WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological symptom burden

  1. The Burden of Psychological Symptoms in Gynaecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is an increasing evidence of significant psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) among a large percentage of women with gynaecological conditions. These symptoms are often neglected in the course of management of physical problems, thus leading to an increased morbidity and unresolved ...

  2. Individual differences in physical symptom burden and psychological responses in individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Flynn, Joseph M; Jones, Jeffrey; Byrd, John C; Andersen, Barbara L

    2016-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable illness, with some patients requiring no treatment until disease progression. Burden from physical symptoms has been associated with depression, anxiety, and stress in cancer patients. Additionally, patient factors, i.e., individual differences, have been associated with worse psychological outcomes. There are few psychological studies of CLL, with no examination of individual differences. A cross-sectional design studied the covariation of symptom burden with depressive and anxiety symptoms and cancer-specific stress, and tested patients' individual differences as predictors and as moderators. CLL patients (N = 112) receiving active surveillance participated. They were Caucasian (100 %) and predominately male (55 %) with a mean age of 61; most (62.5 %) had stage 0 disease. A composite measure of physical symptom burden (CLL symptoms, fatigue, pain, impaired functional status) was tested as a predictor of psychological responses. Individual differences in psychiatric history and social support were tested as moderators. Using multiple linear regression, greater symptom burden covaried with higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms and cancer stress (ps < .05). Those with a psychiatric history, low social support, and low relationship satisfaction with one's partner reported greater symptom burden and more psychological symptoms and stress (ps < .05). Findings suggest that CLL patients in surveillance with a psychiatric history and/or low social support are at risk for greater distress when coping with high symptom burden. These new data clarify the experience of CLL surveillance and identify characteristics of patients with heightened risk for symptom burden, stress, and anxiety or depressive symptoms.

  3. Psychological Resilience, Affective Mechanisms, and Symptom Burden in a Tertiary Care Sample of Patients with Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Samantha J; Vincent, Ann; Hassett, Afton L; Whipple, Mary O; Oh, Terry H; Benzo, Roberto P; Toussaint, Loren L

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that patients with fibromyalgia who have higher positive and lower negative affect have lower symptom burden. Affect has been shown to be associated with resilience. This study examined the relationship between affect, resilience, and fibromyalgia symptom burden in a clinical sample of patients with fibromyalgia. We hypothesized that (a) positive and negative affect would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; (b) resilience would be associated with positive and negative affect; (c) resilience would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; and (d) the connection between resilience and fibromyalgia symptom burden would be mediated by both positive and negative affect. A sample of 858 patients with fibromyalgia completed questionnaires. Mediation modeling revealed statistically significant direct effects of resilience on fibromyalgia symptom burden (β =−.10, P fibromyalgia symptom burden through affect (β =−.36, P fibromyalgia symptom burden. Our results suggest that improving affect through resiliency training could be studied as a modality for improving fibromyalgia symptom burden. PMID:24376184

  4. Predictors of psychological adjustment, experienced parenting burden and chronic sorrow symptoms in parents of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, K; Wee, D; Sanders, M R; Boyd, R

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the role of child behaviour, parental coping and experiential avoidance in predicting the psychological outcomes of: (i) psychological symptoms; (ii) chronic sorrow symptoms; and (iii) experienced parenting burden in parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study is a cross-sectional, correlational study. Ninety-four parents of children (aged 2-12 years) with CP (various levels of motor functioning GMFCS I-V) participated. Together, the three predictors of child behaviour, parental coping and experiential avoidance explained 36.8% of the variance in psychological symptoms with child behavioural problems and experiential avoidance as significant unique predictors. In addition, 15.8% of the variance in chronic sorrow symptoms was explained by the three predictors with experiential avoidance alone as a significant unique predictor. Lastly, the predictors together explained 24.3% of the variance in experienced parenting burden with child behavioural problems and experiential avoidance as significant unique predictors. This study demonstrates a relationship between child behavioural problems and parental psychological symptoms and experienced parenting burden as well as a relationship between experiential avoidance and parental psychological symptoms, experienced parenting burden and chronic sorrow symptoms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Symptom burden, palliative care need and predictors of physical and psychological discomfort in two UK hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Tony; Ingleton, Christine; Gardiner, Clare; Parker, Chris; Gott, Merryn; Noble, Bill

    2013-02-26

    The requirement to meet the palliative needs of acute hospital populations has grown in recent years. With increasing numbers of frail older people needing hospital care as a result of both malignant and non-malignant conditions, emphasis is being placed upon understanding the physical, psychological and social burdens experienced by patients. This study explores the extent of burden in two large UK hospitals, focusing upon those patients who meet palliative care criteria. Furthermore, the paper explores the use of palliative services and identifies the most significant clinical diagnostic and demographic factors which determine physical and psychological burden. Two hospital surveys were undertaken to identify burden using the Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral to Care (SPARC). The Gold Standards Framework (GSF) is used to identify those patients meeting palliative care criteria. Participants were identified as being in-patients during a two-week data collection phase for each site. Data was gathered using face-to-face interviews or self-completion by patients or a proxy. Descriptive analyses highlight prevalence and use of palliative care provision. Binary logistic regression assesses clinical diagnostic predictor variables of physical and psychological burden. The sample consisted of 514 patients and elevated physical, psychological and social burden is identified amongst those meeting palliative care criteria (n = 185). Tiredness (34.6%), pain (31.1%), weakness (28.8%) and psychological discomfort (low mood 19.9%; anxiety 16.1%) are noted as being prevalent. A small number of these participants accessed Specialist Palliative Care (8.2%). Dementia was identified as a predictor of physical (OR 3.94; p psychological burden (OR 2.88; p psychological burden (OR 2.00; p care requirements. Moreover, the paper also indicates that a large proportion of such patients are not in receipt of palliative approaches to their care. Furthermore, the paper

  6. [Behavioral and psychological symptoms, cognitive impairment and caregiver burden related to Alzheimer's disease patients treated in an outpatient memory clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Hajime; Yamada, Hiroko; Sugihara, Yuriko; Kita, Toru

    2006-03-01

    The relationships among behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), cognitive impairment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and the caregiver burden of their caregivers were investigated in an outpatient memory clinic. Forty-six pairs of AD patients and their family caregivers were involved in this study. Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI) was used to estimate BPSD, to which memory symptoms were added as a subcategory of BPSD. MMSE, word fluency, clock drawing test and category-cued memory test were used for cognitive measurement. Zarit burden interview (ZBI) and CES-D were used to assess caregiver burden. Among 11 BPSD subcategories, memory symptoms, apathy, depression, delusion, aggression and anxiety were prevalent BPSD was a strong determinant of caregiver burden. Among BPSD symptoms, anxiety, aggression and aberrant motor behavior were significantly related to ZBL In terms of the relationship between BPSD and cognitive impairment, the scores for delusion and apathy were significantly related to the cognitive decline. On the other hand, patients who showed symptoms related to memory and depression had higher cognitive function than those who did not. These analyses will contribute to better assessment of AD patients and their caregivers, hopefully resulting in better support for them.

  7. Prevalence, burden, and correlates of physical and psychological symptoms among HIV palliative care patients in sub-Saharan Africa: an international multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Richard; Selman, Lucy; Agupio, Godfrey; Dinat, Natalya; Downing, Julia; Gwyther, Liz; Mashao, Thandi; Mmoledi, Keletso; Moll, Tony; Sebuyira, Lydia Mpanga; Ikin, Barbara; Higginson, Irene J

    2012-07-01

    Despite HIV remaining life limiting and incurable, very little clinical research focus has been given to the prevalence and related burden of physical and psychological symptoms for those accessing palliative care. Despite evidence of problems persisting throughout the trajectory and alongside treatment, scant attention has been paid to these manageable problems. This study aimed to measure the seven-day period prevalence and correlates of physical and psychological symptoms, and their associated burden, in HIV-infected individuals attending palliative care centers in sub-Saharan Africa. Consecutive patients in five care centers across two countries completed the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form, with additional demographic and disease-oriented variables. Two hundred twenty-four patients participated. The most common symptoms were pain in the physical dimension (82.6%) and worry in the psychological dimension (75.4%). Interestingly, 71.4% reported hunger. Women, and those with worse physical function, were more likely to experience burden. However, being on antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not associated with global, physical, or psychological symptom burden. This study is the first to report physical and psychological symptom burden in HIV-infected populations receiving palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite increasing access to ART, these burdensome and manageable problems persist. The assessment of these problems is essential alongside assessment of ART virological outcomes. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological Resilience, Affective Mechanisms and Symptom Burden in a Tertiary-care Sample of Patients with Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Samantha J; Vincent, Ann; Hassett, Afton L; Whipple, Mary O; Oh, Terry H; Benzo, Roberto P; Toussaint, Loren L

    2015-10-01

    Research demonstrates that patients with fibromyalgia who have higher positive and lower negative affect have lower symptom burden. Affect has been shown to be associated with resilience. This study examined the relationship between affect, resilience and fibromyalgia symptom burden in a clinical sample of patients with fibromyalgia. We hypothesized that (a) positive and negative affect would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; (b) resilience would be associated with positive and negative affect; (c) resilience would be associated with fibromyalgia symptom burden; and (d) the connection between resilience and fibromyalgia symptom burden would be mediated by both positive and negative affect. A sample of 858 patients with fibromyalgia completed questionnaires. Mediation modelling revealed statistically significant direct effects of resilience on fibromyalgia symptom burden (β = -0.10, P fibromyalgia symptom burden through affect (β = -0.36, P fibromyalgia symptom burden. Our results suggest that improving affect through resiliency training could be studied as a modality for improving fibromyalgia symptom burden. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Obtaining Information from Family Caregivers Is Important to Detect Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms and Caregiver Burden in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Yamagami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study are to clarify the differences between the difficulties in daily life experienced by patients with both mild cognitive impairment (MCI and chronic disease and those experienced by healthy elderly individuals. Methods: We assessed (a cognitive function; (b gait ability; (c behavioral and psychological symptoms (observed at home; (d activities of daily living (observed at home; (e family caregiver burden, and (f intention to continue family caregiving of 255 cognitively normal and 103 MCI subjects attending adult day care services covered by long-term care insurance, and compared the two groups. Results: Subjects with MCI display more behavioral and psychological symptoms than cognitively normal subjects, posing a heavy caregiver burden (p Conclusion: Information regarding the behavioral and psychological symptoms displayed at home by patients with MCI can only be obtained from family caregivers living with the patients. To provide early-stage support for elderly patients with MCI, adult day care workers should collect information from family caregivers regarding behavioral and psychological symptoms observed at home.

