encouraging awareness and discussion of emotions may improve academic and emotional well-being for students…

  2. Emotional Intelligence, Cognitive Flexibility and Psychological Symptoms in Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence, cognitive flexibility and psychological symptoms in pre-service teachers. The study included 414 pre-service teachers at the Faculty of Education, Mersin University, Turkey. Pearson product-moment correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to…

  3. Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence: Concurrent and Stable Roles and Psychological Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Modena, Marco; Tani, Franca

    2009-01-01

    From an initial sample of 1,278 Italian students, the authors selected 537 on the basis of their responses to a self-report bully and victim questionnaire. Participants' ages ranged from 13 to 20 years (M = 15.12 years, SD = 1.08 years). The authors compared the concurrent psychological symptoms of 4 participant groups (bullies, victims,…

  4. Diagnosing Cartman: Psychology Students' Use of Symptoms and Traits to Assess Child Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…

  5. Betrayal Trauma: Associations with Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma, or trauma perpetrated by someone with whom a victim is close, is strongly associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, few studies have examined associations between different forms of trauma and emotional and physical symptoms. The present study compared betrayal trauma to other forms…

  6. Depressive symptoms in adolescence : Longitudinal links with maternal empathy and psychological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Lente L. A. A.; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, Susan J. T.

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers'

  7. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, L.A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413575535; van der Graaff, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/321887425; Meeus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; Branje, S.J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/192657860

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/ S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms, through mothers’

  8. The Contributions of Attachment Styles, Irrational Beliefs and Psychological Symptoms to the Prediction of Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the contributions of styles of attachment, irrational beliefs and psychological symptoms to the prediction of cognitive flexibility were analysed. The sample consists of 436 students studying in various departments and faculties in Mersin University. The Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Relationships Scale, Irrational Beliefs Scale…

  9. Role of Virtues and Perceived Life Stress in Affecting Psychological Symptoms among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Siu, Bowie P. Y.; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship among virtues, self-perceived life stress, and psychological symptoms. Participants: A total of 235 undergraduates participated in the study in March 2013. Methods: The participants were recruited to complete the Life Stress Rating Scale for College Students, the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire that…

  10. The Relationship between Childhood Abuse, Psychological Symptoms and Subsequent Sex Offending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood sexual and physical abuse has been related to subsequent offending behaviour in non-disabled individuals as well as people with intellectual disabilities, but there is a dearth of research examining the link between these two characteristics and psychological, behavioural and psychiatric symptoms amongst sex offenders with…

  11. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  12. The Effect of Gender and Attachment Styles on the Relationship between Marital Adjustment and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruk, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the moderating effects of attachment styles and gender on the predictive strength of marital adjustment on psychological symptoms among Turkish married individuals. Correlational model was used and the sample consisted of 178 married individuals. The data was gathered through online survey. The Turkish form…

  13. Acculturation, Enculturation, Perceived Racism, and Psychological Symptoms among Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamilla, Saul G.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Walker, Tamisha; Sisson, Frederick Riley

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating influences of behavioral and values acculturation and enculturation in a sample of 113 Asian Americans. Findings from regression analyses revealed that acculturation to European American cultural values, alone and in interaction with perceived racism, was related to less psychological symptoms, whereas…

  14. Personality moderates the longitudinal relationship between psychological symptoms and alcohol use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Clare J; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Conrod, Patricia J

    2011-04-01

    A great deal of research has emerged on the comorbidity between alcohol misuse and psychological symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety, and antisocial behavior or conduct disorder) in adolescence. Research has also shown that personality traits underlie vulnerability to alcohol use and psychological symptoms, but how personality moderates this association has not been comprehensively examined. The goals of this study are to clarify (i) whether early alcohol use effects the rate of change of psychological symptoms and vice versa, (ii) whether initial levels and rate of change in both domains vary according to individual differences in personality traits, and (iii) whether personality moderates the relationship between alcohol use and psychological symptoms. Self-reported alcohol use, depression, anxiety, and antisocial behavior were collected from 393 adolescents at four separate time points across an 18-month period. Parallel growth models were used to assess the main objectives of the study. Personality traits [anxiety sensitivity (AS), hopelessness (H), impulsivity (IMP), and sensation seeking (SS)] were included as time-invariant predictors of initial levels and rates of change of each construct. The results indicated that elevated levels of depression predicted faster rates of increase in alcohol use. Personality-specific relationships were demonstrated across all models. IMP was shown to moderate the relationship between alcohol use and depression, suggesting that adolescents who showed a susceptibility to elevated levels of IMP, and heavier drinking were less likely to demonstrate a normative decline in depression. Adolescents with higher levels of AS and anxiety were more likely to show a faster rate of increase in alcohol use. These results highlight the importance of examining personality traits in studying the associations between alcohol use and psychological symptoms. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Psychological Interventions for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Psychosis: A Systematic Review of Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Sarah; Keen, Nadine; Reynolds, Nicola; Onwumere, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with severe mental health problems, such as psychosis, are consistently shown to have experienced high levels of past traumatic events. They are also at an increased risk of further traumatisation through victimization events such as crime and assault. The experience of psychosis itself and psychiatric hospitalization have also been recognized to be sufficiently traumatic to lead to the development of post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are elevated in people with psychosis compared to the general population. The current guidance for the treatment of PTSD is informed by an evidence base predominately limited to populations without co-morbid psychiatric disorders. The systematic review therefore sought to present the current available literature on the use of psychological treatments targeting PTS symptoms in a population with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. The review aimed to investigate the effect of these interventions on PTS symptoms and also the effect on secondary domains such as psychotic symptoms, affect and functioning. Fifteen studies were identified reporting on cognitive behavior therapy, prolonged exposure, eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing and written emotional disclosure. The review provides preliminary support for the safe use of trauma-focused psychological interventions in groups of people with severe mental health problems. Overall, the interventions were found to be effective in reducing PTS symptoms. Results were mixed with regard to secondary effects on additional domains. Further research including studies employing sufficiently powered methodologically rigorous designs is indicated.

  16. [Body image, psychological symptoms and eating disorders among Chilean adolescents and young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat-Mandich, Claudia; Díaz-Castrillón, Fernanda; Lizana-Calderón, Paula; Castro, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The construction of body image is crucial during adolescent development. Several studies show that body dissatisfaction is common, especially among women. This is a risk factor for eating behavior disorders. To describe psychological variables and dimensions about body image among adolescents and young adults. Three self-administered questionnaires, MBSRQ (Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire) that measures body image, Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) that measures the presence of psychological and psychiatric symptoms and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), which measures eating problems, were applied to 1,438 students aged 19 ± 2.7 years (53% women) from three Chilean regions. Sixty five percent of respondents would like to weigh less. Compared with men, women have greater psychological distress, concerns about their appearance and their weight, are more obsessed with thinness, and have fewer behaviors aimed at solving these problems. A high percentage of respondents want to lose weight. In addition, women have serious desires and search for thinness.

  17. The Predictive Strength of Perceived Parenting and Parental Attachment Styles on Psychological Symptoms among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körük, Serdar; Öztürk, Abdülkadir; Kara, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and…

  18. Children's exposure to violence and distress symptoms: influence of caretakers' psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Ryan, Louise; Bellinger, David C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Wright, Rosalind J

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies linking violence exposure to adverse child behavior have typically relied on parental report of child symptoms without accounting for the informant's mental well-being, despite evidence that parental mental health can influence children's mental health and the parent's report of distress symptoms. We assess the influence of maternal depression on the violence exposure and child distress association in a subset of the Maternal Infant Smoking Study of East Boston, a prospective birth cohort. Mothers reported on their children's violence exposure using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence (ETV) and completed the Checklist of Child Distress Symptoms (CCDS). The children also completed the ETV survey and the self-report version of the CCDS. Linear regression was used to assess the influence of violence exposure on distress symptoms adjusting for potential confounders, first using parent's report of exposure and outcome and a second time using the child's self-report. The mediating effect of maternal depression on the violence and distress association was also tested. Among the 162 children ages 7 to 11, 51% were boys and 43% self-identified as Hispanic. When using child self-report, increased violence exposure was significantly associated with a broader range of distress symptoms (numbness, arousal, intrusion, avoidance subscales) compared to parent reported findings, which were only significantly related to the intrusion and avoidance subscales. Moreover, a significant mediation effect of maternal depression on the violence and distress association was noted only when mother's report of exposure and outcome was used. Considering both parent and child self-report of violence is necessary to obtain a complete picture of violence exposure because parents and children may be offering different, although equally valid information. The influence of maternal depressive symptoms on preadolescent's distress symptoms may be attributed to

  19. Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Caparros-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, there is a lack of evidence of biological forecasters. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychological variables along with hair cortisol levels during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy that could predict postpartum depression symptoms. A sample of 44 pregnant women was assessed during 3 trimesters of pregnancy and the postpartum period using psychological questionnaires and hair cortisol levels. Participants were divided into 2 groups: a group with postpartum depression symptoms and a group with no postpartum depression symptoms. Results showed significant positive differences between groups in the first trimester regarding the Somatization subscale of the SCL-90-R (p < .05. In the second trimester, significant differences were found in the Somatization, Depression, Anxiety, and GSI subscales (p < .05. In the third trimester significant differences between both groups were found regarding pregnancy-specific stress. We found significant positive differences between groups regarding hair cortisol levels in the first and the third trimester. Hair cortisol levels could predict 21.7% of the variance of postpartum depression symptoms. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that psychopathological symptoms, pregnancy-specific stress, and hair cortisol levels can predict postpartum depression symptoms at different time-points during pregnancy. These findings can be applied in future studies and improve maternal care in clinical settings.

  20. The mediating role of psychological symptoms on falls risk among older adults with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sumaiyah Mat,1 Chin Teck Ng,1–3 Farhana Fadzil,4 Faizatul Izza Rozalli,4 Maw Pin Tan1,5 1Ageing and Age-Associated Disorders Research Group, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Singapore General Hospital, 3Duke-NUS Medical School, National University Singapore, Singapore; 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Geriatric Division, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of fear of falling (FoF and psychological symptoms in explaining the relationship between osteoarthritis (OA symptom severity and falls. Individuals aged ≥65 years with ≥2 falls or ≥1 injurious fall over the past 12 months were included in the falls group, while volunteers aged ≥65 years with no history of falls over 12 months were recruited as controls. The presence of lower extremity OA was determined radiologically and clinically. Severity of symptoms was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC questionnaire. FoF and psychological status were measured with the shortened version of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International and the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21, respectively. Of 389 (229 fallers, 160 non-fallers potential participants, mean (SD age: 73.74 (6.60 years, 141 had clinical OA and 171 had radiological OA. Fallers with both radiological OA and clinical OA had significantly higher FoF and DASS-21 scores than non-fallers. FoF was significantly positively correlated with symptom severity in fallers and non-fallers with radiological and clinical OA. Depression, anxiety, and stress scores were only significantly correlated with symptom severity among fallers but not non-fallers in both clinical and radiological OA. The relationship between mild symptoms and reduced risk of falls

  1. Emotion Regulation of Memories Central to Our Identity: The Relationship with Concurrent and Prospective Psychological Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Employing trait-like maladaptive emotion regulation strategies is related to the severity and maintenance of depressive symptoms. However, whether emotion regulation specific to an event highly central for an individual’s identity is predictive of depressive symptoms has not been empirically....... The results document the role of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in relation to events that are central to an individual’s identity, regardless of event valence. The findings suggest an important interplay between event centrality and emotion regulation strategies that previous research has...... overlooked and that may have implications for understanding emotion regulation in psychological disorders....

  2. Do Cancer-Related Beliefs Influence the Severity, Incidence, and Persistence of Psychological Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desautels, Caroline; Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Ruel, Sophie; Ivers, Hans; Savard, Josée

    Previous studies have suggested that negative beliefs about cancer may impair patients' psychological well-being, but only a few of these studies focused on specific psychological symptoms, and many were cross-sectional. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the relationship of cancer-related cognitions with the severity, incidence, and persistence of anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence, depression, and insomnia symptoms during an 18-month period. Patients scheduled to undergo surgery for cancer (N = 962) completed a questionnaire assessing cancer-related cognitions at baseline (T1), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the severity subscale of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, and the Insomnia Severity Index at baseline (T1) and 2 (T2), 6 (T3), 10 (T4), 14 (T5), and 18 (T6) months later. Group × time factorial analyses using mixed models revealed that participants endorsing more negative cancer-related cognitions consistently reported more severe symptoms throughout the 18-month period. Logistic regression analyses suggested that endorsing more negative cancer-related cognitions at T1 significantly increased incidence and persistence rates of clinical levels of psychological symptoms. These findings suggest that the endorsement of negative cancer-related beliefs at the perioperative period influences the longitudinal evolution of anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence, depression, and insomnia symptoms in the following months. These results highlight the relevance of using cognitive restructuring early during the cancer care trajectory to potentially revise erroneous beliefs about cancer and prevent the incidence and persistence of psychological disturbances over time.

  3. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  4. Investigation into psychological correlates of patients with vocal nodules using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jae Ho; Lee, Kyung Chul; Jin, Sung Min

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychological characteristics of patients with vocal nodules and to establish the relationship between these characteristics and the development of vocal nodules. A tertiary medical centre. The patient group consisted of 41 housewives with vocal nodules, and the control group consisted of 35 housewives who did not have any vocal pathology. The subjects completed questionnaires related to the voice disorder and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision. The scores of the patient group with less than 1 year of symptom duration (acute) and more than 1 year of symptom duration (chronic) were also compared with those of the controls. The total patient group differed statistically from the control group on seven neurotic dimensions (p vocal nodules. The dimensions in which the total patient group differed significantly from the control group may indicate the changes that occur in the psychological characteristics following voice change. The collective results indicate that psychological characteristics play an important role in the pathogenesis of vocal nodules. Hence, greater attention should be given to the psychological and emotional aspects of patients for the treatment and prevention of vocal nodules.

  5. Psychological factors mediate key symptoms of fibromyalgia through their influence on stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2016-09-01

    The clinical features of fibromyalgia are associated with various psychological factors, including stress. We examined the hypothesis that the path that psychological factors follow in influencing fibromyalgia symptoms is through their direct effect on stress. Ninety-eight females with ACR 1990 classified fibromyalgia completed the following questionnaires: The Big 5 Personality Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Mastery Scale, and Perceived Control of Internal States Scale. SPSS (PASW version 22) was used to perform basic t tests, means, and standard deviations to show difference between symptom characteristics. Pathway analysis using structural equation modelling (Laavan) examined the effect of stress on the relationships between psychological factors and the elements that define the fibromyalgia phenotype. The preferred model showed that the identified path clearly linked the psychological variables of anxiety, neuroticism and mastery, but not internal control, to the three key elements of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep (p fibromyalgia symptoms. This has implications for the understanding of contributing mechanisms and the clinical care of patients with fibromyalgia.

  6. The family model stress and maternal psychological symptoms: mediated pathways from economic hardship to parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Crnic, Keith A; Cox, Martha J; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

    2013-02-01

    Although much of the extant research on low-income families has targeted parental depression as the predominant psychological response to economic hardship, the current study examined a range of maternal psychological symptoms that may mediate the relations between early economic pressure and later parenting behaviors. A family stress model was examined using data from 1,142 mothers living in 2 areas of high rural poverty, focusing on the infancy through toddlerhood period. Maternal questionnaires and observations of mother-child interactions were collected across 4 time points (6, 15, 24, and 36 months). Results from structural equation analyses indicated that early economic pressure was significantly related to a variety of symptoms (depression, hostility, anxiety, and somatization), but only depression and somatization were significantly related to decreased levels of sensitive, supportive parenting behaviors. In contrast, anxiety was positively associated with sensitive parenting. Depression and anxiety were both found to mediate the relations between economic pressure and sensitive parenting behaviors. Results further suggest that mothers did not experience change in objective economic hardship over time but did experience a small decrease in economic pressure. Discussion centers on the apparent indirect influence of early economic hardship on later psychological symptoms and parenting behaviors, as well as detailing the need for broader and more complex perspectives on maternal psychological responses that arise as a result of economic disadvantage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Plague Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  8. Diphtheria Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Diphtheria Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Diphtheria Home About Diphtheria Causes and Transmission Symptoms Complications ...

  9. Rotavirus Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organization PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics ... symptoms to appear. Children who get infected may have severe watery diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. Vomiting ...

  10. Pain and physical and psychological symptoms in ambulatory HIV patients in the current treatment era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S; Cen, Liyi; Praestgaard, Amy; Turner, Michelle; Obando, Aura; Alpert, Craig; Woolston, Sophie; Casarett, David; Kostman, Jay; Gross, Robert; Frank, Ian

    2012-03-01

    HIV infection has become a manageable chronic disease. There are few studies of pain and symptoms in the current treatment era. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for pain and physical and psychological symptoms in a population of ambulatory HIV patients. We performed a cross-sectional study using the Brief Pain Inventory and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form (MSAS). We evaluated 156 individuals with a median age of 47.5 years (range 21-71), median time since HIV diagnosis of 11 years (range <1 to 25), and median CD4+ cell count of 502 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range [IQR] 308-683). Most (125, 80.6%) of the patients had an undetectable viral load. Seventy-six (48.7%) patients reported pain, of whom 39 (51.3%) had moderate to severe pain, and 43 (57.3%) had pain that caused moderate to severe interference with their lives. The median number of symptoms was eight (IQR 5-14.5) of 32 queried. In multivariable analyses, patients with psychiatric illness were 39.8% more likely to have pain (P<0.001). Psychiatric illness was associated with 0.7 and 1.2 point higher MSAS subscale scores, and IV drug use was associated with 0.4 and 0.5 higher subscale scores (out of four). Pain and other physical and psychological symptoms were common among ambulatory HIV patients. Pain and symptoms were strongly associated with psychiatric illness and IV drug use. Future investigation should evaluate interventions that include psychiatric and substance abuse components for HIV patients with pain. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. All rights reserved.

  11. Well-being in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Relationship to Symptoms and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, H; MacLeod, A K

    2017-07-01

    There is growing recognition in psychology that wellness is more than the absence of disease and distress. Well-being has been defined in numerous ways. Two dominant models include Diener, Eunkook, Suh, Lucas and Smith's (1999) model of subjective well-being (SWB) and Ryff's (1989) model of psychological well-being (PWB). In contrast to the abundance of research investigating negative constructs and psychopathology in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), there has been a paucity of positive psychology studies. This study had two aims: to examine PWB and SWB and their relationship to symptoms in CFS and to compare PWB scores in a subgroup of the CFS sample to a matched control group. Chronic fatigue syndrome participants (n = 60) completed self-report scales of PWB, SWB, fatigue, anxiety and depression. PWB scores in a subgroup of the CFS sample (n = 42) were compared with those of a matched nonclinical control group (n = 42). Correlations between scales of symptoms and well-being were complex. Well-being dimensions were largely independent of physical components of fatigue but strongly related to psychological components of fatigue and psychological distress. Multiple regression indicated that five dimensions of well-being uniquely predicted symptomatology. Compared with the control group, the CFS group scored significantly lower on five of Ryff's six PWB dimensions, with particularly marked deficits in personal growth, environmental mastery and self-acceptance. This multidimensional assessment of well-being advances our understanding of CFS and offers new treatment targets. Future research must investigate whether interventions targeting theses well-being deficits can boost the efficacy of symptom-focused treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Previous psychological research into CFS has largely focused on the identification of negative constructs and CBT, a treatment that targets evidenced-based negative constructs, has demonstrated efficacy

  12. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  13. Psychological and Drug Abuse Symptoms Associated with Non-medical Use of Opioid Analgesics among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E

    2014-01-01

    Background This exploratory study examined the psychological and substance abuse symptoms and motivations associated with adolescents’ medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. We compared three groups of adolescents: 1) those who never used an opioid analgesic; 2) those who used a prescribed opioid analgesic (medical users); and 3) those who used someone else’s opioid analgesics (nonmedical users). Nonmedical use was defined as using someone else’s opioid analgesic medication. Comparisons among the groups were made on psychological and substance abuse symptoms as well as motivations to engage in nonmedical use. Methods A web-based survey, the Secondary Student Life Survey (SSLS) was administered to a sample of students who attended one of five secondary schools in southeastern Michigan. The sample included 2,627 respondents and was evenly distributed by sex and grade. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) were White/Caucasian and 29.5% African-American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD=1.9). Results Seventy percent (70.4%, n=1850) reported never using opioid analgesics in their lifetimes. Of the remaining 24.5% (n=644) of opioid analgesic users, most were medical users. However, 3.5% (n=92) were classified as nonmedical users who used someone else’s medication for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n=41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g. to get high). In contrast to never users, both medical users and nonmedical users reported more substance abuse symptoms and symptoms associated with pain. Further, those nonmedical users who used opioids to sensation seek had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. Conclusions These data: 1) provide additional support for the existence of distinct subgroups of adolescent opioid analgesic users; 2) provide evidence of psychological symptoms associated with nonmedical use; and 3) highlight the psychological differences among nonmedical users who self-treat for pain versus

  14. CAM and energy psychology techniques remediate PTSD symptoms in veterans and spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Dawson; Brooks, Audrey J

    2014-01-01

    Male veterans and their spouses (N = 218) attending one of six-week-long retreats were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms pre- and postintervention. Participants were evaluated using the PTSD checklist (PCL), on which, a score of >49 indicates clinical symptom levels. The mean pretest score was 61.1 (SD ± 12.5) for veterans and 42.6 (SD ± 16.5) for spouses; 83% of veterans and 29% of spouses met clinical criteria. The multimodal intervention used Emotional Freedom Techniques and other energy psychology (EP) methods to address PTSD symptoms and a variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities for stress reduction and resource building. Interventions were delivered in group format as well as individual counseling sessions. Data were analyzed for each retreat, as well as for the six retreats as a whole. Mean post-test PCL scores decreased to 41.8 (SE ± 1.2; p < .001) for veterans, with 28% still clinical. Spouses demonstrated substantial symptom reductions (M = 28.7, SE ± 1.0; p < .001), with 4% still clinical. A follow-up assessment (n = 63) found PTSD symptom levels dropping even further for spouses (p < .003), whereas gains were maintained for veterans. The significant reduction in PTSD symptoms is consistent with other published reports of EP treatment, though counter to the usual long-term course of the condition. The results indicate that a multimodal CAM intervention incorporating EP may offer benefits to family members as well as veterans suffering from PTSD symptoms. Recommendations are made for further research to answer the questions posed by this study. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Subjective symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome correlate more with psychological factors than electrophysiological severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firosh Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied. Boston CTS Assessment Questionnaire (BCTSAQ and visual analog scale (VAS were used to assess subjective symptom severity. Psychological status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Electrophysiological severity of CTS was estimated by median motor distal latency and median to ulnar peak sensory latency difference across the wrist. Each parameter in both hands was scored from 0 to 3 depending on the severity grade, and a composite electrophysiological severity score (CEPSS was calculated for each patient by summing up the scores in both hands. Statistical analysis was done by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: There was significant correlation of BCTSAQ with VAS (P = 0.001, HADS anxiety score (P < 0.001, and HADS depression score (P = 0.01. CEPSS had no significant correlation with VAS (P = 0.103, HADS anxiety score (P = 0.211, or HADS depression score (P = 0.55. CEPSS had a borderline correlation with BCTSAQ (P = 0.048. Conclusions: While the subjective symptoms of CTS are well correlated with psychological factors, their correlation with objective electrophysiological severity is weak. Hence, prompt treatment of psychological comorbidity is important in symptomatic management of CTS; decision about surgical intervention should be based on electrophysiological severity rather than symptom severity.

  16. Psychological Symptoms among Workers Employed in Companies Undergoing Privatization in Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin; Hodžić, Medin; Selimbašić, Zihnet

    2011-01-01

    In Central and Eastern European countries, after abandoning communism, significant political, economic and social changes occurred, followed by the increase in income inequality and social disparity. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological symptoms and monthly income of employees in companies undergoing privatization. The study included 258 workers from seven companies undergoing privatization in the Tuzla Canton region. For the study purposes,...

  17. Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Laura E; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18-19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. A structural model of mechanisms predicting depressive symptoms in women following childhood psychological maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Aubrey A; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2014-01-01

    Two underlying mechanisms, emotion dysregulation and negative internalized beliefs, were examined as potential mediators of the association between childhood psychological maltreatment (PM) and depression in emerging adult women. PM was assessed as a multi-faceted construct including aspects of psychological abuse (e.g., corrupting) and psychological neglect (e.g., emotional unresponsiveness) that occurred by parents. Female undergraduates (n=771) completed anonymous, retrospective, self-report surveys assessing childhood PM, current depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation (lack of emotional clarity and regulation strategies), and negative internalized beliefs (mistrust, shame, and defectiveness). Psychological maltreatment was represented as four subtypes of psychological abuse or neglectful behavior: Emotional Non-Responsiveness, Spurning/Terrorizing, Corrupting, and Demanding/Rigid (i.e., controlling behavior). Both emotion dysregulation and negative internalized beliefs significantly mediated the link between childhood PM and depressive symptoms, accounting for approximately 68% of the variance in symptomatology. Findings suggest the importance of focusing intervention on development of emotion regulation capacity including emotional awareness and regulatory strategies, as well as a focus on core negative beliefs including shame, defectiveness, and mistrust of others. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Perceived autonomy support, psychological needs satisfaction, depressive symptoms and apathy in French hospitalized older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souesme, Guillaume; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Based on the self-determination theory, the aim of the present study was (1) to provide a better understanding of older people's psychological needs satisfaction in geriatric care units, then to link this information with depressive symptoms and apathy; (2) to examine whether the perceived autonomy support from health care professionals differs between needs satisfaction profiles; and (3) to investigate for all participants how each need satisfaction was related to depressive symptoms and apathy. Participants (N=100; Mage=83.33years, SD=7.78, 61% female) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, perceived autonomy support, geriatric depression and apathy. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Cluster analyses showed three distinct profiles: one profile with low-moderate need satisfaction, one profile with high-moderate need satisfaction and one profile with high need satisfaction. These profiles are distinct, and did not differ in terms of participants' characteristics, except gender. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed that participants with low-moderate need satisfaction profile have significantly higher level of depressive symptoms and apathy, and lower levels of perceived autonomy support than participants of the two other profiles. Moreover, for all participants, regression analyses revealed that both competence and relatedness needs satisfaction significantly and negatively explained 28% of the variance in depressive symptoms score and 44% of the variance in apathy score. Our results highlight the interest to examine more thoroughly the variables fostering autonomy-supportive environment in geriatric care units, and to deepen the relationship between competence and relatedness needs satisfaction and depressive symptoms and apathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [The Relationship Between Marital Adjustment and Psychological Symptoms in Women: The Mediator Roles of Coping Strategies and Gender Role Attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study were to investigate the mediator role of coping strategies and gender roles attitudes on the relationship between women's marital adjustment and psychological symptoms. 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form. Regression analyses revealed that Submissive (Sobel z= -2.47, prole on the relationship between marital relationship score and psychological symptom level. Also, having Egalitarian Gender Role Attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but it is seen that this effect is not higher enough to play a mediator role (Sobel z =-1.21, p>.05). Regression analysis showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between women's marital adjustment and their psychological symptoms, indicating that the marital adjustment decreases as the psychological symptoms increases. It is also found out that submissive and helpless coping approach have mediator roles in this relationship. Also, contrary to expectations, having egalitarian gender role attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but this effect does not seem to play a mediator role. It is thought that the effects of marriage and couple therapy approaches considering couples’s problem solving and coping styles should be examined in further studies.

  2. The Influence of Psychological Symptoms on Mental Health Literacy of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E.; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan

    2015-01-01

    Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report two studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. PMID:26052815

  3. Day-to-day co-variations of psychological and physical symptoms of the menstrual cycle: insights to individual differences in steroid reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2010-04-01

    The associations between physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle have not been carefully studied in past research, but may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these symptoms. The present study examines the day-to-day co-variations among physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle. These symptoms were evaluated on a daily basis across one entire menstrual cycle, with a non-clinical sample of 92 university students. Results showed that headaches, gastrointestinal problems, lower abdominal bloating, skin changes, and breast changes, were all significantly associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms; whereas back and joint pain, lower abdominal cramps, cervical mucous, and menstrual flow, were not associated with psychological symptoms. However, significant differences in these associations were observed across individuals for back and joint pain, headaches, lower abdominal cramps, skin changes, and menstrual flow: Whereas some women demonstrated higher levels of psychological symptoms associated with these physical symptoms, other women demonstrated lower levels of psychological symptoms. Finally, correlations among the associations between physical and psychological symptoms (slopes) demonstrated clear differences across the different physical symptoms. These results indicate that, although higher levels of some physical symptoms are associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms, there are significant differences in the magnitude and direction of these relations across individuals. Further consideration of physical symptoms may provide useful information for understanding individual differences in symptom profiles and response to steroid fluctuations, and for improving differential diagnosis and treatment planning and evaluation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between caregiver depression and individual behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Taiwanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Si-Sheng; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Fu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate caregiver depression associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms in Taiwanese people. A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Two hundred seventy-six pairs of patients with dementia and their caregivers who visited the memory clinic of a general hospital from July 2001 to October 2008 were recruited. Caregiver depression was evaluated with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Demographic data of the patients and caregivers, including cognitive functions and clinical dementia ratings, were collected. In addition to descriptive statistics, we examined the relationship between each parameter and caregiver depression using Pearson correlation, independent t-test, or analysis of variance. The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score and CES-D score (r = 0.345, P dementia, agitation/aggression, anxiety, nighttime behavior disturbances, irritability/lability, and hallucinations were the five leading symptoms significantly associated with caregiver depression (CES-D). Carefully managing these symptoms is likely to reduce depression in dementia caregivers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Cognitive conflict resolution during psychotherapy: Its impact on depressive symptoms and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Clara; Montesano, Adrián; Winter, David; Feixas, Guillem

    2017-11-26

    The aim of this study was to assess the resolution of cognitive conflicts (CCs) within a randomized controlled trial testing the differential efficacy of group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) plus an individually tailored intervention module focused on CCs vs. group plus individual CBT, and to determine whether CC resolution was related to improvement in symptoms and psychological distress. The data come from 104 adults meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and/or dysthymia. Change in scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure was assessed at the end of treatment and at three-month follow-up. Outcomes were compared between those participants who resolved their CCs and those who maintained them using three-level multilevel growth models. CC resolution did not depend on treatment allocation. Participants who resolved their CCs acquired greater benefits with regards to reduction of depressive symptoms and psychological distress than those who maintained their conflicts. CC seems to be a relevant notion to take into consideration to understand symptom improvement. Further research on CC might lead to the advancement of treatments which involve conflict resolution as a change mechanism.

  6. Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in Brazil: II. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Francisco de Assis Carvalho; Corrêa Neto, Ylmar; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Machado, João Carlos Barbosa; da Silva, Delson José; Allam, Nasser; Balthazar, Márcio Luiz Figueredo

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Brazil, with special focus on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). It constitutes a revision and broadening of the 2005 guidelines based on a consensus involving researchers (physicians and non-physicians) in the field. The authors carried out a search of articles published since 2005 on the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases. The search criteria were pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of AD. Studies retrieved were categorized into four classes, and evidence into four levels, based on the 2008 recommendations of the American Academy of Neurology. The recommendations on therapy are pertinent to the dementia phase of AD. Recommendations are proposed for the treatment of BPSD encompassing both pharmacological (including acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, neuroleptics, anti-depressives, benzodiazepines, anti-convulsants plus other drugs and substances) and non-pharmacological (including education-based interventions, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, music therapy, therapy using light, massage and art therapy) approaches. Recommendations for the treatment of cognitive disorders of AD symptoms are included in a separate article of this edition. PMID:29213743

  7. Systematic review of psychological approaches to the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Gill; Johnston, Kate; Katona, Cornelius; Paton, Joni; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2005-11-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature on psychological approaches to treating the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. Reports of studies that examined effects of any therapy derived from a psychological approach that satisfied prespecified criteria were reviewed. Data were extracted, the quality of each study was rated, and an overall rating was given to each study by using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. A total of 1,632 studies were identified, and 162 satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. Specific types of psychoeducation for caregivers about managing neuropsychiatric symptoms were effective treatments whose benefits lasted for months, but other caregiver interventions were not. Behavioral management techniques that are centered on individual patients' behavior or on caregiver behavior had similar benefits, as did cognitive stimulation. Music therapy and Snoezelen, and possibly sensory stimulation, were useful during the treatment session but had no longer-term effects; interventions that changed the visual environment looked promising, but more research is needed. Only behavior management therapies, specific types of caregiver and residential care staff education, and possibly cognitive stimulation appear to have lasting effectiveness for the management of dementia-associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Lack of evidence regarding other therapies is not evidence of lack of efficacy. Conclusions are limited because of the paucity of high-quality research (only nine level-1 studies were identified). More high-quality investigation is needed.

  8. The profile of behavioral and psychological symptoms in vascular cognitive impairment with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD between vascular dementia (VaD and vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with cognitive impairment at least 3 months after an ischemic stroke and with a Hachinski Ischemic Score ≥4 were included. VaD was diagnosed as per National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l′Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria for probable VaD and VCI-ND on the lines of the Canadian study of health and aging. The severity of cognitive impairment and the behavioral/psychological symptoms were studied by means of the clinical dementia rating scale and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI respectively. Results: All patients with VaD and 89% of those with VCI-ND had at least one BPSD. The mean no. of symptoms per patient and the total NPI scores were higher in VaD than in VCI-ND. Apathy and night-time behavior disturbances were significantly more common and severe in VaD. Conclusions: BPSD are very common both in VCI-ND and in VaD. The profile of BPSD is similar in both groups, albeit more severe in VaD. The net burden of BPSD is higher in VaD as compared to VCI-ND.

  9. The effect of social support derived from World of Warcraft on negative psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Huon; O'Connor, Erin; Obst, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    Previous research examining players of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) suggests that players form meaningful relationships with each other. Other research indicates that people may derive social support from online sources, and this social support has been associated with greater well-being. This study used an online survey of players (N = 206) of the MMOG World of Warcraft (WoW) to examine if social support can be derived from MMOGs and to examine its relationship with negative psychological symptoms. Players of WoW were found to derive social support from playing and a positive relationship was found between game engagement and levels of in-game social support. Higher levels of in-game social support were associated with fewer negative psychological symptoms, although this effect was not maintained after accounting for social support derived from the offline sources. Additionally, a small subsample of players (n = 21) who played for 44 to 82 hours per week (M = 63.33) was identified. These players had significantly lower levels of offline social support and higher levels of negative symptoms compared to the rest of the sample. This study provides evidence that social support can be derived from MMOGs and the associated potential to promote well-being but also highlights the potential harm from spending excessive hours playing.

  10. Dealing with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a general overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azermai M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Majda Azermai Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: Dealing with the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD is often complex. Given the controversy with regard to antipsychotics for behavioral problems in people with dementia, there has been a renewed emphasis on nonpharmacological interventions, with progress in the design of the relevant studies. Potential nonpharmacological interventions for BPSD are: cognitive training/stimulation, rehabilitative care, activities of daily living, music therapy, massage/touch, physical activity, education/training of professionals, and education and psychosocial support of informal caregivers. Use of antipsychotics in the management of BPSD is controversial due to limited efficacy and the risk of serious adverse effects, but credible alternatives remain scarce. The problem of chronic use of antipsychotics in nursing homes should be tackled. Discontinuation of antipsychotic medication in older individuals with BPSD appears to be feasible. Discontinuation efforts are needed to differentiate between patients for whom antipsychotics have no added value and patients for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. Keywords: behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms, dementia, interventions, nonpharmacological intervention

  11. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Brazil: II. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Carvalho do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reports the recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD in Brazil, with special focus on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. It constitutes a revision and broadening of the 2005 guidelines based on a consensus involving researchers (physicians and non-physicians in the field. The authors carried out a search of articles published since 2005 on the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases. The search criteria were pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of AD. Studies retrieved were categorized into four classes, and evidence into four levels, based on the 2008 recommendations of the American Academy of Neurology. The recommendations on therapy are pertinent to the dementia phase of AD. Recommendations are proposed for the treatment of BPSD encompassing both pharmacological (including acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, neuroleptics, anti-depressives, benzodiazepines, anti-convulsants plus other drugs and substances and non-pharmacological (including education-based interventions, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, music therapy, therapy using light, massage and art therapy approaches. Recommendations for the treatment of cognitive disorders of AD symptoms are included in a separate article of this edition.

  12. Associations Between Personality Disorder Characteristics, Psychological Symptoms, and Sexual Functioning in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogl, Andrea; Pelzer, Britt; Radder, Veerle; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2017-12-21

    Recently, the etiology of sexual dysfunctions in women has been approached from different angles. In clinical practice and in previous studies, it has been observed that women with sexual problems experience anxiety problems and express more rigid and perfectionistic personality traits than women without these problems. To investigate whether personality disorder characteristics according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and psychological symptoms are associated with sexual problems in women. 188 women 18 to 25 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires measuring sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index), personality disorder characteristics (Assessment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Questionnaire), and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The main outcome measure used was sexual functioning assessed by self-report. Results, using analysis of variance, indicated that women with sexual problems report significantly more cluster A (specifically schizoid) and C (specifically avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder characteristics than women without sexual problems. Furthermore, using multiple regression analyses, higher cluster A (specifically schizoid) and lower cluster B (specifically borderline and antisocial) personality disorder characteristics indicated lower levels of sexual functioning. Psychological symptoms partly mediated the effect of cluster A personality disorder characteristics on sexual functioning. The results of this study indicate that clinical practice should extend its scope by focusing more on improving adaptive personality characteristics, such as extraversion and individualism seen in cluster B personality characteristics, and decreasing the perfectionistic, introvert, and self-doubting characteristics seen in cluster C personality characteristics

  13. Somatoform symptoms profiles in relation to psychological disorders - A population classification analysis in a large sample of general adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Feizi, Awat; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Payman

    2017-08-01

    In order to identifying somatoform symptoms profiles, classifying study population and evaluating of psychological disorders in extracted classes, we carried out a cross-sectional study on 4762 Iranian adults. Somatoform symptoms were assessed using a comprehensive 30-items questionnaire and psychological disorders were evaluated by 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Factor analysis and factor mixture modeling (FMM) were used for data analysis. Four somatoform symptoms profiles were extracted, including 'psycho-fatigue', 'gastrointestinal', 'neuro- skeletal' and 'pharyngeal-respiratory'. According to FMM results, a two-class four-factor structure, based somatoform symptoms, was identified in our study population. Two identified classes were labeled as "low psycho-fatigue complaints" and "high psycho-fatigue complaints". The scores of psychological disorders profile was significantly associated with four somatoform symptoms profiles in both classes; however the stronger relationship was observed in high psycho-fatigue complaints class. The prevalence of all the somatoform symptoms among participants assigned to the "high psycho-fatigue complaints" class was significantly higher than other class. We concluded that somatoform symptoms have a dimensional-categorical structure within our study population. Our study also provided informative pathways on the association of psychological disorders with somatoform symptoms. These findings could be useful for dealing with treatment's approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  15. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.C.W.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Beurden-Berkers, K.M.; Terluin, B.; Ruotsalainen, J.H.; Woo, J.; Choi, K.S.; Eguchi, H.; Moriguchi, J.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; van Weeghel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  16. The role of psychological symptoms and social group memberships in the development of post-traumatic stress after traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janelle M; Williams, W Huw; Jetten, Jolanda; Haslam, S Alexander; Harris, Adrian; Gleibs, Ilka H

    2012-11-01

    The costs associated with traumatic injury are often exacerbated by the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms. However, it is unclear what decreases the development of post-traumatic symptoms over time. The aim of the present research was to examine the role of psychological symptoms and social group memberships in reducing the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms after orthopaedic injuries (OIs) and acquired brain injuries (ABIs). A longitudinal prospective study assessed self-reported general health symptoms, social group memberships, and post-traumatic stress symptoms among participants with mild or moderate ABI (n= 62) or upper limb OI (n= 31) at 2 weeks (T1) and 3 months (T2) after injury. Hierarchical regressions revealed that having fewer T1 general health symptoms predicted lower levels of T2 post-traumatic stress symptoms after OI but forming more new group memberships at T1 predicted lower levels of T2 post-traumatic stress symptoms after ABI. A focus on acquiring group memberships may be particularly important in reducing the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms after injuries, such as ABI, which result in long-term life changes. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Prevalence of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Individuals with Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal Devshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of 23 studies investigating the prevalence of Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in the general and learning disability population and measures used to assess BPSD was carried out. BPSD are non-cognitive symptoms, which constitute as a major component of dementia regardless of its subtype Research has indicated that there is a high prevalence of BPSD in the general dementia population. There are limited studies, which investigate the prevalence of BPSD within individuals who have learning disabilities and dementia. Findings suggest BPSDs are present within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia. Future research should use updated tools for investigating the prevalence of BPSD within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia.

  18. Psychological symptoms and quality of life of dermatology outpatients and hospitalized dermatology patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Ibsen, Hans Henning

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to compare psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life of dermatology patients and healthy controls. The sample consisted of 333 consecutively recruited patients from four dermatology outpatient clinics, 172 hospitalized dermatological patients from...... two university hospitals and 293 matched healthy controls. All patients and controls completed Beck's Depression Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Hospitalized patients were more distressed than outpatients and healthy controls and reported greater...... impairment of disease-related quality of life than outpatients. More hospitalized patients had suicidal thoughts and were characterized as having severe to moderate depression compared with outpatients and controls. Female patients and younger patients were generally more distressed than male patients...

  19. Prevalence of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Individuals with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devshi, Rajal; Shaw, Sarah; Elliott-King, Jordan; Hogervorst, Eef; Hiremath, Avinash; Velayudhan, Latha; Kumar, Satheesh; Baillon, Sarah; Bandelow, Stephan

    2015-12-02

    A review of 23 studies investigating the prevalence of Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in the general and learning disability population and measures used to assess BPSD was carried out. BPSD are non-cognitive symptoms, which constitute as a major component of dementia regardless of its subtype Research has indicated that there is a high prevalence of BPSD in the general dementia population. There are limited studies, which investigate the prevalence of BPSD within individuals who have learning disabilities and dementia. Findings suggest BPSDs are present within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia. Future research should use updated tools for investigating the prevalence of BPSD within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia.