  10. The impact of mindfulness-based interventions on symptom burden, positive psychological outcomes, and biomarkers in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Codie R; Garland, Sheila N; Carlson, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    Research on the use of mindfulness-based stress reduction and related mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in cancer care has proliferated over the past decade. MBIs have aimed to facilitate physical and emotional adjustment to life with cancer through the cultivation and practice of mindfulness (ie, purposeful, nonjudgmental, moment-to-moment awareness). This descriptive review highlights three categories of outcomes that have been evaluated in MBI research with cancer patients - namely, symptom reduction, positive psychological growth, and biological outcomes. We also examine the clinical relevance of each targeted outcome, while describing recently published original studies to highlight novel applications of MBIs tailored to individuals with cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that participation in a MBI contributes to reductions in psychological distress, sleep disturbance, and fatigue, and promotes personal growth in areas such as quality of life and spirituality. MBIs may also influence markers of immune function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, and autonomic nervous system activity, though it remains unclear whether these biological changes translate to clinically important health benefits. We conclude by discussing methodological limitations of the extant literature, and implications of matching MBIs to the needs and preferences of cancer patients. Overall, the growing popularity of MBIs in cancer care must be balanced against scientific evidence for their impact on specific clinical outcomes.

  11. The impact of mindfulness-based interventions on symptom burden, positive psychological outcomes, and biomarkers in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouleau CR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Codie R Rouleau,1 Sheila N Garland,2 Linda E Carlson3 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Research on the use of mindfulness-based stress reduction and related mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs in cancer care has proliferated over the past decade. MBIs have aimed to facilitate physical and emotional adjustment to life with cancer through the cultivation and practice of mindfulness (ie, purposeful, nonjudgmental, moment-to-moment awareness. This descriptive review highlights three categories of outcomes that have been evaluated in MBI research with cancer patients – namely, symptom reduction, positive psychological growth, and biological outcomes. We also examine the clinical relevance of each targeted outcome, while describing recently published original studies to highlight novel applications of MBIs tailored to individuals with cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that participation in a MBI contributes to reductions in psychological distress, sleep disturbance, and fatigue, and promotes personal growth in areas such as quality of life and spirituality. MBIs may also influence markers of immune function, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation, and autonomic nervous system activity, though it remains unclear whether these biological changes translate to clinically important health benefits. We conclude by discussing methodological limitations of the extant literature, and implications of matching MBIs to the needs and preferences of cancer patients. Overall, the growing popularity of MBIs in cancer care must be balanced against scientific evidence for their impact on specific clinical outcomes. Keywords: mindfulness-based intervention

  12. Symptom burden in individuals with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Adam T.; Gallegos, Juan C.; Gertz, Kevin J.; Engel, Joyce M.; Jensen, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to (1) determine the relative frequency and severity of eight symptoms in adults with cerebral palsy (CP), (2) examine the perceived course of these eight symptoms over time, and (3) determine the associations between the severity of these symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Eighty-three adults with CP completed a measure assessing the frequency, severity, and perceived course of eight symptoms (pain, weakness, fatigue, imbalance, numbness, memory loss, vision loss, and shortness of breath). Respondents also completed measures of community integration and psychological functioning. The results indicated that pain, fatigue, imbalance, and weakness were the most common and severe symptoms reported. All symptoms were reported to have either stayed the same or worsened, rather than resolved, over time. The symptoms were more closely related to social integration than to home integration, productive activity, or psychological functioning. Memory loss was a unique predictor of social integration in the multivariate context. This study highlighted several common and problematic symptoms experienced by adults with CP. Additional research is needed to identify the most effective treatments for those symptoms that affect community integration and psychological functioning as a way to improve the quality of life of individuals with CP. PMID:21174251

  13. The Psychological Burden of Skin Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgard, Florence J; Gieler, Uwe; Tomas-Aragones, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of psychological disorders to the burden of skin disease has been poorly explored, and this is a large-scale study to ascertain the association between depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation with various dermatological diagnoses. This international multicenter observational...... cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 European countries. In each dermatology clinic, 250 consecutive adult out-patients were recruited to complete a questionnaire, reporting socio-demographic information, negative life events, and suicidal ideation; depression and anxiety were assessed.......67-3.47)). Clinical anxiety was present in 17.2% (controls 11.1%, OR 2.18 (1.68-2.82)). Suicidal ideation was reported by 12.7% of all patients (controls 8.3%, OR 1.94 (1.33-2.82)). For individual diagnoses, only patients with psoriasis had significant association with suicidal ideation. The association...

  14. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in Down syndrome : Early indicators of clinical Alzheimer's disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Alain D.; Strydom, Andre; Coppus, Antonia M. W.; Nizetic, Dean; Vermeiren, Yannick; Naude, Petrus J. W.; Van Dam, Debby; Potier, Marie-Claude; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are a core symptom of dementia and are associated with suffering, earlier institutionalization and accelerated cognitive decline for patients and increased caregiver burden. Despite the extremely high risk for Down syndrome (DS) individuals

  15. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia may predict caregiver burden: a Sicilian exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Michele; De Cola, Maria C; Marra, Angela; De Luca, Rosaria; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco S

    2017-03-01

    Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are very common. They represent a main cause of burden and distress in caregivers and can lead to early institutionalization of patients. We aimed to find the most specific behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia that can strongly affect the caregivers' burden. Twenty-seven patients and their caregivers were enrolled in this study. All of the patients were affected by Alzheimer's, vascular, or frontotemporal dementia and were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Mini-Mental State Examination. Caregivers were administered the Caregiver Burden Inventory. Apathy, depression, anxiety, and agitation were the most common symptoms and were found in up to 90% of the patients. We detected strong correlations between patient neuropsychiatric symptoms, (i.e. irritability, hallucinations, aberrant motor behavioural, depression, and agitation) and Caregiver Burden Inventory scores. Multiple regression analysis found hallucinations, irritability, and depression to be significant predictors of caregiver burden. Moreover, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score was more closely related to caregiver burden than the Mini-Mental State Examination score. Our results revealed that demented patients' behavioural problems are related to the level of caregiver burden and distress. Further investigations are needed to differentiate the present findings among dementia subtypes and to better evaluate the effect of caregivers' personal characteristics on their own burden. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  16. Burden and psychological effects : caregiver experiences in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burden and psychological effects : caregiver experiences in a psychiatric outpatient unit in Lagos, Nigeria. ... It is recommended that effectively planned interventions are targeted at alleviating this burden and at improving the ability of caregivers to cope, within the Nigerian mental health service delivery system. Key Words: ...

  17. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  18. Subjective burden, psychological distress, and perceived social support among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elangovan Aravind Raj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Caregivers of persons with schizophrenia experience more stress due to the nature of the symptoms as well as the prolonged duration of illness. The current study is an attempt to understand the subjective components of burden, distress, and social support in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Indian context and its linkage with their sociodemographic profile and patient′s illness profile. Methodology: Thirty-two caregivers of patients with schizophrenia from a psychiatric inpatient facility of a multidisciplinary hospital were studied using descriptive research design. Results: The result shows that negative symptoms of patients, subdomains of burden (burden on well-being, marital burden, burden on relations, and burden due to perceived severity were the predictors of subjective burden. Burden on well-being and respondent′s age were predictors of psychological distress. Conclusion: Inclusive treatment services would enhance the quality of life of the caregivers and would help them in ensuring long-term care for the patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Symptom burden in the last week of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, Marianne; Willems, Dick L.; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deeg, Dorly J. H.

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate symptom burden in the last week of life, we conducted after-death interviews with close relatives of deceased older persons from a population-based sample of older people in The Netherlands (n=270). Results show that fatigue, pain, and shortness of breath were common (83%,

  20. HOW TO MOTIVATE ENGLISH LEARNERS FACED WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL BURDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himpun Panggabean

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The misleading assumptions of Indonesian-speaking learners of English on the nature of English results in psychological burden inhibiting the process of teaching and learning. The assumptions should be eliminated at the beginning of English class. Besides, the instructor should extensively motivate and encourage the learners to maximize their potentials in learning process. Such approach will gradually lead the learners to self-confidence and self-discovery.

  1. Psychological distress and symptoms among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...

  2. Political Ideology and Psychological Symptoms Following Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the associations between political ideology and level of psychological symptoms in youth exposed to terror attacks. The study included 2,999 7th to 10th graders from various parts of Israel. Political ideology was examined in two ways: (a) as a content dimension: "political stand"--holding right, centrist, or left…

  3. The prevalence and burden of symptoms amongst cancer patients attending palliative care in two African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Richard; Selman, Lucy; Agupio, Godfrey; Dinat, Natalya; Downing, Julia; Gwyther, Liz; Mashao, Thandi; Mmoledi, Keletso; Sebuyira, Lydia Mpanga; Ikin, Barbara; Higginson, Irene J

    2011-01-01

    The majority of cancer presentations in Africa are advanced and incurable, with incidence of malignancies projected to increase significantly. Despite the African cancer burden, almost nothing is known about the symptomatology of malignant progressive disease. This study aimed to determine the symptom prevalence and burden amongst advanced cancer patients in two African countries. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Schedule Short Form (MSAS-SF) was used to measure the 7-d period prevalence and associated burden of multidimensional symptoms amongst adult patients attending palliative care in South Africa and Uganda. Further demographic and clinical variables were collected. Of the 112 patients recruited, 22 (19.6%) had an underlying HIV diagnosis. The most common cancer primaries were breast (N=24), cervix (N=21) and lung (N=14). The mean number of symptoms was 18 (SD=6.6). The five most prevalent symptoms were pain (87.5%), lack of energy (77.7%), feeling sad (75.9%), feeling drowsy (72.3%) and worrying (69.6%). The five symptoms ranked as most severe were as follows: pain n=26 (23.2%), sexual problems n=24 (21.4%), weight loss n=21 (18.8%), 'I don't look like myself'n=21 (18.8%) and lack of energy n=20 (17.9%). Pain and psychological problems were four of the five most common symptoms, found in more than 3 out of 4 patients. Our sample's reported mean number of symptoms was far higher than reported in other global studies. These data can inform the delivery of appropriate clinical care. The prevalence of multidimensional symptoms underlines the importance of holistic approaches to patient assessment and management, taking account of multiple and potentially interacting symptoms and locally appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C; Stein, Cynthia J; Bachur, Richard G

    2014-12-09

    To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Stein, Cynthia J.; Bachur, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. Results: A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of concussion is overall symptom burden. PMID:25381296

  6. What Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia Affect Caregiver Burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi-Taniguchi, Kazuko; Becker, Carl B; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2017-11-16

    Patients' irritability and aggression have been linked to caregiver depression, but the behaviors that most burden caregivers are not yet definitively identified. This study examines the connection between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the burnout of caregivers caring for home-dwelling elders with dementia symptoms in Japan. 80 Japanese rural and urban family caregivers completed detailed questionnaires about their experiences in caring for demented family members. We statistically analyzed the results for correlations between types of dementia, Pines Burnout, and Caregiver Distress. BPSD symptom severity significantly correlated with caregiver distress. The dementia symptoms most strongly correlated with caregiver burnout were: aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucinations. Among the commonest symptoms, apathy, anxiety, and depression did not seriously aggravate caregiver burnout. Caregivers displayed higher burnout facing agitation/aggression, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, and hallucinations. Caregivers' reported distress was surprisingly dissimilar to their burnout scores; patients' delusions and anxiety led to higher distress reporting but not to burnout. Advance diagnosis of BPSD symptoms should be helpful to support nurses and caregivers of dementia patients. Particular support should be considered for caregivers and nurses of patients expressing aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucination.