  20. Predictors of psychological adjustment, experienced parenting burden and chronic sorrow symptoms in parents of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, K; Wee, D; Sanders, M R; Boyd, R

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the role of child behaviour, parental coping and experiential avoidance in predicting the psychological outcomes of: (i) psychological symptoms; (ii) chronic sorrow symptoms; and (iii) experienced parenting burden in parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study is a cross-sectional, correlational study. Ninety-four parents of children (aged 2-12 years) with CP (various levels of motor functioning GMFCS I-V) participated. Together, the three predictors of child behaviour, parental coping and experiential avoidance explained 36.8% of the variance in psychological symptoms with child behavioural problems and experiential avoidance as significant unique predictors. In addition, 15.8% of the variance in chronic sorrow symptoms was explained by the three predictors with experiential avoidance alone as a significant unique predictor. Lastly, the predictors together explained 24.3% of the variance in experienced parenting burden with child behavioural problems and experiential avoidance as significant unique predictors. This study demonstrates a relationship between child behavioural problems and parental psychological symptoms and experienced parenting burden as well as a relationship between experiential avoidance and parental psychological symptoms, experienced parenting burden and chronic sorrow symptoms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Quality of Life in healthy old age: relationships with childhood IQ, minor psychological symptoms and optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Gillian H; Lemmon, Helen; Teunisse, Saskia; Starr, John M; Fox, Helen C; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relationships in old age between Quality of Life (QoL), childhood IQ, current cognitive performance and minor psychological symptoms, and to estimate possible contributions to these relationships made by sex, education, socioeconomic deprivation, current living group, sex, and balance and 6m walk time. We conducted a follow-up study on 88 community residents without dementia who were survivors of the Aberdeen City 1921 birth cohort. QoL was measured by the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual QoL-Direct Weighting (SEIQoL-DW), current cognition by MMSE and Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), childhood IQ, minor psychological symptoms as assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and optimism by the Life Orientation Test (LOT); we included balance, 6m walk time and demographic data. QoL was better in men than in women. Women reported more anxiety and depression. QoL correlated significantly with current cognition measured by RPM, childhood intelligence, anxiety and depressive symptoms, optimism and balance. The best model to predict QoL relied on childhood intelligence (13.4% of the variance) and was improved by addition of HADS (8.8 %) and LOT (4.8 %). Other variables did not contribute to the prediction of QoL. In the absence of dementia, childhood IQ, HADS and LOT explain 26.9% of the variance in QoL as reported by community-resident old people. The direction of association between current anxiety and depressive symptoms and lower QoL is uncertain. Lower childhood IQ may contribute to coping less well with later life. Lower QoL is not an invariable concomitant of mild cognitive decline.

  2. Psychological Resilience, Affective Mechanisms, and Symptom Burden in a Tertiary Care Sample of Patients with Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Samantha J; Vincent, Ann; Hassett, Afton L; Whipple, Mary O; Oh, Terry H; Benzo, Roberto P; Toussaint, Loren L

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that patients with fibromyalgia who have higher positive and lower negative affect have lower symptom burden. Affect has been shown to be associated with resilience. This study examined the relationship between affect, resilience, and fibromyalgia symptom burden in a clinical sample of patients with fibromyalgia. We hypothesized that (a) positive and negative affect would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; (b) resilience would be associated with positive and negative affect; (c) resilience would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; and (d) the connection between resilience and fibromyalgia symptom burden would be mediated by both positive and negative affect. A sample of 858 patients with fibromyalgia completed questionnaires. Mediation modeling revealed statistically significant direct effects of resilience on fibromyalgia symptom burden (β =−.10, P fibromyalgia symptom burden through affect (β =−.36, P fibromyalgia symptom burden. Our results suggest that improving affect through resiliency training could be studied as a modality for improving fibromyalgia symptom burden. PMID:24376184

  3. The effect of psychomotor physical therapy on subjective health complaints and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitve, Monica H; Hynninen, Minna J; Kvåle, Alice

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of Norwegian psychomotor physical therapy on subjective health complaints and psychological symptoms. A non-randomized waiting list controlled design was used. Physiotherapists in Norway recruited patients for a treatment group (n = 40) and waiting list control group (n = 22). Patients on the waiting list could only be included for 6 months, as they then started treatment. Symptoms registration was obtained from both groups at baseline and 6 months, and only for the treatment group also at 12 months. The following self-report forms were used; Subjective Health Complaints Inventory (SCH); Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II); Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T); Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS); Fatigue Questionnaire (FQ); Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI); The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ). The patients had had widespread and clinically significant health problems for an average of 9 years upon entrance to the study. After 6 months in psychomotor physical therapy, all the measured symptoms in the treatment group were significantly reduced, but only quality of life was significantly reduced when compared to the waiting list control group. After 12 months in therapy, the patients in the treatment group had continued to improve on all measured variables. The symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as quality of life, were improved from clinical to non-clinical level. Norwegian psychomotor physical therapy seems to have potential for reducing symptoms of subjective health complaints, depression, anxiety, insomnia, fatigue and improving quality of life, although the process takes time. Further research is needed to gain more rigorous data, and randomized controlled studies are highly welcomed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Behavioural and psychological symptoms in the older population without dementia - relationship with socio-demographics, health and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayne Carol

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural and psychological symptoms are associated with dementia, but are also present in a significant number of the older population without dementia. Here we explore the distribution of behavioural and psychological symptoms in the population without dementia, and their relationship with domains and severity of health and cognitive impairment. Methods The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study is a two-phase longitudinal study of ageing representative of the population aged 65 and over of England and Wales. A subsample of 1781 participants without a study diagnosis of dementia was included in this study. Information on symptoms including depression, apathy, anxiety, feelings of persecution, hallucination, agitated behaviour, elation, irritability, sleep problems, wandering, confabulation and misidentification, cognitive function, health related factors and socio-demographic information was extracted from interviews with participants and knowledgeable informants. Participants were classified according to the Mini-Mental State Examination and by criteria for subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The prevalence of behavioural and psychological symptoms and associations with cognitive function, health and socio-demographics was examined. Co-occurrence of symptoms was tested using factor analysis. Results Most symptoms were reported more frequently in those with more severe cognitive impairment. Subjective memory complaints were the strongest independent predictor of reported symptoms, and most were reported more often in those classified as having MCI than in those with cognitive impairments that did not meet the MCI criteria. The pattern of co-occurrence of symptoms is similar to that seen in dementia. Conclusions Our results highlight that behavioural and psychological symptoms are prevalent in the cognitively impaired older population, and partly explain the variation observed in previous

  5. [Screening for bipolar disorder in primary care patients with psychological symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Escobar-Rabadán, Francisco; Téllez-Lapeira, Juan; Mínguez, José; Párraga, Ignacio; Suárez-Hernández, Tatiana; Piñero, María José; Guzón, Marta-Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of positive results in the screening of bipolar disorder (BD) among primary care patients presenting with psychological symptoms, and to analyze their characteristics. Multicenter cross-sectional study. Nineteen Primary Care clinics in different Spanish regions. A total of 360 consecutive primary care patients aged 18 to 70, presenting with psychological symptoms. Screening for BP was performed by means of the Mood Disorders Questionnaire. Data on quality of life (EuroQol-5D) and functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Inventory) were obtained. Data on psychiatric comorbidity and data on the use of psychotropic medication were acquired by review of medical records. Of the patients screened, 11.9% were positive (95%CI: 8.8%-15.7%). Only two patients had a diagnosis of BP in their clinical records and, although more than half received treatment with antidepressants, only two received treatment with mood stabilizers. Positive screening is associated with work, social and family dysfunction, greater perceived stress and poor quality of life. BD screening in primary care patients with psychological problems leads to a striking proportion of positive results, indicating that there may be a significant prevalence of BP patients, most of them undiagnosed and untreated. Further research is needed to determine the role that Primary Care can or should assume in the screening, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of 6-yr symptom course trajectories of anxiety disorders by diagnostic, clinical and psychological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Batelaan, Neeltje; Rhebergen, Didi; van Balkom, Anton; Schoevers, Robert; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify course trajectories of anxiety disorder using a data-driven method and to determine the incremental predictive value of clinical and psychological variables over and above diagnostic categories. 703 patients with DSM-IV panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder were selected from a prospective cohort study. Latent Growth Mixture Modeling was conducted, based on symptoms of anxiety and avoidance as assessed with the Life Chart Interview covering a 6-year time period. In 44% of the participants symptoms of anxiety and avoidance improved, in 24% remained stable, in 25% slightly increased, and in 7% severely increased. Identified course trajectories were predicted by baseline DSM-IV anxiety categories, clinical variables (i.e., severity and duration and level of disability) and psychological predictors (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety sensitivity, worry, and rumination). Clinical variables better predicted unfavorable course trajectories than psychological predictors, over and above diagnostic categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 50 How can informal support impact child PTSD symptoms following a psychological trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support. Parents, in particular, are often the primary source of support. However, it remains unclear what types of parental responses may be effective, and parents themselves report experiencing uncertainty about the best approach. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the capacity for specific aspects of parental responding in the aftermath of child trauma to facilitate or hinder children's psychological recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study of 132 parent-child pairs, recruited following the child's experience of trauma and subsequent attendance at one of four regional emergency departments. At an initial assessment, within 1 month post-trauma, we examined how parents appraised and responded to their child following the event, using both questionnaires and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSD symptom severity at 1 month, and at a follow up 6 months later. Children also reported on their own appraisals of the trauma and their coping behaviours, which were considered as potential mediators between parental support and later child symptoms. Controlling for relevant covariates and initial PTSD symptoms, parent negative appraisals of the trauma and encouragement of avoidant coping in children were associated with higher child-reported PTSD symptoms at 6 month follow-up. There was some evidence that children's own trauma related appraisals and coping styles mediated these effects. Findings indicate that

  8. The Impact of Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Trauma on Psychological Symptoms in Refugees: The Moderating Role of Gender and Trauma Type.

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    Haldane, Joanne; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-10-01

    Research findings have documented a relationship between the number of types of traumatic events to which refugees were exposed and psychological disorders. It is unclear, however, if gender moderates the impact of trauma on refugee mental health. The participants in this study were 60 male and 31 female refugees and asylum-seekers resettled in Australia. Participants had a mean age of 34.54 years (SD = 9.70), and were from a variety of countries including Iraq, Iran, and Sri Lanka. We conducted a multigroup path analysis to test if the relationship between psychological outcomes of exposure to trauma (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms, symptoms of anxiety, and symptoms of depression) was different as a function of the type of traumatic exposure (interpersonal vs. noninterpersonal) or as a function of gender. We found a significant relationship between interpersonal trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms (β = .77) and anxiety symptoms (β = .32) in women, and a significant association between noninterpersonal trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms (β = .59), anxiety (β =.49), and depression symptoms (β = .32) in men. For men, the effect sizes of the relationship between exposure to specific types of noninterpersonal trauma and psychological symptoms ranged from d = 0.14 to 1.01; for exposure to interpersonal trauma, they ranged from d = -0.53 to 0.43. For women, the effect sizes of the relationship between exposure to specific types of noninterpersonal trauma and psychological symptoms ranged from d = -0.79 to 0.67; for exposure to interpersonal trauma, they ranged from d = -0.09 to 1.46. These results suggested supporting refugees in their efforts to overcome the psychological impact of trauma, including the allocation of resources in clinical services to support the psychological recovery of refugees. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Role of Mindfulness and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies on Predicting the Psychological Symptoms of Medical Students

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    Sajjadi MS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Besides many problems during education courses, an increase in the level of stress, depression, or anxiety leads to interferences with the students’ professional roles. Mindfulness and cognitive strategies to regulate emotions positively affect human health in different human classes and different psychological symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the differentiation roles of mindfulness and cognitive strategies to regulate emotions in prediction of the psychological symptoms in the medical students.  Instrument & Methods: As a descriptive-correlational study, 375 students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences were randomly studied in 2014-15. The study tools were 5-dimension Mindfulness Questionnaire, Cognitive Strategies to Regulate the Emotions Questionnaire, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Questionnaire. Data was analyzed in SPSS 20 software using Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Stepwise Regression test. Findings: There was a significant correlation between the emotion regulation strategies and mindfulness and depression, anxiety, and stress (p<0.01. 25% of variance changes in depression were explained by the emotion regulation negative cognitive strategies (12%, the emotion regulation positive cognitive strategies (9%, and mindfulness (4%. 17% of the variance changes in anxiety were explained by the emotion regulation negative (12% and positive (5% cognitive strategies. 19.3% of the variance changes in stress were explained by the emotion regulation negative (17% and positive (2.3% cognitive strategies (p<0.05. Conclusion: The effectiveness of cognitive strategies to regulate the emotions and especially, negative cognitive strategies to regulate the emotions is more considerable in explaining the psychological symptoms in the medical students than mindfulness. 

  10. Differential role of CBT skills, DBT skills and psychological flexibility in predicting depressive versus anxiety symptom improvement.

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    Webb, Christian A; Beard, Courtney; Kertz, Sarah J; Hsu, Kean J; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2016-06-01

    Studies have reported associations between cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) skill use and symptom improvement in depressed outpatient samples. However, little is known regarding the temporal relationship between different subsets of therapeutic skills and symptom change among relatively severely depressed patients receiving treatment in psychiatric hospital settings. Adult patients with major depression (N = 173) receiving combined psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment at a psychiatric hospital completed repeated assessments of traditional CBT skills, DBT skills and psychological flexibility, as well as depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated that only use of behavioral activation (BA) strategies significantly predicted depressive symptom improvement in this sample; whereas DBT skills and psychological flexibility predicted anxiety symptom change. In addition, a baseline symptom severity X BA strategies interaction emerged indicating that those patients with higher pretreatment depression severity exhibited the strongest association between use of BA strategies and depressive symptom improvement. Findings suggest the importance of emphasizing the acquisition and regular use of BA strategies with severely depressed patients in short-term psychiatric settings. In contrast, an emphasis on the development of DBT skills and the cultivation of psychological flexibility may prove beneficial for the amelioration of anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients.

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    Baker, Tamara A; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; McMillan, Susan C

    2016-11-02

    Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping), and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning), behavioral (pain-related distress), and demographic characteristics. Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  12. Distress in Spouses of Service Members with Symptoms of Combat-Related PTSD: Secondary Traumatic Stress or General Psychological Distress?

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    Renshaw, Keith D.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Blais, Rebecca K.; Markman, Howard J.; Stanley, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked with elevated psychological distress in service members’/veterans’ spouses. Researchers use a variety of terms to describe this distress, and recently, secondary traumatic stress and secondary traumatic stress disorder (STS/STSD) have become increasingly commonly used. Although STS/STSD connotes a specific set of symptoms that are linked to service members’/veterans’ symptoms, researchers often use general measures of distress or generically worded measures of PTSD symptoms to assess STS/STSD. To determine how often scores on such measures appear to be an accurate reflection of STS/STSD, we examined responses to a measure of PTSD symptoms in 190 wives of male service members with elevated levels of PTSD symptoms. Wives rated their own PTSD symptoms, and then answered questions about their attributions for the symptoms they endorsed. Fewer than 20% of wives who endorsed symptoms on the PTSD measure attributed these symptoms completely to their husbands’ military experiences. Moreover, compared with wives who attributed symptoms only to events in their own lives, wives who attributed symptoms completely or partially to their husbands’ military experiences had a greater overlap between some of their responses on the PTSD measure and their responses to a measure of general psychological distress. These results suggest that most wives of service members/veterans with PTSD experience generic psychological distress that is not conceptually consistent with STS/STSD, although a subset does appear to endorse a reaction consistent with this construct. Implications of these findings for intervention and research with this vulnerable population are discussed. PMID:21639635

  13. Attachment to Parents and Depressive Symptoms in College Students: The Mediating Role of Initial Emotional Adjustment and Psychological Needs

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    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.

  14. Psychological and physical correlates of musculoskeletal symptoms in male professional divers and offshore workers.

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    Ross, John As; Macdiarmid, Jennifer I; Rostron, Claire L; Watt, Stephen J; Crawford, John R

    2013-02-01

    Underwater divers are more likely to complain of musculoskeletal symptoms than a control population. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine whether musculoskeletal symptoms reflected observable physical disorder, to ascertain the relationship between symptoms and measures of mood, memory and executive function and to assess any need for future screening. A 10% random sample of responders to a prior postal health questionnaire was examined (151 divers, 120 non-diving offshore workers). Participants underwent physical examination and a neuropsychological test battery for memory and executive function. Participants also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for anxiety (HADSa) and depression (HADSd), and questionnaires for physical health-related quality of life (SF36 PCS), mental health-related quality of life (SF36 MCS), memory (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ)), executive function (dysexecutive syndrome questionnaire (DEX)), musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and general unrelated symptom reporting. Of participants with moderate/severe musculoskeletal symptoms, 52% had physical signs, and of participants with no symptoms, 73% had no physical signs. There was no difference in the prevalence of signs or symptoms between groups. Musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with lower SF36 PCS for both groups. In divers, musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with higher general unrelated symptom reporting and poorer scoring for HADSa, PRMQ, CFQ and DEX with scores remaining within the normative range. A positive physical examination was associated with general unrelated symptom reporting in divers. There were no differences in neuropsychological test scores attributable to either group or musculoskeletal symptoms. Musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with physical signs, but this was not a strong effect. Reporting of musculoskeletal symptoms by the divers studied was also associated

  15. The influence of psychological symptoms on mental health literacy of college students.

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    Kim, Jin E; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan

    2015-11-01

    Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report 2 studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

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    Kim H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77 and control subjects (n=37 were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuro­psychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured.Results: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating.Conclusion: Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the

  17. Dysfunctional remembered parenting in oncology outpatients affects psychological distress symptoms in a gender-specific manner.

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    Kouzoupis, Anastasios V; Lyrakos, Dimitrios; Kokras, Nikolaos; Panagiotarakou, Meropi; Syrigos, Kostas N; Papadimitriou, George N

    2012-12-01

    Evidence suggests that gender differences appear in a variety of biological and psychological responses to stress and perhaps in coping with acute and chronic illness as well. Dysfunctional parenting is also thought to be involved in the process of coping with stress and illness; hence, the present study aimed to verify whether dysfunctional remembered parenting would influence psychological distress in a gender-specific manner in patients suffering from cancer. Patients attending an outpatient oncology clinic completed the Remembered Relationships with Parents (RRP), Hospital Anxiety and Depression and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scales and the National Cancer Center Network Distress Thermometer. Although no baseline gender differences were detected, a multivariate analysis confirmed that anxiety and depression symptoms of men and women suffering from cancer are differentially affected by the RRP Control and Alienation scores. Women with remembered parental alienation and overprotection showed significantly more anxiety symptoms than men, whereas men were more vulnerable to remembered alienation than overprotection with regard to the Distress Thermometer scores. These results suggest that remembered dysfunctional parenting is crucially, and in a gender-specific manner, involved in the coping strategy adopted by male and female cancer patients. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Doing Gender Online: New Mothers' Psychological Characteristics, Facebook Use, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Yavorsky, Jill E; Bartholomew, Mitchell K; Sullivan, Jason M; Lee, Meghan A; Kamp Dush, Claire M; Glassman, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Online social networking sites, such as Facebook, have provided a new platform for individuals to produce and reproduce gender through social interactions. New mothers, in particular, may use Facebook to practice behaviors that align with their mothering identity and meet broader societal expectations, or in other words, to "do motherhood." Given that Facebook use may undermine well-being, it is important to understand the individual differences underlying new mothers' experiences with Facebook during the stressful first months of parenthood. Using survey data from a sample of 127 new mothers with Facebook accounts residing in the U.S. Midwest, we addressed two key questions: (a) Are individual differences in new mothers' psychological characteristics associated with their use and experiences of Facebook? and (b) Are new mothers' psychological characteristics associated with greater risk for depressive symptoms via their use and experiences of Facebook? Regression analyses revealed that mothers who were more concerned with external validation of their identities as mothers and those who believed that society holds them to excessively high standards for parenting engaged in more frequent Facebook activity and also reported stronger emotional reactions to Facebook commentary. Moreover, mothers who were more concerned with external validation were more likely to have featured their child in their Facebook profile picture. Mediation analyses indicated that mothers who were more prone to seeking external validation for their mothering identity and perfectionistic about parenting experienced increases in depressive symptoms indirectly via greater Facebook activity.

  19. Doing Gender Online: New Mothers’ Psychological Characteristics, Facebook Use, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Yavorsky, Jill E.; Bartholomew, Mitchell K.; Sullivan, Jason M.; Lee, Meghan A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Glassman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Online social networking sites, such as Facebook, have provided a new platform for individuals to produce and reproduce gender through social interactions. New mothers, in particular, may use Facebook to practice behaviors that align with their mothering identity and meet broader societal expectations, or in other words, to “do motherhood.” Given that Facebook use may undermine well-being, it is important to understand the individual differences underlying new mothers’ experiences with Facebook during the stressful first months of parenthood. Using survey data from a sample of 127 new mothers with Facebook accounts residing in the U.S. Midwest, we addressed two key questions: (a) Are individual differences in new mothers’ psychological characteristics associated with their use and experiences of Facebook? and (b) Are new mothers’ psychological characteristics associated with greater risk for depressive symptoms via their use and experiences of Facebook? Regression analyses revealed that mothers who were more concerned with external validation of their identities as mothers and those who believed that society holds them to excessively high standards for parenting engaged in more frequent Facebook activity and also reported stronger emotional reactions to Facebook commentary. Moreover, mothers who were more concerned with external validation were more likely to have featured their child in their Facebook profile picture. Mediation analyses indicated that mothers who were more prone to seeking external validation for their mothering identity and perfectionistic about parenting experienced increases in depressive symptoms indirectly via greater Facebook activity. PMID:28239228

  20. The relationship between psychological symptoms and frequency of eating disorders in adolescents

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    Hasan Hüseyin Çam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses that are associated with significant physical complications. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of disordered eating attitudes and their relationship to psychological symptoms among adolescent students.  Methods: 338 high school students participated in this descriptive study. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT˗26, the Duke Health Profile and a socio-demographic questionnaire. An EAT-26 score of 20 or higher was defined as the presence of disordered eating attitudes. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 16.0, through the use of both descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The frequency of eating disorder attitudes was found to be 18.3% (7.1% among boys and 21.3% among girls. The  results indicate that there are statistically significant associations between the risk of developing eating disorders and age, gender and mental health. Conclusion: Eating disorders are becoming more prevalent amongst adolescents, particularly among females. As eating disorder are strongly associated with adolescent mental health, intervention programmes should be implemented, with a focus on adolescent developmental challenges and issues for both sexes, particularly in school education syllabi.Key words: Eating disorders, frequency, adolescents, psychological symptoms

  1. Childhood life events and psychological symptoms in adult survivors of the 2004 tsunami.

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    Wahlström, Lars; Michélsen, Hans; Schulman, Abbe; Backheden, Magnus

    2010-08-01

    Negative life events in childhood have an adverse influence on adult psychological health, and increase vulnerability to subsequent potential traumas. It remains unclear whether this is also true in the case of disasters. This study investigates whether the experience of negative life events in childhood and adolescence was associated with psychological symptoms in groups of Swedish survivors with different types of exposure to the tsunami. 1505 survivors from Stockholm responded to a questionnaire on psychological distress, which was sent by post 14 months after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Psychological distress was measured by General Health Questionnaire-12 and suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress was measured by Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Life events prior to age 16 were collected and categorized under the indices accident, violence, loss and interpersonal events. Exposure to the tsunami was categorized in different types, and controlled for in the analyses. With the adjustment for confounders, significant odds ratios were found for all indices on at least one outcome measure, despite the powerful effect of the tsunami. We could not discern any distinct difference in the distribution of the tendency to report the different outcomes depending on types of prior life events. The implication of the study is that, for adult survivors of disaster, the reporting of adverse life events from childhood may influence future decisions regarding therapy.

  2. Considering Positive Psychology Constructs of Life Satisfaction and School Connectedness When Assessing Symptoms Related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Emily B. Mancil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD demonstrate significant difficulty with academic and behavioral functioning. This, in turn, can lead to lower educational attainment and vocational achievement, which has serious long-term consequences and costs to individuals and society (Barkley, 2002, 2006; Mannuzza, Klein, Bessler, Malloy, & LaPadula, 1993. Researchers from a positive psychology framework suggest that ADHD symptoms (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity alone may not fully explain academic impairment (Diener, Scollon, & Lucas, 2004. From the standpoint of positive psychology, life satisfaction and school connectedness are important constructs that examine positive life functioning; however, they have been understudied, particularly in the area of ADHD. The current study investigated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and these positive psychological constructs. Results indicate that as ADHD symptoms increase, life satisfaction decreases; however, no relationship between ADHD symptoms and school connectedness was found. Beyond our primary analysis, we examined the relationship between gender and these variables. Results suggest that gender significantly moderates the relationship between ADHD and life satisfaction, with life satisfaction ratings decreasing for males as ADHD symptoms increase, yet remaining stable for females. ADHD symptoms did not significantly predict changes in school connectedness. Furthermore, gender did not significantly moderate the relationship between school connectedness and ADHD symptoms.

  3. The relationship between physical and psychological symptoms and health care utilization in hospitalized patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Ryan D; El-Jawahri, Areej; Moran, Samantha M; D'Arpino, Sara M; Johnson, P Connor; Lage, Daniel E; Wong, Risa L; Pirl, William F; Traeger, Lara; Lennes, Inga T; Cashavelly, Barbara J; Jackson, Vicki A; Greer, Joseph A; Ryan, David P; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Temel, Jennifer S

    2017-12-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often experience frequent and prolonged hospitalizations; however, the factors associated with greater health care utilization have not been described. We sought to investigate the relation between patients' physical and psychological symptom burden and health care utilization. We enrolled patients with advanced cancer and unplanned hospitalizations from September 2014-May 2016. Upon admission, we assessed physical (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]) and psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire 4 [PHQ-4]). We examined the relationship between symptom burden and healthcare utilization using linear regression for hospital length of stay (LOS) and Cox regression for time to first unplanned readmission within 90 days. We adjusted all models for age, sex, marital status, comorbidity, education, time since advanced cancer diagnosis, and cancer type. We enrolled 1,036 of 1,152 (89.9%) consecutive patients approached. Over one-half reported moderate/severe fatigue, poor well being, drowsiness, pain, and lack of appetite. PHQ-4 scores indicated that 28.8% and 28.0% of patients had depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The mean hospital LOS was 6.3 days, and the 90-day readmission rate was 43.1%. Physical symptoms (ESAS: unstandardized coefficient [B], 0.06; P cancer experience a high symptom burden, which is significantly associated with prolonged hospitalizations and readmissions. Interventions are needed to address the symptom burden of this population to improve health care delivery and utilization. Cancer 2017;123:4720-4727. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. The Predictive Strength of Perceived Parenting and Parental Attachment Styles on Psychological Symptoms among Turkish University Students

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    Serdar Körük

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and uses causal comparative research design. The sample of this study consists of 400 university students. Young Parenting Inventory, Parental Bonding Instrument and Brief Symptom Inventory were used for gathering data. The depressive, hostility and anxiety symptoms were determined as the most prevalent psychological symptoms among the sample. The conditional/achievement-oriented and ruling/former mother perceptions were found as the most prevalent perceived parenting styles for mother and the conditional/achievement-oriented and close/repressed feelings perceived as parenting styles for father. Pessimistic/fearful mother, belittling/captious mother and overprotective/worrywart father were found as the most predictive perceived parenting styles which predict the psychological symptoms in a significant level and in a positive way

  5. The relationship of hardiness, sense of coherence, sports participation, and gender to perceived stress and psychological symptoms among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirka, N

    2000-03-01

    This study addresses the issue of why under conditions of stress some people stay physically and psychologically healthy while others become ill. Being able to deal with stress, to cope with the pressures of daily life, and yet stay healthy, is seen as a function of such factors as physical health, psychological health, constitutional predisposition, social support, exercise habits, and personality. This study examined the moderating effects of the personality constructs of hardiness and sense of coherence, sports participation (college varsity athletes and college nonathletes), and gender on the relationship between perceived stress and psychological symptoms. College varsity athletes (n = 135) and college nonathletes (n = 135), all undergraduates at New York University, completed four questionnaires: Hardiness Scale, Sense of Coherence Scale, Daily Hassles Scale, and Profile of Mood States. Participants also completed a background questionnaire providing basic demographic data. Psychological symptoms and perceived stress were the criterion variables: hardiness, sense of coherence, sports participation, and gender were the predictor variables. Correlational analyses were applied to the resulting data and used to answer and to test the research hypotheses. There was a significant positive correlation between perceived stress and psychological symptoms among college varsity athletes and college nonathletes. There was a significant positive correlation between the personality scales of Hardiness and Sense of Coherence for both college varsity athletes and college nonathletes. When controlling for gender, college varsity athletes scored significantly higher on hardiness, scored slightly higher on sense of coherence, and reported significantly less perceived stress and significantly fewer psychological symptoms than the college nonathletes. Comparing by gender, no statistically significant mean differences were found on the four main variables. A significant negative

  6. [The mediating role of the interpersonal schemas between parenting styles and psychological symptoms: a schema focused view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soygüt, Gonca; Cakir, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived parenting styles and interpersonal schemas. The second purpose was to investigate the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms. University students (N=94), ages ranging between 17-26, attending to different faculty and classes, have completed Interpersonal Schema Questionnaire, Young Parenting Inventory and Symptom Check List-90. A series of regression analyses revealed that perceived parenting styles have predictive power on a number of interpersonal schemas. Further analyses pointed out that the mediator role of Hostility situation of interpersonal schemas between psychological symptoms and normative, belittling/criticizing, pessimistic/worried parenting styles on the mother forms (Sobel z= 1.94-2.08, p parenting styles (Sobel z= 2.20-2.86, p parenting styles on interpersonal schemas. Moreover, the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms was also observed. Excluding pessimistic/anxious parenting styles, perceived parenting styles of mothers and fathers differed in their relation to psychological symptoms. In overall evaluation, we believe that, although schemas and parental styles have some universalities in relation to their impacts on psychological health, further research is necessary to address their implications and possible paternal differences in our collectivistic cultural context.

  7. Perceived job insecurity and perceived employability in relation to temporary and permanent workers' psychological symptoms: a two samples study.

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    Kirves, Kaisa; De Cuyper, Nele; Kinnunen, Ulla; Nätti, Jouko

    2011-12-01

    To clarify the role of perceived job insecurity and perceived employability in relation to psychological symptoms among permanent and temporary employees in two samples. Sample 1 was representative of the Finnish working population in 2008 (n = 4,330; Study 1). Sample 2 was collected among Finnish university personnel and in two waves (n = 1,212; Study 2). Perceived job insecurity, perceived employability, and psychological symptoms were measured by questionnaires in both studies. Hypotheses were tested with regression analyses. The pattern of results was similar in the two samples. Perceived job insecurity was positively associated with psychological symptoms among permanent workers but not among temporary workers. No such differential relationships were observed for perceived employability, instead perceived employability was negatively associated with psychological symptoms among all respondents. Furthermore, perceived employability did not buffer the positive relation between perceived job insecurity and psychological symptoms. Knowledge about the relationship between contract type and workers' well-being can be enhanced when the combined effects of contract type and job conditions are accounted for.

  8. Psychological factors: anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms in low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Verjee, Mohamud; Dafeeah, Elnour E; Falah, Omar; Al-Juhaishi, Taha; Schlogl, Josia; Sedeeq, Alhasan; Khan, Shehryar

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP), investigate the sociodemographic characteristics of patients with LBP, and examine its association with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression, and somatization. Of the 2742 patients approached, 2180 agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study (79.5% response rate). The survey was conducted among primary health care visitors from March to October 2012 and collected sociodemographic details and LBP characteristics. General Health Questionnaire-12 was used to identify the probable cases. Anxiety was assessed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, depression was assessed with Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and somatization was measured with Patient Health Questionnaire-15. The study sample consisted of 52.9% males and 47.1% females. The prevalence of LBP was 59.2%, comprising 46.1% men and 53.9% women. LBP was significantly higher in Qataris (57.9%), women (53.9%), housewives (40.1%), and individuals with higher monthly income (53.9%). Somatization (14.9%) was observed more in LBP patients, followed by depression (13.7%) and anxiety disorders (9.5%). The most frequently reported symptoms were "headaches" (41.1%) and "pain in your arms, legs, or joints" (38.5%) in LBP patients with somatization. The most frequent symptoms among depressed LBP patients were "thinking of suicide or wanting to hurt yourself" (51.4%) and "feeling down, depressed, or hopeless" (49.2%). "Not being able to stop or control worrying" (40.2%), "worrying too much about different things" (40.2%), and "feeling afraid as if something awful might happen" (40.2%) were the most common anxiety symptoms in LBP patients. Psychological distress such as anxiety (9.5% versus 6.2%), depression (13.7% versus 8.5%), and somatization (14.9% versus 8.3%) were significantly higher in LBP patients. The prevalence of LBP in this study sample was comparable with other studies. Furthermore, psychological distress such as anxiety, depression, and

  9. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Methods Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232 receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping, and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning, behavioral (pain-related distress, and demographic characteristics. Results Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. Conclusions It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  10. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms Impact Clinical Competence in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Bertrand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is considered a fundamental aspect of personal autonomy and can be affected in psychiatric and neurologic diseases. It has been shown that cognitive deficits in dementia impact negatively on decision-making. Moreover, studies highlighted impaired clinical competence in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this context, the current study explored the relationship between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD and clinical competence, especially the capacity to consent to treatment, in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Seventy-one patients with mild to moderate AD participated, completing assessments for capacity to consent to treatment, general cognition and neuropsychiatric disturbances. For each neuropsychiatric symptom, patients with and without the particular disturbance were compared on the different subscales of the MacArthur Competence Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T; Understanding, Appreciation, Reasoning and Expression. The results showed that patients presenting delusions, as well as apathetic patients, had a lower ability to express a clear treatment choice compared to patients without these symptoms. By contrast, patients with dysphoria/depression had higher scores on this variable. Additionally, AD patients with euphoria had more difficulties discussing consequences of treatment alternatives compared to patients without this disturbance. None of the differences were confounded by global cognition. There were no between-group differences in clinical decision-making for patients with hallucinations, agitation/aggression, anxiety, irritability, disinhibition and aberrant motor behavior. These findings highlight the importance of taking BPSD into account when assessing decision-making capacity, especially clinical competence, in AD. Furthermore, reducing BPSD may lead to better clinical competence in patients with AD, as well as to improvements in patients and caregivers

  11. Needs in nursing homes and their relation with cognitive and functional decline, behavioral and psychological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmet needs are becoming acknowledged as better predictors of the worst prognostic outcomes than common measures of functional or cognitive decline. Their accurate assessment is a pivotal component of effective care delivery, particularly in institutionalized care where little is known about the needs of its residents, many of whom suffer from dementia and show complex needs. The aims of this study were to describe the needs of an institutionalized sample and to analyze its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample from three nursing homes. All residents were assessed with a comprehensive protocol that included Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and Adults and Older Adults Functional Inventory (IAFAI. To identify needs, the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE was used. The final sample included 175 residents with a mean age of 80.6(sd=10.1. From these, 58.7% presented cognitive deficit (MMSE and 45.2% depressive symptoms (GDS. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between MMSE score and met(rs=-0.425, unmet(rs=-0.369 and global needs(rs=-0.565. Data also showed significant correlations between depressive symptoms and unmet(rs=0.683 and global needs(rs=0.407 and between behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD and unmet (rs=0.181 and global needs (rs=0.254. Finally, significant correlations between functional impairment and met(rs=0.642, unmet(rs=0.505 and global needs(rs=0.796 were also found. These results suggest that in this sample, more unmet needs are associated with the worst outcomes measured. This is consistent with previous findings and seems to demonstrate that the needs of those institutionalized elderly remain under-diagnosed and untreated.

  12. Five Alzheimer's disease cases with refractory behavioural psychological symptoms of dementia treated with blonanserin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuro, Atsushi; Saito, Satona

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy, side-effects and tolerability of blonanserin for treating refractory behavioural psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). The present study was a 12-week, prospective, structured clinical trial of blonanserin for the treatment of BPSD. The degree of cognitive function, activities of daily living score, and the degree of BPSD were determined using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Rating Scale for Aggressive Behaviour in the Elderly (RAGE). The severity of extrapyramidal symptoms was assessed using the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms scale (DIEEPS). Five patients were enrolled. These patients met the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. The patients were prescribed more than two kinds of existing antipsychotic drugs and were considered refractory cases; the drugs were discontinued because they were ineffectual and side-effects appeared. Each drug was prescribed independently for at least 2 weeks. The mean changes (at baseline and at the last week, respectively) in the MMSE (12.25, 9.25), in the DAD (6.5, 6.75), in the RAGE (5.5, 5.3) and in the DIEEPS (0.5, 1.5) were minimal. The mean changes in the NPI were two or fewer points. Some side-effects (one gait abnormality and one pneumonia) were observed. The results of this preliminary study show that blonanserin does not have adequate efficacy for the treatment of refractory BPSD. © 2010 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2010 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  13. Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: Correlates and Impact on Caregiver Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adreesh Mukherjee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, to determine their correlation with types and stages of dementia and patient demographics, and to assess the impact on caregiver distress. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited consecutive dementia patients and caregivers who attended our cognitive clinic. Standard criteria were used to classify types of dementia. BPSD were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and its distress scale was used for caregiver distress. Results: Of a total 107 patients, nearly all (99.1% had at least one BPSD; 71% had ≥4 symptoms. Most frequent were apathy and agitation, followed by irritability, sleep and appetite disorders, and mood disorders; disinhibition and euphoria were least frequent. BPSD were less prominent with increasing age; males showed more agitation. Apathy and eating disorders were more prevalent in the rural community. BPSD were highest in frontotemporal dementia (FTD, followed by dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, and least in vascular dementia. Hallucinations were more common in DLB, aberrant motor behaviour in FTD. All domains of BPSD, except for anxiety and euphoria, were more prominent with increasing severity of dementia. Increasing BPSD (except for euphoria caused higher caregiver distress. Conclusion: BPSD are universally present, bear correlates with dementia type and severity, and cause significant caregiver distress.

  14. [Recommendations for diagnosis and therapy of behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaskan, Egemen; Bopp-Kistler, Irene; Buerge, Markus; Fischlin, Regina; Georgescu, Dan; Giardini, Umberto; Hatzinger, Martin; Hemmeter, Ulrich; Justiniano, Isabella; Kressig, Reto W; Monsch, Andreas; Mosimann, Urs P; Mueri, Renè; Munk, Anna; Popp, Julius; Schmid, Ruth; Wollmer, Marc A

    2014-01-29

    In patients with dementia, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are frequent findings that accompany deficits caused by cognitive impairment and thus complicate diagnostics, therapy and care. BPSD are a burden both for affected individuals as well as care-givers, and represent a significant challenge for therapy of a patient population with high degree of multi-morbidity. The goal of this therapy-guideline issued by swiss professional associations is to present guidance regarding therapy of BPSD as attendant symptoms in dementia, based on evidence as well as clinical experience. Here it appears to be of particular importance to take into account professional experience, as at this point for most therapeutic options no sufficiently controlled clinical trials are available. A critical discussion of pharmaco-therapeutic intervention is necessary, as this patient-population is particularly vulnerable for medication side-effects. Finally, a particular emphasis is placed on incorporating and systematically reporting psycho-social and nursing options therapeutic intervention.

  15. The relationship of perfectionism with psychological symptoms in cancer patients and the contributing role of hyperarousability and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Savard, Josée; Slim, Lisa-Maria; Roy, Renée-Claude; Flett, Gordon L; Hewitt, Paul L; Ivers, Hans

    2017-04-01

    Significant levels of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms are found in cancer patients. Perfectionism, arousability and coping have been associated with these psychological symptoms in the general population but their role among cancer patients remains to be assessed. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between perfectionism and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, insomnia), and the intermediate role of the arousability trait and coping strategies. Participants (N = 853) completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems questionnaire and the Arousal Predisposition Scale at the perioperative period (T1), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index two months later (T2). Higher levels of perfectionism (T1) were correlated with greater symptoms of anxiety, depression and insomnia (T2). Moderated mediation models indicated that arousability contributed to the association of perfectionism with all symptoms, with stronger associations found in men than in women. Coping was a significant pathway between perfectionism and anxiety, with associations of a comparable magnitude across sexes. If these results are replicated by future longitudinal studies, they would suggest that perfectionist cancer patients are at a higher risk of experiencing psychological symptoms, partly through their hyperarousability and the coping strategies they use.

  16. Psychological symptoms of family members of high-risk intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Jennifer L; Fontaine, Dorrie K; White, Douglas B; Dracup, Kathleen A; Puntillo, Kathleen A

    2012-11-01

    Family members of patients in intensive care are at increased risk for psychological symptoms. To compare levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression during and 3 months after the intensive care experience in family members of patients at high risk for dying and to determine if differences were related to the patient's final disposition. Longitudinal descriptive study of 41 family members in 3 tertiary care intensive care units. By repeated-measures analysis of variance, family members' levels of posttraumatic stress disorder were significantly lower (P = .01) at 3 months after (mean score, 1.27; SD, 0.86) than during (mean, 1.61; SD, 0.81) the experience. Mean anxiety and depression scores were significantly lower (P intensive care experience and did not differ according to the patients' final disposition. However, many family members still had significant risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline anxiety and depression at 3 months.

  17. How music and social engagement provides healthy aging and prevents behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2018-01-01

    engagement and learning, and further affects cognitive reserve and the way we age. Music and musical elements affect listeners differently but seem to regulate our body and brain at a much deeper level than we are aware of. When music touches and engages us, a release of the neurotransmitter Norepinephrine....... In addition, through musical interaction, meaningful expression of psychosocial needs may indirectly lead to a reduction of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. For the person with severe dementia, with sensory and cognitive decline, this offers a healthy means of remaining active, autonomous......Music is much more than a simple stimulus bringing individual pleasure; it also facilitates interpersonal synchrony. In this chapter professor of music therapy, Hanne Mette Ridder, brings together evidence from various disciplines to provide a new perspective on how music stimulates social...

  18. Antipsychotic treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in geropsychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edell, W S; Tunis, S L

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral/psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) affect caregiver burden and transition from home to hospital or long-term care. The authors examined change in BPSD for dementia patients (from hospital admission to discharge) who were prescribed haloperidol (n= 289), olanzapine (n=209), or risperidone (n=500). Olanzapine was associated with significantly greater overall improvement in BPSD (based on the Psychogeriatric Dependency Rating Scale total score) than risperidone or haloperidol. Olanzapine was significantly superior on measures of active-, verbal-, and passive-aggression and delusions/hallucinations to risperidone or haloperidol, and, on manipulative behavior and noisiness, to risperidone. Results support the effectiveness of olanzapine in improving several BPSD in hospitalized dementia patients.

  19. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

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    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  20. Effect of wearing fingers rings on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Teruo; Okamura, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Watanabe, Katsuya; Yokoi, Shigeko; Atae, Hitoshi; Ueda, Masayuki; Kuwayama, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Shigekazu; Tomino, Saaya; Fujii, Hideo; Honda, Takefumi; Morita, Takayosi; Yukawa, Takafumi; Harada, Nobuko

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of an approach that wears finger rings on elderly females with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The subjects were seven Japanese dementia patients living in elderly nursing homes. A single-case experimental design was adopted for the study. Each study subject was asked to put rings on her finger (from 9:00 to 19:00) for 7 days. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory, scenes of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, interest in wearing rings, self-awareness, and overall profile were determined to assess the effect on the patients of wearing rings. The majority of nursing care providers stated, based on their assessment, that the "irritability/lability" that was noted during the baseline period disappeared during the ring-wearing intervention period in the three patients who displayed an interest in rings. In the assessment of the self-awareness ability, these three women were aware themselves of their intellect collapsing and were capable of conjecturing their own and others' minds. It was commonly seen that the nursing staff, even though they had not been asked to do so by the researchers, told the patients, "Mrs. XX, you look so beautiful" when they found a patient wearing rings. Individuals with low self-esteem are inclined to get angry and display aggression. In subjects with low self-esteem, anger and aggression readily arise when they are slighted by others. Self-esteem is low in those women who are aware of their own status of collapsing intellect. It is concluded that the words of conjuration, "you look so beautiful," which the wearing of the ring per se by the patient elicited from the caregivers heightened the self-esteem and alleviated "irritability/lability" in the study subjects.