  7. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim eCerejeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long term hospitalization, misuse of medication and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes

  8. Symptom burden among young adults with breast or colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Stacy D; Zhao, Fengmin; Salsman, John M; Chang, Victor T; Wagner, Lynne I; Fisch, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Cancer incidence has increased among young adults (YAs) and survival rates have not improved compared with other age groups. Patient-reported outcomes may enhance our understanding of this vulnerable population. In a multisite prospective study, patients completed a cancer symptom inventory at the time of enrollment (T1) and 4 weeks to 5 weeks later (T2). YAs (those aged ≤ 39 years) with breast or colorectal cancer were compared with older adults (those aged ≥ 40 years) with breast or colorectal cancer with regard to symptom severity, symptom interference, changes over time, and medical care. Participants included 1544 patients with breast cancer (96 of whom were YAs) and 718 patients with colorectal cancer (37 of whom were YAs). Compared with older adults, YAs with breast cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe drowsiness, hair loss, and symptom interference with relationships at T1. YAs with colorectal cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe pain, fatigue, nausea, distress, drowsiness, shortness of breath, and rash plus interference in general activity, mood, work, relationships, and life enjoyment compared with older adults. Compared with older adults, shortness of breath, appetite, and sore mouth were more likely to improve in YAs with breast cancer; vomiting was less likely to improve in YAs with colorectal cancer. Referrals for supportive care were few, especially among patients with colorectal cancer. YAs with breast cancer were somewhat more likely to be referred to nutrition and psychiatry services than older patients. YAs reported symptom severity, symptom interference, and variations over time that were distinct from older patients. Distinctions were found to differ by diagnostic group. These findings enhance the understanding of symptom burden in YAs and inform the development of targeted interventions and future research. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  9. Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms in Poststroke Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD cause significant patient and caregiver morbidity in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Objectives. To study and compare the occurrence and severity of BPSD between multi-infarct dementia (MID, subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD, and strategic infarct subtypes of poststroke VCI and to evaluate the relationship of these symptoms with the severity of cognitive impairment. Methods. Sixty patients with poststroke VCI were classified into MID, SIVD, and strategic infarct subtypes. BPSD were studied by the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI. The severity of cognitive impairment was evaluated by the clinical dementia rating scale (CDR. Results. 95% of cases had at least one neuropsychiatric symptom, with depression being the commonest, irrespective of subtype or severity of VCI. Strategic infarct patients had the lowest frequency of all symptoms. SIVD showed a higher frequency and severity of apathy and higher total NPI scores, compared to MID. Apathy and appetite disturbances occurred more commonly with increasing CDR scores. The total NPI score correlated positively with the CDR score. Conclusion. Depression was the commonest neuropsychiatric symptom in VCI. The neuropsychiatric profiles of MID and SIVD were similar. The frequency and severity of apathy and the net burden of BPSD increased with increasing cognitive impairment.

  10. Symptom burden in mesothelioma patients admitted to home palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Degiovanni, Daniela; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2016-12-01

    Mesothelioma is a very aggressive cancer that is brought on by asbestos exposure. Because there is a long latency period between exposure to asbestos and symptoms of disease, most patients with mesothelioma present with advanced disease and survive an average of 8-12 months. Thus, best supportive care should be considered critical to optimally manage these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiological characteristics and symptom burden of mesothelioma patients when admitted to home palliative care. The charts of a consecutive sample of patients admitted to the home palliative care program with a diagnosis of mesothelioma in an endemic industrialized area were reviewed. The estimated survival time was about two months from admission. Epidemiological characteristics were collected. Karnofsky status, characteristics of pain and analgesic treatment at time of admission were recorded. ESAS (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System) and other clinical problems reported in the charts at admission time were also recorded. Of the 674 charts reviewed, 56 patients (8.3%) had a diagnosis of mesothelioma. About three quarters of those had pain, with 18 and 2 patients with moderate and severe pain, respectively, despite receiving medium to high doses of opioids. The principal pain site was the chest. Pain was significantly associated with opioid consumption (p palliative care late in the course of their disease, suggesting that earlier integration of palliative care should be considered to relieve suffering in all disease stages - not only at the end of life.

  11. Acupuncture in the treatment of cancer-related psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nadia Elisabeth; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-09-01

    Acupuncture is being adopted by cancer patients for a wide range of cancer-related symptoms including highly prevalent psychological symptoms like depression, anxiety, insomnia, and impairment in quality of life. Pharmacological treatment of prevalent symptoms like anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance can contribute to the high chemical burden already carried by cancer patients, creating additional side effects. As a result, patients and providers alike are interested in evidence-based nonpharmacologic alternatives like acupuncture for these symptoms. This article reviews the current literature (January 2000 through April 2013) for acupuncture in cancer-related psychological symptoms with attention to both efficacy and acupuncture-specific methodology. All published studies that met our review criteria demonstrate a positive signal for acupuncture for the treatment of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and for improving quality of life with most results showing statistical significance. However, there are only a handful of acupuncture studies that were specifically designed to evaluate depression, sleep disturbance, and quality of life as primary outcomes, and no studies were found that looked at anxiety as a primary outcome in this population. Published studies in cancer patients and survivors show that acupuncture treatment is not only safe but also more acceptable with fewer side effects than standard of care pharmacological treatments like antidepressants. Finally, there is wide variability in both the implementation and reporting of acupuncture methods in the literature, with only 2 of 12 studies reporting full details of acupuncture methods as outlined in the revised Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture guidelines, published in 2010 and providing an essential framework for the reporting of acupuncture methodology. This lack of methodological detail affects outcomes, generalizability, and validity of research

  12. Symptom burden among patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC: content for a symptom index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevia Parthiv J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has multiple symptoms stemming from disease and treatments. There are few validated scales for evaluating RCC symptoms. Methods A national cross-sectional study of adult RCC patients was conducted from October to December 2003 to define patient-reported RCC symptomology. Participants were asked open-ended questions regarding their signs and symptoms and completed an 86-item pilot questionnaire of physical and psychological symptoms. Patients were asked to rate the relevancy and clarity of each pilot question using a 5-point Likert scale. Subsequent open-ended caregiver interviews and a provider panel relevance ranking contributed additional information. Results The average age of the participants (n = 31 was 55 years; 55% of patients were male, 74% had attended college, and 97% were Caucasian. The five most frequent symptoms among localized-stage patients (n = 14 were irritability (79%, pain (71%, fatigue (71%, worry (71%, and sleep disturbance (64%. Among metastatic patients (n = 17, the five most frequent symptoms were fatigue (82%, weakness (65%, worry (65%, shortness of breath (53%, and irritability (53%. More than 50% of localized and metastatic-stage patients reported pain, weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbance, urinary frequency, worry, and mood disorders as being moderately to highly relevant. Conclusion A brief, self-administered RCC Symptom Index was created that captures the relevant signs and symptoms of both localized and metastatic patients. Pending additional content validation, the Index can be used to assess the signs and symptoms of RCC and the clinical benefit resulting from RCC treatment.

  13. Animal Assisted Interactions to Alleviate Psychological Symptoms in Patients on Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Breanna; Bailey, Tanya; Prince-Paul, Maryjo

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a common life support intervention for critically ill patients that can cause stressful psychological symptoms. Animal assisted interactions have been used in variety of inpatient settings to reduce symptom burden and promote overall well-being. Due to the severity of illness associated with critical care, use of highly technological equipment, and heightened concern for infection control and patient safety, animal-assisted interaction has not been widely adopted in the intensive care unit. This case study of the therapeutic interaction between a canine and a mechanically ventilated patient provides support for the promotion of animal-assisted interactions as an innovative symptom management strategy in the intensive care unit.

  14. Characteristics of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, severity and levels of distress on caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taemeeyapradit, Unchulee; Udomittipong, Dussadee; Tepparak, Nualsakol

    2014-04-01

    To describe the characteristics of the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) and its severity among patients with dementia and their caregivers' stress. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 158 patients with Alzheimer's disease, mixed vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease, and unspecified dementia and caregivers in Songkhla Rajanakarindra Psychiatric Hospital were selected by a consecutive sampling. The BPSD and severity of dementia was assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire - Thai version (NPI-Q Thai), the Global Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR), the Mini Mental Status Thai version 2002 (MMSE Thai 2002), and a clinical diagnosis. Consensus of a psychiatrist and a neurologist according to diagnostic criteria of DSMIV-TR was achieved for every patient. Overall, 90.5% had at least one BPSD symptom. Common symptoms were irritability (60.8%), sleep problems (57%), depression (54.5%), anxiety (52%), and agitation/aggression (44.9%). The least common symptom was eating problems (23.5%). The caregivers rated the patient's physical symptoms as more severe than psychological symptoms. The symptom that caused the highest burden to caregivers was agitation/aggression, followed by dis-inhibition, aberrant motor behaviors, and sleep problems. The less burdensome symptoms included irritability, depression, and anxiety. BPSD were commonly found among patients with dementia. The top five symptoms were irritability, sleep problems, depression, anxiety, and agitation/aggression. Not only assessment of BPSD, but also feeling and suffering of the caregivers should be assessed by using the NPI-Q. This would help the clinician plan appropriate treatment. Physical symptoms were perceived by caregivers as causing the most anguish and distress, while psychological symptoms were perceived as less severe. Further studies should be done, such as the factors related to burden of caregivers of dementia with BPSD.

  15. In Patients Undergoing Cochlear Implantation, Psychological Burden Affects Tinnitus and the Overall Outcome of Auditory Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Brüggemann

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implantation (CI is increasingly being used in the auditory rehabilitation of deaf patients. Here, we investigated whether the auditory rehabilitation can be influenced by the psychological burden caused by mental conditions. Our sample included 47 patients who underwent implantation. All patients were monitored before and 6 months after CI. Auditory performance was assessed using the Oldenburg Inventory (OI and Freiburg monosyllable (FB MS speech discrimination test. The health-related quality of life was measured with Nijmegen Cochlear implantation Questionnaire (NCIQ whereas tinnitus-related distress was measured with the German version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. We additionally assessed the general perceived quality of life, the perceived stress, coping abilities, anxiety levels and the depressive symptoms. Finally, a structured interview to detect mental conditions (CIDI was performed before and after surgery. We found that CI led to an overall improvement in auditory performance as well as the anxiety and depression, quality of life, tinnitus distress and coping strategies. CIDI revealed that 81% of patients in our sample had affective, anxiety, and/or somatoform disorders before or after CI. The affective disorders included dysthymia and depression, while anxiety disorders included agoraphobias and unspecified phobias. We also diagnosed cases of somatoform pain disorders and unrecognizable figure somatoform disorders. We found a positive correlation between the auditory performance and the decrease of anxiety and depression, tinnitus-related distress and perceived stress. There was no association between the presence of a mental condition itself and the outcome of auditory rehabilitation. We conclude that the CI candidates exhibit high rates of psychological disorders, and there is a particularly strong association between somatoform disorders and tinnitus. The presence of mental disorders remained unaffected by CI but the

  16. Psychological factors driving the symptoms of Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Aim: It has been reported that various psychological factors, including stress, associate with the clinical features of fibromyalgia. This project proposed that a top down process, comprising of a number of contributing psychological factors, plays a pivotal role in the establishment of fibromyalgia. The project specifically examined whether a number of psychological factors would contribute significantly to the core clinical features of fibromyalgia, and if so whether these...

  17. Validation of the four-dimensional symptom questionnaire (4DSQ) and prevalence of psychological symptoms in orthopedic shoulder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C. T.; Terluin, Berend; van't Riet, Esther; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.

    Psychological problems are common in shoulder patients. A validated psychological questionnaire measuring clinically relevant psychological symptoms (including distress, depression, anxiety, and somatization) in shoulder patients is lacking. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a

  18. Perspective on Research and Teaching in Psychology: Enrichment or Burden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucks, Regina; Hillbrink, Alessa

    2017-01-01

    In Germany, most PhD psychology students are engaged in research and teach as well. As a result, they may experience both synergy and competition between these two activities. How do PhD psychology students themselves perceive the relationship between research and teaching? And how does this perception depend on their conceptions of research and…

  19. Emotional Problems, Quality of Life, and Symptom Burden in Patients With Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Novotny, Paul J; Sloan, Jeff A; Yang, Ping; Patten, Christi A; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Clark, Matthew M

    2017-09-01

    Lung cancer is associated with a greater symptom burden than other cancers, yet little is known about the prevalence of emotional problems and how emotional problems may be related to the physical symptom burden and quality of life in newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer. This study aimed to identify the patient and disease characteristics of patients with lung cancer experiencing emotional problems and to examine how emotional problems relate to quality of life and symptom burden. A total of 2205 newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer completed questionnaires on emotional problems, quality of life, and symptom burden. Emotional problems at diagnosis were associated with younger age, female gender, current cigarette smoking, current employment, advanced lung cancer disease, surgical or chemotherapy treatment, and a lower Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score. Additionally, strong associations were found between greater severity of emotional problems, lower quality of life, and greater symptom burden. Certain characteristics place patients with lung cancer at greater risk for emotional problems, which are associated with a reduced quality of life and greater symptom burden. Assessment of the presence of emotional problems at the time of lung cancer diagnosis provides the opportunity to offer tailored strategies for managing negative mood, and for improving the quality of life and symptom burden management of patients with lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Grandparent Caregiving and Psychological Well-Being Among Chinese American Older Adults-The Roles of Caregiving Burden and Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Tang, Fengyan; Li, Lydia W; Dong, Xin Qi

    2017-07-01

    Though ample research on grandparent caregiving and psychological well-being outcomes exist in Western literature, little attention has been focused on Chinese American grandparents. Based on role enhancement and role strain theories, this study examined grandparent caregiving and psychological well-being among Chinese American older adults and tested whether caregiving burden or pressure from adult children moderated such association. We used the data from the Population Study of ChINese Elderly in Chicago (PINE), a population-based survey of community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Grandparents with grandchildren younger than 16 years old were selected for present study (N = 2,775). Negative binominal regression and logistic regression models were used to test the relationships of grandparent caregiving time and psychological well-being measured by depressive symptoms and quality of life. Grandparents reported an average of 11.96 hours a week for caring for grandchildren. Caregiving time had a significantly negative association with depressive symptoms, but not with quality of life. The association between grandparent caregiving and depressive symptoms was moderated by the perception of caregiving burden. No moderating effect of caregiving pressure from adult children was found. More time spending on grandparent caregiving is generally beneficial to Chinese American grandparents' psychological well-being, thus supporting role enhancement theory. However, this association depends on whether this experience is a burden to the grandparents, therefore role strain theory is also supported. Policies and programs are discussed to address the grandparenting experience in the Chinese American older adults.

  1. Caregiver Burden, Spirituality, and Psychological Well-Being of Parents Having Children with Thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anum, Jawaria; Dasti, Rabia

    2016-06-01

    The research determined the relationship of caregiving burden, spirituality and psychological well-being of parents of Pakistani thalassemic patients in a crosssectional research design. The sociodemographic form, Montgomery-Borgatta burden measure (Montgomery et al. in Who should care for the elderly? An east-west value divide. World Scientific, River Edge, pp 27-54, 2000), Multidimensional Measure of Islamic Spirituality (Dasti and Sitwat in J Muslim Ment Health 8(2):47-67, 2014. doi: 10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0008.204 ) and Ryff Scale of Psychological Well-being (Ryff in J Pers Soc Psychol 57(6):1069-1081, 1989. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069 ) were administered on a sample of 80 parents (32 fathers and 48 mothers) recruited from different Thalassemic Centers of Lahore city, Pakistan. Data were analyzed through correlation and mediational analyses. Results indicated that the caregiver burden was negatively correlated with the psychological well-being and the domains of spirituality, while the psychological well-being and spirituality were positively correlated. We identified that the caregiver burden has direct effect on the psychological well-being of the parents and it influences the psychological well-being through the pathway of the two domains of spirituality, i.e., self-discipline and meanness-generosity. These results highlighted the role of spirituality upon the psychological well-being of caregivers, which could be utilized to prevent pathological influences (such as hard feelings, hopelessness, depressed mood, anxiety, and relationship problems) of caregiver burden and enhance psychological well-being through spiritual counseling. Caregivers can work on their well-being and burden by disciplining their lives and forgoing hard feelings toward others.

  2. Psychological symptoms and subsequent sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, B.; van Rhenen, W.; Anema, J.R.; Taris, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mental health problems are associated with sickness absence (SA). The present study aimed at establishing which symptoms - distress, depression, anxiety, or somatization - at which symptom levels were associated with SA frequency and duration. Moreover, a number of possible confounders or

  3. The relationship between physical and psychological symptoms and health care utilization in hospitalized patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Ryan D; El-Jawahri, Areej; Moran, Samantha M; D'Arpino, Sara M; Johnson, P Connor; Lage, Daniel E; Wong, Risa L; Pirl, William F; Traeger, Lara; Lennes, Inga T; Cashavelly, Barbara J; Jackson, Vicki A; Greer, Joseph A; Ryan, David P; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Temel, Jennifer S

    2017-12-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often experience frequent and prolonged hospitalizations; however, the factors associated with greater health care utilization have not been described. We sought to investigate the relation between patients' physical and psychological symptom burden and health care utilization. We enrolled patients with advanced cancer and unplanned hospitalizations from September 2014-May 2016. Upon admission, we assessed physical (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]) and psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire 4 [PHQ-4]). We examined the relationship between symptom burden and healthcare utilization using linear regression for hospital length of stay (LOS) and Cox regression for time to first unplanned readmission within 90 days. We adjusted all models for age, sex, marital status, comorbidity, education, time since advanced cancer diagnosis, and cancer type. We enrolled 1,036 of 1,152 (89.9%) consecutive patients approached. Over one-half reported moderate/severe fatigue, poor well being, drowsiness, pain, and lack of appetite. PHQ-4 scores indicated that 28.8% and 28.0% of patients had depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The mean hospital LOS was 6.3 days, and the 90-day readmission rate was 43.1%. Physical symptoms (ESAS: unstandardized coefficient [B], 0.06; P cancer experience a high symptom burden, which is significantly associated with prolonged hospitalizations and readmissions. Interventions are needed to address the symptom burden of this population to improve health care delivery and utilization. Cancer 2017;123:4720-4727. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Psychological Distress and Psychiatric Symptoms among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was carried out among patients attending the chest clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. ... About half of the participants suffered from somatisation, neuroticism, depression and anxiety and as regards GHQ scores, more than half (51.9%) indicated psychological distress. Likewise ...

  5. Symptom burden profile in myelofibrosis patients with thrombocytopenia: Lessons and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch, Allison H; Kosiorek, Heidi; Scherber, Robyn; Dueck, Amylou C; Slot, Stefanie; Zweegman, Sonja; Boekhorst, Peter A W Te; Commandeur, Suzan; Schouten, Harry; Sackmann, Federico; Fuentes, Ana Kerguelen; Hernández-Maraver, Dolores; Pahl, Heike L; Griesshammer, Martin; Stegelmann, Frank; Döhner, Konstanze; Lehmann, Thomas; Bonatz, Karin; Reiter, Andreas; Boyer, Francoise; Etienne, Gabriel; Ianotto, Jean-Christophe; Ranta, Dana; Roy, Lydia; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Harrison, Claire N; Radia, Deepti; Muxi, Pablo; Maldonado, Norman; Besses, Carlos; Cervantes, Francisco; Johansson, Peter L; Barbui, Tiziano; Barosi, Giovanni; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Paoli, Chiara; Passamonti, Francesco; Andreasson, Bjorn; Ferrari, Maria L; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Samuelsson, Jan; Birgegard, Gunnar; Xiao, Zhijian; Xu, Zefeng; Zhang, Yue; Sun, Xiujuan; Xu, Junqing; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Zhang, Peihong; Gale, Robert Peter; Mesa, Ruben A; Geyer, Holly L

    2017-12-01

    Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with progressive cytopenias and high symptom burden. MF patients with thrombocytopenia have poor prognosis but the presence of thrombocytopenia frequently precludes the use of JAK2 inhibitors. In this study, we assessed quality of life and symptom burden in 418 MF patients with (n=89) and without (n=329) thrombocytopenia using prospective data from the MPN-QOL study group database, including the Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Symptom Assessment Form (MPN-SAF) and Total Symptom Score (MPN10). Thrombocytopenia, defined as platelet count thrombocytopenia were more likely to have anemia (86% vs. 67%, p=0.04), leukopenia (40% vs. 20%, p=0.04), and transfusion requirements (51% vs. 20%, p=0.002) but few differences in symptoms when compared to patients with moderate thrombocytopenia. These results suggest that MF patients with thrombocytopenia experience greater symptomatic burden than MF patients without thrombocytopenia and may benefit from additional therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychopathological Symptoms and Psychological Wellbeing in Mexican Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariel; de León, Ana Mariela; Martínez, Estela; Peña, Elsa Melissa; Marques, Luana; Gallegos, Julia

    2017-06-01

    College life involves a process of adaptation to changes that have an impact on the psycho-emotional development of students. Successful adaptation to this stage involves the balance between managing personal resources and potential stressors that generate distress. This epidemiological descriptive and transversal study estimates the prevalence of psychopathological symptomatology and psychological well-being among 516 college students, 378 (73.26%) women and 138 (26.74%) men, ages between 17 and 24, from the city of Monterrey in Mexico. It describes the relationship between psychopathological symptomatology and psychological well-being, and explores gender differences. For data collection, two measures were used: The Symptom Checklist Revised and the Scale of Psychological Well-being. Statistical analyses used were t test for independent samples, Pearson's r and regression analysis with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v21.0). Statistical analyses showed that the prevalence of psychopathological symptoms was 10-13%, being Aggression the highest. The dimension of psychological well-being with the lowest scores was Environmental Mastery. Participants with a higher level of psychological well-being had a lower level of psychopathological symptoms, which shows the importance of early identification and prevention. Gender differences were found on some subscales of the psychopathological symptomatology and of the psychological well-being measures. This study provides a basis for future research and development of resources to promote the psychological well-being and quality of life of university students.