  1. Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji

    2014-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychological and drug abuse symptoms associated with nonmedical use of opioid analgesics among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 18% of US adolescents engaged in prescription opioid abuse in 2013. However, this estimate may be misleading because it includes both medical misusers and nonmedical users, and there is evidence that these are 2 groups that differ relative to substance abuse and criminal risk. Thus, this study does not combine medical and nonmedical users; rather, it seeks to better understand the characteristics of nonmedical users. This was a school-based, cross-sectional study that was conducted during 2009-2010 in southeastern Michigan with a sample of 2627 adolescents using a Web-based survey. Three mutually exclusive groups were created based on responses regarding medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. Group 1 had never used an opioid analgesic, Group 2 used an opioid analgesic only as prescribed, and Group 3 nonmedically used an opioid analgesic. In addition, Group 3 was divided into 2 mutually exclusive subgroups (self-treaters and sensation-seekers) based on reasons for nonmedical use. A series of multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to determine if the groups differed on the presence of pain, psychological symptoms (e.g., affective disorder, conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]), and drug abuse. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) of the sample was white/Caucasian and 29.5% was African American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.9). Seventy percent (70.4%; n = 1850) reported no lifetime opioid use, 24.5% (n = 644) were medical users, 3.5% (n = 92) were nonmedical users who used for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n = 41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g., to get high). Both medical users and nonmedical users reported more pain and substance abuse symptoms compared with never users. Those nonmedical users who used opioids for sensation-seeking motivations had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. These data support the need to further consider subgroups of

  3. Psychological Distress Is More Prevalent in Fertile Age and Premenopausal Women With PCOS Symptoms: 15-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjula, Salla; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Auvinen, Juha; Ruokonen, Aimo; Puukka, Katri; Franks, Stephen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tapanainen, Juha S; Jokelainen, Jari; Miettunen, Jouko; Piltonen, Terhi T

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased psychological distress, obesity and hyperandrogenism being suggested as key promoters. To investigate the prevalence of anxiety/depression and their coexistence in women with PCOS/PCOS-related symptoms at ages 31 and 46. The roles of obesity, hyperandrogenism, and awareness of PCOS on psychological distress were also assessed. Population-based follow-up. Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with 15-year follow-up. At age 31, a questionnaire-based screening for oligoamenorrhea (OA) and hirsutism (H): 2188 asymptomatic (controls), 331 OA, 323 H, and 125 OA plus H (PCOS). Follow-up at age 46: 1576 controls, 239 OA, 231 H, and 85 PCOS. Questionnaire-based screening for anxiety and depression symptoms (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25) and previously diagnosed/treated depression at ages 31 and 46. Body mass index (BMI), serum testosterone/free androgen index, and awareness of polycystic ovaries/PCOS on psychological distress were also assessed. Population-based prevalence of anxiety and/or depression in women with PCOS/PCOS-related symptoms at ages 31 and 46. Anxiety and/or depression symptoms, their coexistence, and rate of depression were increased at ages 31 and 46 in women with PCOS or isolated H compared with controls. High BMI or hyperandrogenism did not associate with increased anxiety or depression symptoms. The awareness of PCOS was associated with increased anxiety. Women with PCOS or isolated H present more often with anxiety and/or depression symptoms and their coexistence compared with controls. High BMI or hyperandrogenism did not provoke psychological distress in PCOS. The awareness of PCOS increased anxiety but did not associate with severe anxiety or depression.

  4. Role Conflict and Symptoms of Psychological Distress in College-Educated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Barbara; Reznikoff, Marvin

    1976-01-01

    Sex role attitudes, need for achievement, and employment patterns of 136 Wellesley graduates out of college 10 years and 132 out of college 25 years were studied in relation to symptoms of mental illness. Women with contemporary sex role orientations exhibited significantly higher symptom scores. (Author)

  5. The relationship among psychological factors, neglect-like symptoms and postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain.

  6. The relationship among psychological factors, neglect-like symptoms and postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. METHODS: The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. RESULTS: At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain. PMID:25101335

  7. Approach to the notice of insanity. Symptom - mental health and clinical structures. Psychology and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Chacón-Afanador

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work of reflection proposes the approach of the concepts of clinical structures and mental health, starting from the position of psychoanalysis and the question is asked if it is possible to think the madness within them. To do this, it starts from an approach to training and symptom in psychoanalysis and psychology, pointing out the importance of differentiating the psychic from the organic, as well as the psychic from the mental. In this sense, the concept of mental health proposed by WHO is addressed and the place of psychology and psychoanalysis in this concept is questioned. In the same way a reflection is made around the questions: Is it possible to speak of madness in the XXI century, when psychiatry has tried to eradicate this term? To talk about crazy again is to return to a debate that has somehow been left out of the scientific debate? Is it possible to think nowadays the importance of elaborating a nosography that includes Insanity?

  8. The relationship between financial strain, perceived stress, psychological symptoms, and academic and social integration in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Danielle R; Meyers, Steven A; Beidas, Rinad S

    2016-07-01

    Financial strain may directly or indirectly (i.e., through perceived stress) impact students' psychological symptoms and academic and social integration, yet few studies have tested these relationships. The authors explored the mediating effect of perceived stress on the relationship between financial strain and 2 important outcomes: psychological symptomology and academic and social integration. Participants were 157 undergraduate students. Data were collected from December 2013 to March 2014. Cross-sectional data collection conducted using online survey software. It was found that perceived stress mediated the relationship between financial strain and (a) psychological symptomology and (b) academic and social integration. Both models included first-generation status as a covariate. Results suggest that perceived stress is an important intervention target for reducing psychological symptoms and improving academic and social integration for undergraduate students. Implications for university health centers and mental health professionals include incorporating a public health model to minimize stress risk.

  9. Short-Term Exercise Approaches on Menopausal Symptoms, Psychological Health, and Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Ağıl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to determine the effects of different short-term exercise programs on menopausal symptoms, psychological health, and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Forty-two women were chosen from volunteering postmenopausal women presenting to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Bayındır Hospital between March and December 2009. The women aged 45–60 years and experiencing menopause naturally were included in the study. They were randomly divided into aerobic (=18 and resistance (=18 exercise groups. The women exercised 3 days per week for 8 weeks under the supervision of a physiotherapist. Aerobic exercise training was performed through a bicycle ergometer. Before and after the training, lipid profiles were measured and menopausal symptoms, psychological health, depression, and the quality of life were assessed through questionnaires. Results. In both exercise groups, no significant changes in lipid profiles were observed. In the resistance exercise group, excluding the urogenital complaints, there were significant improvements in all subscales of Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS. In the resistance exercise group, excluding the phobic anxiety, there were significant improvements in all subscales of The Symptom Checklist. Depression levels significantly decreased in both groups. Improvements were observed in all subscales of menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire in both groups except for sexual symptoms. Conclusion. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise were found to have a positive impact on menopausal symptoms, psychological health, depression, and quality of life.

  10. Coping with physical and psychological symptoms: a qualitative study of advanced lung cancer patients and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Ott, Mary A; Hanna, Nasser; Jalal, Shadia I; Champion, Victoria L

    2015-07-01

    Advanced lung cancer patients have high rates of multiple physical and psychological symptoms, and many of their family caregivers experience significant distress. However, little is known about strategies that these patients and their family caregivers employ to cope with physical and psychological symptoms. This study aimed to identify strategies for coping with various physical and psychological symptoms among advanced, symptomatic lung cancer patients and their primary family caregivers. Patients identified their primary family caregiver. Individual semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 advanced, symptomatic lung cancer patients and primary family caregivers. Thematic analysis of interview data was framed by stress and coping theory. Patients and caregivers reported maintaining a normal routine and turning to family and friends for support with symptom management, which often varied in its effectiveness. Whereas support from health-care professionals and complementary and alternative medicine were viewed favorably, reactions to Internet and in-person support groups were mixed due to the tragic nature of participants' stories. Several cognitive coping strategies were frequently reported (i.e., changing expectations, maintaining positivity, and avoiding illness-related thoughts) as well as religious coping strategies. Results suggest that advanced lung cancer patients and caregivers may be more receptive to cognitive and religious approaches to symptom management and less receptive to peer support. Interventions should address the perceived effectiveness of support from family and friends.

  11. Evaluation on Hope and Psychological Symptoms in Infertile Couples Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam mohammadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated hope, depression, anxiety, and stress among three groups of infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of three groups of infertile couples-candidates for oocyte donation (n=60, embryo donation (n=60, and normal infertile (n=60. Participants included couples seen at Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran between 2013-2014 who were at least 18 years of age and could read and write in Persian. Participants provided demographic and general characteristics and completed the Persian version of the Adult Trait Hope Scale (hope, agency and pathway and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS. Data was analyzed by the paired t test, ANOVA, ANCOVA and Pearson correlation tests using SPSS statistical software. Results: Overall, 180 infertile couples participated in the three groups. There was a significant higher mean score for hope in husbands compared to wives in the normal infertile group (P=0.046. Husbands in the normal infertile group also had a significantly higher mean score for pathway (P=0.032. The frequency of anxiety significantly differed in female subjects (P=0.028. In the normal infertile group, the anxiety distribution significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.006. There was a significantly different stress frequency in male subjects (P=0.048. In the embryo donation group, stress significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.002. In the normal infertile group, stress also significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.05. Conclusion: The results have suggested that hope might be important in reducing psychological symptoms and psychological adjustment in those exposed to infertility problems who follow medical recommendations, which accelerates recovery. It is recommended to hold psychological counseling sessions (hope therapy during reproduction cycles.

  12. Evaluation on Hope and Psychological Symptoms in Infertile Couples Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omani Samani, Reza; Vesali, Samira; Navid, Behnaz; Vakiliniya, Bahareh; Mohammadi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated hope, depression, anxiety, and stress among three groups of infertile couples. This cross-sectional study consisted of three groups of infertile couples-candidates for oocyte donation (n=60), embryo donation (n=60), and normal infertile (n=60). Participants included couples seen at Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran between 2013-2014 who were at least 18 years of age and could read and write in Persian. Participants provided demographic and general characteristics and completed the Persian version of the Adult Trait Hope Scale (hope, agency and pathway) and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). Data was analyzed by the paired t test, ANOVA, ANCOVA and Pearson correlation tests using SPSS statistical software. Overall, 180 infertile couples participated in the three groups. There was a significant higher mean score for hope in husbands compared to wives in the normal infertile group (P=0.046). Husbands in the normal infertile group also had a significantly higher mean score for pathway (P=0.032). The frequency of anxiety significantly differed in female subjects (P=0.028). In the normal infertile group, the anxiety distribution significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.006). There was a significantly different stress frequency in male subjects (P=0.048). In the embryo donation group, stress significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.002). In the normal infertile group, stress also significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.05). The results have suggested that hope might be important in reducing psychological symptoms and psychological adjustment in those exposed to infertility problems who follow medical recommendations, which accelerates recovery. It is recommended to hold psychological counseling sessions (hope therapy) during reproduction cycles.

  13. History of Abuse and Psychological Distress Symptoms among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica; Semple, Shirley J.; Rao, Swati; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel A.; Bucardo, Jesus; De la Torre, Adela; Salazar-Reyna, Juan; Orozovich, Prisci; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S.; Amaro, Hortensia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined histories of past emotional, physical, and sexual abuse as correlates of current psychological distress using data from 916 female sex workers (FSWs) who were enrolled in a safer-sex behavioral intervention in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez, Mexico. We hypothesized that histories of abuse would be associated with higher symptom levels of depression and somatization, and that social support would moderate the relationship. Nonparametric correlations and a series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that all forms of past abuse predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms. Social support was also significantly associated with fewer symptoms of distress; however, it was not shown to moderate the relationship between abuse history and distress. PMID:19634364

  14. Structural equation modeling to assess gender differences in the relationship between psychological symptoms and dental visits after dental check-ups for university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-07-01

    Some studies have shown a relationship between psychological symptoms and oral health behaviors. However, it is unknown whether gender differences affect the relationship between psychological symptoms and oral health behaviors. In addition, gender differences in the relationship between dental anxiety and dental visits for treatment or regular check-up are unclear. The objective of the present study was to explain the relationships among gender differences, psychological symptoms, oral health behaviors, dental anxiety and 'expectation of dental visit', evaluated as 'dental visits when treatments are recommended' in university students. A total of 607 students (311 males, 296 females) aged 18-38 years old were examined. The information was collected via questionnaire regarding gender, psychological symptoms and oral health behaviors. Psychological symptoms were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways from these factors to 'expectation of dental visit'. Multiple-group modeling was also conducted to test for gender differences. Psychological symptoms were related to low expectation of dental visit in females, but there was no such relationship in males. Oral health behaviors were related to expectation of dental visit in both genders. Psychological symptoms were directly related to expectation of dental visit in females and oral health behaviors were related to expectation of dental visit in both genders. To promote dental visits after dental check-ups at school, it might be necessary to improve oral health behaviors in both genders and to evaluate psychological symptoms, especially in females.

  15. Psychological factors: anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms in low back pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulbari Bener,1–3 Mohamud Verjee,4 Elnour E Dafeeah,5 Omar Falah,4 Taha Al-Juhaishi,4 Josia Schlogl,4 Alhasan Sedeeq,4 Shehryar Khan41Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Hamad Medical Corporation, 2Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 3Department of Evidence for Population Health Unit, School of Epidemiology and Health Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 4Department of Medical Education, Weill Cornell Medical College, 5Department of Psychiatry, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QatarAim: To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP, investigate the sociodemographic characteristics of patients with LBP, and examine its association with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression, and somatization.Subjects and methods: Of the 2742 patients approached, 2180 agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study (79.5% response rate. The survey was conducted among primary health care visitors from March to October 2012 and collected sociodemographic details and LBP characteristics. General Health Questionnaire-12 was used to identify the probable cases. Anxiety was assessed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, depression was assessed with Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and somatization was measured with Patient Health Questionnaire-15.Results: The study sample consisted of 52.9% males and 47.1% females. The prevalence of LBP was 59.2%, comprising 46.1% men and 53.9% women. LBP was significantly higher in Qataris (57.9%, women (53.9%, housewives (40.1%, and individuals with higher monthly income (53.9%. Somatization (14.9% was observed more in LBP patients, followed by depression (13.7% and anxiety disorders (9.5%. The most frequently reported symptoms were "headaches" (41.1% and "pain in your arms, legs, or joints" (38.5% in LBP patients with somatization. The most frequent symptoms among depressed LBP patients were "thinking of suicide or wanting to hurt yourself

  16. Effects of Short-Term Exercise Interventions on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Patients with Dementia : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleiner, Tim; Leucht, Stefan; Förstl, Hans; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Haussermann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Observational and interventional studies indicate a direct link between the patients' physical activity and the extent of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). At present, there are no evidence-based recommendations for physical exercise in the acute dementia care settings.

  17. Herbal medicine for management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Anna J; May, Brian H; Dong, Lin; Feng, Mei; Liu, Shaonan; Guo, Xinfeng; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2017-02-01

    Management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia remains a challenge worldwide. Herbal medicines may play a role in the development of new interventions. To determine effects of herbal medicines for management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, meta-analysis was conducted of 31 controlled trials (3613 participants). Frequently tested herbal medicines were the Ginkgo biloba leaf extract EGb 761 (seven studies) and the multi-ingredient formula Yokukansan (eight studies). Sixteen studies tested other herbal medicines. Improvements were detected in Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores in EGb 761 groups compared to placebo (MD -3.46 [-5.94, -0.98]; I 2 = 93%; n = 1757) and Yokukansan groups compared to no treatment (SMD -0.53 [-0.86, -0.21]; I 2 = 0%; n = 150). Cognitive scores were improved in EGb 761 groups while Yokukansan did not appear to affect cognitive function. Of the other herbal medicines, there were improvements in the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia and cognitive outcomes in two of four placebo-controlled studies. EGb 761 and Yokukansan appeared safe and well tolerated. Adverse effects and dropouts were not reported consistently for the other herbal medicines. Weaknesses of these included short durations, small sample sizes, lack of blinding and other risks of bias. Well-designed studies are needed to further investigate the reported effects of these interventions on the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.

  18. Exposure to Violence and Parenting as Mediators between Poverty and Psychological Symptoms in Urban African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.E.; McCormick, A.; Poindexter, L.; Simpkins, T.; Janda, C.M.; Thomas, K.J.; Campbell, A.; Carleton, R.; Taylor, J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study builds on past research that has found support for a conceptual model in which poverty is linked with adolescent psychological symptoms through economic stressors and impaired parenting. The present study examined this model in a sample of urban African American mothers and their adolescent children. In addition, an alternative…

  19. Influence of psychological symptoms on home-recorded sleep-time masticatory muscle activity in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Fabbri, A.; Peretta, R.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation attempts to describe the correlation between sleep-time masticatory muscle activity (MMA) and psychological symptoms by the use of a four-channel electromyography (EMG) home-recording device in a group of 15 healthy volunteers completing a battery of psychometric

  20. A randomized controlled trial of an internet intervention for adults with insomnia: effects on comorbid psychological and fatigue symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Frances P; Ritterband, Lee M; Gonder-Frederick, Linda A; Lord, Holly R; Ingersoll, Karen S; Morin, Charles M

    2013-10-01

    Insomnia is frequently comorbid with other medical and psychological disorders. This secondary data analysis investigated whether an Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) intervention could also reduce comorbid psychological and fatigue symptoms. Data from a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the efficacy of Internet-delivered CBT-I relative to a waitlist control was used to examine changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety, mental health quality of life (QOL), and fatigue. Group by time interactions from repeated measures analyses revealed significant post intervention improvements in Internet participants (n = 22) relative to control participants (n = 22) on all psychological symptoms, mental health QOL, and fatigue. A small post hoc subsample of Internet participants with mild or moderate depression also showed large effect size changes in these constructs (depression, anxiety, mental health QOL, and fatigue). Internet-delivered CBT-I appears to not only improve sleep but also reduce comorbid psychological and fatigue symptoms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Relationship between Financial Strain, Perceived Stress, Psychological Symptoms, and Academic and Social Integration in Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Danielle R.; Meyers, Steven A.; Beidas, Rinad S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Financial strain may directly or indirectly (i.e., through perceived stress) impact students' psychological symptoms and academic and social integration, yet few studies have tested these relationships. The authors explored the mediating effect of perceived stress on the relationship between financial strain and 2 important outcomes:…

  2. Behavioural and psychological symptoms are not related to white matter hyperintensities and medial temporal lobe atrophy in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staekenborg, S.S.; Gillissen, F.; Romkes, R.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The neuropathology of behavioural and psychological symptoms is much less understood than the neuropathology of cognitive impairment in AD. On MRI, medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is presumed to reflect Alzheimer-type pathology. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are considered

  3. Optimism and Psychological Resilience in Relation to Depressive Symptoms in University Students: Examining the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin; Acun-Kapikiran, Necla

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of self-esteem as a mediator in the relationships between optimism and psychological resilience on depressive symptoms in university students. A total of 494 undergraduate students, comprising of 253 female and 241 male participated in this study. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 30 (M = 20.85, SD = 1.57).…

  4. Discrimination Fully Mediates the Effects of Incarceration History on Depressive Symptoms and Psychological Distress Among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Miller, Reuben Jonathan; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne; Keith, Verna; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-04-12

    Using a nationally representative sample of African American men, this study investigated the associations between lifetime history of incarceration, discrimination, and mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms and psychological distress). We hypothesized that discrimination would fully mediate the association between incarceration history and mental health outcomes among African American men. Using a cross-sectional design, our analysis included 1271 African American men who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. Incarceration history was the main independent variable. Depressive symptoms and psychological distress were the dependent variables. Everyday discrimination was the mediator. Age, education, and income were covariates. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used for data analysis. Among African American men, incarceration history was positively associated with perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress. Everyday discrimination fully mediated the associations between incarceration history and both depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Discrimination may play an important role in the mental health problems of African American men with a history of incarceration. These findings have public policy implications as well as clinical implications for mental health promotion of African American men. Policies that reduce preventable incarceration or at least reduce subsequent discrimination for those who have been incarcerated may enhance mental health of previously incarcerated African American men.

  5. Electroencephalogram, cognitive state, psychological disorders, clinical symptom, and oxidative stress in horticulture farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrami, Mansour; Hashemi, Touraj; Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Faraji, Fardin; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the toxicity of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in exposed farmers for electroencephalography, cognitive state, psychological disorders, clinical symptom, oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase, and DNA damage. A comparative cross-sectional analysis was carried out in 40 horticulture farmers who were exposed to OPs in comparison to a control group containing 40 healthy subjects with the same age and sex and education level. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, DNA damage, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in the blood of subjects. Clinical examination and complete blood test were undertaken in order to record any abnormal sign or symptoms. Cognitive function, psychological symptoms, and psychological distress were examined and recorded. Comparing with controls, the farmers showed higher blood levels of SOD and LPO while their TAC decreased. Farmers showed clinical symptoms such as eczema, breathing muscle weakness, nausea, and saliva secretion. Regarding cognitive function, the orientation, registration, attention and calculation, recall, and language were not significantly different in farmers and controls. Among examinations for psychological distress, only labeled somatization was significantly higher in farmers. The present findings indicate that oxidative stress and inhibition of AChE can be seen in chronically OP-exposed people but incidence of neuropsychological disorders seems a complex multivariate phenomenon that might be seen in long-term high-dose exposure situations. Use of supplementary antioxidants would be useful in the treatment of farmers.

  6. Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Relationship With Psychological Symptoms and Personality Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Meily, J. M. Anne; Rhebergen, Marloes L.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; van Zandvoort, Martine J.; Post, Marcel W. M.

    Background and Purpose-Many patients who survive an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage experience decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Physical factors have been identified as determinants of HRQoL. We describe long-term HRQoL and assessed whether psychological symptoms and personality

  7. The Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Abuse and its Correlation with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukomanovic Ivana Simic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abuse in younger populations has been an issue of growing concern globally since youth already face various life situations that can heighten the occurrence of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical and psychological abuse and its correlation with depressive and anxiety symptoms among students.

  8. Efficacy of Acupuncture for Psychological Symptoms Associated with Opioid Addiction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Boyuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review systematically assessed the clinical evidence for and against acupuncture as a treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The database was accessed from MEDLINE and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. We included all randomized clinical trials published in Chinese and English regardless of their controls. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan software, version 5.2. We conducted a literature search of 16 databases from their inception to January 2014. Four studies from Western countries did not report any clinical gains in the treatment of psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. 10 of 12 studies from China have reported positive findings regarding the use of acupuncture to treat the psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The methodological quality of the included studies was poor. The meta-analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between the treatment group and the control group for anxiety and depression associated with opioid addiction, although groups did not differ on opioid craving. This review and meta-analysis could not confirm that acupuncture was an effective treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. However, considering the potential of acupuncture demonstrated in the included studies, further rigorous randomized controlled trials with long followup are warranted.

  9. [Predicting factors of eating disorders and general psychological symptoms in female college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Atila; Toprak, Gülser; Yazici, Fadime

    2002-01-01

    To compare and determine the relative effects of six of the variables (family functioning, self-esteem, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms, locus of control and Body Mass Index-BMI) related to the etiology of eating disorders in predicting eating disorder symptoms and the general symptom index. Two hundred and ninety-two female college students completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Family Assessment Device (FAD), the Eating Attitude Test (EAT), the Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R), Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (RIELCS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Multiple regression analysis was employed, and scores of the obsessive-compulsive subscale of SCL-90-R, BMI, RSES, FAD, BDI and RIELCS were used as predictors of EAT total scores. The second multiple regression analysis was employed with the same independent variables as predictors of the General Symptom Index (GSI) of SCL-90-R. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were the best predictor of the total score of EAT, and the second was the BMI scores. Depressive symptoms and self-esteem scores were significantly correlated with EAT scores but these variables were not chosen for inclusion in the regression equation. There was a strong relation between scores on BMI and scores on EAT. BMI scores were correlated nonsignificantly with the scores of the other variables. RIELCS and FAD scores were not significantly correlated with EAT scores. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were also the best predictor of GSI of SCL-90-R and the second best predictor was the RSES. FAD was significantly correlated with SCL-90-R GSI scores, depression and obsessive compulsive scores. It appears that obsessive-compulsive symptoms were the best predictor of pathologic eating behavior. BMI was the second predictor of EAT scores. Locus of control and family functioning were not correlated with eating pathology. Family functioning scores were significantly correlated with the GSI scores, and

  10. ''Medically unexplained" symptoms and symptom disorders in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Hartman, Tim C. Olde; Aamland, Aase

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many patients consult their GP because they experience bodily symptoms. In a substantial proportion of cases, the clinical picture does not meet the existing diagnostic criteria for diseases or disorders. This may be because symptoms are recent and evolving or because symptoms...... that better supports clinical decision-making, creates clearer communication and provides scientific underpinning of research to ensure effective interventions. Discussion: We propose a classification of symptoms that places greater emphasis on prognostic factors. Prognosis-based classification aims...... mental disorders, psychological features and demographic data. We discuss how these characteristics may be used to classify symptoms into three groups: self-limiting symptoms, recurrent and persistent symptoms, and symptom disorders. The middle group is especially relevant in primary care...

  11. Behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drugs among people with cognitive impairment in nursing homes in 2007 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Maria; Isaksson, Ulf; Karlsson, Stig; Sandman, Per-Olof; Lövheim, Hugo

    2016-08-01

    The use of psychotropic drugs to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among people with dementia has been widely questioned because of its limited efficacy and risk of harmful side-effects. The objectives of this study was to compare the prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms and the use of psychotropic drug treatments among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care units in 2007 and 2013. Two questionnaire surveys were performed in 2007 and 2013, comprising all those living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. A comparison was made between 1971 people from 2007 and 1511 people from 2013. Data were collected concerning psychotropic and antidementia drug use, functioning in the activities of daily living (ADL), cognition, and behavioral and psychological symptoms, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). Between 2007 and 2013, the use of antipsychotic drugs declined from 25.4 to 18.9 %, and of anxiolytic, hypnotic, and sedative drugs from 35.5 to 29.4 %. The prevalence of people prescribed antidepressant drugs remained unchanged while antidementia drug prescription increased from 17.9 to 21.5 %. When controlled for demographic changes, 36 out of 39 behavioral and psychological symptoms showed no difference in prevalence between the years. The use of antipsychotic, anxiolytic, hypnotic, and sedative drugs declined considerably between 2007 and 2013 among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care units. Despite this reduction, the prevalences of behavioral and psychological symptoms remained largely unchanged.

  12. Physiologic and psychologic symptoms associated with use of injectable contraception and 20 microg oral contraceptive pills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berenson, AB

    2008-01-01

    ... with a reduced pill-free interval and those not using hormonal contraception. A total of 608 women reported their experience regarding 17 symptoms prior to initiating contraception and every 6 months thereafter for 24 months...

  13. Patients' Outcome Expectations Matter in Psychological Interventions for Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Schroevers, Maya J.; Tovote, Annika; Sanderman, Robbert; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Fleer, Joke

    This study examined whether patients' expectations of treatment outcome predict treatment completion, homework compliance, and depressive symptom improvement in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Study participants were patients with diabetes and

  14. Patients’ Outcome Expectations Matter in Psychological Interventions for Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Schroevers, Maya J.; Tovote, K. Annika; Sanderman, Robbert; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether patients’ expectations of treatment outcome predict treatment completion, homework compliance, and depressive symptom improvement in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Study participants were patients with diabetes and

  15. Positive Psychological Factors are Associated with Lower PTSD Symptoms among Police Officers: Post Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Violanti, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Following Hurricane Katrina, police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges. This cross-sectional study examined the association between resilience, satisfaction with life, gratitude, posttraumatic growth, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in 84 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana. Protective factors were measured using the Connor–Davidson Resilience scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were measured using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist—Civilian (PCL-C). Potential associations were measured using linear regression and analysis of variance. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and alcohol. Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.5 ± 14.5 for females and 27.8 ± 12.1 for males. Adjusted mean levels of PCL-C symptoms significantly decreased as quartiles of resilience (p <.001), satisfaction with life (p <.001), and gratitude (p <.001) increased. In contrast, PCL-C symptoms were not associated with posttraumatic growth in this sample. These results indicate that positive factors such as resilience, satisfaction with life, and gratitude may help mitigate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. To further explore these relationships, longitudinal follow-up in a larger population would be of interest. PMID:25476965

  16. Positive psychological factors are associated with lower PTSD symptoms among police officers: post Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanlies, Erin C; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M

    2014-12-01

    Following Hurricane Katrina, police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges. This cross-sectional study examined the association between resilience, satisfaction with life, gratitude, posttraumatic growth, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in 84 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana. Protective factors were measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were measured using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist--Civilian (PCL-C). Potential associations were measured using linear regression and analysis of variance. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and alcohol. Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.5 ± 14.5 for females and 27.8 ± 12.1 for males. Adjusted mean levels of PCL-C symptoms significantly decreased as quartiles of resilience (p < .001), satisfaction with life (p < .001), and gratitude (p < .001) increased. In contrast, PCL-C symptoms were not associated with posttraumatic growth in this sample. These results indicate that positive factors such as resilience, satisfaction with life, and gratitude may help mitigate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. To further explore these relationships, longitudinal follow-up in a larger population would be of interest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. An approach to and the rationale for the pharmacological management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Manjari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD have been a difficult management area for neurologists and psychiatrists alike. The correct identification of each symptom and the underlying precipitating cause is the key to proper management-nonpharmacological as well as pharmacological. BPSD has been well documented in all types of dementia in various stages of the disease and in all dementias at an advanced stage. The proper management is not only rewarding in terms of responsiveness in an otherwise "incurable" and progressive disease, but also improves the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers alike. The caregiver burden is greatly decreased by an efficient management of BPSD. This review discusses the implications and boundaries of the term BPSD and unravels each symptom and its identification. Manifestations of psychological symptoms such as delusion, hallucination, misidentification, psychosis, depression, apathy, and anxiety are briefly described. Correct identification of behavior symptoms such as wandering, agitation, catastrophic reaction, disinhibition, and delirium has been outlined. While the subtle differences in each entity make the precise identification difficult, the different therapeutics of each make the exercise necessary. Pharmacological recommendations and side effects of medications have been mentioned thereafter. The review will help in the identification and correct pharmacological management of BPSD.

  18. The role of psychological factors in bipolar disorder: prospective relationships between cognitive style, coping style and symptom expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya

    2014-04-01

    Psychological factors contribute to bipolar disorder illness course, representing targets for psychological intervention. Research to date has focused on bipolar I disorder, extrapolating results to bipolar II disorder. The current study addresses this discrepancy by exploring cognitive and coping styles in patients diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Participants were recruited from the Sydney-based Black Dog Institute. Diagnoses were derived via the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Baseline cognitive and coping style measures were completed, and mood symptoms assessed over a 6-month period. Clinician-rated mood status was assessed at follow-up to determine the predictive utility of cognitive and coping styles. The follow-up sample comprised 151 participants. Differential relationships between cognitive style, coping styles and mood symptoms emerged across the bipolar sub-types. Some key differences were that a broader set of negative cognitive styles were associated with bipolar II depression symptoms; while few relationships were observed between coping styles and bipolar II symptoms. Differences in cognitive and coping style relationships with symptom expression across bipolar I and II disorder may provide clinicians with fruitful guides for directing treatment interventions when relevant maladaptive styles are observed. Further exploration of differences in cognitive and coping styles in bipolar I and II disorder is warranted.

  19. Abdominoplasty Improves Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai M. M. Saariniemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, Raitasalo’s modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI, and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI 26.4. Fifty-three (83% women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women’s overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02151799.

  20. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Lambert, Sharon F; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.

  1. Relationship between psychological factors and symptoms of TMD in university undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris A; Zuim, Paulo R J; Monteiro, Douglas R; Ribeiro, Paula Do Prado; Garcia, Alicio R

    2010-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders is a collective term used to describe a number of related disorders involving the temporomandibular joints, masticatory muscles and occlusion with common symptoms such as pain, restricted movement, muscle tenderness and intermittent joint sounds. The multifactorial TMD etiology is related to emotional tension, occlusal interferences, tooth loss, postural deviation, masticatory muscular dysfunction, internal and external changes in TMJ structure and the various associations of these factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the relationship between signs of psychological distress and temporomandibular disorder in university students. A total 150 volunteers participated in this study. They attended different courses in the field of human science at one public university and four private universities. TMD was assessed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) questionnaire. Anxiety was measured by means of a self-evaluative questionnaire, Spielberger's Trait-State anxiety inventory, to evaluate students'state and trait anxiety. The results of the two questionnaires were compared to determine the relationship between anxiety levels and severity degrees of chronic TMD pain by means of the chi-square test. The significance level was set at 5%. The statistical analysis showed that the TMD degree has a positive association with state-anxiety (p = 0.008; p students (40%). This study concluded that there is a positive association between TMD and anxiety.

  2. A new simple score (ABS) for assessing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Yamashita, T; Hishikawa, N; Ohta, Y; Deguchi, K; Sato, K; Matsuzono, K; Nakano, Y; Ikeda, Y; Wakutani, Y; Takao, Y

    2015-03-15

    In addition to cognitive impairment, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are another important aspect of most dementia patients. This study was designed for a new simple assessment of BPSD. We first employed a clinical survey for the local community with sending an inquiry letter to all members (n=129) of dementia caregiver society, and then attempted to create a new BPSD score for dementia with 10 BPSD items. This new simple BPSD score was compared to a standard-detailed BPSD score neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) for a possible correlation (n=792) and a time to complete (n=136). Inter-rater reliability was examined comparing scores between main and second caregivers (n=70) for AD. Based on the clinical survey for local caregivers, a new BPSD score for dementia (ABS, Abe's BPSD score) was newly created, in which each BPSD item was allotted by an already-weighted score (maximum 1-9) based on the frequency and severity, and was finalized with taking temporal occurrences into account. ABS was filled by the main caregiver with a full score of 44, was well correlated with NPI (r=0.716, **pABS in secondary than the main caregivers. ABS provides a new simple and quick test for BPSD assessment, with a good correlation to NPI but a shorter time, and with a high inter-rater reliability. Thus ABS is useful for evaluating BPSD for mild to moderate dementia patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Mixture model analysis identifies irritable bowel syndrome subgroups characterised by specific profiles of gastrointestinal, extraintestinal somatic and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, A; Van Oudenhove, L; Jones, M; Öhman, L; Törnblom, H; Simrén, M

    2017-09-01

    Current subgrouping of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is exclusively based on stool consistency without considering other relevant gastrointestinal (GI), extraintestinal somatic or psychological features. To identify subgroups based on a comprehensive set of IBS-related parameters. Mixture model analysis was used, with the following input variables: 13 single-item scores from the IBS-specific Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, average stool consistency and frequency from a 7-day Bristol Stool Form diary, 12 single-item extraintestinal symptom scores from the Patient Health Questionnaire-12, and anxiety and depression subscale scores from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The resulting latent subgroups were compared regarding symptom profiles using analysis of variance followed by pair-wise comparisons. One hundred and seventy-two IBS patients (Rome III; 69% female; mean age 33.7 [range 18-60] years) were included. The optimal subgrouping showed six latent groups, characterised by: (I) constipation with low comorbidities, (II) constipation with high comorbidities, (III) diarrhoea with low comorbidities, (IV) diarrhoea and pain with high comorbidities, (V) mixed GI symptoms with high comorbidities, (VI) a mix of symptoms with overall mild severity. The subgroups showed differences in the distribution of Rome III-subtypes, IBS severity, presence of anxiety and depression, and gender, but not regarding age, IBS duration or reported post-infectious onset of IBS. This model-based subgrouping of IBS partly supports the distinction of subgroups based on bowel habits, but additionally distinguishes subgroups with or without co-morbid extraintestinal somatic and psychological symptoms. The resulting groups show specific profiles of symptom combinations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life in idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellqvist, Anna; Palmquist, Eva; Nordin, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Need for better understanding of the etiology of idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) motivated the present study of psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in person who attribute health problems to electromagnetic fields. Participants with IEI-EMF (n=114) and a population-based sample of referents (n=104) were investigated with six subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) to assess psychological symptoms, and with eight subscales of the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) to assess HRQoL. Significantly higher scores were found on obsessive/compulsive behavior, interpersonal hypersensitivity, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid thoughts in the IEI-EMF group compared to referents, whereas only a tendency of such a difference was found for psychotism. Furthermore, poorer HRQoL in the IEI-EMF group, compared to referents, were found regarding physical and social functioning, physical and emotional role limitations, general health, vitality, bodily pain, and mental health. Significant correlation with moderate to strong effect sizes were found between several of the SCL-90 and SF-36 subscales. The results suggest that IEI-EMF is associated with various types of psychological symptoms and with poor HRQoL. Clinical implications include theoretical support for cognitive behavioral therapy, and, although further research is needed, that attention should be directed towards feelings of inferiority and uneasiness in relationships as well as anger, hostility and resentment towards other people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Making sense of traumatic memories: memory qualities and psychological symptoms in emerging adults with and without abuse histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer Greenhoot, Andrea; Sun, Shengkai; Bunnell, Sarah L; Lindboe, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the connections between multiple measures of meaning making and psychological adjustment in people with and without histories of abuse. Young adults (n =177), recollected their three most stressful memories and rated them on importance and emotional and sensory qualities. We analysed the narratives for lexical markers of meaning making and explicit references to meaning or meaning-making attempts. There was little overlap between self-reported qualities and narrative content, and they were differentially predictive of psychological symptoms and transient emotional reactions. Consistent with the PTSD literature, more salient self-report memory characteristics (e.g., visceral emotions), and negative emotion and sensation terms predicted more symptoms. The narrative indices provided the best prediction to psychological adjustment, with several meaning indices (e.g., references to positive impact) predicting reduced symptoms, particularly for the Abuse group. Contrary to meaning-making models, resolutions predicted more symptoms, suggesting that aversive feelings during memory telling may trigger on-the-spot sense making to cope with distress.

  6. Moderating effects of coping styles on anxiety and depressive symptoms caused by psychological stress in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C-X; Tse, L-A; Ye, X-Q; Lin, F-Y; Chen, Y-M; Chen, W-Q

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to assess possible interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Three hundred and four patients with Type 2 diabetes underwent a face-to-face interview by trained research staff according to a standardized questionnaire including information on socio-demographic characteristics, psychological stress, coping styles and anxiety and depressive symptoms. The interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed by hierarchical multiple regression analyses. There were significant associations of the four domains of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms, except for the relationship between 'reduced economic condition' and depressive symptoms. 'Negative coping style' significantly increased the level of both anxiety and depressive symptoms; whereas, 'active coping style' and 'avoidant coping style' decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The interactions of 'negative coping style' with 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' and 'reduced economic condition' significantly increased the risk of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and the interaction of 'social/family crisis caused by the disease' with 'avoidance coping style' and 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' with 'active coping style' significantly decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The results of this study suggest that certain coping styles might moderate the association of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  7. The effect of exercise on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia: the EVIDEM-E randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, David; Cerga-Pashoja, Arlinda; Iliffe, Steve; Thuné-Boyle, Ingela; Griffin, Mark; Lee, James; Bailey, Alex; Bhattacharya, Rahul; Warner, James

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple dyadic (person with dementia and their main carer) exercise regimen as a therapy for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. A two arm, pragmatic, randomised, controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial of a dyadic exercise regimen (individually tailored walking regimen designed to become progressively intensive and last between 20-30 min, at least five times per week).Community-dwelling individuals with ICD-10 confirmed dementia with the following: clinically significant behavioural and psychological symptoms, a carer willing and able to co-participate in the exercise regimen, and no physical conditions or symptoms that would preclude exercise participation were invited by mental health or primary care services into the study. One hundred and thirty-one dyads were recruited to this study. There was no significant difference in Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory at week 12 between the group receiving the dyadic exercise regimen and those that did not (adjusted difference in means (intervention minus control) = -1.53, p = 0.6, 95% CI [-7.37, 4.32]). There was a significant between-group difference in caregiver's burden as measured by the Zarit Caregiver Burden Inventory at week 12 (OR = 0.18, p = 0.01, CI [0.05, 0.69]) favouring the exercise group. This study found that regular simple exercise does not appear to improve the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, but did seem to attenuate caregiver burden. Further study to improve exercise uptake are needed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Turo (Qi Dance Training Attenuates Psychological Symptoms and Sympathetic Activation Induced by Mental Stress in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jin Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagal withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity accompany various types of stress. Qi training is reported to reduce sympathetic hyper-reactivity in a stressful situation. Turo, which is a type of dance that uses the Meridian Qi System, may reduce the psychological symptoms induced by an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. We observed whether Turo training alters psychopathological and psychological symptoms using the Symptom Checklist 90-Revision (SCL-90-R and examined whether it attenuates the stress response to mental stress in healthy adolescent females using the power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability (HRV. Twenty-one subjects received Turo training and 27 subjects were trained with mimicking movements. The SCL-90-R was measured before and after the 2-month training period. Heart rate (HR, total power (TP and the LF/HF ratio of HRV were compared between the Turo and control groups during and after mental stress. The somatization and hostility subscales of the SCL-90-R of the Turo group were significantly lower than those of the control group after 2 months. The increases in HR and the LF/HF ratio of HRV induced by the stress test were significantly lower in the Turo group than in the control group. The TP of the Turo group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The psychological symptoms and sympathetic activation induced by the artificial stress were significantly reduced by the Turo training. These findings suggest that Turo training can play a critical role in attenuating psychological symptoms and stress-induced sympathetic activation.

  9. Changes in circulating cytokine levels in midlife women with psychological symptoms with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and Japanese traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masayo; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ueno, Shu-Ichi; Numata, Shusuke; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Tsuchiya, Naoko; Noguchi, Masamichi; Yuzurihara, Mitsutoshi; Kase, Yoshio; Irahara, Minoru

    2009-02-20

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on serum cytokine concentrations of paroxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, and kamishoyosan, a Japanese traditional medicine, in midlife women with psychological symptoms. Seventy-six women with psychological symptoms such as anxiety and mild depression as menopausal symptoms were enrolled in this study. Thirty-eight women received oral administration of 10mg paroxetine every day, and 38 women received oral administration of kamshoyosan every day for 6 months. Overall climacteric symptoms were assessed using Greene's climacteric scale. Serum levels of cytokines were measured using a multiplexed human cytokine assay. Greene's total scores in both women treated with paroxetine and in women treated with kamishoyosan decreased significantly. Percentage decreases in Greene's total, psychological and vasomotor scores during the 6-month period in the paroxetine group were significantly greater than those in the kamishoyosan group. Serum IL-6 concentration in women treated with paroxetine decreased significantly. Serum concentrations of IL-8, IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in women treated with paroxetine decreased significantly. On the other hand, serum IL-6 concentration in women treated with kamishoyosan decreased significantly, but other serum concentrations did not change significantly. Decrease in IL-6 concentration may be involved in the mechanism of the actions of both paroxetine and kamishoyosan in women with psychological symptoms, and IL-6 may therefore be useful as a marker of treatment. The action of paroxetine may also be associated with decreases in IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1beta.

  10. [Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhazen, C; Chauchot, F; Canceil, O; Krebs, M-O; Baylé, F-J

    2003-01-01

    The concept of prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia has frequently been subject to debate. Authors widely admit the existence of early specific and non-specific signs preceding the first psychotic episode; however, they have yet to clearly demonstrate their ability to predict and specify the outbreak of a psychosis. These prodromal symptoms consist of behavioral abnormalities, pseudo-neurotic signs, subtle cognitive and affective changes. All these symptoms vary from patient to patient. In general, it is widely believed that future patients go through a variety of abnormal, subjective experiences that progressively develop during their pre-puberty and puberty periods. However, the limit of this assessment is that an individual could present the same prodromal symptoms without necessarily developing a psychotic illness, as a result of toxic intake, a situational crisis, etc. Furthermore, while the prodrome is a retrospective concept, its value and specificity can only be prospective, given that patients' descriptions of pre-morbid changes may be corrupted by inefficient memory reconstruction. DSM III-R included prodromal symptoms; individual presenting such symptoms would potentially present psychopathological vulnerability to psychosis regardless of associated genetic risk. Several investigations have shed doubts on their measurement's reliability; therefore, this classification is no longer present in the latest version (DSM IV). Moreover, recent neurodevelopemental hypothesis on schizophrenia have paved the way for possible early intervention, especially because early treatments could well improve illness prognosis. This viewpoint is reinforced by the improved tolerance of new anti-psychotic treatment. In this report, we review the key Articles published over the last 15 Years on this matter. We distinguish two schools of thought: on one hand, the German school referring to the validity of particular neuro-psychological symptoms: attention, perception

  11. Psychological Symptoms Among Patients With BCR-ABL-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Polizzi, Heather; Mascarenhas, John; Kremyanskaya, Marina; Holland, Jimmie; Hoffman, Ronald

    2016-12-01

    BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) represent a heterogeneous group of diseases, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and myelofibrosis (MF). Psychological manifestations among these diseases have not been adequately described. Cross-sectional surveys measuring distress, anxiety, and depression were collected from patients with BCR-ABL-negative MPNs from May 2015 to October 2015. Participants provided demographic information and completed the Distress Thermometer and Problem List (DT&PL) to assess distress and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess distress, anxiety, and depression. They provided information on how their MPN affected their lives. Of the 117 participants, 31.2% had PV, 28.4% had ET, 28.4% had MF, and 11.9% had another type of MPN. Time with MPN varied from less than 1 year (7.5%), 1 to 3 years (19.8%), 3 to 5 years (23.6%), 5 to 10 years (19.8%), and more than 10 years (29.2%). Distress averaged 3.14 (SD, 2.83; DT&PL), with 40.4% meeting NCCN criteria for distress, and averaged 8.97 (SD, 7.44; HADS), with 38.5% meeting HADS criteria for distress. Anxiety averaged 5.54 (SD, 4.37), with 31.3% meeting HADS criteria for anxiety. Depression averaged 3.4 (SD, 3.4), with 12.5% meeting HADS criteria for depression. Distress was higher for PV (3.86), MF (3.12), and "other" MPN (4.33) than it was for ET (1.81; P=.016). Distress was more common in non-white patients (P=.015) and those with either PV or MF but not ET (DT&PL ≥4; P=.038). Patients' comments described coping strategies or symptom burden. Distress and anxiety are highly prevalent with BCR-ABL-negative MPNs and may correspond to disease-related symptom burden. These findings deserve further study. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  12. Psychological distress longitudinally mediates the effect of vertigo symptoms on vertigo-related handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Thomas; Dinkel, Andreas; Schmid-Mühlbauer, Gabriele; Radziej, Katharina; Limburg, Karina; Pieh, Christoph; Lahmann, Claas

    2017-02-01

    Vertigo symptoms can lead to more or less vertigo-related handicap. This longitudinal study investigated whether depression, anxiety, and/or somatization mediate the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. N=111 patients with vertigo/dizziness provided complete data on the following measures: Vertigo symptoms at baseline, depression at 6-month follow-up, anxiety at 6-month follow-up, somatization at 6-month follow-up, and vertigo handicap at 12-month follow-up. Mediation analyses with bootstrapping were performed to investigate the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization in the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. When the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization was evaluated separately from each other in single mediation models, the effect vertigo symptoms at baseline exerted on vertigo-related handicap at 12-month follow-up was significantly mediated by depression at 6-month follow-up (phandicap at 12-month follow-up (phandicap. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Michelle M; Gonzales, Kelly L; Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Muller, Clemma Jacobsen; Goldberg, Jack; Nelson, Lonnie; Welty, Thomas K; Howard, Barbara V

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to examine the relationship between psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among 3776 American Indians in Phase V of the Strong Heart Family Study. This cross-sectional analysis measured psychological trauma symptoms using the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument, diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria, and treatment modality by four categories: no medication, oral medication only, insulin only, or both oral medication and insulin. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and diabetes prevalence. We used ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and glucose control. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of psychological trauma symptoms with treatment modality. Neither diabetes prevalence (22%-31%; p=0.19) nor control (8.0-8.6; p=0.25) varied significantly by psychological trauma symptoms categories. However, diabetes treatment modality was associated with psychological trauma symptoms categories, as people with greater burden used either no medication, or both oral and insulin medications (odds ratio=3.1, ppsychological trauma symptoms suggests future research investigate patient and provider treatment decision making. © 2013.

  14. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    information to assist with making a diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Management includes ways to improve the physician–patient interaction that will benefit the patient, a step-care model based on illness severity and complexity, and psychological and pharmacologic treatment. The chapter is enhanced...... by figures and tables that summarize health anxiety, symptoms, differential diagnoses, and management strategies, as well as by case studies and examples....

  15. Cognitive responses to stress, depression, and anxiety and their relationship to ADHD symptoms in first year psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sandra J; Harrison, Allyson G

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationship between levels of reported depression, anxiety, and stress with scores on the Conners's Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Information was obtained from 84 1st-year psychology students using the CAARS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES). Approximately 23%, 18%, and 12% of students scored above critical values on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) Inattention Symptoms, the DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total, and the Inattention/Restlessness subscales, respectively. CAARS scores were positively related to reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, which accounted for significant variance among the three subscales. Only 5% of participants scored above recommended critical values on the ADHD index; however, a significant amount of the variance on this measure was also attributable to the DASS. Mood symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and stress may obscure correct attribution of cause in those being evaluated for ADHD.

  16. Effect of 12 weeks of yoga training on the somatization, psychological symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Hiramoto, Tetsuya; Oka, Takakazu; Kubo, Chiharu; Sudo, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-03

    Previous studies have shown that the practice of yoga reduces perceived stress and negative feelings and that it improves psychological symptoms. Our previous study also suggested that long-term yoga training improves stress-related psychological symptoms such as anxiety and anger. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of yoga practice on somatization, the most common stress-related physical symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers. We performed a prospective, single arm study to examine the beneficial effects of 12 weeks of yoga training on somatization, psychological symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers. We recruited healthy women who had no experience with yoga. The data of 24 participants who were followed during 12 weeks of yoga training were analyzed. Somatization and psychological symptoms were assessed before and after 12 weeks of yoga training using the Profile of Mood State (POMS) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaires. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), biopyrrin, and cortisol levels were measured as stress-related biomarkers. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the stress-related biomarkers and the scores of questionnaires before and after 12 weeks of yoga training. After 12 weeks of yoga training, all negative subscale scores (tension-anxiety, depression, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion) from the POMS and somatization, anxiety, depression, and hostility from the SCL-90-R were significantly decreased compared with those before starting yoga training. Contrary to our expectation, the urinary 8-OHdG concentration after 12 weeks of yoga training showed a significant increase compared with that before starting yoga training. No significant changes were observed in the levels of urinary biopyrrin and cortisol after the 12 weeks of yoga training. Yoga training has the potential to reduce the somatization score and the scores related to mental health indicators, such as anxiety, depression

  17. Predictors of home discharge among patients hospitalized for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochimoto, Shinnichi; Kitamura, Maki; Hino, Shoryoku; Kitamura, Tatsuru

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese government recently announced the 'Five-Year Plan for Promotion of Measures Against Dementia (Orange Plan)' to promote people with dementia living in their communities. To achieve this, it is imperative that patients hospitalized with behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are helped to return to their own homes. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of home discharge among patients hospitalized for BPSD. A single-centre chart review study was conducted on consecutive patients hospitalized from home between April 2006 and March 2011 for the treatment of BPSD. The frequency of discharge back to home was examined in relation to a patient's active behavioural problems and demographics at the time of admission. Diagnoses of dementia were made on the basis of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies. In all, 391 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these patients, 163 (42%) returned home. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified high Mini-Mental State Examination and Nishimura-style senile activities of daily living scores as significant independent predictors of home discharge. In contrast, living alone and manifestation of aggressiveness at the time of admission were negatively associated with home discharge. Few patients hospitalized for BPSD are discharged home, and this number is affected by a patient's clinical and demographic characteristics at the time of admission. These findings should be considered in designing and implementing optimal management and care strategies for patients with BPSD. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  18. Mental disorders, psychological symptoms and quality of life 8 years after an earthquake: findings from a community sample in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Marchi, Fabio; Bini, Lucia; Flego, Martina; Costa, Ana; Galeazzi, Gian

    2011-07-01

    Various studies assessed mental disorders and psychological symptoms following natural disasters, including earthquakes. Yet, samples were often non-representative, and the periods of time between earthquake and assessments were usually short. This study aims to assess the prevalence of mental disorders, level of psychological symptoms and subjective quality of life in a random sample in a rural region in Italy 8 years after an earthquake. Using a random sampling method, a pool of potential participants of working age who had experienced the earthquake were identified 8 years after the earthquake. They were sequentially approached until the target sample of 200 was reached. Mental disorders were assessed on the MINI, psychological symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and subjective quality of life on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). 200 people were interviewed, and the response rate of contacted people was 43%. In the MINI, 15 participants (7.5%) had any type of mental disorder; 5 participants had PTSD at any time since the earthquake, and 1 participant at the time of the interview. Symptom levels were low (Global Severity Index of BSI mean = 0.29, SD = 0.30; IES total mean = 0.40, SD = 3.33) and subjective quality of life (MANSA mean = 5.26, SD = 0.59) was in a positive range. The distribution of mental health outcomes made it difficult to explore factors associated with them. There is no evidence that the earthquake had a negative impact on the mental health of the affected population years later. Possible reasons include the relatively weak nature of the earthquake, strong community support that helped overcome mental distress, the long period of time (8 years) between the occurrence of the earthquake and the study, and a capacity of people to maintain or restore mental health after a natural disaster in the long term.

  19. Risperidone: a review of its use in the management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, N; Spencer, C M

    2000-06-01

    Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivative which has proven efficacy against the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. It has more recently been investigated and shown efficacy as a treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms associated with dementia in the elderly. Risperidone has pharmacological properties resembling those of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and an improved tolerability profile compared with the conventional antipsychotic haloperidol. Risperidone has antagonistic activity primarily at serotonin 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptors. In the first 2 large, well controlled trials of an antipsychotic agent used in the treatment of elderly patients with Alzheimer's dementia, vascular dementia or mixed dementia, risperidone 1 mg/day was at least as effective as haloperidol and superior to placebo, as assessed by the rating scales for global behaviour, aggression and psychosis. In extension phases of the 2 trials, clinical benefits were maintained for treatment periods of up to 1 year, with an incidence rate of tardive dyskinesia (2.6%) one-tenth of that seen with conventional antipsychotics. Risperidone, administered at a low dosage of 1 mg/day was associated with fewer extrapyramidal symptoms compared with haloperidol in elderly patients. Risperidone was well tolerated with no clinically relevant abnormalities in laboratory tests, vital signs or electrocardiogram results. The efficacy of risperidone has been demonstrated in the treatment of the behavioural and psychological symptoms associated with dementia in the elderly. Preliminary results from 1-year extension studies confirm the favourable efficacy and tolerability profile of risperidone 1 mg/day. Although head to head studies with other atypical antipsychotic agents are required and the long term use of the drug requires clarification, risperidone represents a generally well tolerated and effective treatment in the management of dementia-associated behavioural and

  20. Effects of an intervention program for female victims of intimate partner violence on psychological symptoms and perceived social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina B. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV. Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV. Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression and perceived social support. Given that many of the women dropped out before and during the intervention program, potential differences in initial levels of psychological symptoms, perceived social support, as well as descriptive variables were explored between the women who completed the whole program and the groups of women who dropped out prematurely. Method: The initial sample consisted of 212 female victims of IPV. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and level of perceived social support were measured with validated scales before the start of the intervention and after completion of each treatment phase. Results: Results showed a significant effect of the intervention program on reducing psychological symptoms and increasing levels of perceived social support. Effect sizes ranged from medium to very high. Significant positive effects were found for each of the treatment phases. There were no significant differences between the women who completed the whole program and those women who dropped out prematurely in terms of initial level of symptoms and perceived social support as well as descriptive characteristics. Conclusions: Specifically developed intervention programs for female victims of IPV are effective in reducing the harmful personal consequences of IPV. Future studies should consider employing controlled study designs and address the issue of high drop out rates found in intervention studies.

  1. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: Associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Lei, Ulrikke

    2008-01-01

    , sleep quality and pruritus-related quality of life. Psoriasis severity was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis of descriptors confirmed both an affective and a sensory pruritus severity dimension. Multivariate statistics, controlling for age, gender, disease duration...... and severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality....

  2. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R.; Zachariae, C.O.; Lei, U.

    2008-01-01

    , sleep quality and pruritus-related quality of life. Psoriasis severity was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis of descriptors confirmed both an affective and a sensory pruritus severity dimension. Multivariate statistics, controlling for age, gender, disease duration...... and severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  3. [Behavioral and psychological symptoms, cognitive impairment and caregiver burden related to Alzheimer's disease patients treated in an outpatient memory clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Hajime; Yamada, Hiroko; Sugihara, Yuriko; Kita, Toru

    2006-03-01

    The relationships among behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), cognitive impairment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and the caregiver burden of their caregivers were investigated in an outpatient memory clinic. Forty-six pairs of AD patients and their family caregivers were involved in this study. Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI) was used to estimate BPSD, to which memory symptoms were added as a subcategory of BPSD. MMSE, word fluency, clock drawing test and category-cued memory test were used for cognitive measurement. Zarit burden interview (ZBI) and CES-D were used to assess caregiver burden. Among 11 BPSD subcategories, memory symptoms, apathy, depression, delusion, aggression and anxiety were prevalent BPSD was a strong determinant of caregiver burden. Among BPSD symptoms, anxiety, aggression and aberrant motor behavior were significantly related to ZBL In terms of the relationship between BPSD and cognitive impairment, the scores for delusion and apathy were significantly related to the cognitive decline. On the other hand, patients who showed symptoms related to memory and depression had higher cognitive function than those who did not. These analyses will contribute to better assessment of AD patients and their caregivers, hopefully resulting in better support for them.

  4. Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia is not a unitary concept: A critical review with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson Laks

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD is an important feature of dementia. However, this definition comprises a large array of symptoms and syndromes. This hampers understanding of the behavior of patients with dementia and the devising of strategies to ameliorate these symptoms. Objectives: This review aimed to describe the main factors and syndromes that comprise BPSD, as well as neuroimaging, psychopharmacological, and genetic data derived from studies of these factors. Methods: A search on the Medline, Scielo, and ISI databases was performed using the keyword BPSD for articles published within the last five years. Selected publications were favored, so this review should not be regarded as a systematic study on the subject. Results: The main factors and syndromes comprising BPSD were identified, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. Different ways of clustering symptoms were considered. The main manifestations of psychosis, apathy and depression were focused, relating phenomenology to neuroimaging and pharmacological issues. Conclusions: BPSD is a heterogeneous array of symptoms which can be better understood as clusters. At least three factors can be separated in BSPD, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. This division may offer guidance to clinicians regarding treatment management and follow up of the chosen therapeutic strategy.

  5. Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia is not a unitary concept: A critical review with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) is an important feature of dementia. However, this definition comprises a large array of symptoms and syndromes. This hampers understanding of the behavior of patients with dementia and the devising of strategies to ameliorate these symptoms. This review aimed to describe the main factors and syndromes that comprise BPSD, as well as neuroimaging, psychopharmacological, and genetic data derived from studies of these factors. A search on the Medline, Scielo, and ISI databases was performed using the keyword BPSD for articles published within the last five years. Selected publications were favored, so this review should not be regarded as a systematic study on the subject. The main factors and syndromes comprising BPSD were identified, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. Different ways of clustering symptoms were considered. The main manifestations of psychosis, apathy and depression were focused, relating phenomenology to neuroimaging and pharmacological issues. BPSD is a heterogeneous array of symptoms which can be better understood as clusters. At least three factors can be separated in BSPD, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. This division may offer guidance to clinicians regarding treatment management and follow up of the chosen therapeutic strategy.

  6. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse.

  7. Effects of an intervention program for female victims of intimate partner violence on psychological symptoms and perceived social support

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Nina B.; Sara B. Eriksen; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV.Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression) and perceived social support. Gi...

  8. Relationship between Dementia Severity and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoru Hashimoto; Yusuke Yatabe; Tomohisa Ishikawa; Ryuji Fukuhara; Keiichiro Kaneda; Kazuki Honda; Seiji Yuki; Yusuke Ogawa; Toru Imamura; Hiroaki Kazui; Naoto Kamimura; Syunichiro Shinagawa; Katsuyoshi Mizukami; Etsuro Mori; Manabu Ikeda

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in the clinical manifestation of dementia. Although most patients with dementia exhibit some BPSD during the course of the illness, the association of BPSD with the stage of dementia remains unclear. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the impact of severity of dementia on the expression of BPSD in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Ninety-seven patients ...

  9. Psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Laura A; Dewey, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    To examine eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to investigate the associations among social support, self-esteem, health locus of control, eating disorder symptoms and body image. Forty-six adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 27 healthy comparison adolescents completed questionnaires. No significant differences were identified in eating disorder symptoms and body image between adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy comparison adolescents. Regression analyses were completed with the full sample of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy comparison adolescents. Higher levels of social support and being male were associated with a more positive body image, less body dissatisfaction and a lower drive for thinness. A belief by the adolescents that parents or healthcare providers (i.e. external powerful others locus of control) were in control of their health was associated with a more positive body image and less body dissatisfaction. Higher self-esteem was associated with a greater drive for thinness and a higher level of body dissatisfaction. Social support, health locus of control and self-esteem appear to be important correlates of eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with diabetes and their typically developing peers. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological functioning in non-clinical young adults: Protective and risk factors for internalizing symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Mabilia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The present research proposes the analysis of specific aspects of psychosocial functioning and development with a focus on issues related to internalizing symptoms, attachment styles and interpersonal dimensions of interpersonal functioning. Developmental theories emphasized the importance of transitions, as periods of biologically and socially characterized changes (Arnett, 1997; Gurevitz Stern, 2004; Schulenberg, Magges, Hurrelmann, 1997; Schulenberg & Zarrett, 2006). The development...

  11. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  12. Associating Parental to Child Psychological Symptoms: Investigating a Transactional Model of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Panayiotou, Georgia; Fanti, Savvas

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal transactional association among paternal and maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Data were collected on preschool- to adolescent-age youth via a total of six assessments. The sample (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]…

  13. Using Religious Songs as an Integrative and Complementary Therapy for the Management of Psychological Symptoms Among African American Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill B; Worthy, Valarie C; Kurtz, Melissa J; Cudjoe, Joycelyn; Johnstone, Peter A

    Acupuncture, acupressure, yoga, meditation, cognitive-behavioral techniques, and, to a lesser extent, music are among those integrative and complementary therapies with known beneficial effects on psychological symptoms. However, noticeably absent from this research is the use of religious song as a type of integrative and complementary therapy. The aim of this study was to explore how religious songs were used to alleviate psychological symptoms associated with a cancer diagnosis among a sample of older African American cancer survivors. Thirty-one older African American cancer survivors residing in the Southeastern US participated in a qualitative descriptive study involving criterion sampling, open-ended semistructured interviews, and qualitative content analysis. Participants used religious songs in response to feeling depressed, low, or sad; feeling weak and seeking strength to endure treatment; and feeling worried, anxious, or fearful. Religious songs were also a source of support and hope. Types of religious songs included instructive, thanksgiving and praise, memory of forefathers, communication with God, and life after death. Religious songs appear to be an important form of religious expression in this population and used to manage psychological symptoms. Integrative and complementary oncology therapy has generally focused on yoga, meditation, acupuncture, and cognitive-behavioral techniques. However, religious songs are an important strategy used among older African American cancer patients. Religious songs can be readily integrated into cancer care. The incorporation of religious songs into spiritually based support groups and other integrative and complementary therapies might enhance health outcomes among this medically underserved cancer population.

  14. Being a mother of preterm multiples in the context of socioeconomic disadvantage: perceived stress and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Joana; Moutinho, Vanessa; Mateus, Vera; Guimarães, Hercília; Clemente, Fátima; Almeida, Sara; Andrade, Maria Agostinha; Dias, Clara Paz; Freitas, Alice; Martins, Carla; Soares, Isabel

    2017-11-07

    This study aimed to examine the differences between mothers of preterm multiples and mothers of preterm singletons regarding perceived stress and maternal psychological symptoms, and to explore the putative adverse amplified effect of socioeconomic disadvantage. Ninety-five mothers of 1-year-olds born preterm participated in this cross-sectional study. Data collection was carried out in two public hospitals from Northern Portugal. To assess maternal perceived daily stress and psychological symptoms, mothers completed two questionnaires. Mothers reported on socioeconomic factors, including family poverty, parent unemployment, and low education, and two groups of family socioeconomic disadvantage were created. A child medical risk index was calculated. Results indicated that mothers of preterm multiples reported higher levels of stress than mothers of preterm singletons. Moreover, and specifically regarding psychological functioning, mothers of preterm multiples reported more symptoms than mothers of preterm singletons, but only when living in a context of socioeconomic adversity. The results of the present study have important implications for practice. Mothers of preterm multiples are at higher risk to present mental health difficulties, in comparison to mothers of singletons, especially when exposed to socioeconomic adversities. The development of psychosocial intervention programs and public policies are of decisive importance in helping mothers of multiples adjust to parenthood. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of examination stress on psychological responses, sleep and allergic symptoms in atopic and non-atopic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernelöv, Susanna; Höglund, Caroline Olgart; Axelsson, John; Axén, Jennie; Grönneberg, Reidar; Grunewald, Johan; Stierna, Pontus; Lekander, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that atopics may be more vulnerable to stress than non-atopics. However, the roles of psychological well-being and sleep in this presumed increased sensitivity are not known. To investigate the effects of a brief naturalistic stressor on psychological responses, sleep, and allergic symptoms and to compare those responses between atopic and non-atopic individuals. We assessed atopic and non-atopic students during a period without and during a period with examinations. For both atopic and non-atopic students, tension, anxiety, and depression deteriorated in response to examination, as did sleep latency and sleep quality. Overall, atopics were more tense, had more anxiety, longer sleep latencies, and were less well rested than non-atopics. Non-atopic students rose from bed later during the examination period. In response to examination, atopic students reported increased frequency of stress behaviors (e.g., eating fast), while decreased stress behaviors were reported by non-atopic students. Allergic symptoms were not affected. Atopic students were worse off in aspects of psychological well-being and sleep, but displayed only partly stronger responses to a stressor compared to non-atopic students. In spite of a broad negative response to examination, allergic symptoms were not affected.

  16. Impact of Psychological Grief Counseling on the Severity of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Mothers after Stillbirths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Saravani, Zahra; Shakiba, Mansour

    2017-08-01

    Planned support and interventions are necessary in the care and support of women who have experienced stillbirth. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of psychological grief counseling on the symptom severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers after stillbirths. This interventional study is semi-experimental. The study was conducted on 100 women who had recently had stillbirths. Eligible samples were selected and randomly divided into the two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool was the PPQ,(1) which was completed as a pre-test and post-test in both groups. The intervention group received four sessions of psychological grief counseling over two weeks, and the control group received only routine postnatal care. PTSD severity was evaluated in both groups at the end of the fourth week after the final session. The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the mean score of the severity of the PTSD symptoms in both groups after the intervention (P = 0.0001), which means that psychological grief counseling led to the reduction of PTSD severity in mothers. Given the positive impact of psychological grief counseling on reducing the severity of PTSD, integration of intensive psychological interventions in the maternity care system seems essential for faster transition of grief stages and for the prevention of severe cases of PTSD.

  17. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2009-05-01

    Do positive psychology interventions-that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions-enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.29) and decrease depressive symptoms (mean r=.31). In addition, several factors were found to impact the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions, including the depression status, self-selection, and age of participants, as well as the format and duration of the interventions. Accordingly, clinicians should be encouraged to incorporate positive psychology techniques into their clinical work, particularly for treating clients who are depressed, relatively older, or highly motivated to improve. Our findings also suggest that clinicians would do well to deliver positive psychology interventions as individual (versus group) therapy and for relatively longer periods of time. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Adult mother-daughter relationships and psychological well-being: attachment to mothers, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kotomi

    2008-06-01

    This study examined how daughter's reported quality of their mother-daughter relationships during childhood and adulthood is related to their psychological well-being (depressive symptoms and self-esteem). A cross-sectional sample of 363 women, age 26 to 35 years, completed questionnaires. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on the daughters' marital and parental status. Regression estimates suggested that among single daughters and married daughters with children, childhood attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) significantly contributed to psychological well-being, even after controlling for the effects of current closeness and excessive dependence. Current closeness, and excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother contributed to the psychological well-being of single daughters and married daughters without children, even after controlling for the effects of childhood attachment.

  19. Development of a checklist of short-term and long-term psychological symptoms associated with ketamine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ni; Xu, Ke; Ning, Yuping; Wang, Daping; Ke, Xiaoyin; Ding, Yi; Sun, Bin; Zhou, Chao; Deng, Xuefeng; Rosenheck, Robert; He, Hongbo

    2015-06-25

    Ketamine is an increasingly popular drug of abuse in China but there is currently no method for classifying the psychological effects of ketamine in individuals with ketamine dependence. Develop a scale that characterizes the acute and long-term psychological effects of ketamine use among persons with ketamine dependence. We developed a preliminary symptom checklist with 35 dichotomous ('yes' or 'no') items about subjective feelings immediately after ketamine use and about perceived long-term effects of ketamine use that was administered to 187 inpatients with ketamine dependence recruited from two large hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on a randomly selected half of thesample to reduce the items and to identify underlying constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the second half of the sample to assess the robustness of the identified factor structure. Among the 35 symptoms, the most-reported acute effects were 'floating or circling' (94%), 'euphoric when listening to rousing music' (86%), and 'feeling excited, talkative, and full of energy' (67%). The mostreported long-term symptoms were 'memory impairment' (93%), 'personality changes' (86%), and 'slowed reactions' (81%). EFA resulted in a final 22-item scale best modelled by a four-factor model: two factors representing chronic symptoms (social withdrawal and sleep disturbances), one about acute psychoticlike symptoms, and one that combined acute drug-related euphoria and longer-term decreased libido. CFA showed that these 4 factors accounted for 50% of the total variance of the final 22-item scale and that the model fit was fair (Goodness of Fit Index, GIF=83.3%; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, RMSEA=0.072). A four-factor model including social withdrawal, sleep disturbance, psychotic-like symptoms, and euphoria at the time of drug use provides a fair description of the short-term and long-term psychological symptoms associated with

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and psychological comorbidity in eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, L; Martinotti, G; Carenti, M L; Romo, L; Oumaya, M; Pham-Scottez, A; Rouillon, F; Gorwood, P; Janiri, L

    2017-05-22

    There is some evidence that eating disorders (ED) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share common clinical features and that ADHD might contribute to the severity of eating disorders. A greater understanding of how the presence of comorbid ADHD may affect the psychopathological framework of eating disorder seems of primary importance. The aim of our study was to evaluate rates of ADHD in three ED subgroups of inpatients: anorexia nervosa restricting type (AN-R), anorexia nervosa binge-eating/purging type (AN-BP) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The secondary aim was the evaluation of the associated psychological characteristics. The sample consisted of 73 females inpatients (mean age 28.07 ± 7.30), all with longstanding histories of eating disorder (ED). The presence of a diagnosis of ADHD was evaluated in a clinical interview based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. The following psychometric instruments were used: the eating attitude test (EAT-40), the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS), the Hamilton scales for Anxiety (HAM-A) and Depression (HAM-D), and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-10). Among the three ED subgroups, 13 patients reported comorbidity with ADHD; three in the AN-R subtype, nine in the AN-BP and one in the BN. The remaining 60 patients (n = 34 AN-R; n = 19 AN-BP; n = 7 BN) presented only a diagnosis of ED. The EAT (p = 0.04) and HAM-A (p = 0.02) mean scores were significantly higher in patients with comorbid ADHD. In our study the comorbidity between ADHD and ED appeared to be frequent, particularly among patients with AN-BP. ED inpatients with higher level of anxiety and more abnormal eating attitudes and bulimic symptoms should be assessed for potentially associated ADHD.

  1. Benefit finding trajectories in cancer patients receiving psychological care: Predictors and relations to depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Ranchor, Adelita V; Helgeson, Vicki S; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E; Sanderman, Robbert; Schroevers, Maya J

    2017-11-15

    This study aimed to (1) identify benefit finding trajectories in cancer patients receiving psychological care; (2) examine associations of benefit finding trajectories with levels of and changes in psychological symptoms; and (3) examine whether socio-demographic and medical characteristics distinguished trajectories. Naturalistic longitudinal study design. Participants were 241 cancer patients receiving psychological care at specialized psycho-oncological institutions in the Netherlands. Data were collected before starting psychological care, and three and 9 months thereafter. Latent class growth analysis was performed to identify benefit finding trajectories. Five benefit finding trajectories were identified: 'high level-stable' (8%), 'very low level-small increase' (16%), 'low level-small increase' (39%), 'low level-large increase' (9%), and 'moderate level-stable' (28%). People in distinct benefit finding trajectories reported significant differential courses of depression but not of anxiety symptoms. Compared with the other four trajectories, people in the 'low level-large increase' trajectory reported the largest decreases in depression over time. Perceptions of cancer prognosis distinguished these trajectories, such that people with a favourable prognosis were more likely to belong to the 'high level-stable' trajectory, while people perceiving an uncertain prognosis were more likely to belong to the 'low level-large increase' trajectory of benefit finding. Cancer patients showed distinct benefit finding trajectories during psychological care. A small proportion reporting a large increase in benefit finding were also most likely to show decreases in depressive symptoms over time. These findings suggest a relation between perceiving benefits from cancer experience and improved psychological functioning in cancer patients receiving psychological care. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? People vary in course of benefit finding

  2. Effect of intragastric FODMAP infusion on upper gastrointestinal motility, gastrointestinal, and psychological symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome vs healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuy, I; Van Oudenhove, L; Tack, J; Biesiekierski, J R

    2017-08-01

    The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a treatment strategy to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Acute effects of FODMAPs on upper gastrointestinal motility are incompletely understood. Our objectives were to assess the acute effects of intragastric FODMAP infusions on upper gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms in healthy controls (HC) and IBS patients. A high-resolution solid-state manometry probe and an infusion tube were positioned into the stomach. Fructans, fructose, FODMAP mix, or glucose was intragastrically administered to HC, and fructans or glucose was administered to IBS patients until full satiation (score 0-5), in a randomized crossover fashion. Manometric measurements continued for 3 hours. Gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms were assessed by questionnaires at predefined time points. The study was registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02980406). Twenty HC and 20 IBS patients were included. Fructans induced higher postprandial gastric pressures compared with glucose over both groups (P<.001). Bloating, belching, and pain increased more in IBS over both carbohydrates (P<.041). In addition, IBS patients reported more flatulence and cramps compared with HC following fructans (P<.001). Glucose induced more fatigue and dominance compared with fructans (P=.028, P=.001). Irritable bowel syndrome patients reported a higher increase in anger (P=.030) and a stronger decrease in positive affect (P=.021). The upper gastrointestinal motility response varies between carbohydrates. Irritable bowel syndrome patients are more sensitive to fructan infusion, reflected in their higher gastrointestinal symptom scores. Acute carbohydrate infusion can have differential psychological effects in IBS and HC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Environmental illness: evaluation of salivary flow, symptoms, diseases, medications, and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, J; Bergdahl, M

    2001-04-01

    Patients with symptoms allegedly caused by abnormal sensitivity to dental fillings and/or to electromagnetic fields and other environmental factors frequently report oral complaints. Forty-four consecutive patients with these symptoms were studied. The aim was to investigate whether unstimulated salivary flow rate was associated with Candida, symptoms, disease, medication, age, sex, anxiety, depression, and stress. Furthermore, the aim was to compare the level of anxiety, depression, and stress in these patients with an age- and sex-matched control group. Fifty percent had no or low flow rate from the minor salivary glands. Candida pseudohyphae were found in 50% of the patients. Hypothyroidism and/or intake of thyroid hormones, headache, fatigue, and age were negatively associated with unstimulated salivary flow rate, and dizziness was positively associated. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was positively associated with stimulated salivary flow rate and flow rate from the minor salivary glands. Burning mouth and subjective oral dryness were reported by 48%, and 46%, respectively. The patients were more anxious, stressed, and especially more depressed than the control group. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was negatively associated with state anxiety. Measurement of salivary flow rate is important in patients with environmental illness and can be used in combination with other measurements as a diagnostic tool.

  4. Increased dosage of donepezil for the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yuta; Ino, Teruo; Yamanaka, Katsuo; Kosaka, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    As with other types of dementia, the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) can make caregiving difficult for patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We hypothesized that administration of donepezil at an increased dose of 10 mg/day might dose-dependently improve BPSD in DLB patients with relapse, after their symptoms had been controlled initially by donepezil therapy at the standard dose. The present study was as an open-label trial. We enrolled 24 patients with DLB (diagnosed according to the Consortium on Dementia with Lewy Bodies Guideline-Revised) who experienced a relapse of BPSD despite treatment with donepezil at the standard dose (5 mg/day). The donepezil dose for these patients was increased to 10 mg/day, and we evaluated the efficacy and safety of this dose escalation strategy. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores for BPSD showed statistically significant improvements as a result of the increased dosage, except those for anxiety and euphoria, disinhibition, irritability/lability. High-dose donepezil therapy caused gastrointestinal symptoms in 4 patients, but there were no life-threatening adverse events, such as arrhythmias, or no exacerbation of parkinsonian symptoms. We found that donepezil dose-dependently improved relapsing BPSD in these patients. Therefore, increasing the dosage of donepezil is a safe and effective treatment for patients with DLB who experience a relapse of BPSD. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  5. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology.

  6. The Associations of Psychological Stress with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Chinese Bladder and Renal Cancer Patients: The Mediating Role of Resilience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Mengyao; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aims to explore the associations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients and the mediating role of resilience in these relationships...

  7. Association between Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Female Nurses: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Psychological Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Junhui; Wu, Di; Liu, Li; Li, Xirui; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-12

    Depressive symptoms have been in the limelight for many kinds of people, but few studies have explored positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between work-family conflict (WFC) and depressive symptoms among Chinese female nurses, along with the mediating and moderating role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was completed during the period of September and October 2013. A questionnaire that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Work-Family Conflict scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnair scale was distributed to nurses in Shenyang, China. A total of 824 individuals (effective response rate: 74.9%) participated. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of PsyCap in the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the moderating role of PsyCap. Both WFC and family-work conflict (FWC) were positively related with depressive symptoms. PsyCap positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy and hope positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Hope and optimism partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Work-family conflict, as the risk factor of depressive symptoms, can increase nurses' depressive symptoms, and PsyCap is a positive resource to combat nurses' depressive symptoms. PsyCap can aggravate the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms and FWC can impact PsyCap to increase nurses' depressive symptoms.

  8. Association between Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Female Nurses: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Psychological Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms have been in the limelight for many kinds of people, but few studies have explored positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between work-family conflict (WFC and depressive symptoms among Chinese female nurses, along with the mediating and moderating role of psychological capital (PsyCap in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was completed during the period of September and October 2013. A questionnaire that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Work-Family Conflict scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnair scale was distributed to nurses in Shenyang, China. A total of 824 individuals (effective response rate: 74.9% participated. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of PsyCap in the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the moderating role of PsyCap. Both WFC and family-work conflict (FWC were positively related with depressive symptoms. PsyCap positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy and hope positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Hope and optimism partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Work-family conflict, as the risk factor of depressive symptoms, can increase nurses’ depressive symptoms, and PsyCap is a positive resource to combat nurses’ depressive symptoms. PsyCap can aggravate the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms and FWC can impact PsyCap to increase nurses’ depressive symptoms.

  9. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and its correlations with positive psychological variables among Chinese medical students: an exploratory cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Liu, Li; Wang, Zi Yue; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-11

    Knowledge about the prevalence of depressive symptoms among Chinese medical students and its related factors is rather limited. Understanding the correlates of depressive symptoms and the roles that positive psychological variables play in depressive symptoms is of vital importance for future interventions. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the integrated effects of resilience, hope and optimism on depressive symptoms among Chinese medical students. This multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. The questionnaires that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14), Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS), Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), and socio-demographic characteristics, were distributed to students at four medical colleges or universities in Liaoning province, China. A total of 2925 medical students became the final subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to explore the integrated effects of resilience, hope and optimism on depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among Chinese medical students was 66.8 % (CES-D ≥ 16). Resilience, hope and optimism were all negatively correlated with depressive symptoms and they accounted for 26.1 % of the variance in depressive symptoms. The high prevalence of depressive symptoms among Chinese medical students calls for special attention from all stakeholders, especially university authorities. Intervention strategies that focus on enhancing the positive psychological variables of resilience, hope and optimism can be integrated into depression prevention and treatment programs.

  10. Coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame as mediators of sexual abuse and psychological symptoms in adult sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Relyea, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame mediate relationships of trauma histories with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in adult sexual assault victims (N = 1863). A path analysis showed that theorized mediators partially mediated associations between trauma history variables and psychological symptoms. Specifically, child sexual abuse severity was related to greater post-traumatic stress disorder and depression indirectly through maladaptive coping and decreased emotion regulation but not self-blame. Other traumas had direct relationships with symptoms and partially mediated effects through maladaptive coping and emotion regulation. Child sexual abuse was unrelated to self-blame, but other traumas were related to greater self-blame. Results differed according to whether women had counseling post-assault. Implications are drawn for future research and clinical treatment of adult sexual assault victims.

  11. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988

  13. Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Weze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004. Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.

  14. The role of adolescent attachment in moderating and mediating the links between parent and adolescent psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Susan S; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Warner, Stephanie; Cassidy, Jude

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether adolescent attachment security and attachment-related representations moderate and mediate, respectively, the link between parent symptoms (depressive and anxiety) and adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 189 (118 girls) eleventh graders and their parents in a community sample. Results showed that adolescent attachment moderated the connection between parent and adolescent symptoms; in most cases attachment security was more protective if both parents were high on anxiety symptoms or if one parent was high on anxiety but the other parent was low on depressive symptoms. Mediational analyses indicated that representations of their mothers as a secure base mediated the link between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms. Perceptions of fathers as a secure base did not play a mediating role, although paternal depressive symptoms were associated with lower perceptions of the father as a secure base. Neither parent's anxiety symptoms were related to perceptions of the parent as a secure base or to adolescent depressive symptoms.

  15. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names aspirin No US brand name Symptoms and Diagnosis of Blood Disorders Overview of Blood Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests ...

  16. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Symptoms English English Arabic Catalan Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Danish French German Greek Haitian Creole Hebrew Hindi Italian Japanese Korean Portuguese Romanian Spanish Symptoms Each heading slides to reveal ...

  17. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  18. Flu Symptoms & Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  19. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... vision, without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no ...

  20. Association between behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug use among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Maria; Sandman, Per-Olof; Karlsson, Stig; Gustafson, Yngve; Lövheim, Hugo

    2013-09-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms are common among cognitively impaired individuals and psychotropic drugs are widely used for their treatment. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care settings. The study comprised 2,019 cognitively impaired people living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. Data concerning psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use, function in activities of daily living, cognitive function, and prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms were collected, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale. Of the study population, 1,442 individuals (71%) were prescribed at least one psychotropic drug (antidepressants (49%), anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives (36%), antipsychotics (25%)). Furthermore, 363 individuals (18%) received anti-dementia drugs. Associations between various behavioral and psychological symptoms were found for all psychotropic drug classes and anti-dementia drugs. Verbally disruptive/attention-seeking behavior was associated with all psychotropic drugs. Use of antipsychotics was associated with several behavioral and psychological symptoms, including aggressive behavior. The associations between behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug use found in this study indicate that these drugs are prescribed to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among cognitively impaired individuals despite limited evidence of their efficacy. Given the significant risk of adverse effects among old people with cognitive impairment, it is important to ensure that any medication used is both appropriate and safe.

  1. Understanding medical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a conceptual review and analysis of symptom understanding. Subjective bodily sensations occur abundantly in the normal population and dialogues about symptoms take place in a broad range of contexts, not only in the doctor’s office. Our review of symptom...

  2. Longitudinal effects of psychological symptoms on non-suicidal self-injury: a difference between adolescents and young adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yu-Hui; Xu, Shao-Jun; Chen, Jing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2015-02-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the psychological symptoms that may lead to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Chinese adolescents and young adults. This study determined the predictive effects of psychological symptoms for NSSI during a 9-month follow-up period. Data from 17,622 students, 12-24 years of age, were analyzed in a cross-sectional fashion with respect to associations between psychological symptoms and NSSI. Follow-up surveys were performed 3, 6, and 9 months later. Incident cases of NSSI during follow-up were correlated with the psychological symptoms at baseline. A total of 3,001 (17.0%) students reported that they had NSSI in the 12 months before the initial assessment. The total rate of NSSI revealed no statistically significant differences by gender, but marked differences between grades. The response rate 3, 6, and 9 months later was 91.8, 81.8, and 79.1%, respectively. Our cross-sectional study demonstrated statistically significant associations between emotional problems, conduct problems, social adaptation problems, psychological problems, and NSSI (P problems, conduct problems, social adaptation problems, and psychological problems at baseline had statistically significant associations with incident NSSI in follow-up involving the adolescents, while the association in young adults was attenuated after adjustment for confounding variables. Moreover, psychological symptoms at baseline showed a monotonic dose-response relationship with NSSI in follow-up involving adolescents. The findings suggest that adolescents with psychological symptoms are a group with elevated risks for later NSSI. The prevention programs of NSSI should target attenuating the severity of psychological symptoms.