  7. The stroke caregiving trajectory in relation to caregiver depressive symptoms, burden, and intervention outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Rachel; LeLaurin, Jennifer; Schmitzberger, Magda; Freytes, I Magaly; Orozco, Tatiana; Dang, Stuti; Uphold, Constance R

    2017-10-01

    Caregiver depression and burden have a detrimental effect on stroke survivors' rehabilitation and are contributors to stroke survivors' hospital readmission and institutionalization. The stroke caregiving trajectory is unique compared to other illnesses, and the effect of length of caregiving on stroke caregiver outcomes is poorly understood. Interventions can improve caregiver outcomes, but the optimal timing of these interventions is unclear. We sought to determine the relationship between: (1) length of caregiving and stroke caregiver depressive symptoms and burden, and (2) length of caregiving and amount of change in depressive symptoms and burden following the Resources and Education for Stroke Caregivers' Understanding and Empowerment (RESCUE) intervention - an online and telephone problem-solving, education, and support intervention. We analyzed retrospective data collected from 72 stroke caregivers who participated in the RESCUE intervention. Outcomes were caregiver depressive symptoms and burden. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects regression analysis. Baseline depressive symptoms and burden were both negatively related to length of caregiving (p symptoms and burden following an intervention. The interaction between changes in outcomes and length of caregiving was not significant for either depressive symptoms (p = 0.26) or burden (p = 0.10). This study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between length of caregiving and depression, burden, and intervention outcomes. Clinicians should recognize that the stroke caregiving trajectory can be nonlinear. Routine and repeated clinical assessment of caregiver well-being is needed, along with implementation of interventions when necessary, regardless of how much time has passed since the stroke.

  8. Impact of symptom burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on esophageal motor diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C A; Patel, A; Gyawali, C P

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) categorizes esophageal motor processes into specific Chicago Classification (CC) diagnoses, but the clinical impact of these motor diagnoses on symptom burden remain unclear. Two hundred and eleven subjects (56.8±1.0 years, 66.8% F) completed symptom questionnaires (GERDQ, Mayo dysphagia questionnaire [MDQ], visceral sensitivity index, short-form 36, dominant symptom index, and global symptom severity [GSS] on a 100-mm visual analog scale) prior to HRM. Subjects were stratified according to CC v3.0 and by dominant presenting symptom; contraction wave abnormalities (CWA) were evaluated within "normal" CC. Symptom burden, impact of diagnoses, and HRQOL were compared within and between cohorts. Major motor disorders had highest global symptom burden (P=.02), "normal" had lowest (PCC cohorts (P=ns). Absent contractility aligned best with minor motor disorders. Consequently, pathophysiologic categorization into outflow obstruction, hypermotility, and hypomotility resulted in a gradient of decreasing dysphagia and increasing reflux burden (Pmotor function. Transit symptoms have highest yield for a motor diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Menstrual cycle effects on psychological symptoms in women with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillni, Yael I; Pineles, Suzanne L; Patton, Samantha C; Rouse, Matthew H; Sawyer, Alice T; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2015-02-01

    The menstrual cycle has been implicated as a sex-specific biological process influencing psychological symptoms across a variety of disorders. Limited research exists regarding the role of the menstrual cycle in psychological symptoms among women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the severity of a broad range of psychological symptoms in both the early follicular (Days 2-6) and midluteal (6-10 days postlutenizing hormone surge) phases of the menstrual cycle in a sample of trauma-exposed women with and without PTSD (N = 49). In the sample overall, total psychological symptoms (d = 0.63), as well as depression (d = 0.81) and phobic anxiety (d = 0.81) symptoms, specifically, were increased in the early follicular compared to midluteal phase. The impact of menstrual cycle phase on phobic anxiety was modified by a significant PTSD × Menstrual Phase interaction (d = 0.63). Women with PTSD reported more severe phobic anxiety during the early follicular versus midluteal phase, whereas phobic anxiety did not differ across the menstrual cycle in women without PTSD. Thus, the menstrual cycle appears to impact fear-related symptoms in women with PTSD. The clinical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. Published 2015. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Prodromal psychotic symptoms and psychological distress among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than half (55.3%) reported having had a lifetime experience of major life event (20.9% in the preceding 6 months) while 13.9% had experienced bullying or abuse (5.1% in the preceding 6 months). The prevalence of prodromal symptoms was 20.9% (95% CI 0.174–0.244). Abnormal scores in emotional and conduct ...

  11. Contributions of risk and protective factors to prediction of psychological symptoms after traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Eve B; Palmieri, Patrick A; Field, Nigel P; Dalenberg, Constance J; Macia, Kathryn S; Spain, David A

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic experiences cause considerable suffering and place a burden on society due to lost productivity, increases in suicidality, violence, criminal behavior, and psychological disorder. The impact of traumatic experiences is complicated because many factors affect individuals' responses. By employing several methodological improvements, we sought to identify risk factors that would account for a greater proportion of variance in later disorder than prior studies. In a sample of 129 traumatically injured hospital patients and family members of injured patients, we studied pre-trauma, time of trauma, and post-trauma psychosocial risk and protective factors hypothesized to influence responses to traumatic experiences and posttraumatic (PT) symptoms (including symptoms of PTSD, depression, negative thinking, and dissociation) two months after trauma. The risk factors were all significantly correlated with later PT symptoms, with post-trauma life stress, post-trauma social support, and acute stress symptoms showing the strongest relationships. A hierarchical regression, in which the risk factors were entered in 6 steps based on their occurrence in time, showed the risks accounted for 72% of the variance in later symptoms. Most of the variance in PT symptoms was shared among many risk factors, and pre-trauma and post-trauma risk factors accounted for the most variance. Collectively, the risk factors accounted for more variance in later PT symptoms than in previous studies. These risk factors may identify individuals at risk for PT psychological disorders and targets for treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The role of psychological factors in inflammatory rheumatic diseases: From burden to tailored treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, H. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases have a long-lasting effect on patients' physical and psychological functioning, for instance, due to disabling symptoms and unpredictable disease course. Consequently, many patients show adjustment problems such as depressed mood, which in turn can negatively

  13. Multiple sclerosis patient caregivers: the relationship between their psychological and social needs and burden levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuş, Yeliz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the burden of care-giving and the accompanied psychosocial experiences of caregivers. We studied 49 caregivers of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) recruited from a Turkish MS organisation, measuring their needs using the Psychological and Social Needs Scale. To assess the level of their burdens, we used the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZCBI). Most of the caregivers (63.3%) were females with a mean age of 42.12 (13.8) years, and 55.1% of the caregivers were spouses. The majority of caregivers were involved in bathing (59.2%) and dressing (55.1%) activities. A significant correlation exists between the ZCBI and dimensions of the Psychological and the Social Needs Scale (hopelessness, conflict in decision making, leisure activity deficit and social isolation). The following variables increased the ZCBI scores for caregivers: insufficient income; unemployment; presence of chronic disease; financial problems; difficulties in maintaining responsibilities; caregiver responsibilities involving dressing and positioning of the patient. Major predictors of feelings of being burdened were hopelessness, conflict in decision making, leisure activity deficits and social isolation of the person with MS. Psychological, social and financial support should be considered to reduce the burden of caregivers in Turkey.

  14. Symptoms of disease and psychological adaptation in Brazilian scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Catarina Correia; Maia, Ângela Costa

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the prevalence and impact of symptoms of scleroderma in Brazilian patients and to describe their satisfaction with medical care and psychological symptoms. One-hundred and twenty eight Brazilian scleroderma patients participated in an online survey by filling out a Portuguese version of the Canadian Scleroderma Patient Survey of Health Concerns and Research Priorities. The mean age of participants was 38 years old (SD = 12.33), and most of the participants were females (n = 108, 88%). Hardening/tightening of skin, itchy skin and joint pain were symptoms reported as being most frequent, whereas muscle pain and difficulty climbing stairs were symptoms reported as having a higher impact. Participants reported dissatisfaction regarding the medical care. Psychological evaluations suggested that participants who scored above clinical values for depression was significantly high (90%; n = 77). In addition, 48% (n = 42) of participants fit the clinical criteria for anxiety disorder, and 40% (n = 35) of participants fit the clinical criteria of social phobia. Finally, body image disturbance was reported by 69% (n = 88) of participants. The physical and psychological symptoms associated with scleroderma have a significant impact on patient quality of life. The Brazilian patients in the current sample report higher levels of dissatisfaction with medical care than patients from Canada and European countries. These Brazilian patients also report more psychopathology, particularly symptoms of depression. The current results suggest that there is a need for professionals to consider and attend to the individual problems of scleroderma patients.