  3. Correlation of understanding of physics and psychological symptoms among high-school students in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggeliki, Anagnostopoulou; Miltiades, Kyprianou; Antigoni-Elisavet, Rota; Evangelia, Pavlatou; Loizos, Zaphiris

    2017-09-01

    Depression may essentially influence cognitive function contributing to poor school performance. The present study undertakes to determine the existence and strength of correlation between depressive symptomatology and other mental conditions with the acquired level of understanding of Newtonian physics taught in schools. The current study recruited 490 students (262 girls, 228 boys) attending the first semester of the Greek Second Grade of General Lyceum School. Force Concept Inventory (FCI) tested the depth of the students’ understanding of Newtonian Physics. Symptom Checklist-90-R assessed general mental status. The tests took place in the classroom during a 1 h session. Low FCI scores significantly correlated with mental conditions, with depression ranking first. Girls had higher scores in all nine symptoms scales of SCL-90 and lower FCI scores. Stepwise regression models proved that the gender effect on FCI could be effectively explained through the significant effect of depression. An understanding of Newtonian physics among high school students may be restricted by common problematic mental conditions, with depression being the greatest among all. Further research, using a more systematic approach to measure depression among adolescents with poor understanding of physics, would help to elucidate the nature of the effect.

  4. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  5. Depressive symptoms and psychological distress during the first five years after traumatic brain injury: Relationship with psychosocial stressors, fatigue and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Andelic, Nada; Roe, Cecilie; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2013-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to identify predictors of depressive symptoms and psychological distress. A longitudinal study with assessments at 3 months, 1 year and 5 years after injury. A total of 118 individuals (29% females; mean age 32.5; range 16-55 years) with mild-to-severe TBI who were hospitalized in the Trauma Referral Centre from 2005 to 2007. Self-report assessments using the Hospital Anxiety- and Depression Scale, the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised and the Fatigue Severity Scale. Injury severity, trauma scores, pain, fatigue, substance abuse and demographic characteristics were also recorded. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 18% at 3 months, 13% at 1 year and 18% at 5 years after injury. Only 4% had persistent depressive symptoms at all time-points. At 1 year post-injury, anxiety, age, ongoing stressors and employment status predicted depressive symptoms (R2 = 0.43, p stressors, employment status, fatigue and pain predicted psychological distress (R2 = 0.45, p stressors and employment status contributed to depressive symptoms and psychological distress, whereas injury severity did not have any predictive value. The prevalence of depressive symptoms remained stable over time, emphasizing the importance of recognizing and treating depression early after the injury.

  6. The influence of demographics, psychological factors and self-efficacy on symptom distress in colorectal cancer patients undergoing post-surgical adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-fen; Zheng, Mei-chun; Liu, Wei-yan; Wen, Yong-shan; Wu, Xiao-dan; Liu, Qian-wen

    2015-02-01

    To explore the influence of self-efficacy and demographic, disease-related, and psychological factors on symptom distress among Chinese colorectal cancer patients receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Two-hundred and fifty-two colorectal cancer patients who had undergone postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy completed Chinese versions of M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-GI), Stanford Inventory of Cancer Patient Adjustment (SICPA), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Associations between patients' self-efficacy and demographic, disease-related, psychological factors and symptom distress were examined. Patients' overall symptom distress level was mild; MDASI median subscale scores showed mild symptom severity and symptom interference. Anxiety and depression were positively associated with symptom distress. Multivariable analysis showed that more severe symptoms were associated with age ≥60 years, female gender, suburban residence, body mass index 60 years, female gender, body mass index <18.5, suburban residence and stage III disease. Nurse-administered self-efficacy interventions may help to improve self-efficacy and reduce symptom distress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A qualitative study exploring the experience of people with IBD and elevated symptoms of anxiety and low mood and the type of psychological help they would like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Cheryl; Ohlsen, Ruth; Hayee, Bu'Hussain; Chalder, Trudie

    2017-09-26

    People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing anxiety and low mood. We sought to explore the experience of people with IBD and moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety/low mood to identify psychological processes which could be targeted in psychological interventions, as well as the kind of psychological support preferred. Twenty-five participants with IBD and moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety/low mood were recruited for interview. Template analysis was utilised to analyse interview data. We explored the situations, cognitions and behaviour linked to symptoms of anxiety and low mood by people with IBD, as well as the kind of psychological help preferred. Two themes were identified within participants accounts of symptoms of anxiety; 'under performance' and 'preventing an accident'. Two further themes were identified for symptoms of low mood; 'lack of understanding' and 'stigma'. Expertise and understanding was the main theme identified for the type of psychological help desired. The analysis highlights situations, cognitions and behaviour linked to anxiety and low mood by people with IBD and the type of psychological support desired. Our findings link to the knowledge and competencies set for psychological therapist working with long-term conditions.

  8. Different Patterns of Correlation between Grey and White Matter Integrity Account for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovac, Elena; Serra, Laura; Spanò, Barbara; Giulietti, Giovanni; Torso, Mario; Cercignani, Mara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bozzali, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral disorders and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are known to correlate with grey matter (GM) atrophy and, as shown recently, also with white matter (WM) damage. WM damage and its relationship with GM atrophy are reported in AD, reinforcing the interpretation of the AD pathology in light of a disconnection syndrome. It remains uncertain whether this disconnection might account also for different BPSD observable in AD. Here, we tested the hypothesis of different patterns of association between WM damage of the corpus callosum (CC) and GM atrophy in AD patients exhibiting one of the following BPSD clusters: Mood (i.e., anxiety and depression; ADmood), Frontal (i.e., dishinibition and elation; ADfrontal), and Psychotic (delusions and hallucinations; ADpsychotic) related symptoms, as well as AD patients without BPSD. Overall, this study brings to light the strict relationship between WM alterations in different parts of the CC and GM atrophy in AD patients exhibiting BPSD, supporting the hypothesis that such symptoms are likely to be caused by characteristic patterns of neurodegeneration of WM and GM, rather than being a reactive response to accumulation of cognitive disabilities, and should therefore be regarded as potential markers of diagnostic and prognostic value in AD.

  9. Compulsive buying in university students: its prevalence and relationships with materialism, psychological distress symptoms, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz; Otero-López, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Compulsive buying has become a severe problem among young people. The prominent role that psychological variables play in this phenomenon support their consideration in establishing a risk profile for compulsive buying that serves as a guide for the development of prevention and treatment programs with guarantees of effectiveness. However, there are only a small number of studies in existence which have explored the compulsive buying prevalence among students, and none of them have been conducted in a Mediterranean country. This study aims to estimate the compulsive buying prevalence in a sample of university students from the region of Galicia (Spain). We also intend to determine if statistically significant differences exist between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in relation with gender, materialistic values, psychological distress symptoms and subjective well-being. Lastly, the clarification of which of the determinants examined represent risk or protection factors for compulsive buying constitutes another important objective of this paper. A total sample of 1448 university students participated in this study. They answered a battery of self-reports assessing gender, compulsive buying propensity, materialism, distress symptomatology, and well-being. Participants were initially classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared for the aforementioned variables through chi-square testing or variance analyses. Then, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants make up a risk profile for compulsive buying. The estimated prevalence of compulsive buying in the sample of university students considered was 7.4%. Statistically significant differences between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers were detected for gender, and each and every one of the psychological variables explored. Specifically, it was confirmed that compulsive buyers obtained significantly

  10. Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leckman, J F; Grice, D E; Boardman, J; Zhang, H; Vitale, A; Bondi, C; Alsobrook, J; Peterson, B S; Cohen, D J; Rasmussen, S A; Goodman, W K; McDougle, C J; Pauls, D L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder encompasses a broad range of symptoms that represent multiple psychological domains, including perception, cognition, emotion, social relatedness, and diverse motor behaviors...

  11. Effects of animal-assisted therapy on behavioral and/or psychological symptoms in dementia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Lena; Engström, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Recently, interest in nonpharmaceutical interventions in dementia care has increased. Animal-assisted therapy has been shown to be one promising intervention but more knowledge is needed. The present article reports on a pilot study involving an 84-year-old woman with vascular dementia who was systematically trained with a therapy dog team for 8 weeks. A quasi-experimental longitudinal interventional design with pre-post measures was used. Data were collected on 3 occasions. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Some effects on the woman's ability to walk and move were identified. In addition, some effects in the woman's cognitive state were observed. Physical, psychological, and/or social training with certified therapy dog teams can have effects on behavioral and psychological symptoms in people living with dementia. Further research is needed.

  12. Prevalence, burden, and correlates of physical and psychological symptoms among HIV palliative care patients in sub-Saharan Africa: an international multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Richard; Selman, Lucy; Agupio, Godfrey; Dinat, Natalya; Downing, Julia; Gwyther, Liz; Mashao, Thandi; Mmoledi, Keletso; Moll, Tony; Sebuyira, Lydia Mpanga; Ikin, Barbara; Higginson, Irene J

    2012-07-01

    Despite HIV remaining life limiting and incurable, very little clinical research focus has been given to the prevalence and related burden of physical and psychological symptoms for those accessing palliative care. Despite evidence of problems persisting throughout the trajectory and alongside treatment, scant attention has been paid to these manageable problems. This study aimed to measure the seven-day period prevalence and correlates of physical and psychological symptoms, and their associated burden, in HIV-infected individuals attending palliative care centers in sub-Saharan Africa. Consecutive patients in five care centers across two countries completed the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form, with additional demographic and disease-oriented variables. Two hundred twenty-four patients participated. The most common symptoms were pain in the physical dimension (82.6%) and worry in the psychological dimension (75.4%). Interestingly, 71.4% reported hunger. Women, and those with worse physical function, were more likely to experience burden. However, being on antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not associated with global, physical, or psychological symptom burden. This study is the first to report physical and psychological symptom burden in HIV-infected populations receiving palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite increasing access to ART, these burdensome and manageable problems persist. The assessment of these problems is essential alongside assessment of ART virological outcomes. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Magallón-Neri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74 and matched community controls (MCC n = 74 using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5 dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation.

  14. Esophageal Sensorimotor Function and Psychological Factors Each Contribute to Symptom Severity in Globus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Arts, Joris; Caenepeel, Philip; Tack, Jan; Pauwels, Ans

    2016-10-01

    Altered upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and esophageal body (EB) sensorimotor function and psychosocial factors may both be involved in symptom generation in globus, but their common impact is not yet assessed. The aim of the study is (1) to compare UES and EB sensitivity and compliance of globus patients with healthy controls (HC); (2) to study the association of globus symptom severity (GSS) with UES and EB sensitivity and compliance, UES motor function and psychosocial factors. In 58 globus patients, GSS, somatization, and anxiety disorders were determined using validated questionnaires. In 26 HC and 42/58 patients, UES and EB sensitivity and compliance were assessed twice using barostat measurements. UES function of 27 globus patients was evaluated using high-resolution manometry. Bivariate correlations and a general linear model tested the association of these factors with GSS. UES and EB compliance did not differ between globus patients and HC. Upon repeated distension, UES habituation was seen in both groups, whereas EB sensitization (23.3±1.3 vs. 19.5±1.5 mm Hg, P<0.0001) only occurred in globus patients, (P=0.038). UES compliance (ρ=0.37, P=0.04), change in EB compliance upon repeated distension (ρ=0.45, P=0.007), somatization (ρ=0.43, P=0.003), panic disorder (t=3.04, P=0.004), and post-traumatic stress severity (ρ=0.40, P=0.005) were associated with GSS. UES compliance and somatization were independently associated with GSS. A trend (P=0.061) was found for the association of GSS with change in EB compliance. UES compliance, change in EB compliance, and somatization explain 40% of the variance in GSS. This indicates that globus is a complex disorder of the brain-gut axis rather than a "psychosomatic" disorder or a peripheral esophageal disorder.

  15. [Evaluation of the psychological feature and quality of life in outpatients with somatic symptoms disorder in a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, F H; Xiong, N N; Hong, X; Duan, Y P; Wei, J

    2017-11-07

    Objective: To explore the psychological features and quality of life in outpatients with somatic symptoms disorder in a general hospital. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2014-05 to 2015-06. Patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and somatic symptoms disorder (SSD) were recruited from psychological outpatient department, and patients with peptic ulcer (PU) / reflux esophagitis (RE) were recruited from Gastroenterology. Depression scale of the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7), Toronto Alexithymia scale (TAS), 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), items from Somatoform Disorder Screening Questionnaire were employed to evaluate the severity of depression, anxiety, alexithymia, quality of life, health care use and subjective feelings. Results: Scores of PHQ-9 (10±6), GAD-7 (8±5), TAS (74±7) in patients with SSD were significantly higher than PU/RE patients (5±4, 5±4, 71±8, respectively), and the physical component summary (PCS) (40±8) and mental component summary (MCS) (37±10) of SSD patients were much lower than PU/RE (PCS 45±6, MCS 47±9) (Pevaluate patients according to bio-psycho-social aspects and give intervention individually.

  16. Behavioral and psychological symptoms and the progression of dementia of the Alzheimer type in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzan, Leszek; Pachalska, Maria; Grochmal-Bach, Bozena; Bidzan, Mariola; Jastrzebowska, Grazyna

    2008-11-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms are common in the course of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Some behavioral and psychological symptoms may be predictors of the progression of dementia and cognitive impairment in DAT. However, studies on this topic face serious methodological problems. The aim of our study was to investigate how aggressive and impulsive behaviors correlate with the progression of dementia and related cognitive impairments in DAT patients. Using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the ADAS-cog we examined 39 nursing home residents diagnosed with mild to moderate DAT. Of these participants, 26 were re-evaluated with the ADAS-cog two years after baseline. Aggressive and impulsive behaviors correlated with the degree of cognitive impairment. However, we also found that particular ADAS-cog items correlated differently with the CMAI score. Moreover, various CMAI categories were differently related to cognitive disorders. Impairments in cognitive functioning best explain the fluctuations of verbal aggression and physical agitation (non-aggressive). At baseline, the more demented subjects had a higher general score on the CMAI scale and showed greater rates of physical aggression, verbal aggression and non-aggressive physical agitation. Particular items of the CMAI scale significantly differentiated our subjects in terms of progression of cognitive impairment. Aggressive behaviors in patients with DAT are linked to both the severity of dementia and the rate of its progression. At the same time, significant differences were noted with respect to particular behaviors.

  17. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Brouwers, Evelien P M; van Beurden, Karlijn M; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J L; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-05-01

    We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network Library and PubMed. Members of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), were also consulted. Guidelines recommendations were compared and reporting quality was assessed using the AGREE II instrument. Of 2126 titles retrieved, 14 guidelines were included: 1 Japanese, 2 Finnish, 2 Korean, 2 British and 7 Dutch. Four guidelines were of high-reporting quality. Best described was the Scope and Purpose, and the poorest described were competing interests (Editorial independence) and barriers and facilitators for implementation (Applicability). Key recommendations were often difficult to identify. Most guidelines recommend employing an inventory of symptoms, diagnostic classification, performance problems and workplace factors. All guidelines recommend specific return-to-work interventions, and most agreed on psychological treatment and communication between involved stakeholders. Practice guidelines to address work disability due to mental disorders and stress-related symptoms are available in various countries around the world, however, these guidelines are difficult to find. To promote sharing, national guidelines should be accessible via established international databases. The quality of the guideline's developmental process varied considerably. To increase quality and applicability, guideline developers should adopt a common structure for the development and reporting of their guidelines, for example Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) criteria. Owing to differences in social systems, developers can learn from each other through reviews of this kind. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  18. A four-session acceptance and commitment therapy based intervention for depressive symptoms delivered by masters degree level psychology students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohtala, Aino; Lappalainen, Raimo; Savonen, Laura; Timo, Elina; Tolvanen, Asko

    2015-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are one of the main reasons for seeking psychological help. Shorter interventions using briefly trained therapists could offer a solution to the ever-rising need for early and easily applicable psychological treatments. The current study examines the effectiveness of a four-session Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) based treatment for self-reported depressive symptoms administered by Masters level psychology students. This paper reports the effectiveness of a brief intervention compared to a waiting list control (WLC) group. Participants were randomized into two groups: ACT (n = 28) and waiting list (n = 29). Long-term effects were examined using a 6-month follow-up. The treatment group's level of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) decreased by an average of 47%, compared to an average decrease of 4% in the WLC group. Changes in psychological well-being in the ACT group were better throughout, and treatment outcomes were maintained after 6 months. The posttreatment "between-group" and follow-up "with-in group" effect sizes (Cohen's d) were large to medium for depressive symptoms and psychological flexibility. The results support the brief ACT-based intervention for sub-clinical depressive symptoms when treatment was conducted by briefly trained psychology students. It also contributes to the growing body of evidence on brief ACT-based treatments and inexperienced therapists.

  19. The Associations of Psychological Stress with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Chinese Bladder and Renal Cancer Patients: The Mediating Role of Resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyao Li

    Full Text Available The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and their associated factors in bladder and renal cancer patients are not well evaluated in China. Given the growing attention to positive psychological constructs in the field of oncology, it is necessary to explore the effects of these constructs on depressive and anxiety symptoms. This study aims to explore the associations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients and the mediating role of resilience in these relationships.A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning province. 327 bladder cancer patients and 268 renal cancer patients completed questionnaires on demographic variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Resilience Scale-14, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 during the period from July 2013 to July 2014. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of resilience.The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 78.0% and 71.3% in bladder cancer patients, and 77.6% and 68.3% in renal cancer patients. Psychological stress was positively related to depressive and anxiety symptoms, while resilience was negatively related to these symptoms. Resilience partially mediated the relations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms.The high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients should receive more attention from medical institutions and government agencies. In addition to reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms, resilience development should be included in depression and anxiety prevention and treatment strategies in China.

  20. The Associations of Psychological Stress with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Chinese Bladder and Renal Cancer Patients: The Mediating Role of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyao; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and their associated factors in bladder and renal cancer patients are not well evaluated in China. Given the growing attention to positive psychological constructs in the field of oncology, it is necessary to explore the effects of these constructs on depressive and anxiety symptoms. This study aims to explore the associations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients and the mediating role of resilience in these relationships. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning province. 327 bladder cancer patients and 268 renal cancer patients completed questionnaires on demographic variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Resilience Scale-14, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 during the period from July 2013 to July 2014. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of resilience. The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 78.0% and 71.3% in bladder cancer patients, and 77.6% and 68.3% in renal cancer patients. Psychological stress was positively related to depressive and anxiety symptoms, while resilience was negatively related to these symptoms. Resilience partially mediated the relations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms. The high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients should receive more attention from medical institutions and government agencies. In addition to reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms, resilience development should be included in depression and anxiety prevention and treatment strategies in China.

  1. Auditory symptoms and psychological characteristics in adults with auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Obuchi

    2017-09-01

    We have to take notice of a subject's psychological state when they perceive their listening difficulties as a large-scale problem and feel anxious as a result. For this purpose, we should take psychological characteristics into consideration at the time of the medical examination interview before audio-psychological testing.

  2. Mental Health Literacy for Anxiety Disorders: How perceptions of symptom severity might relate to recognition of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel J; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A

    Improving mental health literacy is an important consideration when promoting expedient and effective treatment seeking for psychological disorders. Low recognition serves as a barrier to treatment (Coles and Coleman, 2010), and this article examines recognition by lay individuals of severity for three psychological disorders: social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and major depression using a dimensional approach. Vignettes of mild/subclinical, moderate, and severe cases of each disorder were rated for severity by a team of expert assessors and 270 participants (mean age = 26.8; 76.7% women). Difference ratings were calculated comparing participants' responses to scores from the assessors. A within-groups factorial ANOVA with LSD follow-up was performed to examine the effects of Diagnosis and Severity on difference ratings. Both main effects [Diagnosis, F(2, 536)=35.26, Mse=1.24; Severity, F(2, 536)=9.44, Mse=1.93] and the interaction were significant [F(4, 1072)=13.70, Mse=1.13] all p's anxiety cases were underrated in the mild/subclinical and moderate cases, generalized anxiety cases were underrated at all three severities, and major depression cases were overrated at all three severities. Judgments of severity may underlie the low recognition rates for social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Future efforts should focus on improved recognition and education regarding anxiety disorders in the population, particularly before they become severe. This project demonstrates the importance of considering judgments of symptom severity on a continuum, and in a range of cases, rather than just the ability to correctly label symptoms, when determining whether or not people recognize psychological disorders.

  3. Psychological symptoms in family members of brain death patients in intensive care unit in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinrezaei, Hakimeh; Pilevarzadeh, Motahareh; Amiri, Masoud; Rafiei, Hossin; Taghati, Sedigheh; Naderi, Mosadegheh; Moradalizadeh, Mohammad; Askarpoor, Milad

    2014-02-08

    Having patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) remains an extremely stressful live event for family members, especially for those having to confront with brain death patients. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among relatives of brain dead patients in ICU in Kerman, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, using DASS- 42 questionnaire, the symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress of family members of brain death patients were explored in Kerman, Iran. Of 244 eligible family members, 224 participated in this study (response rate of 91%). Generally, 76.8%, 75% and 70.1% of family members reported some levels of anxiety, depression and stress, respectively. More specifically, the rate of severe levels of anxiety, depression and stress among the participants were 48.7%, 33%, and 20.1% respectively. Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in family members of brain death patients in ICU remains high. Health care team members, especially nurses, should be aware and could consider this issue in the caring of family members of brain death patients.

  4. Experience of critical incident stress among ambulance service staff and relationship to psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sharon; McGilloway, Sinéad

    2009-01-01

    This two-stage study was undertaken to assess the extent and nature of Critical Incident Stress (CIS) amongst frontline staff in a large ambulance service in Ireland. In Stage One, 63% (112/180) of participants completed a Screening Questionnaire and the GHQ-12. In Stage Two, 27 participants, who had experienced a critical incident (CI) during the previous year completed several measures to assess PTSD symptomatology, burnout, health-related Quality of Life, and dispositional optimism. Eighty-one per cent (80/94) of the Stage One group reported that their health had been affected by a CI; 42% (44/106) were identified as 'cases' on the GHQ-12. Stage Two results indicated that 12 participants had PTSD symptoms while this entire group showed moderate levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, despite experiencing high levels of personal accomplishment and optimism. The findings suggest a high prevalence of CIS among ambulance personnel in Ireland and a significant impact on overall health and wellbeing. This has important implications for the effective management of CIS and suggests an important role for occupational health and organizational psychologists in providing routine support to ambulance service staff andpossibly other emergency services personnel.

  5. Management of Menopausal Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kaunitz, Andrew M.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Most menopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms, with bothersome symptoms often lasting longer than one decade. Hormone therapy (HT) represents the most effective treatment for these symptoms, with oral and transdermal estrogen formulations having comparable efficacy. Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative and other recent randomized clinical trials have helped to clarify the benefits and risks of combination estrogen-progestin and estrogen-alone therapy. Absolute risks observed with...

  6. Psychological Distress and Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya Symptoms Following the 2016 Earthquake in Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Hargrave, Anita; Diaz, Avriel; Kenneson, Aileen; Madden, David; Romero, Moory M; Molina, Juan Pablo; Saltos, David Macias

    2017-12-05

    On 16 April 2016, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck coastal Ecuador, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity, damages to infrastructure, and psychological trauma. This event coincided with the first outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) and co-circulation with dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We tested whether the degree of psychological distress was associated with the presence of suspected DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV (DCZ) infections three months after the earthquake. In July 2016, 601 household members from four communities in Bahía de Caráquez, Manabí Province, Ecuador, were surveyed in a post-disaster health evaluation. Information was collected on demographics, physical damages and injuries, chronic diseases, self-reported psychological distress, and DCZ symptoms. We calculated the prevalence of arbovirus and distress symptoms by community. ANOVA was used to compare the mean number of psychological distress symptoms between people with versus without suspected DCZ infections by age, gender, community and the need to sleep outside of the home due to damages. The prevalence of suspected DCZ infections was 9.7% and the prevalence of psychological distress was 58.1%. The average number of psychological distress symptoms was significantly higher among people with suspected DCZ infections in the periurban community of Bella Vista, in women, in adults 40-64 years of age and in individuals not sleeping at home (p psychological distress and arboviral infections following natural disasters.

  7. Older person behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPS) and functional limitations mediate the association between older person cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in the caregiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chei, Choy-Lye; Østbye, Truls; Chan, Angelique; Matchar, David B

    2014-01-01

    We assess for the mediation of the association between older person cognitive impairment and caregiver depressive symptoms through older person BPS and functional limitations, and whether the mediation varies by caregiver-older person relationship (spouse/adult child). Data for 1111 older person (aged 75+ with activity of daily living (ADL) limitation)-caregiver dyads from Singapore were used. The outcome variable was dichotomous (caregiver clinically significant depressive symptoms [CSDS]: yes/no) in the primary analysis and continuous (caregiver depressive symptoms score) in the sensitivity analysis. The causal steps approach assessed for the mediation of the association between older person cognitive impairment (yes/no) and the outcome variable through the two potential mediators. A bootstrapping approach calculated point estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) of the indirect (∼mediated) effects. Variation of the indirect effects by caregiver-older person relationship was also assessed. In the primary analysis, the causal steps approach supported older person BPS and functional limitations as mediators. The bootstrapping approach confirmed both as significant mediators, though BPS (indirect effect odds ratio (OR) 1.32 [95% bootstrap CI 1.19,1.48]; %mediation: 70.6%) was a stronger mediator than functional limitations (1.04 [1.01,1.11]; %mediation: 11.5%). Variation of the indirect effects by caregiver-older person relationship was not supported. Results of the sensitivity analysis confirmed these results. We conclude that while caring for an older person with cognitive impairment is detrimental for the caregiver's mood, management of associated BPS and functional limitations, especially the former, among such older persons may reduce depressive symptoms among their caregivers. Spouse as well as adult child caregivers benefit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Work overload, burnout, and psychological ill-health symptoms: a three-wave mediation model of the employee health impairment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Leon T; Pienaar, Jaco; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2016-07-01

    The study reported here investigated the causal relationships in the health impairment process of employee well-being, and the mediating role of burnout in the relationship between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms, over time. The research is deemed important due to the need for longitudinal evidence of the health impairment process of employee well-being over three waves of data. A quantitative survey design was followed. Participants constituted a longitudinal sample of 370 participants, at three time points, after attrition. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling methods were implemented. Work overload at time one predicted burnout at time two, and burnout at time two predicted psychological ill-health symptoms at time three. Indirect effects were found between work overload time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three via burnout time two, and also between burnout time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three, via burnout time two. The results provided supportive evidence for an "indirect-only" mediation effect, for burnout's causal mediation mechanism in the health impairment process between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms.

  9. Associations Between Sleep Characteristics, Seasonal Depressive Symptoms, Lifestyle, and ADHD Symptoms in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlenga, D.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Breuk, M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Lie, M.E.H.; Boonstra, A. M.; Swaab, H.J.T.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients (n = 202) and controls (n = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and

  10. Impact of Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Symptoms on College Performance among Students of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2003-01-01

    Study examined relationships among exposure to community violence during high school, psychological distress during first semester of college, and academic performance during first three semesters of college. Exposure to community violence and academic performance; and psychological distress and grade point average were not related. Exposure to…

  11. The impact of peer victimization and psychological symptoms on quality of life in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuner, Selcuk; Sahin, Sezgin; Durcan, Gizem; Adrovic, Amra; Barut, Kenan; Kilicoglu, Ali Guven; Bilgic, Ayhan; Bahali, Kayhan; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2017-06-01

    There is no documentation about the association between peer victimization, psychological status, and quality of life (QOL) in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between peer victimization, psychological symptoms, and QOL in a cohort of children and adolescents with SLE. Forty-one patients (aged 9-18 years) participated in this study. The control group (n = 49) was composed of healthy children and adolescents from local community. Questionnaires were used to evaluate the peer victimization, psychological status, and QOL of children and adolescents with and without SLE. No significant difference was found between the study and control groups for peer victimization, depression, state and trait anxiety, and QOL scores. The peer victimization, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem scores were negatively correlated with psychosocial and total subscale scores of QOL in the study group. According to regression analyses, trait anxiety had a negative predictive effect on the physical health domain scores of QOL, whereas trait anxiety and peer victimization had a negative effect on the psychosocial domain and total scores of QOL in the SLE patients. This study suggests that trait anxiety and peer victimization are risk factors for poor QOL in adolescents with SLE.

  12. Effects of Cognition, Function, and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms on Medicare Expenditures and Health Care Utilization for Persons With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkowitz, Eric; Kane, Robert L; Dowd, Bryan; Gaugler, Joseph E; MacLehose, Richard F; Kuntz, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    Clinical features of dementia (cognition, function, and behavioral/psychological symptoms [BPSD]) may differentially affect Medicare expenditures/health care utilization. We linked cross-sectional data from the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study to Medicare data to evaluate the association between dementia clinical features among those with dementia and Medicare expenditures/health care utilization (n = 234). Cognition was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Function was evaluated as the number of functional limitations (0-10). BPSD was evaluated as the number of symptoms (0-12). Expenditures were estimated with a generalized linear model (log-link and gamma distribution). Number of hospitalizations, institutional outpatient visits, and physician visits were estimated with a negative binomial regression. Medicare covered skilled nursing days were estimated with a zero-inflated negative binomial model. Cognition and BPSD were not associated with expenditures. Among individuals with less than seven functional limitations, one additional limitation was associated with $123 (95% confidence interval: $19-$227) additional monthly Medicare spending. Better cognition and poorer function were associated with more hospitalizations among those with an MMSE less than three and less than six functional limitations, respectively. BPSD had no effect on hospitalizations. Poorer function and fewer BPSD were associated with more skilled nursing among individuals with one to seven functional limitations and more than four symptoms, respectively. Cognition had no effect on skilled nursing care. No clinical feature was associated with institutional outpatient care. Of individuals with an MMSE less than 15, poorer cognition was associated with fewer physician visits. Among those with more than six functional limitations, poorer function was associated with fewer physician visits. Poorer function, not cognition or BPSD, was associated with higher Medicare

  13. Investigation of body image as a mediator of the effects of bowel and GI symptoms on psychological distress in female survivors of rectal and anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Catherine; Rodriguez, Vivian M; Carter, Jeanne; Temple, Larissa; Nelson, Christian; DuHamel, Katherine

    2016-04-01

    Treatment for rectal and anal cancer (RACa) can result in persistent bowel and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Body image problems may develop over time and exacerbate symptom-related distress. RACa survivors are an understudied group, however, and factors contributing to post-treatment well-being are not well understood. This study examined whether poorer body image explained the relation between symptom severity and psychological distress. Participants (N = 70) completed the baseline assessment of a sexual health intervention study. Bootstrap methods tested body image as a mediator between bowel and GI symptom severity and two indicators of psychological distress (depressive and anxiety symptoms), controlling for relevant covariates. Measures included the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-CR38) Diarrhea, GI Symptoms, and Body Image subscales and Brief Symptom Index Depression and Anxiety subscales. Women averaged 55 years old (SD = 11.6), White (79 %), and were 4 years post-treatment. Greater Depression was related to poorer Body Image (r = -.61) and worse Diarrhea (r = .35) and GI Symptoms (r = .48). Greater Anxiety was related to poorer Body Image (r = -.42) and worse GI Symptoms (r = .45), but not Diarrhea (r = .20). Body Image mediated the effects of bowel and GI symptoms on Depression, but not on Anxiety. Long-term bowel and GI dysfunction are distressing and affect how women perceive and relate to their bodies, exacerbating survivorship difficulties. Interventions to improve adjustment post-treatment should address treatment side effects, but also target body image problems to alleviate depressive symptoms. Reducing anxiety may require other strategies. Body image may be a key modifiable factor to improve well-being in this understudied population. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm findings.

  14. Effects of Short-Term Exercise Interventions on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Patients with Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiner, Tim; Leucht, Stefan; Förstl, Hans; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Haussermann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Observational and interventional studies indicate a direct link between the patients' physical activity and the extent of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). At present, there are no evidence-based recommendations for physical exercise in the acute dementia care settings. Hence, this systematic review investigates the effects of short-term exercise trials on BPSD. Trials with a length up to three months investigating the effects of structured exercise interventions on BPSD in acute dementia care settings were included. Five trials, referring to a total of N = 206 patients, met the inclusion criteria. The trial durations ranged from three up to twelve weeks. All trials conducted three sessions per week of 30 to 45 minutes. Three trials reported significant reductions of BPSD and differences in comparison to the pre-test and control groups. Out of the three trials investigating the effects of exercise interventions on depressive symptoms, one reported significant reduction and two reported no differences in pre-post analysis. Exercise represents a potentially worthwhile approach for the treatment of patients suffering from BPSD. Given the scarcity of available studies, more randomized controlled short-term exercise trials in acute dementia care settings are needed to define appropriate exercise recommendations for clinicians treating these patients.

  15. Relationship between Dementia Severity and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Hashimoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are common in the clinical manifestation of dementia. Although most patients with dementia exhibit some BPSD during the course of the illness, the association of BPSD with the stage of dementia remains unclear. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the impact of severity of dementia on the expression of BPSD in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Ninety-seven patients with DLB and 393 patients with AD were recruited from 8 dementia clinics across Japan. BPSD were assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. A relationship between BPSD and dementia stage classified by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR in each type of dementia was assessed. Results: No significant difference was seen in NPI total score across CDR staging in the DLB group. On the other hand, the NPI total score significantly increased with dementia stage in the AD group. Conclusion: The relationship of dementia stage with the expression of BPSD was different according to the type of dementia. BPSD and dementia stage were correlated in AD subjects, in whom psychiatric symptoms increase as the disease progresses, but not in DLB subjects.

  16. Investigating the current methods of assessing behavioral and psychological symptoms in residential aged care facilities in a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Samantha M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2017-05-01

    Up to 90% of people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) display behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and these are associated with poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. In order to implement appropriate interventions, it is important to understand the symptoms in more detail. Despite the availability of BPSD assessment tools, it is unknown what the current practice of monitoring of BPSD in RACFs. We sought to investigate the current BPSD assessment tools being used in RACFs and explore different stakeholders' views on current practices. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 21 clinicians were identified and administered a questionnaire. Old age psychiatrists, aged psychiatry clinicians, behavior management teams and RACF staff completed the questionnaires. Clinicians reported that objective consistent information about BPSD were important for recommending and implementing pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies for BPSD; however, the use of validated BPSD assessments in RACFs was not a usual part of clinical practice. RACF staff stated the major barrier to assessment of BPSD was lack of time. Alternate methods of assessing BPSD which consider preferences from clinicians and RACF staff should be further investigated. Modern technology which can allow "real time" assessment may be a solution.

  17. Personal resilience resources predict post-stem cell transplant cancer survivors' psychological outcomes through reductions in depressive symptoms and meaning-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A; Wu, Lisa M; Austin, Jane; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Rini, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether post-transplant cancer survivors (N = 254, 9 months to 3 years after stem cell transplant treatment) with greater personal resilience resources demonstrated better psychological outcomes and whether this could be attributed to reductions in depressive symptoms and/or four meaning-making processes (searching for and finding reasons for one's illness; searching for and finding benefit from illness). Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined associations of survivors' baseline personal resilience resources (composite variable of self-esteem, mastery, and optimism), which occurred an average of 1.7 years after transplant, and 4-month changes in psychological outcomes highly relevant to recovering from this difficult and potentially traumatic treatment: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and purpose in life. Boot-strapped analyses tested mediation. Greater personal resilience resources predicted decreases in PTSD stress symptoms (b = -0.07, p = 0.005), mediated by reductions in depressive symptoms (b = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.027, -0.003) and in searching for a reason for one's illness (b = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.034, -0.0003). In addition, greater resilience resources predicted increases in purpose in life (b = 0.10, p personal resilience resources may promote better psychological adjustment after a difficult cancer treatment, largely because of improvements in depressive symptoms, although decreased use of a potentially maladaptive form of meaning-making (searching for a reason for one's illness) was also important for reducing PTSD symptoms.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Antidepressant Medication versus Psychological Intervention on Depression Symptoms in Women with Infertility and Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Hajar; Basirat, Zahra; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Kheirkhah, Farzan

    2018-04-01

    Fertility loss is considered as a challenging experience. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of antidepressant medication and psychological intervention on depression symptoms in women with infertility and sexual dysfunctions (SD). This randomized, controlled clinical trial study was completed from December 2014 to June 2015 in Babol, Iran. Of the 485 participants, 93 were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to psychosexual therapy (PST), bupropion extended-release (BUP ER) at a dose of 150 mg/d, and control (no intervention) groups. The beck depression inventory (BDI) was completed at the beginning and end of the study. Duration of study was eight weeks. Statistical analyses were performed by using paired-test and analysis of covariance. The mean depression score on the BDI was 22.35 ± 8.70 in all participants. Mean BDI score decreased significantly in both treatment groups (PST: Pinfertility and SD (Registration number: IRCT2015042721955N2).

  19. Effects of Relaxation Exercises and Music Therapy on the Psychological Symptoms and Depression Levels of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavak, Funda; Ünal, Süheyla; Yılmaz, Emine

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of relaxation exercises and music therapy on the psychological symptoms and depression levels of patients with chronic schizophrenia. This semi-experimental study was conducted using pre- and post-tests with a control group. The study population consists of patients with schizophrenia who regularly attended community mental health centers in the Malatya and Elazığ provinces of Turkey between May 2015 and September 2015. The study's sample consists of 70 patients with schizophrenia (n=35 in the control group; n=35 in the experimental group) who were selected randomly based on power analysis. The "Patient Information Form," the "Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)" and the "Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS)" were used for data collection. Patients in the experimental group participated in relaxation exercises and music therapy 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group of 35 persons was divided into three groups of approximately 10-12 individuals in order to enable all participants to attend the program. No intervention was applied to the patients in the control group. The data were evaluated using percentage distribution, arithmetic means, standard deviations, Chi-square and independent samples t-tests. The study found that patients in the experimental group showed a decrease in total mean scores on the BPRS and CDSS; the difference between the post-test scores of the experimental group and the post-test scores of the control group was statistically significant (pmusic therapy was proven to be effective in reducing schizophrenic patients' psychological symptoms and levels of depression. Relaxation exercises and music therapy can be used as a complementary therapy in the medical treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Do psychological treatments reduce symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder? Evidence update - Summary of a Cochrane Review

    OpenAIRE

    Effective Health Care Research Consortium

    2008-01-01

    Trauma focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TFCBT), eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), stress management, and group TFCBT reduce traumatic symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder.

  1. Psychological Resilience, Affective Mechanisms and Symptom Burden in a Tertiary-care Sample of Patients with Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Samantha J; Vincent, Ann; Hassett, Afton L; Whipple, Mary O; Oh, Terry H; Benzo, Roberto P; Toussaint, Loren L

    2015-10-01

    Research demonstrates that patients with fibromyalgia who have higher positive and lower negative affect have lower symptom burden. Affect has been shown to be associated with resilience. This study examined the relationship between affect, resilience and fibromyalgia symptom burden in a clinical sample of patients with fibromyalgia. We hypothesized that (a) positive and negative affect would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; (b) resilience would be associated with positive and negative affect; (c) resilience would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; and (d) the connection between resilience and fibromyalgia symptom burden would be mediated by both positive and negative affect. A sample of 858 patients with fibromyalgia completed questionnaires. Mediation modelling revealed statistically significant direct effects of resilience on fibromyalgia symptom burden (β = -0.10, P fibromyalgia symptom burden through affect (β = -0.36, P fibromyalgia symptom burden. Our results suggest that improving affect through resiliency training could be studied as a modality for improving fibromyalgia symptom burden. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Relationship Between Marital Adjustment and Psychological Symptoms in Women: The Mediator Roles of Coping Strategies and Gender Role Attitudes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan

    2015-01-01

    .... 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form...

  3. Shared versus specific features of psychological symptoms and cigarettes per day: structural relations and mediation by negative- and positive-reinforcement smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameringer, Katherine J; Chou, Chih-Ping; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the extent to which shared versus specific features across multiple manifestations of psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, ADHD, aggression, alcohol misuse) associated with cigarettes per day. Subsequently, we investigated whether negative- (i.e., withdrawal relief) and positive- (i.e., pleasure enhancement) reinforcement smoking motivations mediated relations. Adult daily smokers (N = 338) completed self-report measures and structural equation modeling was used to construct a 3-factor (low positive affect-negative affect-disinhibition) model of affective and behavioral symptoms and to test relations of each latent factor (shared features) and indicator residual (specific features) to smoking level. Shared dimensions of low positive affect, negative affect, and disinhibition associated with smoking rate. Negative-reinforcement smoking mediated the link between latent negative affect and heavier daily smoking. Specific features of psychological symptoms unique from latent factors were generally not associated with cigarettes per day. Features shared across several forms of psychological symptoms appear to underpin relations between psychological symptoms and smoking rate.

  4. An examination of DSM-IV depressive symptoms and risk for suicide completion in major depressive disorder: a psychological autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGirr, Alexander; Renaud, Johanne; Seguin, Monique; Alda, Martin; Benkelfat, Chawki; Lesage, Alain; Turecki, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    It is unclear whether certain DSM-IV depressive symptoms are more prevalent among individuals who die in the context of a major depressive episode and those who do not, whether this is associated with proximal or distal suicide risk, and whether depressive symptoms cluster to indicate suicide risk. A psychological autopsy method with best informants was used to investigate DSM-IV depressive symptoms among 156 suicides who died in the context of a major depressive episode and 81 major depressive controls. Suicides' depressive symptoms were more likely to include weight or appetite loss, insomnia, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt as well as recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation. Fatigue and difficulties concentrating or indecisiveness were less prevalent among depressed suicides. These associations were independent of concomitant axis I and II psychopathology. The concomitant presence of (a) fatigue as well as impaired concentration or indecisiveness and (b) weight or appetite gain and hypersomnia was associated with decreased suicide risk. Inter-episode symptom concordance suggests that insomnia is an immediate indicator of suicide risk, while weight or appetite loss and feelings of worthlessness or guilt are not. This study employed proxy-based interviews. We found that discrete DSM-IV depressive symptoms and clusters of depressive symptoms help differentiate depressed individuals who die by suicide and those who do not. Moreover, some DSM-IV depressive symptoms are associated with an immediate risk for suicide, while others may result from an etiology of depression common to suicide without directly increasing suicide risk.

  5. The role of psychological factors in oncology nurses' burnout and compassion fatigue symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the role of several psychological factors in professional quality of life in nurses. Specifically, we tried to clarify the relationships between several dimensions of empathy, self-compassion, and psychological inflexibility, and positive (compassion satisfaction) and negative (burnout and compassion fatigue) domains of professional quality of life. Using a cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of 221 oncology nurses recruited from several public hospitals filling out a battery of self-report measures. Results suggested that nurses that benefit more from their work of helping and assisting others (compassion satisfaction) seem to have more empathic feelings and sensibility towards others in distress and make an effort to see things from others' perspective. Also, they are less disturbed by negative feelings associated with seeing others' suffering and are more self-compassionate. Nurses more prone to experience the negative consequences associated with care-providing (burnout and compassion fatigue) are more self-judgmental and have more psychological inflexibility. In addition, they experience more personal feelings of distress when seeing others in suffering and less feelings of empathy and sensibility to others' suffering. Psychological factors explained 26% of compassion satisfaction, 29% of burnout and 18% of compassion fatigue. We discuss the results in terms of the importance of taking into account the role of these psychological factors in oncology nurses' professional quality of life, and of designing nursing education training and interventions aimed at targeting such factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Symptom burden, palliative care need and predictors of physical and psychological discomfort in two UK hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Tony; Ingleton, Christine; Gardiner, Clare; Parker, Chris; Gott, Merryn; Noble, Bill

    2013-02-26

    The requirement to meet the palliative needs of acute hospital populations has grown in recent years. With increasing numbers of frail older people needing hospital care as a result of both malignant and non-malignant conditions, emphasis is being placed upon understanding the physical, psychological and social burdens experienced by patients. This study explores the extent of burden in two large UK hospitals, focusing upon those patients who meet palliative care criteria. Furthermore, the paper explores the use of palliative services and identifies the most significant clinical diagnostic and demographic factors which determine physical and psychological burden. Two hospital surveys were undertaken to identify burden using the Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral to Care (SPARC). The Gold Standards Framework (GSF) is used to identify those patients meeting palliative care criteria. Participants were identified as being in-patients during a two-week data collection phase for each site. Data was gathered using face-to-face interviews or self-completion by patients or a proxy. Descriptive analyses highlight prevalence and use of palliative care provision. Binary logistic regression assesses clinical diagnostic predictor variables of physical and psychological burden. The sample consisted of 514 patients and elevated physical, psychological and social burden is identified amongst those meeting palliative care criteria (n = 185). Tiredness (34.6%), pain (31.1%), weakness (28.8%) and psychological discomfort (low mood 19.9%; anxiety 16.1%) are noted as being prevalent. A small number of these participants accessed Specialist Palliative Care (8.2%). Dementia was identified as a predictor of physical (OR 3.94; p psychological burden (OR 2.88; p psychological burden (OR 2.00; p care requirements. Moreover, the paper also indicates that a large proportion of such patients are not in receipt of palliative approaches to their care. Furthermore, the paper

  7. Gastro oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)-related symptoms and its association with mood and anxiety disorders and psychological symptomology: a population-based study in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Livia; Stuart, Amanda L; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Girardi, Paolo; Williams, Lana J

    2013-07-24

    Psychopathology seems to play a role in reflux pathogenesis and vice versa, yet few population-based studies have systematically investigated the association between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and psychopathology. We thus aimed to investigate the relationship between GORD-related symptoms and psychological symptomatology, as well as clinically diagnosed mood and anxiety disorders in a randomly selected, population-based sample of adult women. This study examined data collected from 1084 women aged 20-93 yr participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Mood and anxiety disorders were identified using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-patient edition (SCID-I/NP), and psychological symptomatology was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). GORD-related symptoms were self-reported and confirmed by medication use where possible and lifestyle factors were documented. Current psychological symptomatology and mood disorder were associated with increased odds of concurrent GORD-related symptoms (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5, and OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.7-5.6, respectively). Current anxiety disorder also tended to be associated with increased odds of current GORD-related symptoms (p = 0.1). Lifetime mood disorder was associated with a 1.6-fold increased odds of lifetime GORD-related symptoms (adjusted OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) and lifetime anxiety disorder was associated with a 4-fold increased odds of lifetime GORD-related symptoms in obese but not non-obese participants (obese, age-adjusted OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.8-9.0). These results indicate that psychological symptomatology, mood and anxiety disorders are positively associated with GORD-related symptoms. Acknowledging this common comorbidity may facilitate recognition and treatment, and opens new questions as to the pathways and mechanisms of the association.

  8. Prediction of 6-yr symptom course trajectories of anxiety disorders by diagnostic, clinical and psychological variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Batelaan, Neeltje; Rhebergen, Didi; van Balkom, Anton; Schoevers, Robert; Penninx, Brenda W.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify course trajectories of anxiety disorder using a data-driven method and to determine the incremental predictive value of clinical and psychological variables over and above diagnostic categories. 703 patients with DSM-IV panic disorder with or without agoraphobia,

  9. Relationship between insomnia symptoms, perceived stress and coping strategies in subjects with arterial hypertension: psychological factors may play a modulating role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Cheng, Philip; Mauri, Mauro; Taddei, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Drake, Christopher L; Morin, Charles M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate perceived stress and coping strategies in people with hypertension, according to the presence of insomnia symptoms and by using a set of variables that included anxiety and depressive symptoms evaluation. A total of 371 hypertensive patients were enrolled during their first visit to the Hypertension Outpatient Unit. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Brief-COPE, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered. Patients with other sleep disorders or with incomplete data (n = 41) were excluded. Data from 330 hypertensive patients were analyzed (males 51%, mean age 57 ± 13 years). Those with insomnia symptoms (n = 70, 21%) were older (p = 0.02), more frequently females (p = 0.01), and presented with higher PSS (p < 0.001), BDI (p < 0.0001), SAS (p = 0.0003), and STAI (p < 0.0001) scores than those without insomnia symptoms. In a linear regression trait, anxiety (p < 0.0001) and depressive symptoms (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of high PSS. Patients with insomnia symptoms showed lower scores in coping strategies, such as positive reframing (p = 0.03) and emotional support (p = 0.04), and an increased score in behavioral disengagement (p = 0.03). Trait anxiety and insomnia severity were independent predictors of less effective coping strategies. People with hypertension and insomnia symptoms showed higher perceived stress and less effective coping strategies than non-insomniacs; psychological factors such as trait anxiety and depressive symptoms may play a modulating role in these relationships. Prevention and treatment of insomnia symptoms and psychological factors should receive high attention for people with hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fibromyalgia symptoms and cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogal, Shari S; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Wasan, Ajay D; Szigethy, Eva; Lotrich, Francis; DiMartini, Andrea F

    2015-05-01

    An association between fibromyalgia and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been previously described. However, the relationship between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibromyalgia symptoms has not been assessed, though they share several risk factors. We aimed to assess the factors associated with fibromyalgia symptoms across etiologies of liver disease. Patients with cirrhosis due to HCV, NASH, or alcohol were recruited from an outpatient hepatology clinic and administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the modified 2010 American College of Rheumatology Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia. Serum inflammatory markers were measured with standard luminex assays. Of 193 participants, 53 (27 %) met criteria for fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with etiology of liver disease (HCV: 35 %, NASH: 30 %, alcohol-related liver disease: 12 %, p fibromyalgia symptoms. If abdominal pain was included in the model, etiology became nonsignificant, indicating that it may be central sensitization due to abdominal pain in patients with chronic liver disease that explains fibromyalgia symptoms rather than the etiology of liver disease or inflammation. Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with HCV and NASH cirrhosis and with psychiatric symptoms. Future work should focus on the underlying pathophysiology and management of widespread pain in patients with cirrhosis.

  11. Fibromyalgia Symptoms and Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Klaus; Wasan, Ajay D.; Szigethy, Eva; Lotrich, Francis; DiMartini, Andrea F.

    2015-01-01

    Background An association between fibromyalgia and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been previously described. However, the relationship between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibromyalgia symptoms has not been assessed, though they share several risk factors. Aim We aimed to assess the factors associated with fibromyalgia symptoms across etiologies of liver disease. Methods Patients with cirrhosis due to HCV, NASH, or alcohol were recruited from an outpatient hepatology clinic and administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the modified 2010 American College of Rheumatology Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia. Serum inflammatory markers were measured with standard luminex assays. Results Of 193 participants, 53 (27 %) met criteria for fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with etiology of liver disease (HCV: 35 %, NASH: 30 %, alcohol-related liver disease: 12 %, p fibromyalgia symptoms. If abdominal pain was included in the model, etiology became nonsignificant, indicating that it may be central sensitization due to abdominal pain in patients with chronic liver disease that explains fibromyalgia symptoms rather than the etiology of liver disease or inflammation. Conclusions Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with HCV and NASH cirrhosis and with psychiatric symptoms. Future work should focus on the underlying pathophysiology and management of widespread pain in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:25433921

  12. Stressors and psychological symptoms in students of medicine and allied health professions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omigbodun, Olayinka O; Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O; Yusuf, O Bidemi; Bella, Tolulope T; Olayemi, Oladopo

    2006-05-01

    Studies suggest that high levels of stress and psychological morbidity occur in health care profession students. This study investigates stressors and psychological morbidity in students of medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy and nursing at the University of Ibadan. The students completed a questionnaire about their socio-demographic characteristics, perceived stressors and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Qualitative methods were used initially to categorise stressors. Data was then analysed using univariate and logistic regression to determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Medical and dental students were more likely to cite as stressors, overcrowding, strikes, excessive school work and lack of holidays while physiotherapy and nursing students focused on noisy environments, security and transportation. Medical and dental students (1.66; SD: 2.22) had significantly higher GHQ scores than the physiotherapy and nursing students (1.22; SD: 1.87) (t = 2.3; P = 0.022). Socio-demographic factors associated with psychological morbidity after logistic regression include being in a transition year of study, reporting financial distress and not being a 'Pentecostal Christian'. Although males were more likely to perceive financial and lecturer problems as stressors and females to perceive faculty strikes and overcrowding as source of stress, gender did not have any significant effect on psychological morbidity. Stressors associated with psychological distress in the students include excessive school work, congested classrooms, strikes by faculty, lack of laboratory equipment, family problems, insecurity, financial and health problems. Several identified stressors such as financial problems, academic pressures and their consequent effect on social life have an adverse effect on the mental health of students in this environment especially for students of medicine and dentistry. While stressors outside the reach of the school authorities are difficult to

  13. Psychogenesis and somatogenesis of common symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huapaya, L V

    1975-05-03

    There are situations in clinical practice in which the physican should keep in mind the influence of emotional factors in the elaboration of symptoms and yet should not conclude hastily that "all is in the patient's mind". Symptoms are often the result of complex etiologic factors including life-threatening illnesses presenting psychologic symptoms as an early manifestation. Psychologic disorders and physical illnesses with similar symptoms may coexist in the same patient. There are also cases in which the symptoms are the result of the constant interaction of psychologic and physical factors. Some suggestions to help to clarify the diagnosis are given and a classification of the different clinical situations involved is presented. Becuase physicians should be constantly aware of the complexity of the factors involved in the elaboration of obscure symptoms, some recommendations are given in regard to undergraduate and graduate medical education.

  14. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy on Psychological Symptoms and Quality of Life in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Solati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT on psychological symptoms and quality of life (QoL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods: We conducted a randomized single-blind clinical trial in patients with SLE referred from the Imam Ali Clinic in Shahrekord, southwest Iran. The patients (46 in total in two groups of 23 each were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. Both groups underwent routine medical care, and the experimental group underwent eight group sessions of MBCT in addition to routine care. The patient,s QoL was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-28 and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey before, after, and six months after intervention (follow-up. Results: A significant difference was seen in psychological symptoms and QoL between MBCT and control groups immediately after the intervention and at follow-up (p ≤ 0.050. However, the difference was not significant for the physical components of QoL (p ≥ 0.050. Conclusions: MBCT contributed to decreased psychological symptoms and improved QoL in patients with SLE with a stable effect on psychological symptoms and psychological components of QoL, but an unstable effect on physical components.

  15. The impact of mindfulness-based interventions on symptom burden, positive psychological outcomes, and biomarkers in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Codie R; Garland, Sheila N; Carlson, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    Research on the use of mindfulness-based stress reduction and related mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in cancer care has proliferated over the past decade. MBIs have aimed to facilitate physical and emotional adjustment to life with cancer through the cultivation and practice of mindfulness (ie, purposeful, nonjudgmental, moment-to-moment awareness). This descriptive review highlights three categories of outcomes that have been evaluated in MBI research with cancer patients - namely, symptom reduction, positive psychological growth, and biological outcomes. We also examine the clinical relevance of each targeted outcome, while describing recently published original studies to highlight novel applications of MBIs tailored to individuals with cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that participation in a MBI contributes to reductions in psychological distress, sleep disturbance, and fatigue, and promotes personal growth in areas such as quality of life and spirituality. MBIs may also influence markers of immune function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, and autonomic nervous system activity, though it remains unclear whether these biological changes translate to clinically important health benefits. We conclude by discussing methodological limitations of the extant literature, and implications of matching MBIs to the needs and preferences of cancer patients. Overall, the growing popularity of MBIs in cancer care must be balanced against scientific evidence for their impact on specific clinical outcomes.

  16. Patients with chronic headache tend to have more psychological symptoms than those with sporadic episodes of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Junqueira Zampieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are controversial associations between headaches and psychological symptoms. Objective To design a profile of neuroticism, a term that groups variables related to negative personality traits, in patients with chronic daily headache (CDH when compared to episodic migraine (EM patients, applying the Factorial Scale of Emotional Adjustment/Neuroticism (NFS. Method One hundred adult patients with CDH and forty with EM answered the NFS. Results Comorbidities of subtypes of neuroticism (p=0.006 were more common in chronic daily headache patients, with three or more disorders (p=0.0002: dependent personality disorder (p=0.0001, anxiety, reduced concentration and production (p=0.0008, depression (p<0.0001, suicidal ideation (p=0.0008 and hopelessness even without depression (p<0.0001. Conclusion Patients with CDH tend to have dependent personality disorder, low production and concentration, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and hopelessness, superimposing two or more psychological disorders. These factors should be pondered for a better resolution in the treatment of CDH.

  17. Determination of the psychiatric symptoms and psychological resilience levels of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadar, D; Tanriverdi, D; Pehlivan, M; Kurnaz, G; Alkan, S

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and resilience levels of the hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and their relatives. The study enrolled 51 patients and 45 relatives undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Data were collected using Personal Information Form, Brief Symptom Inventory and Resilience Scale for Adults. Psychiatric symptoms of both patients and their relatives were negatively associated with resilience levels. Patients and their relatives with a higher degree of resilience showed a lower degree of psychiatric symptoms. The study results demonstrate that haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a process that affects patients as well as their families. We suggest that patients and their family members be evaluated for psychiatric symptoms by nurses during this process and resilience level of patients be increased by helping them improve their coping and problem-solving skills for adaptation throughout the process. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Self-Compassion: Association with Psychological Symptoms and Usage in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Korkmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-compassion is defined by Neff as approaching to the self without judgment, criticism or punishment, sharing the stressful experiences with other people without isolation and holding the painful emotions and thoughts in mindful awareness without over identification. The studies showed that self-compassion has positive relationship with psychological well-being; has negative relationships with depression, anxiety, eating disorders, trauma and other psychological problems. Also, the findings from psychotherapy studies that try to strength self-compassion attracted a great deal of attention. The main aims of this article were reviewing the self-compassion concept toward the literature, summarizing the empirical findings in the context of self-compassion and discussing the usage of self-compassion in psychotherapy.

  19. Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE, respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p < .05 the variance of females’ EAT-26 scores, whereas BD, DPCE, fat percentage, age, ethnicity and competitive level significantly explained ( p < .05 the variance of risk behaviours for males’ ED. Thus, only BD influenced risk behaviours for ED in both sexes.

  20. Incontinence and psychological symptoms in individuals with Mowat-Wilson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Justine; Einfeld, Stewart; Mowat, David; Equit, Monika; Wagner, Catharina; Curfs, Leopold; von Gontard, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Mowat-Wilson Syndrome (MWS) is caused by deletion/mutation of the ZEB2 gene on chromosome 2q22. MWS is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, severe intellectual disability and other anomalies, e.g. seizures and/or Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Most individuals have a sociable demeanor, but one third show psychological problems. The aim was to investigate incontinence and psychological problems in MWS. 26 children (4-12 years), 13 teens (13-17 years) and 8 adults (>18years) were recruited through a MWS support group. The Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence, as well as the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) were completed by parents or care-givers. 97.7% of persons with MWS had incontinence (nocturnal enuresis 74.4%; daytime urinary incontinence 76.2%; fecal incontinence 81.4%). Incontinence remained high over age groups (children 95.8%, teens 100%, adults 100%). 46.2% of children, 25% of teens and 37.5% of adults exceeded the clinical cut-off on the DBC. The ability to use the toilet for micturition improved with age. MWS incontinence rates are very high. All had physical disabilities including anomalies of the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract. Due to the high prevalence rates, a screening for incontinence and psychological problems in MWS is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychological and Lifestyle Factors That Influence the Serial Reporting of Postconcussion-like Symptoms in a Non-concussed Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, Arun Prasad; Athens, Josie; Schneiders, Anthony Gerard; McCrory, Paul; Sullivan, Stephen John

    2017-09-01

    Symptoms related to concussion are generally nonspecific in nature, as they are also reported by non-concussed individuals. What is currently not known is whether the symptoms vary over time, and whether they are also influenced by a multitude of factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential influence of psychological, lifestyle, and situational factors on the change in postconcussion-like symptoms reported over 7 consecutive days in a cohort of normal individuals. This was a longitudinal observational study. The setting was a real-world context. A convenience sample of 180 non-concussed university students were enrolled. Of these, 110 participants provided data for the entire period of the study. An experience-sampling methodology was used to document the symptoms reported over time. Stepwise multivariate linear mixed-effects modeling was performed to identify the predictors contributing to the serially reported symptoms. Independent variables considered were gender, time of the day, location, primary activity, and type of interactant (person) of the participant, physical activity status, trouble sleeping, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption, stress, anxiety, depression, mental and physical fatigue, and life stressors. The key outcome measures were the change in total symptom score (TSSchange) and symptom severity score (SSSchange) reported over 7 consecutive days. The predictors of location at the time of reporting, physical fatigue (estimate: -0.98, P college or university. A number of factors within the context of daily life influenced the postconcussion-like symptoms reported over time. These findings indicate that clinicians need to be cautious when interpreting the serially assessed symptom scores to track the recovery profile of a concussed athlete to make decisions on return-to-play. Additional investigation is warranted to examine the change in symptom scores reported over time by concussed individuals, considering that this study

  2. The direction of effects between perceived parental behavioral control and psychological control and adolescents' self-reported GAD and SAD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsbroek, Saskia A M; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the direction of effects and age and sex differences between adolescents' perceptions of parental behavioral and psychological control and adolescents' self-reports of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms. The study focused on 1,313 Dutch adolescents (early-to-middle cohort n = 923, 70.3%; middle-to-late cohort n = 390, 29.7%) from the general population. A multi-group, structural equation model was employed to analyze the direction of the effects between behavioral control, psychological control and GAD and SAD symptoms for the adolescent cohorts. The current study demonstrated that a unidirectional child effect model of the adolescents' GAD and SAD symptoms predicting parental control best described the data. Additionally, adolescent GAD and SAD symptoms were stronger and more systematically related to psychological control than to behavioral control. With regard to age-sex differences, anxiety symptoms almost systematically predicted parental control over time for the early adolescent boys, whereas no significant differences were found between the late adolescent boys and girls.

  3. The impact of mindfulness-based interventions on symptom burden, positive psychological outcomes, and biomarkers in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouleau CR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Codie R Rouleau,1 Sheila N Garland,2 Linda E Carlson3 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Research on the use of mindfulness-based stress reduction and related mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs in cancer care has proliferated over the past decade. MBIs have aimed to facilitate physical and emotional adjustment to life with cancer through the cultivation and practice of mindfulness (ie, purposeful, nonjudgmental, moment-to-moment awareness. This descriptive review highlights three categories of outcomes that have been evaluated in MBI research with cancer patients – namely, symptom reduction, positive psychological growth, and biological outcomes. We also examine the clinical relevance of each targeted outcome, while describing recently published original studies to highlight novel applications of MBIs tailored to individuals with cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that participation in a MBI contributes to reductions in psychological distress, sleep disturbance, and fatigue, and promotes personal growth in areas such as quality of life and spirituality. MBIs may also influence markers of immune function, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation, and autonomic nervous system activity, though it remains unclear whether these biological changes translate to clinically important health benefits. We conclude by discussing methodological limitations of the extant literature, and implications of matching MBIs to the needs and preferences of cancer patients. Overall, the growing popularity of MBIs in cancer care must be balanced against scientific evidence for their impact on specific clinical outcomes. Keywords: mindfulness-based intervention

  4. Lifetime co-occurrence of violence victimisation and symptoms of psychological ill health: a cross-sectional study of Swedish male and female clinical and population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Johanna; Wijma, Barbro; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2015-09-28

    Lifetime co-occurrence of violence victimisation is common. A large proportion of victims report being exposed to multiple forms of violence (physical, sexual, emotional violence) and/or violence by multiple kinds of perpetrators (family members, intimate partners, acquaintances/strangers). Yet much research focuses on only one kind of victimisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between symptoms of psychological ill health, and A) exposure to multiple forms of violence, and B) violence by multiple perpetrators. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data previously collected for prevalence studies on interpersonal violence in Sweden was used. Respondents were recruited at hospital clinics (women n = 2439, men n = 1767) and at random from the general population (women n = 1168, men n = 2924). Multinomial regression analysis was used to estimate associations between exposure to violence and symptoms of psychological ill health. Among both men and women and in both clinical and population samples, exposure to multiple forms of violence as well as violence by multiple perpetrators were more strongly associated with symptoms of psychological ill health than reporting one form of violence or violence by one perpetrator. For example, in the female population sample, victims reporting all three forms of violence were four times more likely to report many symptoms of psychological ill health compared to those reporting only one form of violence (adj OR: 3.8, 95 % CI 1.6-8.8). In the male clinical sample, victims reporting two or three kind of perpetrators were three times more likely to report many symptoms of psychological ill health than those reporting violence by one perpetrator (adj OR 3.3 95 % CI 1.9-5.9). The strong association found between lifetime co-occurrence of violence victimisation and symptoms of psychological ill-health is important to consider in both research and clinic work. If only the effect of one form of

  5. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics About the ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  6. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics About ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early ...

  7. Cold symptoms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  8. Social sensations of symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of sensations and the recognition of symptoms of a sickness, as well as the movement to seek treatment, have long been recognised in medical anthropology as inherently social processes. Based on cases of HIV and trauma (PTSD) in Uganda, we show that even the first signs...... and sensations of sickness can be radically social. The sensing body can be a ‘social body’ – a family, a couple, a network – a unit that transcends the individual body. In this article, we focus on four aspects of the sociality of sensations and symptoms: mode of transmission, the shared experience...... of sensations/symptoms, differential recognition of symptoms, and the embodied sociality of treatment....

  9. Social Sensations of Symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of sensations and the recognition of symptoms of a sickness, as well as the movement to seek treatment, have long been recognized in medical anthropology as inherently social processes. Based on cases of HIV and trauma (PTSD) in Uganda, we show that even the first signs...... and sensations of sickness can be radically social. The sensing body can be a ‘social body’ – a family, a couple, a network – a unit that transcends the individual body. In this article we focus on four aspects of the sociality of sensations and symptoms: mode of transmission; the shared experience of sensations....../symptoms; differential recognition of symptoms; and the embodied sociality of treatment....

  10. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Headaches Seizures Memory Depression Mood ...

  11. Premonitory symptoms in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Katarina; Artto, Ville; Bendtsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the frequency and number of premonitory symptoms (PS) in migraine, the co-occurrence of different PS, and their association with migraine-related factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a validated questionnaire was sent to Finnish migraine families between 2002 and 2013...... to obtain data on 14 predefined PS, migraine diagnoses, demographic factors, and migraine characteristics. The estimated response rate was 80%. RESULTS: Out of 2714 persons, 2223 were diagnosed with migraine. Among these, 77% reported PS, with a mean number of 3.0 symptoms compared to 30% (p ....5 symptoms (p migraine headaches. Yawning was the most commonly reported symptom (34%) among migraineurs. Females reported PS more frequently than males (81 versus 64%, p 

  12. Cholera Illness and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Note: Javascript is disabled or ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Cholera General Information Illness & Symptoms Sources of Infection & Risk ...

  13. Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fellowship Training Program Dystonia Coalition Dystonia Study Group Global Dystonia Registry About Us Mission & History How Will We Find a Cure? People Newsletters & Press Releases Dystonia Dialogue Financials Contact What is Dystonia? Symptoms & Diagnosis Forms ...

  14. Dyslexia: Causes, Symptoms, Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Albert J.

    1986-01-01

    The article reviews proposed causes and observable symptoms that characterize dyslexia, concluding that individualized analysis and specialized treatments are required and that, until an operational definition can be agreed upon, use of the label "dyslexia" is counterproductive. (DB)

  15. Associations of perceived social support and positive psychological resources with fatigue symptom in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NeiLi Xu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the association between perceived social support (PSS and fatigue and the roles of hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience as mediators or moderators on PSS-fatigue association among Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA patients in China.A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted withinpatients diagnosed with RA in northeast China, in which 305 eligible inpatients were enrolled. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Herth Hope Index, Life Orientation Test Revised, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Ego-Resiliency Scale were completed. The associations of PSS, hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience with fatigue and the moderating roles of these positive psychological constructs were tested by hierarchical linear regression. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were utilized to assess the mediating roles of hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience.The mean score of the MFI was 57.88 (SD = 9.50. PSS, hope, optimism and resilience were negatively associated with RA-related fatigue, whereas DAS28-CRP was positively associated. Only resilience positively moderated the PSS-fatigue association (B = 0.03, β = 0.13, P<0.01. Hope, optimism and resilience may act as partial mediators in the association between PSS and fatigue symptoms (hope: a*b = -0.16, BCa 95%CI: -0.27, -0.03; optimism: a*b = -0.20, BCa 95%CI: -0.30, -0.10; resilience: a*b = -0.12, BCa 95%CI: -0.21-0.04.Fatigue is a severe symptom among RA patients. Resilience may positively moderate the PSS-fatigue association. Hope, optimism and resilience may act as partial mediators in the association. PSS, hope, optimism and resilience may contribute as effective recourses to alleviate fatigue, upon which PSS probably has the greatest effect.

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Antidepressant Medication versus Psychological Intervention on Depression Symptoms in Women with Infertility and Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Pasha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Fertility loss is considered as a challenging experience. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of antidepressant medication and psychological intervention on depression symptoms in women with infertility and sexual dysfunctions (SD. Materials and Methods This randomized, controlled clinical trial study was completed from December 2014 to June 2015 in Babol, Iran. Of the 485 participants, 93 were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to psychosexual therapy (PST, bupropion extended-release (BUP ER at a dose of 150 mg/d, and control (no intervention groups. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was completed at the beginning and end of the study. Duration of study was eight weeks. Statistical analyses were performed by using paired-test and analysis of covariance. Results The mean depression score on the BDI was 22.35 ± 8.70 in all participants. Mean BDI score decreased significantly in both treatment groups (PST: P<0.0001, BUP: P<0.002 from baseline to end of the study, whereas intra-individual changes in BDI score were not significant in the control group. The decrease in mean BDI score was greater with PST compared to BUP treatment (P<0.005 and the control group (P<0.0001. The PST group showed greater improvement in depression levels (severe to moderate, moderate to mild in comparison with the two other groups (P<0.001. Drug treatment was well tolerated by the participants in the BUP group. Conclusion PST can be a reliable alternative to BUP ER for relieving depression symptoms in an Iranian population of women with infertility and SD (Registration number: IRCT2015042721955N2.

  17. Differences in symptom clusters identified using symptom occurrence rates versus severity ratings in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Sullivan, Carmen; Leutwyler, Heather; Dunn, Laura B; Cooper, Bruce A; Paul, Steven M; Conley, Yvette P; Levine, Jon D; Miaskowski, Christine A

    2017-06-01

    One of the unanswered questions in symptom clusters research is whether the number and types of symptom clusters vary based on the dimension of the symptom experience used to create the clusters. Given that patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy (CTX), report between 10 and 32 concurrent symptoms and studies of symptom clusters in these patients are limited, the purpose of this study, in breast cancer patients undergoing CTX (n = 515), was to identify whether the number and types of symptom clusters differed based on whether symptom occurrence rates or symptom severity ratings were used to create the clusters. A modified version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale was used to assess for the occurrence and severity of 38 symptoms, one week after the administration of CTX. Exploratory factor analysis was used to extract the symptom clusters. Both the number and types of symptom clusters were similar using symptom occurrence rates or symptom severity ratings. Five symptom clusters were identified using symptom occurrence rates (i.e., psychological, hormonal, nutritional, gastrointestinal, epithelial). Six symptom clusters (i.e., psychological, hormonal, nutritional, gastrointestinal, epithelial, chemotherapy neuropathy) were identified using symptom severity ratings. Across the two dimensions, the specific symptoms within each of the symptom clusters were similar. Identification of symptom clusters in patients with breast cancer may be useful in guiding symptom management interventions. Future studies are warranted to determine if symptom clusters remain stable over a cycle of CTX in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychological intimate partner violence and sexual risk behavior: examining the role of distinct posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the partner violence-sexual risk link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-01-01

    Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior: Examining the Role of Distinct PTSD Symptoms in the Partner Violence-sexual Risk Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762

  20. Community Resilience, Psychological Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms: An Examination of the Mississippi Gulf Coast 10 Years After Hurricane Katrina and 5 Years After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Blackmon, Bret J; Cochran, David M; Kar, Bandana; Rehner, Timothy A; Gunnell, Mauri Stubbs

    2017-08-30

    This study examined the role of community resilience and psychological resilience on depressive symptoms in areas on the Mississippi Gulf Coast that have experienced multiple disasters. Survey administration took place in the spring of 2015 to a spatially stratified, random sample of households. This analysis included a total of 294 subjects who lived in 1 of the 3 counties of the Mississippi Gulf Coast at the time of both Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The survey included the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) scale, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). There was a significant inverse relationship between psychological resilience and depressive symptoms and a significant positive relationship between community resilience and psychological resilience. The results also revealed that community resilience was indirectly related to depressive symptoms through the mediating variable of psychological resilience. These findings highlight the importance of psychological resilience in long-term disaster recovery and imply that long-term recovery efforts should address factors associated with both psychological and community resilience to improve mental health outcomes. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 8).

  1. Diabetes Complications and Depressive Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deschênes, Sonya S; Burns, Rachel J; Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prospective studies testing the potential impact of diabetes complications on depression are limited. The present study examined the longitudinal associations between diabetes complications and the risk and recurrence/persistence of depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were from....... Additionally, a greater number of diabetes complications was associated with recurrent/persistent depression, though with a small effect size (Δr = 0.02). A parallel process latent growth curve model indicated that increases in diabetes complications were associated with increases in depressive symptoms during...... the course of the follow-up period (β= 0.74, p depressive symptoms and underscores the psychological burden of diabetes complications by prospectively demonstrating the increased risk and recurrence...

  2. [A case of depression whose symptoms cured by setting her psychological base on the transcendent level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Masayuki; Tagami, Shinji; Inoue, Yoichi; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    she prayed to God for healing when she read a part in the Bible about a woman suffering from a hemorrhage for twelve years who touched the hem of Jesus' garment and was healed immediately (Matthew 9:20-22 and Luke 8:43-48), the patient suddenly experienced "the salvation of God" and realized what trust really meant. Through the experience, her clinical problems became totally cured, and the therapy concluded with her discharge from hospital. Several months later, she sent the therapist a letter including the following message: "I am grateful to the Lord for salvation from anxiety and irritation, but to the therapist for helping me realize it." This clinical course can be understood based on the patient's clinical problems (e.g., despair, anxiety, and depression), arising from the breakdown of her efforts to maintain stability by founding her psychological base on her feelings of omnipotence, avoiding facing her internal negative psychological factors (e.g., rage), and these were automatically resolved when her psychological base was switched to the transcendent level through "the Great being" experience and "the salvation of God." Such a sudden, marked improvement resembles what Miller and C'de Baca reported as "quantum change," of which the characteristics are vividness, surprise, benevolence, and permanence. The therapist paid attention to maintain a constant psychological distance from the patient, not persisting in modifying her cognition, with the transcendent level being the basis for the entire therapy. This stance of the therapist itself was considered to prompt her transcendence and bring about her eventual cure. This clinical course seemed to be highly suggestive of a psychotherapeutic mechanism, indicating the close relationship between the transcendent level and basic trust.

  3. Meaning in life and mastery mediate the relationship of negative reminiscence with psychological distress among older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Cappeliez, Philippe; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2012-01-01

    To understand the adaptive value of reminiscence, a mediational model of reminiscence was tested in a sample of older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Using structural equation modeling, we investigated if psychological resources (mastery and meaning in life) mediate the relation

  4. Obtaining Information from Family Caregivers Is Important to Detect Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms and Caregiver Burden in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Yamagami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study are to clarify the differences between the difficulties in daily life experienced by patients with both mild cognitive impairment (MCI and chronic disease and those experienced by healthy elderly individuals. Methods: We assessed (a cognitive function; (b gait ability; (c behavioral and psychological symptoms (observed at home; (d activities of daily living (observed at home; (e family caregiver burden, and (f intention to continue family caregiving of 255 cognitively normal and 103 MCI subjects attending adult day care services covered by long-term care insurance, and compared the two groups. Results: Subjects with MCI display more behavioral and psychological symptoms than cognitively normal subjects, posing a heavy caregiver burden (p Conclusion: Information regarding the behavioral and psychological symptoms displayed at home by patients with MCI can only be obtained from family caregivers living with the patients. To provide early-stage support for elderly patients with MCI, adult day care workers should collect information from family caregivers regarding behavioral and psychological symptoms observed at home.

  5. Watching pornographic pictures on the Internet: role of sexual arousal ratings and psychological-psychiatric symptoms for using Internet sex sites excessively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity.

  6. Alternative formulations, delivery methods, and administration options for psychotropic medications in elderly patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Litzinger, Mark H J; Fisher, Ed; Takeshita, Junji

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review alternative formulations, delivery methods, and administration options for psychotropic medications in elderly patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). A MEDLINE search was conducted initially in December 2008 and was updated in September 2009, including the search terms pharmacologic treatment and dementia, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, alternative psychotropic medication formulations, alternative dosing methods of medication, drug delivery options, antidepressants and dementia, anxiolytics and dementia, antipsychotics and dementia, mood stabilizers and dementia, cognitive enhancers and dementia, medications and enteral feeding tubes, and hiding medication. Studies were limited to English-language articles dated from 1950 to 2009. Additional relevant articles were obtained by reviewing the references in the initial articles. Drug Facts and Comparisons 4.0 Online, Lexi-Comp Online, and Lexi-Drugs Online were used to obtain additional information. Targeted patients were elderly individuals with BPSD who were considered difficult to treat because they were unable to swallow, were refusing medications, or were not able to eat or drink per physician order. In addition to the standard capsule or tablet given orally, a variety of formulations and delivery methods for psychotropic medications are available. Options include short- and long-acting intramuscular, intravenous, liquid, orally disintegrating, transdermal patch, sublingual, and rectal forms. Additionally, all formulations can be further altered in substance, delivery, or both. For example, tablets may be crushed and capsules opened; this changes their formulation and allows the option of mixing with food or liquids to be taken by mouth or through a tube. Caution must be used, however; in certain cases, alteration of the original form or the intended delivery method is contraindicated. In addition, many alternative

  7. Impact of cholinesterase inhibitors on behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noll Campbell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Noll Campbell1, Amir Ayub2, Malaz A Boustani2, Chris Fox3, Martin Farlow4, Ian Maidment3, Robert Howard51Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, Indiana; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Regenstrief Institute, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana; 3University of Kent, Kent, United Kingdom; 4Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana; 5King’s College, London, United KingdomObjective: To determine the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs in improving the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD.Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Registry, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL from 1966 to 2007. We limited our search to English Language, full text, published articles and human studies.Data extraction: We included randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine in managing BPSD displayed by AD patients. Using the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF guidelines, we critically appraised all studies and included only those with an attrition rate of less than 40%, concealed measurement of the outcomes, and intention to treat analysis of the collected data. All data were imputed into pre-defined evidence based tables and were pooled using the Review Manager 4.2.1 software for data synthesis.Results: We found 12 studies that met our inclusion criteria but only nine of them provided sufficient data for the meta-analysis. Among patients with mild to severe AD and in comparison to placebo, ChEIs as a class had a beneficial effects on reducing BPSD with a standard mean difference (SMD of −0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI]; −0.18, −0.01 and a weighted mean difference (WMD of −1.38 neuropsychiatry inventory point (95% CI; −2.30, −0.46. In studies with mild AD patients, the WMD was −1.92 (95% CI; −3.18, −0.66; and in studies

  8. Psychological Distress and Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya Symptoms Following the 2016 Earthquake in Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Stewart-Ibarra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 16 April 2016, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck coastal Ecuador, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity, damages to infrastructure, and psychological trauma. This event coincided with the first outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV and co-circulation with dengue virus (DENV and chikungunya virus (CHIKV. We tested whether the degree of psychological distress was associated with the presence of suspected DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV (DCZ infections three months after the earthquake. In July 2016, 601 household members from four communities in Bahía de Caráquez, Manabí Province, Ecuador, were surveyed in a post-disaster health evaluation. Information was collected on demographics, physical damages and injuries, chronic diseases, self-reported psychological distress, and DCZ symptoms. We calculated the prevalence of arbovirus and distress symptoms by community. ANOVA was used to compare the mean number of psychological distress symptoms between people with versus without suspected DCZ infections by age, gender, community and the need to sleep outside of the home due to damages. The prevalence of suspected DCZ infections was 9.7% and the prevalence of psychological distress was 58.1%. The average number of psychological distress symptoms was significantly higher among people with suspected DCZ infections in the periurban community of Bella Vista, in women, in adults 40–64 years of age and in individuals not sleeping at home (p < 0.05. The results of this study highlight the need to investigate the interactions between psychological distress and arboviral infections following natural disasters.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of exercise as a therapy for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia within the EVIDEM-E randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Francesco; Rehill, Amritpal; Knapp, Martin; Lowery, David; Cerga-Pashoja, Arlinda; Griffin, Mark; Iliffe, Steve; Warner, James

    2016-06-01

    Although available evidence is modest, exercise could be beneficial in reducing behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a dyadic exercise regimen for individuals with dementia and their main carer as therapy for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Cost-effectiveness analysis within a two-arm, pragmatic, randomised, controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial of a dyadic exercise regimen (individually tailored, for 20-30 min at least five times per week). The study randomised 131 community-dwelling individuals with dementia and clinically significant behavioural and psychological symptoms with a carer willing and able to participate in the exercise regimen; 52 dyads provided sufficient cost data for analyses. Mean intervention cost was £284 per dyad. For the subsample of 52 dyads, the intervention group had significantly higher mean cost from a societal perspective (mean difference £2728.60, p = 0.05), but costs were not significantly different from a health and social care perspective. The exercise intervention was more cost-effective than treatment as usual from both societal and health and social care perspectives for the measure of behavioural and psychological symptoms (Neuropsychiatric Inventory). It does not appear cost-effective in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life year gain. The exercise intervention has the potential to be seen as cost-effective when considering behavioural and psychological symptoms but did not appear cost-effective when considering quality-adjusted life year gains. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Types of dizziness and its relationship with psychological symptoms in patients with chronic dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Chitsaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dizziness could be categorized as one of the most common medical complaints of patients referred to the neurology clinics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the type of dizziness and its relationship with psychological disorders in patients with chronic complaints. 179 patients with a range of 18 to 65 years were studied. Patients were asked to complete the revised questionnaire form that contained 90 questions related to the signs based on severity scale vertigo tool. Subsequently to detect organic or non-organic vertigo, the patients were divided into two groups. Patients were asked to complete the given questionnaire form. For psychiatric disorders screening questions of international standard for testing SCL-90-R were used. Vertigo severity scale was used for the evaluation of dizziness severity. To compare quantitative variables between the two groups independent t-Test was used and p value of ≤0.05 was considered as significant. Of the total population 70.9% were females. 74% of patients have had dizziness due to organic causes and 26% have had dizziness due to non-organic causes. Dimension scores related to somatic complaints, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, paranoid ideation and global severity index in individuals with non-organic vertigo was significantly higher than other groups. There was a significant direct relationship between the overall score related to intensity of dizziness and all of the questionnaire dimensions'. There was significant correlation between the extent of physical complaints and the fear for morbid (p<0.001. The score of extent related to dizziness/balance in patient with vertigo due to organic causes and score of extent related to autonomic/anxiety in patient with vertigo due to non-organic causes was significantly higher than other groups.

  11. Personality traits such as neuroticism and disability predict psychological distress in medically unexplained symptoms: A three-year experience from a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vikas; Shanmuganathan, Balasubramanian; Thamizh, Jaiganesh Selvapandian; Arun, Anand Babu; Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2017-11-17

    People with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) may have psychological co-morbidities. Our objectives were to assess the rates and identify correlates of psychological distress in MUS. A total of 171 subjects with MUS seeking treatment at a tertiary care facility were assessed over a 3-year period. Psychological distress was assessed using the Tamil version of General Health Questionnaire-12. Apart from socio-demographic factors, personality, coping, perceived social support and subjective disability were assessed using standard instruments. Ninety subjects (52.6%) endorsed symptoms of psychological distress. MUS subjects with psychological distress reported higher levels of neuroticism (p disability (p disability (odds ratio 1.302, 95% CI 1.147 to 1.478) emerged as independent predictors of psychological distress in MUS. More than half of subjects with MUS have associated psychological distress. High levels of neuroticism and disability are potential markers of psychological distress in MUS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Comparison of Athletes? Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than ...

  13. [Pain, from symptom to syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Virginie

    2017-05-01

    Acute pain is a symptom enabling us to implement a response when faced with an attack. Chronic pain is complex and multifactorial. The care of the patient by a multidisciplinary team comprises the diagnosis of the pain and the putting in place of a treatment for each of its components. This includes physical reconditioning, adaptation strategies and work on the psychological elements relating to the representation of the pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Headache and functional symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villate, Sebastián; Arroyo, José; Bessolo, Eduardo; Crespín, Fabiana

    2015-04-16

    Headaches are a common reason for visiting neurology clinics. They have their origin in a variety of causes and their specific diagnosis deteriorates as it overlaps with other chronic painful pathologies. Somatic functional syndromes are characterised by chronic painful conditions that have a negative effect on quality of life, and are accompanied by functional symptoms with no organic cause. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of functional symptoms in patients who visited due to headaches. The sample included all the patients who visited the walk-in neurology clinic because of headaches between March and September 2014. A semi-structured survey was carried out in order to evaluate obsessive personality traits, bruxism, gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety, depression and sleep disorders. During the period under study, 125 patients visited due to headache. In all, 68.7% of patients with migraine presented functional symptoms and only 32.7% in the case of other headaches (p = 0.0001). Functional symptoms were prevalent in patients with headache, mainly in those with migraine.

  15. The buffering effect of tangible social support on financial stress: influence on psychological well-being and psychosomatic symptoms in a large sample of the adult general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åslund, Cecilia; Larm, Peter; Starrin, Bengt; Nilsson, Kent W

    2014-09-28

    Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health. Two separate postal surveys were sent to random samples in five counties in Sweden in 2004 and 2008, with a total of 84 263 respondents. The questionnaires included questions about financial stress, tangible social support, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12). Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being. Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life.