  15. Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) symptom assessment form total symptom score: Prospective international assessment of an abbreviated symptom burden scoring system among patients with MPNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Emanuel (Robyn); A.C. Dueck (Amylou); H.L. Geyer (Holly); J.J. Kiladjian; S. Slot (Stefanie); S. Zweegman (Sonja); P.A.W. te Boekhorst (Peter); S. Commandeur (Suzan); H. Schouten (Harry); F. Sackmann (Federico); A.K. Fuentes (Ana Kerguelen); D. Hernández-Maraver (Dolores); C. Pahl (Clemens); M. Griesshammer (Martin); F. Stegelmann (Frank); K. Doehner (Konstanze); T. Lehmann (Thomas); K. Bonatz (Karin); A. Reiter (Alfred); F. Boyer (Francoise); J. Etienne (Jerome); J.-C. Ianotto (Jean-Christophe); D. Ranta (Dana); L. Roy (Lydia); J.-Y. Cahn (Jean-Yves); C.N. Harrison (Claire); D. Radia (Deepti); P. Muxi (Pablo); N. Maldonado (Norman); C. Besses (Carlos); F. Cervantes (Francisco); P.L. Johansson (Peter); T. Barbui (Tiziano); G. Barosi (Giovanni); A.M. Vannucchi (Alessandro); F. Passamonti (Francesco); B. Andreasson (Bjorn); M.L. Ferarri (Maria); A. Rambaldi (Alessandro); J. Samuelsson (Jan); G. Birgegard (Gunnar); A. Tefferi (Ayalew); A.A. Mesa

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) symptoms are troublesome to patients, and alleviation of this burden represents a paramount treatment objective in the development of MPN-directed therapies. We aimed to assess the utility of an abbreviated symptom score for the most pertinent

  16. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  17. The correlates of psychological health among the Turkish unemployed: psychological burden of financial help during unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiç, Reyhan; Yılmaz, Nilgün

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the major determinants of psychological health during unemployment. With this in mind, 438 (17% female and 83% male) unemployed individuals were contacted through Turkey's State Employment Office. It was expected that the relationship between duration of unemployment and psychological wellbeing would be nonlinear. Additionally it was hypothesized that perceived social support would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. Further, we suggested that self-esteem would be related to psychological health and moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. The results supported the curvilinearity hypothesis of the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health as measured by General Health Questionnaire. However, social support was not found to moderate the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological distress was not supported, although self-esteem was a strong negative determinant of psychological distress during unemployment. Regression analysis showed that the best predictors of psychological health were self-esteem, perceived social support and perceived adequacy of financial aid received from relatives. Interestingly, perceived adequacy of the financial aid was negatively related to psychological health. This result was contradictory with the previous literature pointing out that financial aid reduces the effects of poverty due to unemployment. The findings of this study are important since the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health was nonlinear, indicating that relevant services should be especially careful to intervene to increase social support and self-esteem during these critical times. The other results and limitations are discussed.

  18. Late psychological symptoms after awareness among consecutively included surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Peter; Brudin, Lars; Sandin, Rolf H

    2007-01-01

    Awareness during general anesthesia can cause late psychological symptoms. Selection bias may have affected the results in previous retrospective studies. The authors used prospective consecutive collection to recruit patients with previous awareness. In a cohort of 2,681 consecutive patients scheduled to undergo general anesthesia, 98 considered themselves to have been aware during previous surgery. Six patients died before inclusion, and another 13 were excluded (4 cases of stroke or dementia, 7 declined to participate, and 2 could not be located). Seventy-nine patients were interviewed by telephone, and medical records were checked in uncertain cases. The interview followed a structured protocol, including seven late symptoms (anxiety, chronic fear, nightmares, flashbacks, indifference, loneliness, and lack of confidence in future life). Three persons independently assessed the interviews for classification, to determine whether awareness had occurred. Four cases were performed using regional anesthesia, and another 29 were not considered as awareness by the assessors. Therefore, the final analyses included 46 patients. Twenty (43%) had experienced pain, and 30 (65%) described acute emotional reactions during the awareness episode. Fifteen (33%) patients had experienced late psychological symptoms afterward. In 6 of those cases, the symptoms lasted for more than 2 months, and 1 patient had a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder. Acute emotional reactions were significantly related to late psychological symptoms (Paffect the result. The authors found fewer and milder problems, despite a similar degree of initial problems as in previous studies.

  19. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygan, Maryam; Böger, Andreas; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. Methods Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms). Results ANOVA (analysis of variance) results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors. Conclusion Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. The findings are discussed in term of differential response bias in patients with versus without verified neuropathic sensory symptoms by clinical examination, medical tests, or underlying pathology of

  20. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaygan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of

  1. Integrative Medicine Patients Have High Stress, Pain, and Psychological Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Goel, Nikita S; Roberts, Rhonda S; Caldwell, Karen; Kligler, Benjamin; Dusek, Jeffery A; Perlman, Adam; Dolor, Rowena; Abrams, Donald I

    2015-01-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) is a rapidly growing field whose providers report clinical success in treating significant stress, chronic pain, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. While IM therapies have demonstrated efficacy for numerous medical conditions, IM for psychological symptoms has been slower to gain recognition in the medical community. This large, cross-sectional study is the first of its kind to document the psychosocial profiles of 4182 patients at 9 IM clinics that form the BraveNet Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN). IM patients reported higher levels of perceived stress, pain, and depressive symptoms, and lower levels of quality of life compared with national norms. Per provider reports, 60% of patients had at least one of the following: stress (9.3%), fatigue (10.2%), anxiety (7.7%), depression (7.2%), and/or sleep disorders (4.8%). Pain, having both physiological and psychological components, was also included and is the most common condition treated at IM clinics. Those with high stress, psychological conditions, and pain were most frequently treated with acupuncture, IM physician consultation, exercise, chiropractic services, diet/nutrition counseling, and massage. With baseline information on clinical presentation and service utilization, future PBRN studies can examine promising interventions delivered at the clinic to treat stress and psychological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropsychiatric symptoms as the main determinant of caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kochhann

    Full Text Available Abstract Caregiver burden is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD, decreasing the quality of life among caregivers and patients. Projections of aging and aging-related diseases such as AD in developing countries justify additional data about this issue because people living in these countries have shown similarly high levels of caregiver strain as in the developed world. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the association of AD caregivers' burden with patients' neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS, cognitive status, severity of dementia, functional capacity, caregiver sociodemographic characteristics, and the characteristics of care provided by caregivers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 39 consecutive AD patients and their primary caregivers. NPS were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Severity of dementia was assessed with the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR scale. Functional capacity was assessed using the Katz and Lawton scales. The burden level was rated using the Burden Interview (BI. Sociodemographic characteristics of caregivers and the characteristics of care provided by them were evaluated. The Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's rho coefficient were performed. Results: The BI had a moderate correlation with NPI intensity (rho=0.563, p<001. Female caregivers reported a greater level of burden (p=0.031 than male caregivers. The other variables were not significantly associated to caregiver burden. Conclusion: NPS were the main determinant of burden in primary caregivers of AD patients. This result underscores the need for prevention and treatment of these symptoms. Sex also had an effect on caregiver burden, but the small male sample in this study precludes the generalization of this finding.

  3. Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo

    2015-04-01

    With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Relationship Between Religiosity and Psychological Symptoms in Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar; Nadeem, Masood; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress are among major psychiatric conditions being prevalent in contemporary youth. This study intended to examine the role of three religious orientations (Allport and Ross 1967) in students demonstrating these psychological symptoms. A sample comprising 502 Pakistani girls studying at university level was randomly selected. Age Universal I-E Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were used to collect data. Findings reveal an inverse relationship between extrinsic personal religious orientation and symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among the respondents. Results support the integration of religious orientations in mental health care of young adults in Pakistan.

  5. Vitiligo: Patient stories, self-esteem, and the psychological burden of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Grimes, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a relatively common disorder that is characterized by depigmented patches of skin. Multiple studies characterize the overwhelming psychological burden that is experienced by many patients around the globe. This review examines personal patient stories and the impacts of age, culture, sex, race, and ethnicity in relationship to altered self-esteem and quality of life in patients who live with vitiligo.

  6. Psychology of medically unexplained symptoms: A practical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirous Mobini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS or functional neurological symptoms (FNS are commonly seen in the medical and rehabilitation settings. Clinicians often tend to describe patients with MUS as the “most difficult to help”. This practical review discusses epidemiology, clinical presentations, assessment and diagnosis of these psychiatric and neurological conditions, and summarises psychological models that have been linked to the development and maintenance of MUS. The final purpose of the present paper was to review the current literature in the treatment on the management and treatment of MUS. It concludes that future research should focus on a more integrated treatment approach which addresses various biological, psychological and social factors contributing to the onset and maintenance of these debilitating conditions.

  7. Psychological Symptoms and Stress Coping Styles in College Students with Somatization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jee Young Lee

    2014-01-01

    ...The purpose of this study was to identify stress coping styles and psychological symptoms and to examine the influences of stress coping styles and psychological symptoms on somatization in college students...

  8. Psychological Stressors and Burden of Medical Conditions in Older Adults: A Psychosomatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n  "nObjective: "nIn geriatric practice, the impact of psychological distress on health status has been undermined due to ageism, atypical presentation and less tendency to report negative affect among elderly people. Few studies have examined the impact of psychological stressors on medical burden in older adults. The current study has investigated the correlation of psychological distress and burden of medical conditions in a sample of older people .     "n  "n  "nMethod: A convenient study sample of 120 elderly subjects was recruited from the places where there was greater chance for the elderly people to attend. Data were collected by a trained research assistant using perceived stress scale, cumulative illness rating scale, geriatric depressive scale and a demographic questionnaire.     "n  "n  "nResults: "nOur participants perceived more level of stress than the average for their age. In the current study, the burden of medical condition was significantly correlated with the level of perceived stress(r = .197, p = .044. Moreover, in regression analysis, perceived stress was the strongest predictor for physical health morbidity (R2 =.049, significant f= .03.     "n  "n  "nConclusions: "nThe result of this study suggested that the psychological stressors contribute to poor health outcome in older adults ; the area that is usually overlooked due to ageism and its physiological related changes. The medical practitioners should consider the psychological distress as a part of etiological factors implicating in health morbidity among their aged patients.

  9. Studying the Physical and Psychological Symptoms of Patients With Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memnun Seven

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives; Aim of the descriptive study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of physical and psychological symptoms so as to determine palliative care needs of cancer patients. Methods; Total 142 patients who were treated in oncology clinic at an university hospital were enrolled in the cross sectional research. “Descriptive Information Questionnaire” was developed by the authors and the adapted “Beck Depression Inventory (BAI” and “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BDI”, “Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS” to evaluate psychological and physical symptoms were used to collect data. Results; The mean age was 49,35±36,61 years and 54.9% of them were out-patients. %16.2 of the patients were diagnosed with colon and 13.4% breast cancer. The mean BDI score was 8.59±6.36, and 88.7% the patients have depressive symptoms. The mean BAI score was 11.39±7.53. The three most frequent problems were fatigue (87.3%, breathlessness (76.1%, and insomnia (67.6%. The mean of the highest-ranking problems were anorexia (6.02+2.77, fatigue (5.33+2.09 and insomnia (0.04+2.42. Conclusion: The study shows that some symptoms might be experienced by majority of the cancer patients as well as some symptoms might be felt more severe by fewer patients. Therefore, It should be assessed that both the frequency and severity of symptoms that patients experienced associated with cancer and its’ treatment individually and focusing on primary care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 219-224