  16. Shen-Zhi-Ling Oral Liquid Improves Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Shen-Zhi-Ling oral liquid (SZL on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Among 98 patients with AD and BPSD enrolled (mean age, 57.2 ± 8.9 years old, 91 (M = 55, F = 36; mean age, 57.2 ± 9.7 years old completed the study. Patients took either SZL (n=45 or placebo granules (n=46 in a double-blind manner for 20 weeks while maintaining other anticognitive medications unchanged. Changes in BPSD between week 0, week 10, week 20, and week 25 were assessed using the behavioral pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (BEHAVE-AD rating scale and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA represented by diurnal activity (DA, evening activity (EA, and nocturnal activity (NA according to actigraphic recordings. SZL but not placebo oral liquid delayed the development of BPSD significantly according to the changes in some of the clinical scores and the EA and NA parameters of DFA at week 20 compared with week 0. No side effects were observed in laboratory tests. The results indicate that SZL might delay the development of BPSD in AD patients and thus is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use.

  17. Exercise training for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in people with dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Philipe de Souto; Demougeot, Laurent; Pillard, Fabien; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Rolland, Yves

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessed the effects of exercise on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, including depression) in people with dementia (PWD). Secondary outcomes for the effects of exercise were mortality and antipsychotic use. Twenty studies were included in this review (n=18 in the meta-analysis). Most studies used a multicomponent exercise training (n=13) as intervention; the control group was often a usual care (n=10) or a socially-active (n=8) group. Exercise did not reduce global levels of BPSD (n=4. Weighted mean difference -3.884; 95% CI -8.969-1.201; I(2)=69.4%). Exercise significantly reduced depression levels in PWD (n=7). Standardized mean difference -0.306; 95% CI -0.571 to -0.041; I(2)=46.8%); similar patterns were obtained in sensitivity analysis performed among studies with: institutionalized people (p=0.038), multicomponent training (p=0.056), social control group (p=0.08), and low risk of attrition bias (p=0.11). Exploratory analysis showed that the principal BPSD (other than depression) positively affected by exercise was aberrant motor behavior. Exercise had no effect on mortality. Data on antipsychotics were scarce. In conclusion, exercise reduces depression levels in PWD. Future studies should examine whether exercise reduces the use (and doses) of antipsychotics and other drugs often used to manage BPSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761®in dementia with behavioural and psychological symptoms: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, Armin; Schlaefke, Sandra; Überla, Karl

    2016-12-01

    To review current evidence of efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 ® in dementia with behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD). Randomized, placebo-controlled trials assessing the effects of EGb 761 ® in dementia patients with BPSD were included if the diagnosis was made in accordance with internationally accepted criteria, the treatment period was at least 22 weeks, outcome measures covered BPSD and at least two of the following domains of assessment, i.e. cognition, activities of daily living and clinical global assessment, and methodological quality was adequate. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model was used to calculate the pooled effect estimates and to compare effects of EGb 761 ® and placebo; furthermore, combined risk differences of response rates were calculated. Four published trials were identified, involving altogether 1,628 outpatients with mild to moderate dementia. Least-square mean differences for change from baseline in cognition, BPSD (including caregiver distress rating), activities of daily living, clinical global impression, and quality of life favoured EGb 761 ® (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). The pooled analyses provide evidence of efficacy of EGb 761 ® at a daily dose of 240 mg in the treatment of out-patients suffering from Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia with BPSD.

  19. [The symptoms in family medicine are not symptoms of disease, they are symptoms of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabián, José Luis; Pérez Franco, Benjamín; Turabián Fernández, José Luis; Pérez Franco, Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    The symptoms in family medicine are not signs of disease, but "signs of life"; in the consultation "all patient life comes together with him". Every consultation is primarily a biopsicosocial problem: the person perceives a dysfunction or alteration in relation with himself and his context. To do a diagnosis only with physical symptoms, can be a mistake because these do not identify the real problem. The different types of symptoms are "entangled" or chained some in others: the symptoms can be fitted or inevitable; to be expressions of biochemical alterations, symbols for the patient, group context expressions, or kinds of facing the facts; and they depend on the previous psychological patient performance, the severity of the deficit of the psychological function associated with the disease, the residual skills, the adjustment and the confrontation of the functional limitations, the relation doctor-patient, as well as on the influence of the context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Symptoms of psychological distress and suicidal ideation among banana workers with a history of poisoning by organophosphate or n-methyl carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Keifer, Matthew; London, Leslie; Mergler, Donna; Stallones, Lorann

    2010-11-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders and increased suicide rates have been associated with exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting organophosphates. This study examined symptoms of psychological distress, including suicidal ideation, among banana workers in Costa Rica previously exposed to a cholinesterase inhibiting pesticide. 78 workers who had received medical attention 1-3 years previously for occupational pesticide poisoning were recruited: 54 had been exposed to organophosphate, 24 to carbamate, and 43 and 35, respectively, had single and multiple poisoning episodes with a cholinesterase inhibitor. Referents were 130 non-poisoned workers randomly selected from company payrolls. Psychological distress symptoms during the month prior to interview were obtained using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), which has a general severity index and nine subscale scores. Differences in abnormal BSI scores (T score≥63) were assessed through multivariate logistic regression for all poisoned and for subcategories of poisoned as compared to non-poisoned workers. Organophosphate poisoned workers reported significantly more symptoms than non-poisoned on all but one symptom dimension. Significant trends of increasing symptoms with increasing number of previous poisonings were seen for somatisation, obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression and anxiety. Carbamate poisoned workers only had increased scores for somatisation. The ORs for suicidal thoughts were: all poisoned 3.58 (95% CI 1.45 to 8.84); organophosphate poisoned 3.72 (1.41 to 9.81); carbamate poisoned 2.57 (0.73 to 9.81); and 2.65 and 4.98, respectively for 1 and ≥2 poisonings (trend p=0.01). This cross-sectional study showed a relationship between acute occupational poisoning with organophosphates and psychological distress including suicidal ideation. Stronger designs are needed to address causality.

  1. Dopaminergic symptoms in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanti, Piero; Fofi, L; Aurilia, C; Egeo, G

    2013-05-01

    Migraine pain is often preceded, accompanied and followed by dopaminergic symptoms (premonitory yawning and somnolence, accompanying nausea and vomiting, postdromal somnolence, euphoria and polyuria). After reviewing evidence from pharmacological, biochemical, genetic and animal experimental studies on the relationship between dopamine and migraine, and matching these data with patients' clinical features, we postulate that migraine attacks could be characterized by an ictal dopamine release in a subject with dopamine receptor hypersensitivity due to a chronic dopaminergic deficit synergistic to serotoninergic impairment. Our review suggests that when the attack begins, a low dopamine plasma concentration stimulates hypersensitive central presynaptic dopamine receptors thus causing prodromal symptoms such as yawning and somnolence. Increasing dopamine levels, though still insufficient to stop trigeminovascular activation, stimulate postsynaptic dopamine receptors thus inducing nausea, vomiting and hypotension. Finally, dopamine levels slowly return to baseline, giving rise to somnolence and fatigue, but, in some cases, continue to rise triggering postdromal symptoms such as euphoria and polyuria.

  2. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René

    2016-01-01

    AND METHODS: Nationwide population-based prospective cohort study in Denmark, based on a random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years or older from the general population. A web-based questionnaire regarding gynecological alarm symptoms and lifestyle was distributed to the invited individuals. Data about...... and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their general...... practitioner. The proportion of individuals having contact with specialist care ranged from 39.3% (pain during intercourse) to 47.8% (bleeding during intercourse) Individuals with higher educational level had significantly higher odds of contact with a specialist (OR 1.86, CI; 1.17-2.95). CONCLUSIONS...

  3. Management of Menopausal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunitz, Andrew M; Manson, JoAnn E

    2015-10-01

    Most menopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms with bothersome symptoms often lasting longer than one decade. Hormone therapy (HT) represents the most effective treatment for these symptoms with oral and transdermal estrogen formulations having comparable efficacy. Findings from the Women's Health Initiative and other recent randomized clinical trials have helped to clarify the benefits and risks of combination estrogen-progestin and estrogen-alone therapy. Absolute risks observed with HT tended to be small, especially in younger women. Neither regimen increased all-cause mortality rates. Given the lower rates of adverse events on HT among women close to menopause onset and at lower baseline risk of cardiovascular disease, risk stratification and personalized risk assessment appear to represent a sound strategy for optimizing the benefit-risk profile and safety of HT. Systemic HT should not be arbitrarily stopped at age 65 years; instead treatment duration should be individualized based on patients' risk profiles and personal preferences. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause represents a common condition that adversely affects the quality of life of many menopausal women. Without treatment, symptoms worsen over time. Low-dose vaginal estrogen represents highly effective treatment for this condition. Because custom-compounded hormones have not been tested for efficacy or safety, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HT is preferred. A low-dose formulation of paroxetine mesylate currently represents the only nonhormonal medication FDA-approved to treat vasomotor symptoms. Gynecologists and other clinicians who remain abreast of data addressing the benefit-risk profile of hormonal and nonhormonal treatments can help menopausal women make sound choices regarding management of menopausal symptoms.

  4. Symptom burden in individuals with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Adam T.; Gallegos, Juan C.; Gertz, Kevin J.; Engel, Joyce M.; Jensen, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to (1) determine the relative frequency and severity of eight symptoms in adults with cerebral palsy (CP), (2) examine the perceived course of these eight symptoms over time, and (3) determine the associations between the severity of these symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Eighty-three adults with CP completed a measure assessing the frequency, severity, and perceived course of eight symptoms (pain, weakness, fatigue, imbalance, numbness, memory loss, vision loss, and shortness of breath). Respondents also completed measures of community integration and psychological functioning. The results indicated that pain, fatigue, imbalance, and weakness were the most common and severe symptoms reported. All symptoms were reported to have either stayed the same or worsened, rather than resolved, over time. The symptoms were more closely related to social integration than to home integration, productive activity, or psychological functioning. Memory loss was a unique predictor of social integration in the multivariate context. This study highlighted several common and problematic symptoms experienced by adults with CP. Additional research is needed to identify the most effective treatments for those symptoms that affect community integration and psychological functioning as a way to improve the quality of life of individuals with CP. PMID:21174251

  5. Duration of symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Olfred; Larsen, Susanne; Bastholt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the relationship between the durations of symptoms before the start of radiotherapy and treatment outcome in Stage I-III glottic cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1965 to 1997, 611 glottic cancer patients from the Southern Region of Denmark were treated with primary radiotherapy....... A total of 544 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion to the study (Stage I-III glottic cancer, a duration of symptoms less than or equal to 36 months, primary radiotherapy with at least 50 Gy and sufficient data for analysis). The total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 to 71.6 Gy in 22 to 42...

  6. Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms Details Content Last Updated: ... Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS You’ve been to the doctor ...

  7. Distinctive subgroups derived by cluster analysis based on pain and psychological symptoms in Swedish older adults with chronic pain - a population study (PainS65+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Britt; Gerdle, Björn; Bernfort, Lars; Levin, Lars-Åke; Dragioti, Elena

    2017-09-02

    Improved knowledge based on clinical features of chronic pain in older adults would be valuable in terms of patient-orientated approaches and would provide support for health care systems in optimizing health care resources. This study identifies subgroups based on pain and psychological symptoms among Swedish older adults in the general population and compares derived subgroups with respect to socio-demographics, health aspects, and health care costs. This cross-sectional study uses data collected from four registers and one survey. The total sample comprised 2415 individuals ≥65 years old. A two-step cluster analysis was performed. Data on pain intensity, number of pain sites, anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing were used as classification variables. Differences in socio-demographics, quality of life, general health, insomnia, and health care costs among the clusters were investigated. Association of the clusters with the above parameters was further evaluated using multinomial logistic regression. Four major clusters were identified: Subgroup 1 (n = 325; 15%) - moderate pain and high psychological symptoms; Subgroup 2 (n = 516; 22%) - high pain and moderate psychological symptoms; Subgroup 3 (n = 686; 30%) - low pain and moderate psychological symptoms; and Subgroup 4 (n = 767; 33%) - low pain and low psychological symptoms. Significant differences were found between the four clusters with regard to age, sex, educational level, family status, quality of life, general health, insomnia, and health care costs. The multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that Subgroups 1 and 2, compared to Subgroup 4, were significantly associated with decreased quality of life, decreased general health, and increased insomnia. Subgroup 3, compared to Subgroup 4, was associated with decreased general health and increased insomnia. In addition, compared to Subgroup 4, Subgroups 1 and 2 were significantly associated with higher health care costs. Two

  8. A protocol for a systematic review of research on managing behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia for community-dwelling older people: evidence mapping and syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Daksha; Goodman, Claire; Dickinson, Angela; Gage, Heather; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Manthorpe, Jill; Ashaye, Kunle; Iliffe, Steve

    2013-08-28

    Non-cognitive behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia affect up to 90% of people with dementia during the disease course and result in distress, increased carer burden, high service utilization and unwanted moves to care homes. Research has focused on long-term settings and has not considered people with dementia living at home and at different stages of the disease trajectory. Our aim is to review systematically the evidence concerning non-pharmacological strategies to minimise behavioural and psychological symptoms in community-dwelling older people with dementia. Our approach is a two-stage co-design: a systematic mapping of the broad evidence around behavioural and psychological symptoms followed by an in-depth systematic review of studies of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms from the perspective of their impact on community-dwelling older people with dementia and their carers. The review will include published literature involving a wide range of electronic databases using sensitive and comprehensive searches and lateral searching including checking citations.We will produce a descriptive map of the studies by design and by the focus of interventions and apply further inclusion criteria, developed in conjunction with lay experts, to select studies for an in-depth systematic review that will include independent quality assessment and detailed data extraction by two reviewers.The review process will be integrated with stakeholder meetings and a multidisciplinary expert advisory group to guide the review parameters and shape the research questions on the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms in people with dementia. Because studies are likely to be diverse in methodology and interventions, we will conduct a narrative synthesis of the in-depth systematic review. If appropriate, we will pool studies in a meta-analysis. We will explore review findings at both stages through focus groups and

  9. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  10. Respiratory Symptoms in Firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Frans E.; Rooyackers, Jos M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Heederik, Dick J.

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with respiratory symptoms in common firefighters in the Netherlands. Methods A total of 1,330 firefighters from the municipal fire brigades of three provinces of the Netherlands were included in the

  11. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Links between psychosocial factors and boys' compulsive use symptoms were analyzed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally with compulsive use symptoms measured 6 months later (T2). Data were used from 331 Dutch boys (M age = 15.16 years, range 11-17) who indicated that they used sexually explicit Internet material. The results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that lower levels of global self-esteem and higher levels of excessive sexual interest concurrently predicted boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Longitudinally, higher levels of depressive feelings and, again, excessive sexual interest predicted relative increases in compulsive use symptoms 6 months later. Impulsive and psychopathic personality traits were not uniquely related to boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Our findings, while preliminary, suggest that both psychological well-being factors and sexual interests/behaviors are involved in the development of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Such knowledge is important for prevention and intervention efforts that target the needs of specific problematic users of sexually explicit Internet material.

  12. Aromatherapy for the Treatment of Patients with Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Descriptive Analysis of RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press-Sandler, Olga; Freud, Tamar; Volkov, Ilya; Peleg, Roni; Press, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a common problem among patients with dementia. This problem is usually treated by drugs, but they have limited efficacy and often cause adverse effects. Aromatherapy is a nonpharmacologic treatment that is simple to use and devoid of significant adverse effects. To review the literature on the effectiveness of aromatherapy treatment in patients with BPSD. A descriptive analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published in the English-language literature and cited in PubMed. Eleven articles on RCTs were found, of which 1 had fewer than 10 participants, 2 were mistakenly presented as RCTs, and another did not report treatment for BPSD. In all, 7 articles with 417 participants total (range, 15-114) were reviewed. The mean age in all studies was greater than 69 years (range, 69-85 years), and the percentage of women was 55% (range, 50%-57%). The intervention period ranged from 10 days to 12 weeks. Two studies used Melissa oil and 5 others used lavender oil. The studies described different methods of administration for the oils, including spraying and rubbing over various body organs. The duration of treatment differed among the studies. In 3 studies the investigators concluded that the treatment was not effective and in 3 that it was effective; in 1 study no clear conclusion could be drawn. The difference between positive and negative studies was not explained by differences in the study population, the type of oil, or the duration of treatment. The significant difference apparently stems from the method of administration. When the oil was applied close to the olfactory system the outcome was positive. A study should be designed to assess the effect of the site of application of aromatherapy.

  13. Combined Memantine and Donepezil Treatment Improves Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia-Like Behaviors in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yasushi; Matsuo, Kazuya; Hirano, Koga; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Moriguchi, Shigeki; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Memantine, an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, and the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, are approved in most countries for treating moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). These drugs have different molecular targets; thus, it is expected that the effects of combined treatment would be synergistic. Some reports do show memantine/donepezil synergy in ameliorating cognition in AD model animals, but their combined effects on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)-like behaviors have not been addressed. Here, we investigate combined memantine/donepezil effects on cognitive impairment and BPSD-like behaviors in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice. Interestingly, combined administration synergistically improved both depressive-like behaviors and impaired social interaction in OBX mice, whereas only weak synergistic effects on cognitive performance were seen. To address mechanisms underlying these effects, we used in vivo microdialysis study and observed impaired nicotine-induced serotonin (5-HT) release in OBX mouse hippocampus. Combined memantine/donepezil administration, but not single administration of either, significantly antagonized the decrease in nicotine-induced 5-HT release seen in OBX mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, decreased autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was rescued in hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus of OBX mice by combined memantine/donepezil administration. These results suggest that improvement of BPSD-like behaviors by the co-administration of both drugs is in part mediated by enhanced 5-HT release and CaMKII activity in OBX mouse hippocampus. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Trauma Symptoms in Abused Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.

  15. Somatic symptoms, sleep disturbance and psychological distress among women undergoing oocyte pick-up and in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Hui; Chueh, Ke-Hsin; Lin, Jia-Ling

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between somatic symptoms, sleep disturbance and psychological distress in women who underwent oocyte pick-up and in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer. According to worldwide research, women receiving assisted reproductive technologies may suffer from somatic and psychological symptoms and even experience sleep disturbance. Apparently, the guilt of infecundity forces Asian women to conceal this scenario and delay the time at which they accept medical assistance and mental support. A longitudinal study. The subjects in this study were infertile female patients who received oocyte pick-up and in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer therapies in a hospital in northern Taiwan. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire, including somatic symptoms, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and a five-item brief symptom rating scale. Data were analysed using the McNemar's test, Wilcoxon Sign Rank and fully entered multiple regression with spss version 20.0 software. The mean age of 100 participants was 34·54 (SD = 3·94) years old. They experienced abdominal distention, breast engorgement, nausea, faintness, diarrhoea, sleep disturbance and psychological distress when they received in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer; these results were apparently higher than those receiving oocyte pick-up. In addition, sleep disturbance was the most significant factor involved in psychological distress during oocyte pick-up and in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer therapies. The most serious indicator of the women's psychological distress during oocyte pick-up and in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer treatment is anxiety. Sleep disturbance was the most significant factor involved in the psychological distress of women having problems with conception. Assisted reproductive technologies nurses can assess women's psychological distress by caring for their sleep disturbance without directly exploring their mood state. Moreover, these

  16. Do Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Improve when Patients Receive Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Co-morbid Anxiety Disorders in a Primary Care Psychological Therapy (IAPT) Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, Mark; McDonald, Jason; Talbot, Jo; Janjua, Kinza

    2017-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common co-morbid condition with anxiety disorders, and patients often report a fear of incontinence in public places. This type of bowel control anxiety (BCA) can be conceptualized as a phobic syndrome. Yet little evidence exists on the prevalence or outcomes of these co-morbidities in routine primary care psychological therapy (Improving Access to Psychological Therapies, IAPT) services. To examine the prevalence and outcomes of IBS and BCA patients treated with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders within a routine IAPT service. An observational cohort study screened 2322 referrals to an IAPT service over 12 months for the presence of IBS. Patients with co-morbid anxiety disorders and IBS were grouped into those with, and without BCA. Patients completed the IBS symptom severity scale and the IAPT minimum data set. Diagnoses and outcomes were examined for all groups up to 6 months follow-up. A greater proportion of BCA patients had a primary diagnosis of phobic disorder. After receiving CBT, patients made clinically significant improvement in both anxiety and IBS symptoms at 6 months follow-up. Patients with BCA made greater improvement in phobia scales and IBS symptoms than non-BCA patients. Anxiety disorders with co-morbid IBS improved significantly in a routine IAPT service. A significant proportion of co-morbid IBS sufferers had a fear of incontinence in public places (BCA). Directly addressing and modifying these fears with CBT appeared to enhance improvement in both phobic anxiety and IBS symptoms.

  17. Prospective study of the influence of psychological and medical factors on quality of life and severity of symptoms among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, M; Kanatas, A; Herzberg, P Y; Khoschdell, M; Kokemueller, H; Gellrich, N-C; Rana, M

    2015-04-01

    About 400,000 people worldwide are diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) annually, and the incidence is increasing. Many advanced carcinomas of the oral cavity require radical surgical treatment that can impair patient's quality of life (QoL) and severity of symptoms. We therefore aimed to identify coping strategies and disease-specific medical factors that affect QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC were asked to complete the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness (FQCI), the University of Washington Quality of life Questionnaire (UW-QOL version 4), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to measure psychological stress. We also assessed the impact of various factors on QoL and severity of symptoms, including stage and site of tumour, method of reconstruction, time of diagnosis, and social structure (age, sex, marital status, living arrangements, level of education, and employment). We enrolled a consecutive sample of 104 patients over a period of one year. Stepwise linear regression analyses indicated that both depressive coping and size of tumour had an adverse effect on QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with high educational attainment and those who lived alone reported impaired QoL, and women experienced increased severity of symptoms. Impaired QoL and increased severity of symptoms were associated with a depressive style of coping, size of tumour, educational attainment, and living arrangements. It is important to identify these patients during treatment as they could benefit from psycho-oncological counselling. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The use of psychotropic drugs for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia among residents in long-term care facilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Takashi; Katsumata, Yuriko; Arai, Asuna

    2017-12-01

    To examine whether the use of psychotropic drugs (PDs) was related to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) focusing on the prevalence, numbers of symptoms, severity, and care burden among the elderly with BPSD living in long-term care facilities in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among older people with dementia or similar symptoms (n = 312) using a questionnaire for care staff in 10 selected long-term care facilities. A brief questionnaire form of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to assess BPSD. PDs were used in 45% among all participants and 47.5% among those exhibiting at least one BPSD. We found that use of PDs was associated with greater numbers, severity, and care burden of BPSD. Also, there was significantly more use of PDs among people who had specific BPSD symptoms, such as delusions, anxiety, and disinhibition, compared with those who did not. The use of PDs among residents in long-term care facilities with dementia or similar symptoms was relatively low compared with previous reports from other countries. Nonetheless, the greater numbers, severity, and care burden of BPSD were associated with the use of PDs.

  19. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people?s use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet...

  20. The influence of caregivers and behavioral and psychological symptoms on nursing home placement of persons with Alzheimer’s disease: A matched case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Candace N; Margaret C Miller; Marcia Lane; Carol Cornman; Khaled Sarsour; Kristin Kahle-Wrobleski

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in individuals with Alzheimer?s disease and caregiver characteristics may influence the decision to provide care at home or in a nursing home, though few studies examine this association near the actual time of nursing home placement. Using a matched case?control design, this study investigates the association between (1) total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score, (2) the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-4 (an agitation/aggression subscale)...

  1. Emotional symptoms among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette K; Nielsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    . A negative classroom climate was associated with emotional symptoms (OR 1.29, 95% CI: 0.99-1.69) and so was being part of classrooms with a high prevalence of bullying (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.0-1.60). CONCLUSION: Female sex, low OSC, single parent family, exposure to bullying and a high prevalence of bullying...... level. RESULTS: Schoolchildren from low (odds ratio (OR) 1.70, 95% CI: 1.33-2.17) and medium (OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.22-1.85) occupational social class (OSC), girls (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13-1.56) and schoolchildren exposed to bullying (OR 3.82, 95% CI: 2.71-5.40), had increased odds for emotional symptoms...

  2. Psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being in relation to employment status: the influence of social capital in a large cross-sectional study in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Unemployment is associated with adverse effects on health. Social capital has been suggested as a promoter of health via several causal pathways that are associated with the known health risk factors of being unemployed. This cross-sectional study investigated possible additive- and interaction effects of unemployment and five different measures of social capital in relation to psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being. Methods A random population sample of 20,538 individuals aged 18–85 years from five counties in Sweden completed a postal survey questionnaire including questions of employment status, psychosomatic symptoms, psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12) and social capital. Results Psychosomatic symptoms and reduced psychological well-being were more frequent among unemployed individuals compared with individuals who were employed. Moreover, low social capital and unemployment had additive effects on ill-health. Unemployed individuals with low social capital—specifically with low tangible social support—had increased ill-health compared with unemployed individuals with high social capital. Moreover, to have low social capital within several different areas magnified the negative effects on health. However, no significant interaction effects were found suggesting no moderating effect of social capital in this regard. Conclusions Elements of social capital, particularly social support, might be important health-protective factors among individuals who are unemployed. PMID:24593256

  3. Supplementation with macular carotenoids reduces psychological stress, serum cortisol, and sub-optimal symptoms of physical and emotional health in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringham, Nicole Tressa; Holmes, Philip V; Stringham, James M

    2017-02-15

    Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are the root cause of several deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress. We hypothesize that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities of the macular carotenoids (MCs) lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin could, via daily supplementation, provide a dietary means of benefit. A total of 59 young healthy subjects participated in a 12-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of MC supplementation on blood cortisol, psychological stress ratings, behavioural measures of mood, and symptoms of sub-optimal health. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: placebo, 13 mg, or 27 mg / day total MCs. All parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Serum MCs were determined via HPLC, serum cortisol via ELISA, and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) via customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Behavioural data were obtained via questionnaire. Significant baseline correlations were found between MPOD and Beck anxiety scores (r = -0.28; P = 0.032), MPOD and Brief Symptom Inventory scores (r = 0.27; P = 0.037), and serum cortisol and psychological stress scores (r = 0.46; P stress, serum cortisol, and measures of emotional and physical health (P stress, cortisol, and symptoms of sub-optimal emotional and physical health. Determining the basis for these effects, whether systemic or a more central (i.e. brain) is a question that warrants further study.

  4. Repetitive traumatic brain injury, psychological symptoms, and suicide risk in a clinical sample of deployed military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Clemans, Tracy A

    2013-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is believed to be one factor contributing to rising suicide rates among military personnel and veterans. This study investigated the association of cumulative TBIs with suicide risk in a clinical sample of deployed military personnel referred for a TBI evaluation. To determine whether suicide risk is more frequent and heightened among military personnel with multiple lifetime TBIs than among those with no TBIs or a single TBI. Patients completed standardized self-report measures of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal thoughts and behaviors; clinical interview; and physical examination. Group comparisons of symptom scores according to number of lifetime TBIs were made, and generalized regression analyses were used to determine the association of cumulative TBIs with suicide risk. Patients included 161 military personnel referred for evaluation and treatment of suspected head injury at a military hospital's TBI clinic in Iraq. Behavioral Health Measure depression subscale, PTSD Checklist-Military Version, concussion symptoms, and Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. Depression, PTSD, and TBI symptom severity significantly increased with the number of TBIs. An increased incidence of lifetime suicidal thoughts or behaviors was associated with the number of TBIs (no TBIs, 0%; single TBI, 6.9%; and multiple TBIs, 21.7%; P = .009), as was suicidal ideation within the past year (0%, 3.4%, and 12.0%, respectively; P = .04). The number of TBIs was associated with greater suicide risk (β [SE] = .214 [.098]; P = .03) when the effects of depression, PTSD, and TBI symptom severity were controlled for. A significant interaction between depression and cumulative TBIs was also found (β  = .580 [.283]; P = .04). Suicide risk is higher among military personnel with more lifetime TBIs, even after controlling for clinical symptom severity. Results suggest that multiple TBIs, which are common among

  5. Respiratory symptoms of megaesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Megaesophagus as the end result of achalasia is the consequence of disordered peristalsis and the slow decompensation of the esophageal muscular layer. The main symptoms of achalasia are dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain and weight loss, but respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, particularly when patients lie in a horizontal position, may also be common due to microaspiration. A 70-year old woman suffered from a nocturnal cough and shortness of breath with stridor. She reported difficulty in swallowing food over the past ten years, but had adapted by eating a semi-liquid diet. Chest X-ray showed right hemithorax patchy opacities projecting from the posterior mediastinum. Chest computed tomography scan showed a marked dilatation of the esophagus with abundant food residues. Endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of megaesophagus due to esophageal achalasia, excluding other causes of obstruction, such as secondary esophagitis, polyps, leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. In the elderly population, swallowing difficulties due to esophageal achalasia are often underestimated and less troublesome than the respiratory symptoms that are caused by microaspiration. The diagnosis of esophageal achalasia, although uncommon, should be considered in patients with nocturnal chronic coughs and shortness of breath with stridor when concomitant swallowing difficulties are present.

  6. Neurobiology Underlying Fibromyalgia Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ceko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, clinical symptoms that include cognitive and sleep disturbances, and other abnormalities such as increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, increased sensitivity to multiple sensory modalities, and altered pain modulatory mechanisms. Here we relate experimental findings of fibromyalgia symptoms to anatomical and functional brain changes. Neuroimaging studies show augmented sensory processing in pain-related areas, which, together with gray matter decreases and neurochemical abnormalities in areas related to pain modulation, supports the psychophysical evidence of altered pain perception and inhibition. Gray matter decreases in areas related to emotional decision making and working memory suggest that cognitive disturbances could be related to brain alterations. Altered levels of neurotransmitters involved in sleep regulation link disordered sleep to neurochemical abnormalities. Thus, current evidence supports the view that at least some fibromyalgia symptoms are associated with brain dysfunctions or alterations, giving the long-held “it is all in your head” view of the disorder a new meaning.

  7. Rabeprazole and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Paola; Gallo, Adele; Gallo, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo; Caputi, Achille P

    2007-07-01

    To report the case of a patient who developed marked anxiety associated with episodes of panic attacks after starting rabeprazole therapy. An otherwise healthy 55-year-old woman was prescribed rabeprazole 20 mg/day administered in the morning for persistent symptoms of dyspepsia. Ten days later, she presented with a 7 day history of marked anxiety associated with panic attacks, night terror (pavor nocturnus), episodic mental confusion, and attention deficit. Within 2 days of discontinuing rabeprazole, the patient recovered completely from the neuropsychiatric manifestations. Subsequent esomeprazole therapy did not cause psychiatric symptoms. Rabeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia may have played a role in this neuropsychiatric adverse reaction. Several lines of evidence have indicated that gastrin-releasing peptide, whose release is mediated by proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced secretion of gastrin, is involved in regulating aspects of behavior that might be altered in disorders such as anxiety, depression, and dementia. The fact that rabeprazole has the highest capacity of inducing gastrin increase compared with other PPIs might explain why our patient's panic symptoms disappeared after switching to esomeprazole. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, rabeprazole was the probable cause of the adverse reaction. Specific studies are needed to investigate the potential role of PPI-induced hypergastrinemia in neuropsychiatric adverse reactions.

  8. Plant ozone injury symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to plants was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by plants exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test plants used were herbaceous plants and woody plants, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. Plants used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous plants were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous plants, woody plants were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on plant species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous plants were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody plants developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.

  9. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in contemporary Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies using the SCL-90-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bao-Liang; Liu, Tie-Bang; Chiu, Helen F K; Chan, Sandra S M; Hu, Chi-Yi; Hu, Xue-Feng; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Caine, Eric D

    2013-10-01

    (1) To estimate the pooled prevalence of psychological symptoms in Chinese migrant workers (CMWs), as measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) in observational studies conducted in China, and (2) to explore the potential variables associated with the SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI), the overall mental health indicator of CMWs. We performed a comprehensive literature search of the major English and Chinese databases (to June 2012). Cross-sectional surveys and case-control studies of CMWs (and controls where appropriate) that reported at least one subscale score of the SCL-90-R were included. Multilevel meta-analysis was used to pool the symptom scores of cross-sectional surveys and mean differences of symptom scores ("Cohen's d" values) between CMWs and controls of case-control studies. Multilevel meta-analysis with ecological- or study-level covariates was used to explore the associations between variables and SCL-90-R GSI score. The search yielded 48 cross-sectional surveys (comprising 42,813 CMWs) and seven surveys that included control samples. The pooled psychological symptom scores (95% confidence interval) of CMWs were statistically higher than those of norms from Chinese general population on all scales of SCL-90-R, except for obsessive-compulsive subscale in study quality subgroup analysis. CMWs also scored statistically higher than those of urban counterpart controls on all scales of SCL-90-R. Multilevel regression meta-analysis model revealed that four covariates that accounted for 33.9% of SCL-90-R GSI heterogeneity across all surveys, including: "mean age of study sample," "geographic area," "per capita GDP," and "statutory minimum monthly wage" of study site in implementation year. CMWs have more severe psychological symptoms than the general population, and thus, appear to experience higher level of psychological distress. Macro-economic factors may have impact on the overall mental health of CMWs, but the factors that contribute to

  10. Do Web-based and clinic samples of gay men living with HIV differ on self-reported physical and psychological symptoms? A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Richard; Lampe, Fiona; Molloy, Tim; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-03-19

    Although the Internet is commonly used to recruit samples in studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors, it has not been used to measure patient-reported well-being. As the burden of long-term chronic HIV infection rises, the Internet may offer enormous potential for recruitment to research and interventions. This study aimed to compare two samples of gay men living with HIV, one recruited via the Web and the other recruited in outpatient settings, in terms of self-reported physical and psychological symptom burden. The Internet sample was recruited from a UK-wide Web-based survey of gay men with diagnosed HIV. Of these, 154 respondents identified themselves as resident in London and were included in this analysis. The HIV clinic sample was recruited from five HIV outpatient clinics. Of these participants, 400 gay men recruited in London clinics were included in this analysis. The Web-based sample was younger than the clinic sample (37.3 years, SD 7.0 vs 40.9 years, SD 8.3), more likely to be in paid employment (72.8%, 99/136 vs 60.1%, 227/378), less likely to be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (58.4%, 90/154 vs 68.0%, 266/391), and had worse mean psychological symptom burden compared to the clinic sample (mean scores: 1.61, SD 1.09 vs 1.36, SD 0.96) but similar physical symptom burden (mean scores: 0.78, SD 0.65 vs 0.70, SD 0.74). In multivariable logistic regression, for the physical symptom burden model, adjusted for age, ethnicity, employment status, and ART use, the recruitment setting (ie, Web-based vs clinic) was not significantly associated with high physical symptom score. The only variable that remained significantly associated with high physical symptom score was employment status, with those in employment being less likely to report being in the upper (worst) physical symptom tertile versus the other two tertiles (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.28-0.62, Ppsychological symptom burden model, those recruited via the Web were

  11. Frequency and patterns of eating disorder symptoms in early adolescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Micali, Nadia; Ploubidis, George; De Stavola, Bianca; Simonoff, Emily; Treasure, Janet

    .... We aimed to determine the prevalence of ED symptoms in early adolescence, derive symptoms dimensions, and determine their effects on social and psychological outcomes and subsequent body mass index (BMI...

  12. Mindfulness, spirituality, and health-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, James; Reed, George; Kristeller, Jean; Merriam, Phillip

    2008-04-01

    Although the relationship between religious practice and health is well established, the relationship between spirituality and health is not as well studied. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether participation in the mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program was associated with increases in mindfulness and spirituality, and to examine the associations between mindfulness, spirituality, and medical and psychological symptoms. Forty-four participants in the University of Massachusetts Medical School's MBSR program were assessed preprogram and postprogram on trait (Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale) and state (Toronto Mindfulness Scale) mindfulness, spirituality (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy--Spiritual Well-Being Scale), psychological distress, and reported medical symptoms. Participants also kept a log of daily home mindfulness practice. Mean changes in scores were computed, and relationships between changes in variables were examined using mixed-model linear regression. There were significant improvements in spirituality, state and trait mindfulness, psychological distress, and reported medical symptoms. Increases in both state and trait mindfulness were associated with increases in spirituality. Increases in trait mindfulness and spirituality were associated with decreases in psychological distress and reported medical symptoms. Changes in both trait and state mindfulness were independently associated with changes in spirituality, but only changes in trait mindfulness and spirituality were associated with reductions in psychological distress and reported medical symptoms. No association was found between outcomes and home mindfulness practice. Participation in the MBSR program appears to be associated with improvements in trait and state mindfulness, psychological distress, and medical symptoms. Improvements in trait mindfulness and spirituality appear, in turn, to be associated with improvements in psychological and

  13. Association between objective and subjective binge eating and psychopathology during a psychological treatment trial for bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Accurso, Erin C; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Ellison, Jo; Smith, Tracey L; Klein, Marjorie H; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-12-01

    Although loss of control (LOC) while eating is a core construct of bulimia nervosa (BN), questions remain regarding its validity and prognostic significance independent of overeating. We examined trajectories of objective and subjective binge eating (OBE and SBE, respectively; i.e., LOC eating episodes involving an objectively or subjectively large amount of food) among adults participating in psychological treatments for BN-spectrum disorders (n = 80). We also explored whether changes in the frequency of these eating episodes differentially predicted changes in eating-related and general psychopathology and, conversely, whether changes in eating-related and general psychopathology predicted differential changes in the frequency of these eating episodes. Linear mixed models with repeated measures revealed that OBE decreased twice as rapidly as SBE throughout treatment and 4-month follow-up. Generalized linear models revealed that baseline to end-of-treatment reductions in SBE frequency predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in eating-related psychopathology, depression, and anxiety, while changes in OBE frequency were not predictive of psychopathology at 4-month follow-up. Zero-inflation models indicated that baseline to end-of-treatment changes in eating-related psychopathology and depression symptoms predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in OBE frequency, while changes in anxiety and self-esteem did not. Baseline to end-of-treatment changes in eating-related psychopathology, self-esteem, and anxiety predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in SBE frequency, while baseline to end-of-treatment changes in depression did not. Based on these findings, LOC accompanied by objective overeating may reflect distress at having consumed an objectively large amount of food, whereas LOC accompanied by subjective overeating may reflect more generalized distress related to one's eating- and mood-related psychopathology. BN treatments should

  14. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fight against LBD! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia symptoms and diagnostic criteria Every person with LBD ... an umbrella term for two related clinical diagnoses, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. The ...

  15. Celiac Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Celiac Disease Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... Contents What are some of the symptoms of celiac disease? Some people with celiac disease may not feel ...

  16. Symptom management in Behcets disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Filiz; Tureyen, Aynur Esen; Aykar, Fisun Senuzun

    2018-01-01

    To determine the symptoms experienced by patients diagnosed with Behcet's Disease and how they cope with them. The qualitative study was conducted from September 2013 to March 2014 at Ege University Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey, comprising patients having all symptoms of Behcet's Disease. Data was collected through semi-structured focus-group interview form. The findings were assessed using Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms and Symptom Management Theory. SPSS 20 and Nvivo 10 were used for data analysis. Of the 35 patients, 16(45.8%) were female and 19(54.2%) were male. The symptoms affected patients' lives, and the patients used either positive or negative symptom management strategies, leading to either positive or negative results during symptom management. Behcet's Disease patients needed effective symptom management.

  17. The relationship of parental rearing behavior and resilience as well as psychological symptoms in a representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Petrowski, Katja; Brähler, Elmar; Zenger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recalled parental rearing behavior is one of the factors influencing the strength of resilience. However, it is unclear whether resilience is a relatively stable personality trait or has a relational character whose protective strength changes over the course of life. Therefore, the association between recalled parental rearing and resilience as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression was investigated in respect to age and gender. Methods: N = 4,782 healthy subjects aged 14-92 ...

  18. Family Context Influences Psychological Outcomes of Depressive Symptoms and Emotional Quality of Life in Patients with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Kelly D.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Clark, Patricia C.; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Gary, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Melinda; Kaslow, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Background Although family influences in heart failure (HF) care are considered important, little evidence is available regarding relationships between the family context and specific outcomes for patients with HF. Objective To examine the relationships of patient perceptions of family functioning, autonomy support, and perceived criticism, as well as their family member’s (FM) HF knowledge with patient outcomes of depressive symptoms and HF quality of life (QOL). Methods Participants (n = 117) with HF were enrolled in a family partnership intervention study. Self-report questionnaires measuring the HF patient’s perceptions of family context and the FM’s knowledge were analyzed relative to the HF patient’s outcomes using correlations and sequential multivariate regression analyses. Only pre-intervention, baseline data are reported here. Results Age, ethnicity, Charlson comorbidity index, global family functioning and FM’s HF knowledge accounted for 37.8 % (p family functioning and patient’s depressive symptoms was significant (change R2 = .06, p = .001) resulting in a final model that accounted 43.3% of depressive symptom variance. Age, ethnicity, global family functioning and autonomy support accounted for 24.9% (p family functioning and patient’s emotional HF QOL was significant (change R2 = .05, p = .009) resulting in a final model that accounted for 28.9% of emotional QOL variance. Conclusions This study underscores the importance of the patient’s perspective on family functioning and autonomy support, along with FM’s HF knowledge, on HF patient outcomes moderated by ethnicity. Future interventions could target the modifiable patient-family context relationships for improving depressive symptoms and QOL in HF patients. These findings point to the need for greater family assessment to identify those at risk for worse outcomes and to guide family focused interventions. PMID:24434821

  19. Family context influences psychological outcomes of depressive symptoms and emotional quality of life in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Kelly D; Dunbar, Sandra B; Clark, Patricia C; Reilly, Carolyn M; Gary, Rebecca A; Higgins, Melinda; Kaslow, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Although family influences in heart failure (HF) care are considered important, little evidence is available regarding relationships between the family context and specific outcomes for patients with HF. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of patient perceptions of family functioning, autonomy support, and perceived criticism, as well as their family member's (FM) HF knowledge, with patient outcomes of depressive symptoms and HF quality of life (QOL). Participants (n = 117) with HF were enrolled in a family partnership intervention study. Self-report questionnaires measuring the HF patient's perceptions of family context and the FM's knowledge were analyzed relative to the HF patient's outcomes using correlations and sequential multivariate regression analyses. Only preintervention, baseline data are reported here. Age, ethnicity, Charlson comorbidity index, global family functioning, and FM's HF knowledge accounted for 37.8% (P effect of ethnicity on the association between global family functioning and patient's depressive symptoms was significant (change R2 = 0.06, P = .001), resulting in a final model that accounted for 43.3% of depressive symptom variance. Age, ethnicity, global family functioning, and autonomy support accounted for 24.9% (P emotional HF QOL. An additional moderating effect of ethnicity on the association between global family functioning and patient's emotional HF QOL was significant (change R2 = 0.05, P = .009), resulting in a final model that accounted for 28.9% of emotional QOL variance. This study underscores the importance of the patient's perspective on family functioning and autonomy support, along with FM's HF knowledge, on HF patient outcomes moderated by ethnicity. Future interventions could target the modifiable patient-family context relationships for improving depressive symptoms and QOL in HF patients. These findings point to the need for greater family assessment to identify those at risk for worse outcomes

  20. Minority Breast Cancer Survivors: The Association between Race/Ethnicity, Objective Sleep Disturbances, and Physical and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky H. Budhrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited research has been conducted on the moderating effect of race/ethnicity on objective sleep disturbances in breast cancer survivors (BCSs. Objective. To explore racial/ethnic differences in objective sleep disturbances among BCSs and their relationship with self-reported symptoms. Intervention/Methods. Sleep disturbance and symptoms were measured using actigraphy for 72 hours and self-reported questionnaires, respectively, among 79 BCSs. Analysis of covariance, Pearson’s correlation, and multivariate regression were used to analyze data. Results. Sixty (75.9% participants listed their ethnicity as white, non-Hispanic and 19 (24.1% as minority. Total sleep time was 395.9 minutes for white BCSs compared to 330.4 minutes for minority BCSs. Significant correlations were seen between sleep onset latency (SOL and depression, SOL and fatigue, and sleep efficiency (SE and fatigue among minority BCSs. Among white BCSs, significant correlations were seen between SE and pain and wake after sleep onset (WASO and pain. The association between depression and SOL and fatigue and SOL appeared to be stronger in minority BCSs than white BCSs. Conclusions. Results indicate that white BCSs slept longer than minority BCSs, and race/ethnicity modified the effect of depression and fatigue on SOL, respectively. Implications for Practice. As part of survivorship care, race/ethnicity should be included as an essential component of comprehensive symptom assessments.