  10. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders: The burden and psychological effects on caregivers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Olagunju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (CNDs are a group requiring more attention as their care is often challenging, particularly for parents with primary caregiving roles in resource-restricted settings. This study had set out to investigate the burden and psychological distress among caregivers of children with neurodevelopmental delays. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 caregivers were recruited during the 2013 annual autism health program organized by the College of Medicine, University of Lagos in collaboration with Guaranty Trust Bank, Nigeria and Blazing Trails, USA. Of these caregivers, 60 respondents (caregivers and children were included in the final analyses due to poorly completed questionnaires. The Zarit Caregivers Burden Scale (ZCBS and General Health Questionnaire version 12 (GHQ-12 were administered to elicit caregivers' experience with respect to burden and psychological distress, respectively. Results: Of the 60 participants included in the final analyses, the majority constituted parents (96.3% with mothers accounting for 71.7%; 28 (46.7% participants were government workers and 3 (5% were full-time housewives. The mean age of CNDs was 6.8 (±3.2 years, and 33 (55.0% were males. Delivery by cesarian section was reported in 19 (31.8%. The common presenting complaints by caregivers were inability to walk (32.7%, repetitive behavior (25.5%, difficulty with verbal communication (10.9%, nonsocialization (9.1%, seizures (9.1%, and hyperactivity (3.6%. Problems were noticed at ≤ 1 year in 46.7% while they were noticed after 2 years in more than half the children, and a little above one-eighth (14% had siblings with similar problems. On the ZCBS, nine (15.0% caregivers reported a significant burden. In addition, 23 (38.3% caregivers had psychological distress. Caregivers' burden was significantly related to the report of psychological distress in caregivers (P < 0.001 and there was a trend toward the presence of

  11. Persistent Symptoms of Dengue: Estimates of the Incremental Disease and Economic Burden in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiga, D Carolina; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Ramos-Castañeda, José; Martínez-Vega, Ruth A; Tschampl, Cynthia A; Shepard, Donald S

    2016-05-04

    Dengue is mostly considered an acute illness with three phases: febrile, critical with possible hemorrhagic manifestations, and recovery. But some patients present persistent symptoms, including fatigue and depression, as acknowledged by the World Health Organization. If persistent symptoms affect a non-negligible share of patients, the burden of dengue will be underestimated. On the basis of a systematic literature review and econometric modeling, we found a significant relationship between the share of patients reporting persisting symptoms and time. We updated estimates of the economic burden of dengue in Mexico, addressing uncertainty in productivity loss and incremental expenses using Monte Carlo simulations. Persistent symptoms represent annually about US$22.6 (95% certainty level [CL]: US$13-US$29) million in incremental costs and 28.2 (95% CL: 21.6-36.2) additional disability-adjusted life years per million population, or 13% and 43% increases over previous estimates, respectively. Although our estimates have uncertainty from limited data, they show a substantial, unmeasured burden. Similar patterns likely extend to other dengue-endemic countries. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Using health psychology techniques to manage chronic physical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-12-08

    Chest pain and palpitations, non-malignant pain, breathlessness and fatigue often endure despite the receipt of appropriate nursing and medical care. This is distressing for patients, impacts on their quality of life and ability to function and is associated with high healthcare usage and costs. The cognitive behavioural approach offers nurses a model to understand how people's perceptions and beliefs and their emotional, behavioural and physiological reactions are linked. Common 'thinking errors' which can exacerbate symptom severity and impact are highlighted. Understanding of this model may help nurses to help patients cope better with their symptoms by helping them to come up with alternative more helpful beliefs and practices. Many Improving Access to Psychological Therapy services offer support to people with chronic physical symptoms and nurses are encouraged to sign post patients to them.

  13. Self-reported symptom burden; outcome in 418 patients from the Newcastle Vasovagal (Neurocardiogenic) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R; Parry, S; Norton, M; Newton, J L

    2008-02-01

    Natural history of Vasovagal syndrome (Neurocardiogenic; NCS) is unclear. To examine symptoms in a large cohort with head up tilt diagnosed NCS. Questionnaires were posted to 485 patients with NCS. Data included demographic details, age at referral, presenting and on-going symptoms (syncope, dizziness and falls), symptom frequency (daily, weekly, monthly) and burden. A total of 418 questionnaires were returned (response rate 86%), 67% female. Median age at first presentation 60 (range 10-90), with men younger (54 vs. 63; P = 0.01). Seventy percent presented with syncope. Median follow-up 5 years (1-8). At follow-up 147(35%) were asymptomatic. The asymptomatic group was older (73 vs. 65; P = 0.0001) with more males (39 vs. 29%; P = 0.04). Those presenting with syncope were more likely to be symptom-free than those with dizziness (P < 0.02). Symptom frequency was greatest for those reporting dizziness at follow-up (P < 0.05). Sixty (22%) reported symptoms never preventing activities [predominantly those reporting dizziness (P = 0.04)]. Although there was a significant reduction of symptoms overall, there was a significant increase in those reporting dizziness only (P < 0.0001). Of those with NCS, 35% will be symptom-free at 5 years regardless of presenting symptom or treatment received.

  14. Psychological burden among women with polycystic ovarian syndrome in Oman: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman MA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maha AH Sulaiman,1 Yahya M Al-Farsi,1 Maha M Al-Khaduri,2 Mostafa I Waly,3 Jumana Saleh,4 Samir Al-Adawi5 1Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, 4Department of Biochemistry, 5Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khoudh, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Purpose: Previous studies in Euro-American populations have shown that women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS have increased levels of “psychological burden”. While PCOS has been reported in Arab countries such as Oman, there is a dearth of studies of the occurrence of psychological burden among PCOS women in the Arab region. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of PCOS women diagnosed with non-PCOS women and prevalence of severity of depression, anxiety and stress and to explore the association between PCOS and indices of psychological disturbances after adjusting for potential confounding factors.Patients and methods: This hospital-based case–control study was conducted among women aged 16–49 years. The study included 52 women diagnosed with PCOS (as per Rotterdam 2003 criteria and 60 control who were PCOS-free. The presence of psychological burden – depression, anxiety and stress – was quantified using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21.Results: The crude odds ratios (ORs generated by logistic regression models indicated an increased risk of depression, anxiety and stress among women with PCOS compared to controls. The adjusted OR also indicated an increased risk of depression (OR =1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50, 2.43, anxiety (OR =1.09; 95% CI 0.47, 2.52 and stress (OR =1.45; 95% CI 0.68, 3.12, However, no statistical differences were observed along the three psychological

  15. The effect of exercise on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia: the EVIDEM-E randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, David; Cerga-Pashoja, Arlinda; Iliffe, Steve; Thuné-Boyle, Ingela; Griffin, Mark; Lee, James; Bailey, Alex; Bhattacharya, Rahul; Warner, James

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple dyadic (person with dementia and their main carer) exercise regimen as a therapy for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. A two arm, pragmatic, randomised, controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial of a dyadic exercise regimen (individually tailored walking regimen designed to become progressively intensive and last between 20-30 min, at least five times per week).Community-dwelling individuals with ICD-10 confirmed dementia with the following: clinically significant behavioural and psychological symptoms, a carer willing and able to co-participate in the exercise regimen, and no physical conditions or symptoms that would preclude exercise participation were invited by mental health or primary care services into the study. One hundred and thirty-one dyads were recruited to this study. There was no significant difference in Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory at week 12 between the group receiving the dyadic exercise regimen and those that did not (adjusted difference in means (intervention minus control) = -1.53, p = 0.6, 95% CI [-7.37, 4.32]). There was a significant between-group difference in caregiver's burden as measured by the Zarit Caregiver Burden Inventory at week 12 (OR = 0.18, p = 0.01, CI [0.05, 0.69]) favouring the exercise group. This study found that regular simple exercise does not appear to improve the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, but did seem to attenuate caregiver burden. Further study to improve exercise uptake are needed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Trends in depressive symptom burden among older adults in the United States from 1998 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivin, Kara; Pirraglia, Paul A; McCammon, Ryan J; Langa, Kenneth M; Vijan, Sandeep

    2013-12-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of depression has increased over the past decade in the United States. Whether self-reported depressive symptoms among older adults have concomitantly declined is unknown. To examine trends in depressive symptoms among older adults in the US between 1998 and 2008. Serial cross-sectional analysis of six biennial assessments. Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally-representative survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS Adults aged 55 and older (N = 16,184 in 1998). The eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D8) assessed three levels of depressive symptoms (none = 0, elevated = 4+, severe = 6+), adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. Having no depressive symptoms increased over the 10-year period from 40.9 % to 47.4 % (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.16, 95 % CI: 1.13-1.19), with significant increases in those aged ≥ 60 relative to those aged 55-59. There was a 7 % prevalence reduction of elevated symptoms from 15.5 % to 14.2 % (PR: 0.93, 95 % CI: 0.88-0.98), which was most pronounced among those aged 80-84 in whom the prevalence of elevated symptoms declined from 14.3 % to 9.6 %. Prevalence of having severe depressive symptoms increased from 5.8 % to 6.8 % (PR: 1.17, 95 % CI: 1.06-1.28); however, this increase was limited to those aged 55-59, with the probability of severe symptoms increasing from 8.7 % to 11.8 %. No significant changes in severe symptoms were observed for those aged ≥ 60. Overall late-life depressive symptom burden declined significantly from 1998 to 2008. This decrease appeared to be driven primarily by greater reductions in depressive symptoms in the oldest-old, and by an increase in those with no depressive symptoms. These changes in symptom burden were robust to physical, functional, demographic, and economic factors. Future research should examine whether this decrease in depressive symptoms is associated with improved treatment outcomes, and if

  17. Management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hersch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, Sharon FalzgrafVA Puget Sound Health Care System, Tacoma, Washington, USAAbstract: More than 50% of people with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. BPSD are distressing for patients and their caregivers, and are often the reason for placement into residential care. The development of BPSD is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline, greater impairment in activities of daily living, and diminished quality of life (QOL. Evaluation of BPSD includes a thorough diagnostic investigation, consideration of the etiology of the dementia, and the exclusion of other causes, such as drug-induced delirium, pain, or infection. Care of patients with BPSD involves psychosocial treatments for both the patient and family. BPSD may respond to those environmental and psychosocial interventions, however, drug therapy is often required for more severe presentations. There are multiple classes of drugs used for BPSD, including antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA modulators, but the evidence base for pharmacological management is poor, there is no clear standard of care, and treatment is often based on local pharmacotherapy customs. Clinicians should discuss the potential risks and benefits of treatment with patients and their surrogate decision makers, and must ensure a balance between side effects and tolerability compared with clinical benefit and QOL.Keywords: dementia, management, behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms

  18. Symptom Burden, Survival and Palliative Care in Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma

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    Nicholas J. Gough

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The symptom burden and role of palliative care (PC in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS are not well defined. Methods. This study retrospectively reviewed both symptoms and PC involvement in patients known to an STS referral centre who died in one calendar year. Results. 81 patients met inclusion criteria of which 27% had locally advanced disease and 73% metastases at initial referral. The median number of symptoms was slowly progressive ranging from 2 (range 0–5 before first-line chemotherapy (=50 to 3 (range 1–6 at the time of best supportive care (BSC decision (=48. Pain and dyspnoea were the commonest symptoms. Median overall survival from BSC decision was 3.4 weeks. 88% had PC involvement (either hospital, community, or both with median time from first PC referral to death of 16 (range 0–110 weeks. Conclusions. Patients with metastatic STS have a significant symptom burden which justifies early PC referral. Pain, including neuropathic pain, is a significant problem. Dyspnoea is common, progressive and appears to be undertreated. Time from BSC decision to death is short, and prospective studies are required to determine whether this is due to overtreatment or very rapid terminal disease progression.