  1. Psychological resilience and postdeployment social support protect against traumatic stress and depressive symptoms in soldiers returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Johnson, Douglas C; Goldstein, Marc B; Malley, James C; Southwick, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and related psychiatric conditions in soldiers returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), but none have examined whether factors such as psychological resilience and social support may protect against these conditions in this population. A total of 272 predominantly older reserve/National Guard OEF/OIF veterans completed a mail survey assessing traumatic stress and depressive symptoms, resilience, and social support. Resilience scores in the full sample were comparable to those observed in civilian outpatient primary-care patients. Respondents with PTSD, however, scored significantly lower on this measure and on measures of unit support and postdeployment social support. A hierarchical regression analysis in the full sample suggested that resilience (specifically, increased personal control and positive acceptance of change) and postdeployment social support were negatively associated with traumatic stress and depressive symptoms, even after adjusting for demographic characteristics and combat exposure. These results suggest that interventions to bolster psychological resilience and postdeployment social support may help reduce the severity of traumatic stress and depressive symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Assessment of causal link between psychological factors and symptom exacerbation in inflammatory bowel disease: a protocol for systematic review of prospective cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoultz Mariyana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel disease is an idiopathic chronic disease that affects around 28 million people worldwide. Symptoms are distressing and have a detrimental effect on patients’ quality of life. A possible link between exacerbation of symptoms and psychological factors has been suspected but not established. Previous reviews concerned with this link had conceptual and methodological limitations. In this paper we set out a protocol that lays the foundations for a systematic review that will address these shortcomings. The aim of this review is to provide researchers and clinicians with clarity on the role of psychological factors in inflammatory bowel disease symptom exacerbation. Method/design We will identify all original, published, peer reviewed studies relevant to the topic and published in English from inception to November 2012. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO will be systematically searched. The search terms will include: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, psychological stress, mental stress, life stress, family stress, hassles, social stress, coping, mood disorders, anxiety and depression in sequential combinations. Studies will be screened according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria by two reviewers. We will include clinical prospective cohort studies of all human participants aged 18 years or over with a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. All eligible papers will be independently and critically appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tool by two reviewers. Two reviewers will independently extract and synthesise data from the studies using a predefined data extraction sheet. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between reviewers and a third party will be consulted if agreement is not reached. Synthesised data will be analysed using Bradford Hill criterion for causality. If data permits, meta-analysis will be

  3. Dissociative symptoms and neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Fedor-Freybergh, Peter; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Susta, Marek; Pavlat, Josef; Zima, Tomas; Benakova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri

    2008-10-01

    Dissociative symptoms are traditionally attributed to psychological stressors that produce dissociated memories related to stressful life events. Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms including psychogenic amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity-disorder, depersonalization, derealization and other symptoms or syndromes have been reported as an epidemic psychiatric condition that may be coexistent with various psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder or anxiety disorders. According to recent findings also the somatic components of dissociation may occur and influence brain, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis functioning indexed by basal cortisol and prolactin and test their relationship to psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Basal cortisol and prolactin and psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms were assessed in 40 consecutive inpatients with diagnosis of unipolar depression mean age 43.37 (SD=12.21). The results show that prolactin and cortisol as indices of HPA axis functioning manifest significant relationship to dissociative symptoms. Main results represent highly significant correlations obtained by simple regression between psychic dissociative symptoms (DES) and serum prolactin (R=0.55, p=0.00027), and between somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20) and serum cortisol (R=-0.38, p=0.015). These results indicate relationship between HPA-axis reactivity and dissociative symptoms in unipolar depressive patients that could reflect passive coping behavior and disengagement.

  4. Symptom dimensions of anxiety following myocardial infarction : Associations with depressive symptoms and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, A.M.; Heideveld, A.; Martens, E.J.; de Jonge, P.; Denollet, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Differential associations of symptom dimensions with prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI) patients have been shown for depression, but no studies have focused on anxiety dimensions. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatic and psychological symptoms of

  5. Symptom Dimensions of Anxiety Following Myocardial Infarction : Associations With Depressive Symptoms and Prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Annelieke M.; Heideveld, Anne; Martens, Elisabeth J.; de Jonge, Peter; Denollet, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Differential associations of symptom dimensions with prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI) patients have been shown for depression, but no studies have focused on anxiety dimensions. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatic and psychological symptoms of

  6. Associations between Sleep Characteristics, Seasonal Depressive Symptoms, Lifestyle, and ADHD Symptoms in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlenga, Denise; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Breuk, Minda; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Lie, Maria E. H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swaab, Hanna J. T.; Kooij, J. J. Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients ("n" = 202) and controls ("n" = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and validated measures on ADHD…

  7. Variation in symptom distress in underserved Chinese American cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Lara K; Lam, Kin; Cheung, William; Shao, Theresa; Li, Zujun; Van de Maele, Sandra; Chang, Victor T; Chen, Jack; Ye, Huiyan; Wong, Rhoda; Lam, Wan Ling; Chan, Selina; Bookbinder, Marilyn; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Portenoy, Russell

    2015-09-15

    Cancer is prevalent in the rapidly growing Chinese American community, yet little is known about the symptom experience to guide comprehensive treatment planning. This study evaluated symptom prevalence and patient subgroups with symptom distress in a large sample of Chinese American cancer patients. Patients were consecutively recruited from 4 oncology practices, and they completed a translated cancer symptom scale. Latent class cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups of patients with distinct symptom distress profiles. There were 1436 patients screened; 94.4% were non-English-speaking, and 45.1% were undergoing cancer therapy. The cancers included breast (32.6%), lung (14.8%), head and neck (12.5%), and hematologic cancer (10.1%). Overall, 1289 patients (89.8%) had 1 or more symptoms, and 1129 (78.6%) had 2 or more. The most prevalent symptoms were a lack of energy (57.0%), dry mouth (55.6%), feeling sad (49.3%), worrying (47.5%), and difficulty sleeping (46.8%). Symptoms causing "quite a bit" or "very much" distress included difficulty sleeping (37.9%), a lack of appetite (37.2%), feeling nervous (35.8%), pain (35.2%), and worrying (34.0%). Four patient subgroups were identified according to the probability of reporting moderate to high symptom distress: very low physical and psychological symptom distress (49.5%), low physical symptom distress and moderate psychological symptom distress (25.2%), moderate physical and psychological symptom distress (17.4%), and high physical and psychological symptom distress (7.8%). Symptom prevalence is high in community-dwelling Chinese American cancer patients, and nearly half experience severe distress (rated as "quite a bit" or "very much" distressing) from physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, or both. These data have important implications for the development of effective symptom control interventions. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  8. [Rate and characteristics of dementia patients who visit psychiatric emergency hospitals for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiro; Kazui, Hiroaki; Sawa, Yutaka; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral changes, known as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), are often observed in patients with dementia. BPSD impairs a patient's quality of life, increases the burden on the caregivers, and can be a predictor of the need for institutionalization. BPSD can aggravate on holidays or at night, when general psychiatric clinics are closed. When psychiatric symptoms aggravate on holidays or at night in patients with psychiatric disorders other than dementia, such as schizophrenia and manic psychosis, the patients visit psychiatric emergency hospitals. However, it has not been assessed whether patients with dementia visit psychiatric emergency hospitals for the treatment of BPSD on holidays or at night, although dementia patients are increasing and account for 10.5% of psychiatric outpatients in Japan. To determine the percentage of dementia patients with BPSD in all psychiatric patients who visit psychiatric emergency hospitals, and the characteristics of patients with BPSD in Japan. We developed two questionnaires. One was for psychiatric emergency hospitals and assessed the numbers of all patients, patients over 65 years old, and patients over 65 years and with BPSD or BPSD-like symptoms, who visited the psychiatric emergency hospitals on holidays or at night. The other questionnaire was for each patient over 65 years and with BPSD, and assessed the patients' characteristics, including their diagnosis, sex, what kinds of BPSD or BPSD-like symptoms brought them to the hospital, and whether they had visited a psychiatric clinic or hospital during the preceding 12 months. The questionnaires were sent to 360 hospitals that belong to the Japan Psychiatric Hospitals Association and treat patients with acute psychotic symptoms or dementia. This prospective survey was conducted from October 1 to November 30, 2009. One hundred and forty-three hospitals returned the questionnaires (response rate: 39.7%). In the survey

  9. Somatic Symptom Disorders in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical symptoms without any identifiable structural or biochemical abnormalities on detailed clinical examination and investigations, are common in children. Some children may have persistent physical discomfort which can lead to debilitating impact on their academic and social functioning. These children seek repeated medical consultations and are usually subjected to unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. It is extremely important to understand that emotional factors can contribute to the development as well as maintenance of impairing physical symptoms. There is scientific evidence for the association of anxiety and functional somatic symptoms in children. The diagnostic category which was previously called somatoform disorders is now included in somatic symptom disorders. The main feature of the somatic symptom disorders is the excessive concern with somatic symptoms. Detailed clinical examination and investigations will not reveal any abnormalities to explain the symptoms. The somatic symptom disorders are common in childhood. Cognitive behavioural therapy by experts in child guidance, will relieve the somatic symptoms related to anxiety and stress. If not intervened at the earliest, the persistent physical symptoms associated with emotional stress will cause significant functional disability in childhood. Unnecessary invasive medical interventions cause more agony to the child. These children also have high risk for developing anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in young adulthood. Hence, early intervention using cognitive behavioural techniques should be provided to all children with somatic symptom disorders, which will definitely improve their quality of life.

  10. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicole A; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Ashton, John F; Cox, Marc B; Stojanovska, Lily

    2008-01-01

    To examine the estrogenic and androgenic activity of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and its effect on the hormonal profile and symptoms in postmenopausal women. Fourteen postmenopausal women completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. They received 3.5 g/day of powered Maca for 6 weeks and matching placebo for 6 weeks, in either order, over a total of 12 weeks. At baseline and weeks 6 and 12 blood samples were collected for the measurement of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, and the women completed the Greene Climacteric Scale to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms. In addition, aqueous and methanolic Maca extracts were tested for androgenic and estrogenic activity using a yeast-based hormone-dependent reporter assay. No differences were seen in serum concentrations of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin between baseline, Maca treatment, and placebo (P > 0.05). The Greene Climacteric Scale revealed a significant reduction in scores in the areas of psychological symptoms, including the subscales for anxiety and depression and sexual dysfunction after Maca consumption compared with both baseline and placebo (P Maca as no physiologically significant activity was observed in yeast-based assays employing up to 4 mg/mL Maca extract (equivalent to 200 mg/mL Maca). Preliminary findings show that Lepidium meyenii (Maca) (3.5 g/d) reduces psychological symptoms, including anxiety and depression, and lowers measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women independent of estrogenic and androgenic activity.

  11. Naturally Thin You: Weight Loss and Psychological Symptoms After a Six-Week Online Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Dawson; Stapleton, Peta; Sheppard, Lily; Carter, Brett

    2017-12-21

    Traditional methods of delivering therapeutic interventions have increasingly been supplemented by online courses. The current study investigated the effects of Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) in 76 participants enrolled in a six-week online course called Naturally Thin You. Weight, restraint, the power of food in the external environment, happiness, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed before and after the course and at one-year follow-up. Participants received six live group teleclasses, access to online course materials and a private social media group, and a year of monthly support teleclasses. No particular diet was recommended; the course focused instead on controlling emotional eating, and using EFT to treat the emotional triggers associated with food. Clinical EFTs Borrowing Benefits protocol, in which the group facilitator works with a single participant while others simultaneously self-apply EFT, was used during the teleclasses. Repeated measures ANOVA compared scores pre- to 12-month follow-up, and significant improvements were found for body weight (P < .001), depression symptoms (P = 0.010), restraint (P = 0.025), and the subjective power of food in the external environment (P = 0.018). Weight decreased an average of 1lb/week during the course, and 2lb/month between pretest and one-year follow-up. On follow-up, no change was observed in PTSD symptoms measured by a brief civilian trauma checklist, or anxiety, and increases in happiness were non-significant. The results indicate Clinical EFTs utility to address the influence of food in the external environment and assist weight loss, and to promote beneficial long-term change when delivered in an online format. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Love hurts (in more ways than one): specificity of psychological symptoms as predictors and consequences of romantic activity among early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R; Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B; Clara Li, Po Ching; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel; Ramsay Miller, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    Research has linked adolescent romantic and sexual activities to depressive symptoms. The current study examines whether such activities are uniquely linked to depressive symptoms versus symptoms of other disorders (including anxiety, externalizing, and eating disorders), and whether co-occurring symptoms more precisely account for the association between depressive symptoms and romantic involvement. Early adolescent girls (N = 83; mean age = 13.45) participated in baseline and 1-year follow up data collection. Romantic (i.e., dating and sexual) activities were longitudinally related to numerous types of symptoms. The association between depressive symptoms and romantic variables remained when considering co-occurring symptoms. Girls with more comorbid disorders reported more romantic activities. Results suggest that the maladaptive consequences and precipitants of adolescent romantic activities extend beyond depression, but also imply that this association is not secondary to comorbid symptoms. Future work should clarify causal pathways. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Love Hurts (in More Ways Than One): Specificity of Psychological Symptoms as Predictors and Consequences of Romantic Activity Among Early Adolescent Girls*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Li, Po Ching Clara; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel; Miller, Melissa Ramsay

    2012-01-01

    Objective Research has linked adolescent romantic and sexual activities to depressive symptoms. The current study examines whether such activities are uniquely linked to depressive symptoms versus symptoms of other disorders (including anxiety, externalizing, and eating disorders), and whether co-occurring symptoms more precisely account for the association between depressive symptoms and romantic involvement. Method Early adolescent girls (N = 83; mean age = 13.45) participated in baseline and 1-year follow up data collection. Results Romantic (i.e., dating and sexual) activities were longitudinally related to numerous types of symptoms. The association between depressive symptoms and romantic variables remained when considering co-occurring symptoms. Girls with more comorbid disorders reported more romantic activities. Conclusions Results suggest that the maladaptive consequences and precipitants of adolescent romantic activities extend beyond depression, but also imply that this association is not secondary to comorbid symptoms. Future work should clarify causal pathways. PMID:22307747

  14. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis Treatment Jet Lag Overview Symptoms & Self Test Treatment Narcolepsy Overview & Facts Symptoms Self-Tests & Diagnosis Treatment Restless Legs Syndrome Overview & Facts Causes & Symptoms Self- ...

  15. The relationship of parental rearing behavior and resilience as well as psychological symptoms in a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Brähler, Elmar; Zenger, Markus

    2014-11-07

    Recalled parental rearing behavior is one of the factors influencing the strength of resilience. However, it is unclear whether resilience is a relatively stable personality trait or has a relational character whose protective strength changes over the course of life. Therefore, the association between recalled parental rearing and resilience as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression was investigated in respect to age and gender. N = 4,782 healthy subjects aged 14-92 (M = 48.1 years) were selected by the random-route sampling method. In this sample, an ultra-short form of the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior Questionnaire, the German short version of the resilience scale, and two screening instruments for depression and anxiety (PHQ-2, GAD-2) were filled out. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data estimated with the maximum likelihood method approach. The data revealed that rejection and punishment were clearly associated with lower resilience. Moreover, resilience had a strong connection to the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Resilience had the same quality of association in both men and women with respect to anxiety and depression. Furthermore, the effect of resilience did not vary across several age groups even though challenges may differ over a lifetime. Recalled parental rearing behavior such as rejection and punishment as well as control and overprotection exert a significant association on the strength of resilience. Resilience has an effect independent of gender and does not affect people of different age groups differently.

  16. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  17. Physical and psychological symptoms and learning difficulties in children of women exposed and non-exposed to violence: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Niclas; Lindqvist, Kent; Gådin, Katja Gillander; Bråbäck, Lennart; Danielsson, Ingela

    2011-02-01

    To analyse the association between violence against mothers and the health of their children as reported by the mothers. The data originate from a multistage sampling health-questionnaire survey, distributed to a representative sample of women in Sweden. The health of 283 children (aged 0-18 years), as reported by women who had been exposed to violence at home or outside home during the past 12 months, was compared with that of 4,664 children of non-exposed mothers. Odds ratios regarding most registered physical symptoms showed that children of violence-exposed mothers had a significant higher risk of ill health than children of non-exposed mothers. Regarding psychological symptoms and learning difficulties, the odds were raised for girls for most symptoms, but not for boys. A twofold increase in health-care utilisation and an overall general increase in the risk of pharmaceutical consumption were shown for both girls and boys of exposed mothers. This population-based study shows an increased risk of poorer health amongst boys and girls aged 0-18 years, as reported by mothers exposed to violence.

  18. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Damiana; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Avato, Pina Rosa; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients' quality of life (QoL), relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects. Therefore, there is growing interest, supported by clinical evidence, in aromatherapy for the control of agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms. Some molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the behavioural effects of essential oils, as the whole phytocomplex or the single components, but important basic research effort is still needed. For this reason, rigorous preclinical studies are necessary in order to understand the pharmacological basis of aromatherapy in the treatment of BPSDs and to widen the cluster of effective essential oils in pharmacotherapeutic practice. PMID:28465709

  19. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana Scuteri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients’ quality of life (QoL, relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects. Therefore, there is growing interest, supported by clinical evidence, in aromatherapy for the control of agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms. Some molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the behavioural effects of essential oils, as the whole phytocomplex or the single components, but important basic research effort is still needed. For this reason, rigorous preclinical studies are necessary in order to understand the pharmacological basis of aromatherapy in the treatment of BPSDs and to widen the cluster of effective essential oils in pharmacotherapeutic practice.

  20. Vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    A vast majority of menopausal women suffer from vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, the mean duration of which may be up to 7-10 years. In addition to a decreased quality of life, vasomotor symptoms may have an impact on overall health. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic overdrive in turn is associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Menopausal hot flushes have a complex relationship to different features of the metabolic syndrome and not all data point towards an association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is still unclear whether vasomotor symptoms are an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Research in this area is constantly evolving and we present here the most recent data on the possible association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms and the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to Family Violence, Perceived Psychological Adjustment of Parents, and the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms Among Palestinian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Bargal, David

    2015-10-01

    The article presents the results of a study on the relationship between exposure to (i.e., witnessing and experiencing) different patterns and types of family violence during childhood, during adolescence, and during young adulthood, on one hand, and adult post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), on the other. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,969 Palestinian students using a self-administered questionnaire. The results reveal that the more the participants witnessed and experienced psychological aggression (PS) and physical violence (PH) in their families of origin, the more they exhibited PTSS. Furthermore, the results indicate that a significant amount of the variance in the participants' PTSS could be attributed to their exposure to family violence, over and above the amounts of variance that were explained by their sociodemographic characteristics and by their perceptions of their parents' psychological adjustment. The limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The effectiveness of massage and touch on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia: A quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Yi; Wang, Zhiwen

    2017-10-01

    Many original studies have explored the effectiveness of massage and touch on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. However, the study design, interventions, measurements and outcomes varied among studies. To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of massage and touch on the behavioural and psychological symptoms of older people with dementia. A quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane Library, The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Library, PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest Health & Medical Complete, SinoMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang were searched from the date the database established to January 2016. Randomized, controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies, involving massage and touch intervention for older people with dementia were considered to be included. Risk of bias assessment was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool and meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.3. A total of 11 studies, involving 526 older people were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed the total score of behavioural and psychological problems with older people with dementia and subgroup scores of physical aggressive behaviour, physical non-aggressive behaviour, verbal aggressive behaviour and verbal non-aggressive behaviour decreased significantly after receiving massage or touch, while the subgroups scores of anxiety, sadness and anger did not decreased significantly. Due to relatively small sample size and low quality of the included studies in this review, it is difficult to draw a conclusion on the effect of massage and touch on behavioural and psychological syndrome of dementia or implications for practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Depressive symptoms and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in women after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaers, Stefanie; Waschke, Melanie; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the course of psychological problems in women from late pregnancy to six months postpartum, the rates of psychiatric, especially depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms and possible related antecedent variables. During late pregnancy, one to three days postpartum, six weeks and six months postpartum, 47 of the 60 participating women completed a battery of questionnaires including the General Health Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the PTSD Symptom Scale. In general, most women recovered from psychiatric and somatic problems over the period of investigation. However, depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in particular were not found to decline significantly. Six weeks postpartum, 22% of the women had depressive symptoms, with this figure remaining at 21.3% six months postpartum. In addition, 6% of the women studied reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms at six weeks postpartum with 14.9% reporting such symptoms at six months postpartum. The most important predictor for depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms was the block variable "anxiety in late pregnancy". Other predictors were the variables "psychiatric symptoms in late pregnancy", "critical life events" and the "experience of delivery". The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of psychiatric symptoms in women after childbirth and suggest, besides the experience of the delivery itself, a vulnerability or predisposing history that makes the development of psychiatric symptoms after childbirth more probable.

  4. Recovery from depressive symptoms, state anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder in women exposed to physical and psychological, but not to psychological intimate partner violence alone: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Manuela

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that intimate male partner violence (IPV has a high impact on women's mental health. It is necessary to further investigate this impact longitudinally to assess the factors that contribute to its recovery or deterioration. The objective of this study was to assess the course of depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and suicidal behavior over a three-year follow-up in female victims of IPV. Methods Women (n = 91 who participated in our previous cross-sectional study, and who had been either physically/psychologically (n = 33 or psychologically abused (n = 23 by their male partners, were evaluated three years later. A nonabused control group of women (n = 35 was included for comparison. Information about mental health status and lifestyle variables was obtained through face-to-face structured interviews. Results Results of the follow-up study indicated that while women exposed to physical/psychological IPV recovered their mental health status with a significant decrease in depressive, anxiety and PTSD symptoms, no recovery occurred in women exposed to psychological IPV alone. The evolution of IPV was also different: while it continued across both time points in 65.21% of psychologically abused women, it continued in only 12.12% of physically/psychologically abused women while it was reduced to psychological IPV in 51.5%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that cessation of physical IPV and perceived social support contributed to mental health recovery, while a high perception of lifetime events predicted the continuation of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion This study shows that the pattern of mental health recovery depends on the type of IPV that the women had been exposed to. While those experiencing physical/psychological IPV have a higher likelihood of undergoing a cessation or reduction of IPV over time and, therefore, could recover, women exposed to

  5. [Hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Kaisa; Nuutinen, Pauliina; Raili, Kauppinen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms Cutaneous symptoms of porphyrias are initiated from a phototoxic reaction caused by sunlight and circulating porphyrins in the vascular walls of the skin. This leads in fragility, blistering and scarring of the skin on light-exposed areas. There are approximately 200 patients having hepatic porphyrias with cutaneous symptoms in Finland. Cutaneous symptoms of variegate porphyria and porphyria cutanea tarda are indistinguishable, but an effective treatment is available only for the latter. Differential diagnosis is important due to acute episodes occurring in variegate porphyria.

  6. Multiple perspectives on symptom interpretation in primary care research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Pedersen, Anette Fischer

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment and management of symptoms is a main task in primary care. Symptoms may be defined as 'any subjective evidence of a health problem as perceived by the patient'. In other words, symptoms do not appear as such; symptoms are rather the result of an interpretation process. We aim...... to discuss different perspectives on symptom interpretation as presented in the disciplines of biomedicine, psychology and anthropology and the possible implications for our understanding of research on symptoms in relation to prevalence and diagnosis in the general population and in primary care. DISCUSSION......: Symptom experiences are embedded in a complex interplay between biological, psychological and cultural factors. From a biomedical perspective, symptoms are seen as possible indicators of disease and are characterized by parameters related to seriousness (e.g. appearance, severity, impact and temporal...

  7. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T.; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18–78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1–5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum. PMID:27242600

  8. Preschool children living in joint physical custody arrangements show less psychological symptoms than those living mostly or only with one parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Malin; Fransson, Emma; Fabian, Helena; Hjern, Anders; Sarkadi, Anna; Salari, Raziye

    2018-02-01

    Joint physical custody (JPC), where children spend about equal time in both parent's homes after parental separation, is increasing. The suitability of this practice for preschool children, with a need for predictability and continuity, has been questioned. In this cross-sectional study, we used data on 3656 Swedish children aged three to five years living in intact families, JPC, mostly with one parent or single care. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, completed by parents and preschool teachers, as the outcome measure. Children in JPC showed less psychological problems than those living mostly (adjusted B 1.81; 95% CI [0.66 to 2.95]) or only with one parent (adjusted B 1.94; 95% CI [0.75 to 3.13]), in parental reports. In preschool teacher reports, the adjusted Betas were 1.27, 95% CI [0.14 to 2.40] and 1.41, 95% CI [0.24 to 2.58], respectively. In parental reports, children in JPC and those in intact families had similar outcomes, while teachers reported lower unadjusted symptom scores for children in intact families. Joint physical custody arrangements were not associated with more psychological symptoms in children aged 3-5, but longitudinal studies are needed to account for potential preseparation differences. ©2017 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  9. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18-78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  10. Effect of yoga on menopausal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sulabha; Khandwe, Rambhau; Bapat, Dinesh; Deshmukh, Ujwala

    2011-09-01

    To observe the effect of yoga on menopausal symptoms using a prospective, randomized, controlled and interventional study. Main outcome measures Total Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) score and three subscale scores (somatovegetative, psychological and urogenital) were measured on day 1 and day 90 in the study group which performed yoga (asana, pranayam and meditation) under supervision for three months, and were compared with the control group that did not perform yoga. MRS has been designed to measure health-related quality of life of ageing women. It consists of 11 symptoms and three subscales. It was observed that on day 1 the scores in both the groups were comparable. On day 90, the scores in the yoga group showed a reduction in score on all the subscales, which was statistically significant. No significant difference was noted in the control group. Yoga is effective in reducing menopausal symptoms and should be considered as alternative therapy for the management of menopausal symptoms.

  11. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions like Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment. PMID:26301229

  12. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  13. Psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the home-care setting: A nation-wide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayakawa, Makoto; Ogawa, Asao; Konno, Michiko; Kurata, Akiko; Hamano, Jun; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Aoyama, Maho; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-12-01

    The psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill cancer patients are highly problematic and have been associated with greater burden among caregivers. Until now, the extent of these problems in the home care setting was unclear. This retrospective study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan (J-HOPE3). The bereaved family members rated the symptoms of delirium and suicidal ideation of patients with cancer, and the sleeplessness and depressed mood of family caregivers utilizing home care services in the one month before the patients' deaths. Regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with caregivers' sleeplessness or depressed mood. Of the 532 subjects analyzed, between 17% and 65% of patients experienced various symptoms of delirium, and 27% suicidal ideation. Among family caregivers, 60% experienced sleeplessness and 35% experienced depressed mood at least once during the week. Caregivers' psychological symptoms were associated with their own poor health status, being the spouse of the patient, and the patients' psychological or psychiatric symptoms. To manage patients' symptoms, 11% of caregivers had consulted psychiatrists or psychologists while another 11% wanted to do so. Psychological problems assessed were common among patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the one month of home care prior to the patient's death. An effective complementary care system, run by home-visit physicians, nurses, and experts in mental disorders, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Betahistine for symptoms of vertigo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murdin, Louisa; Hussain, Kiran; Schilder, Anne G M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vertigo is a symptom in which individuals experience a false sensation of movement. This type of dizziness is thought to originate in the inner ear labyrinth or its neural connections. It is a commonly experienced symptom and can cause significant problems with carrying out normal

  15. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Version » [ pdf, 433 kb ] Order Materials » Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is ... and can be treated with drugs or surgery. Symptoms of a Stroke If you see or have one or more ...

  16. Role of the Attachment Style in Determining the Association Between Headache Features and Psychological Symptoms in Migraine Children and Adolescents. An Analytical Observational Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Samuela; De Ranieri, Cristiana; Dionisi, Cecilia; Gagliardi, Valentina; Paniccia, Maria Francesca; Capuano, Alessandro; Frusciante, Roberto; Balestri, Martina; Vigevano, Federico; Gentile, Simonetta; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to study the role of attachment style on headache severity and psychological symptoms in migraineurs children/adolescents. Moreover, we investigated the association between attachment style, migraine severity, and psychological symptoms. Attachment theory suggests that early interpersonal relationships may be important determinants of psychopathology and pain management. In particular, individuals with insecure attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment style. Few studies focused on headache and data on attachment style in pediatric headache are scarce. We studied 90 migraineurs (mean age 12.2 ± 2.6 years; female: 54, male: 36). Patients were divided in two groups according to headache attack frequency: (1) high frequency (HF) patients, having from weekly to daily episodes and (2) low frequency (LF) patients, showing ≤3 episodes per month. According to headache attack intensity, patients were classified in two groups: (1) mild pain (MP), allowing the patient to continue his/her daily activities and (2) severe pain (SP), leading to interruption of patient activities or forcing the child to go to bed. The psychological screening was assessed by SAFA Anxiety, Depression, and Somatization questionnaires. Attachment style was measured by the semi-projective test Separation Anxiety Test. Patients were divided into "secure," "avoidant," "ambivalent," and "disorganized/confused" attachment patterns. We found a significant relationship between the attachment style and migraine features. The ambivalent attachment was the most common style among patients reporting high attack frequency (51%) and severe pain intensity (50%). Anxiety (SAFA-A Tot: F = 23.3, P Headache Society.

  17. Symptoms of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder in United States Air Force "drone" operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Prince, Lillian; Goodman, Tanya; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie N; Thompson, William

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study is to repeat a survey administered in 2010 to assess for changes in mental health among United States Air Force aircrew operating Predator/Reaper remotely piloted aircraft, also commonly referred to as "drones." Participants were assessed for self-reported sources of occupational stress, levels of clinical distress using the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. A total of 1,094 aircrew responded to the web-based survey composed of the commercially available standardized instruments mentioned above. The survey also contained nonstandardized items asking participants to report the main sources of their occupational stress, as well as questions addressing demographics and work-related characteristics. The estimated response rate to the survey was 49%. Study results reveal the most problematic self-reported stressors are operational: low manning, extra duties/administrative tasks, rotating shift work, and long hours. The results also reveal 10.72% of operators self-reported experiencing high levels of distress and 1.57% reported high levels of PTSD symptomology. The results are lower than findings from the 2010 survey and from soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Implications of the study and recommendations for United States Air Force line leadership and mental health providers are discussed. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Psychotic symptoms in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, M; Weissman, M M; Leon, A C; Farber, L; Sheehan, D V

    1996-11-01

    Psychotic symptoms include a variety of disturbances in perception, reality testing, speech, and behavior. We examine the prevalence, distribution, treatment, and functional impairment associated with psychotic symptoms in primary care patients. Data are drawn from a recent study of adult primary care patients (N = 1001) in a large, urban, prepaid group practice. At the medical visit, patients completed a questionnaire that probed demographic characteristics, health status, and mental health care utilization. Following the visit, patients received a telephone-administered, structured psychiatric interview that included 11 psychotic symptoms. Medication prescription data were also available. Comparisons are presented of patients with and without psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven (3.7%) patients reported one or more psychotic symptoms, most commonly a belief that others were spying on or following them (n = 16). As compared with patients without psychotic symptoms, a larger proportion of the patients with psychotic symptoms reported mental health-related work loss (54.1% vs 17.9%, P < .0001), suicidal ideation (21.6% vs 2.6%, P < .0001), major depressive disorder (32.4% vs 6.3%, P < .0001), bipolar disorder (29.7% vs 1.2%, P < .0001), and several other mental disorders. An antipsychotic medication had been prescribed during the previous 17 to 20 months for only two (5.4%) of the patients with psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms were relatively common (3.7%) in this practice and were strongly associated with functional impairment and affective, anxiety, or substance use disorders. Primary care physicians are encouraged to examine patients with these mental disorders for the presence of psychotic symptoms.

  19. Differences in Symptom Clusters Identified Using Ratings of Symptom Occurrence vs. Severity in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melisa L; Cooper, Bruce A; Paul, Steven M; Levine, Jon D; Conley, Yvette P; Wright, Fay; Hammer, Marilyn; Miaskowski, Christine

    2017-08-01

    An important question in symptom clusters research is whether the number and types of symptom clusters vary based on the specific dimension of the symptom experience used to create the clusters. Given that lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (CTX) report an average of 14 co-occurring symptoms and studies of symptom clusters in these patients are limited, the purpose of this study, in lung cancer patients undergoing CTX (n = 145), was to identify whether the number and types of symptom clusters differed based on whether symptom occurrence rates or symptom severity ratings were used to create the clusters. A modified version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale was used to assess for the occurrence and severity of 38 symptoms, one week after the administration of CTX. Exploratory factor analysis was used to extract the symptom clusters. Both the number and types of symptom clusters were relatively similar using symptom occurrence rates or symptom severity ratings. Five symptom clusters were identified using both symptom occurrence rates and severity ratings (i.e., sickness behavior, lung cancer specific, psychological, nutritional, and epithelial). Across these two dimensions, the specific symptoms within each of the symptom clusters were relatively similar. Identification of symptom clusters in patients with lung cancer may assist with the development of more targeted symptom management interventions. Future studies are warranted to determine if symptom clusters change over a cycle of CTX in patients with lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Symptom Clusters and Quality of Life in Subjects With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyeung Eun; Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, So Ri

    2017-09-01

    COPD is one of the most common respiratory diseases. Patients with COPD experience and suffer from various physical and psychological symptoms. We performed this study to identify symptom clusters and the effects on quality of life (QOL) in patients with COPD. A total of 130 COPD subjects were recruited from a university hospital in South Korea. Dyspnea, fatigue, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, dry mouth, and physical functional status were assessed with structured questionnaires. QOL was measured with the Clinical COPD Questionnaire. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to identify symptom clusters based on severity of symptom experiences. Three distinct clusters were identified: a respiratory-functional cluster (symptom cluster 1), a mood cluster (symptom cluster 2), and a fatigue-sleep cluster (symptom cluster 3). Symptom cluster 1 consisted of dyspnea, physical functional status, and dry mouth; symptom cluster 2 consisted of anxiety and depression; and symptom cluster 3 consisted of sleep disturbance and fatigue. Subgroup cluster analysis showed that COPD subjects with higher-scoring symptoms in symptom clusters 1, 2, and 3 had significantly poorer QOL. The symptom clusters were significantly different depending on age, educational level, and monthly income. COPD subjects may have specific patterns of symptom clusters. The symptom clusters are related with clinical characteristics and had a negative impact on QOL. To enhance symptom management and QOL, approaches and interventions based on symptom clusters, rather than independent intervention for each symptom, may be more effective. Understanding COPD symptom clusters may help successful symptom management, which can improve QOL for COPD patients. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  1. The role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in medicine: addressing the psychological and physical symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Francine

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of research shows that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an empirically validated treatment for trauma, including such negative life experiences as commonly present in medical practice. The positive therapeutic outcomes rapidly achieved without homework or detailed description of the disturbing event offer the medical community an efficient treatment approach with a wide range of applications. All randomized studies and significant clinical reports related to EMDR therapy for treating the experiential basis of both psychological and somatic disorders are reviewed. Also reviewed are the recent studies evaluating the eye movement component of the therapy, which has been posited to contribute to the rapid improvement attributable to EMDR treatment. Twenty-four randomized controlled trials support the positive effects of EMDR therapy in the treatment of emotional trauma and other adverse life experiences relevant to clinical practice. Seven of 10 studies reported EMDR therapy to be more rapid and/or more effective than trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Twelve randomized studies of the eye movement component noted rapid decreases in negative emotions and/or vividness of disturbing images, with an additional 8 reporting a variety of other memory effects. Numerous other evaluations document that EMDR therapy provides relief from a variety of somatic complaints. EMDR therapy provides physicians and other clinicians with an efficient approach to address psychological and physiologic symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. Clinicians should therefore evaluate patients for experiential contributors to clinical manifestations.

  2. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: a pilot study to examine its latent structure and the link between psychological state and symptom severity in transient ischaemic attack patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Laura; James, Gill; Sackley, Cath

    2016-07-01

    Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is often associated with anxiety and depression, which may precipitate secondary stroke and interfere with treatment. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to assess these states and to inform the management of any associated psychological problems, but there is considerable debate about what it actually measures. The HADS scores from a range of different clinical groups have been reviewed in order to assess its psychometric properties, but so far, no research has examined either its latent structure when used with TIA patients, or the association between symptom severity and the test's validity. The aims of this study, therefore, were to investigate: (a) the underlying structure of the HADS when used with TIA patients; and (b) the impact of symptom severity on the validity of the HADS. The HADS and a functional capacity measure were administered by post to a sample of 542 confirmed TIA patients. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the HADS scores to establish its underlying structure for this clinical group, and then, sub-sample correlations were undertaken between the anxiety/depression scores for different levels of functional capacity. Two factors emerged, with 13 of the 14 HADS items loading significantly on both, suggesting there is a common affective state underlying the standard anxiety and depression scales. Further data-exploration indicated that convergence between these affective states increased as functional capacity deteriorated. The results suggest firstly that the HADS measures general subjective distress when used with TIA patients, and secondly that the higher reported symptom severity in this clinical group may be associated with reduced affective differentiation. As the ability to retain clear affective discrimination is associated with health and well-being, this could provide a focus for post-TIA rehabilitation.

  3. Effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological therapies compared to usual postnatal care for treating post-traumatic stress symptoms in women following traumatic birth: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Spain, Debbie; Bick, Debra; Ng, Edmond S W; Sin, Jacqueline

    2016-11-24

    Maternal mental health has been largely neglected in the literature. Women, however, may be vulnerable to developing post-traumatic stress symptoms or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), following traumatic birth. In turn, this may affect their capacity for child rearing and ability to form a secure bond with their baby and impact on the wider family. Trauma-focused psychological therapies (TFPT) are widely regarded as effective and acceptable interventions for PTSD in general and clinical populations. Relatively little is known about the effectiveness of TFPT for women postpartum who have post-traumatic stress symptoms. We will conduct a review to assess the effectiveness of TFPT, compared with usual postpartum care, as a treatment for post-traumatic stress symptoms or PTSD for women following traumatic birth. Using a priori search criteria, we will search for randomised controlled trials (RCT) in four databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO and OpenGrey. We will use search terms that relate to the population, TFPT and comparators. Screening of search results and data extraction will be undertaken by two reviewers, independently. Risk of bias will be assessed in RCTs which meet the review criteria. Data will be analysed using the following methods, as appropriate: narrative synthesis; meta-analysis; subgroup analysis and meta-regression. As this work comprises a synthesis of existing studies, ethical approvals are not required. Results will be disseminated at conferences and in publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Yoga for menopausal symptoms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Jong-In; Ha, Jeong Yong; Boddy, Kate; Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of yoga as a treatment option for menopausal symptoms. We searched the literature using 14 databases from their inception to July 2008 and included all types of clinical studies regardless of their design. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed using a modified Jadad score. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria. Two randomized clinical trials compared the effects of yoga with those of walking or physical exercise. The meta-analysis of these data failed to show specific effects of yoga on menopausal complaints including psychological, somatic, and vasomotor symptoms. Two randomized clinical trials found no effects of yoga on total menopausal symptoms compared with wait-list control or no treatment. The remaining studies were either non-randomized (n = 1) or uncontrolled clinical trials (n = 3). They reported favorable effects of yoga on menopausal symptoms. These data collectively show that the results of rigorous studies of the effects of yoga for menopausal symptoms are unconvincing. The evidence is insufficient to suggest that yoga is an effective intervention for menopause. Further research is required to investigate whether there are specific benefits of yoga for treating menopausal symptoms.

  5. Psychological pathways from childhood sexual and physical abuse to HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among homeless women: the role of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Eric; Sandfort, Theo G M; Watson, Kalycia T; Caton, Carol L M

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the psychological factors linking childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among 190 single homeless women in New York City. Participants were assessed for mental health symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Findings indicate that the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection diagnoses during adulthood is mediated by a combination of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Screening single homeless women who report childhood abuse histories for symptoms of both disorders may aid in the identification of individuals particularly vulnerable for HIV infection. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed.

  6. How Effective Is the Use of Metaphor Therapy on Reducing Psychological Symptoms and Pain Discomfort in Patients with Non-Cardiac Chest Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bahremand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological symptoms of non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP including perceptual, emotional, and behavioral problems can effect patient perception of chest pain. This study was conducted to determine the effect of metaphor therapy on mitigating depression, anxiety, stress, and pain discomfort in patients with NCCP. Materials and Methods: This randomized, controlled, trial was conducted on 28 participants, who had visited the emergency department of Kermanshah Imam Ali Heart Hospital because of experiencing NCCP during the June to September 2014. The patients were randomly assigned to metaphor therapy and control groups (n=14 for each group during a four-week period. Our data collection questionnaires included Pain Discomfort Scale (PDS and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS. Chi-square and MANCOVA tests were run, using SPSS version 20. Results: Twenty patients (71.4% completed the trial period until the final assessment. Our findings showed that metaphor therapy couldn’t lower depression, anxiety, stress, and pain discomfort; In fact, there was not a significant difference between the metaphor therapy and control groups regarding the aforementioned variables (P>0.05. Conclusions: Although the study results did not support the effectiveness of metaphor therapy for NCCP, further studies on the potential role of metaphor therapy in attenuating NCCP symptoms seem to be necessary.

  7. Perimenstrual symptoms and symptoms at midlife in Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, L L; Bertone-Johnson, E

    2013-02-01

    To examine perimenstrual symptoms in relation to hot flushes and depressive symptoms among 755 pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years drawn from