  19. The profile of behavioral and psychological symptoms in vascular cognitive impairment with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD between vascular dementia (VaD and vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with cognitive impairment at least 3 months after an ischemic stroke and with a Hachinski Ischemic Score ≥4 were included. VaD was diagnosed as per National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l′Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria for probable VaD and VCI-ND on the lines of the Canadian study of health and aging. The severity of cognitive impairment and the behavioral/psychological symptoms were studied by means of the clinical dementia rating scale and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI respectively. Results: All patients with VaD and 89% of those with VCI-ND had at least one BPSD. The mean no. of symptoms per patient and the total NPI scores were higher in VaD than in VCI-ND. Apathy and night-time behavior disturbances were significantly more common and severe in VaD. Conclusions: BPSD are very common both in VCI-ND and in VaD. The profile of BPSD is similar in both groups, albeit more severe in VaD. The net burden of BPSD is higher in VaD as compared to VCI-ND.

  20. Psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Michelle M; Gonzales, Kelly L; Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Muller, Clemma Jacobsen; Goldberg, Jack; Nelson, Lonnie; Welty, Thomas K; Howard, Barbara V

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to examine the relationship between psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among 3776 American Indians in Phase V of the Strong Heart Family Study. This cross-sectional analysis measured psychological trauma symptoms using the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument, diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria, and treatment modality by four categories: no medication, oral medication only, insulin only, or both oral medication and insulin. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and diabetes prevalence. We used ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and glucose control. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of psychological trauma symptoms with treatment modality. Neither diabetes prevalence (22%-31%; p=0.19) nor control (8.0-8.6; p=0.25) varied significantly by psychological trauma symptoms categories. However, diabetes treatment modality was associated with psychological trauma symptoms categories, as people with greater burden used either no medication, or both oral and insulin medications (odds ratio=3.1, ppsychological trauma symptoms suggests future research investigate patient and provider treatment decision making. © 2013.

  1. Longitudinal course of physical and psychological symptoms after a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wahlström

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: After disaster, physical symptoms are common although seldom recognized due to lack of knowledge of the course of symptoms and relation to more studied psychological symptoms. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the change in the reporting of different physical symptoms after a disaster, including possible factors for change, and whether psychological symptoms predict physical symptoms reporting at a later point in time. Method: A longitudinal study of citizens of Stockholm who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A total of 1,101 participants completed questionnaires on somatic symptoms, general distress, posttraumatic stress, exposure, and demographic details 14 months and 3 years after the disaster. Physical symptoms occurring daily or weekly during the last year were investigated in four symptom indices: neurological, cardiorespiratory, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis to determine odds ratios for a change in symptoms, and pathway analysis to predict the influence of psychological symptoms on physical symptoms. Results: There was a general decrease of reporting in all physical symptom indices except the musculoskeletal symptom index. The change in the neurological symptom index showed the strongest association with exposure, and for women. General distress and posttraumatic stress at 14 months postdisaster predicted physical symptoms at 3 years. Conclusion: Physical symptoms were predicted by psychological symptoms at an earlier time point, but in a considerable proportion of respondents, physical symptoms existed independently from psychological symptoms. Physicians should be observant on the possible connection of particular pseudoneurological symptoms with prior adversities.

  2. The sense of coherence, burden, and depressive symptoms in informal caregivers during the first month after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbler, Neale R; Rittman, Maude; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Vogel, W Bruce; Qin, Haijing; Qnin, Haijing

    2004-10-01

    Individuals with a strong sense of coherence (SOC), which considers one's ability to respond to stressors by the appropriate use of adaptive coping resources, can avoid breakdown when confronted with stress. This study examined the associations between SOC, perceived burden (caregiver's perception of the effect of caregiving-related stress) and depressive symptoms of informal caregivers (family members and involved friends) of stroke survivors one-month after the stroke. One-hundred and four ethnically diverse veterans who were hospitalized after experiencing an acute stroke and their informal caregivers were enrolled in the study prior to discharge. One-month after being discharged from one of five Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in Florida and Puerto Rico, comprehensive data was collected and analyzed. Multiple regression analyses showed that greater SOC was associated with both lower burden (p caregiver burden, in turn, was significantly associated with more depressive symptoms (p = 0.003). However, when depressive symptoms was regressed on both SOC and burden jointly, the previously significant association between burden and depressive symptoms was no longer significant (p = 0.80) and SOC was still strongly associated with fewer depressive symptoms (p burden and depressive symptoms for caregivers of stroke survivors during the transition period after discharge to their residence are imperative for developing successful interventions. SOC appears to be an important response in alleviating the levels of perceived burden and especially in depressive symptoms.

  3. Caregiver burden in recent-onset schizophrenia and spectrum disorders : The influence of symptoms and personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthaus, JED; Dingemans, PMAJ; Schene, AH; Linszen, DH; Wiersma, D; Van den Bosch, RJ; Cahn, W; Hijman, R

    Earlier studies that used two symptom dimensions indicate that the caregiver burden for patients with schizophrenia is significantly determined by their negative symptoms. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between symptom severity in recent-onset schizophrenia and caregiver

  4. Caregiver burden in recent-onset schizophrenia and spectrum disorders: The influence of symptoms and personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthaus, Jiska E. D.; Dingemans, Peter M. A. J.; Schene, Aart H.; Linszen, Donald H.; Wiersma, Durk; van den Bosch, Robbert J.; Cahn, Wiepke; Hijman, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Earlier studies that used two symptom dimensions indicate that the caregiver burden for patients with schizophrenia is significantly determined by their negative symptoms. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between symptom severity in recent-onset schizophrenia and caregiver

  5. Evaluation of Psychological Symptoms in Premenstrual Syndrome using PMR Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Veena; Purohit, Geetanjali; Mendpara, Sameer; Palan, B M

    2014-04-01

    The mood changes surrounding menstrual cycle mainly during luteal phase, known as premenstrual syndrome, have been described as early as the time of the ancient Greeks. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) are used to study psychological symptoms of anxiety and depression. To study the psychological parameters and effects of PMR on females with premenstrual syndrome. It was an experimental study. Sixty participants aged between 18 and 40 years, volunteered for this study. Relaxation technique, PMR was given to the study group (Group A, Mean age 24.13±5.69) for one month and control group (Group B, Mean age 28.96±9.42) was evaluated without any intervention. Paired students t test. Alpha error was set at 1% level. PMR Group A showed significant decrease in Both BDI II and STAI scores (p<0.001), showing benefits of relaxation in reducing anxiety and depression. We conclude that PMR helps to alleviate symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and decreases anxiety and depression as shown by changes in scores of both questionnaires.

  6. The role of psychological factors in inflammatory rheumatic diseases: From burden to tailored treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middendorp, Henriët; Evers, Andrea W M

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases have a long-lasting effect on patients' physical and psychological functioning, for instance, due to disabling symptoms and unpredictable disease course. Consequently, many patients show adjustment problems such as depressed mood, which in turn can negatively influence their disease outcome. Specific biopsychosocial factors have shown to affect this outcome. For example, daily stress, cognitive-behavioral risk factors such as pain catastrophizing and avoidance, and resilience factors such as optimism and social support influence the quality of life, physical symptoms of pain and fatigue, and inflammatory markers. Psychological interventions tackling these factors can have beneficial effects on physical and psychological functioning. Recent advances in screening for patients at risk, tailored treatment, and eHealth further broaden the efficiency and scope of these interventions while simultaneously optimizing patient empowerment. This chapter describes the biopsychosocial risk and resilience factors related to disease outcome and the possible benefits of psychological treatment strategies in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antipsychotic treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in geropsychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edell, W S; Tunis, S L

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral/psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) affect caregiver burden and transition from home to hospital or long-term care. The authors examined change in BPSD for dementia patients (from hospital admission to discharge) who were prescribed haloperidol (n= 289), olanzapine (n=209), or risperidone (n=500). Olanzapine was associated with significantly greater overall improvement in BPSD (based on the Psychogeriatric Dependency Rating Scale total score) than risperidone or haloperidol. Olanzapine was significantly superior on measures of active-, verbal-, and passive-aggression and delusions/hallucinations to risperidone or haloperidol, and, on manipulative behavior and noisiness, to risperidone. Results support the effectiveness of olanzapine in improving several BPSD in hospitalized dementia patients.

  8. Impact of different controlled ovarian stimulation protocols on the physical and psychological burdens in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamata, Deenadayal; Ray, Subrat K.; Pratap, Kumar; Firuza, Parikh; Birla, Ashish Ramesh; Manish, Banker

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Infertility treatment involves a considerable amount of physical and psychological burden which may impact the outcome. AIM: The objective was to understand the amount of physical and psychological burden in women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. SETTING AND DESIGN: Multi-center, prospective, parallel, observational study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted across 12 IVF centers in India. A total of 692 women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation as a part of the first cycle IVF/ICSI completed the trial. Women were recruited in 2 groups based on type of treatment (Group A - gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH] antagonist; Group B - GnRH agonist) and were asked to fill questionnaires during the 2 treatment visits. RESULTS: The mean changes between Visit 1 (baseline) and Visit 2 in anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) scores in Group A for anxiety and depression were −0.5 (3.67), −0.1 (3.57) respectively and for Group B were −0.4 (3.68), 0.1 (3.67) respectively, which was not statistically significant. In Group A, the mean (±standard deviation [SD]) Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL) score was 17.9 (±5.17) in visit 1 and 19.1 (±5.45) Visit 2. The change between visits was 1.1 (P psychological burden between the two treatment groups was observed. PMID:26157299

  9. Integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce multiple psychiatric symptoms of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden: randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Lee, J. van der; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of an integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program (integrative reactivation and rehabilitation [IRR]) to reduce multiple neuropsychiatry symptoms (MNPS) of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden (CB). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use and Symptom Burden in Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ping Lei; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Wong, Li Ping; Taib, Nur Aishah

    2017-07-14

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used for cancer- and chemotherapy-related symptoms. Nurses are likely to encounter many CAM users in their practice. The aims of this study were to assess CAM use and examine the symptom burden of CAM and non-CAM users among patients with breast cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy. A CAM use questionnaire and the Side-Effect Burden Scale were administered to 546 patients. Complementary and alternative medicine use was categorized as mind-body practices (MBPs), natural products (NPs), or traditional medicine (TM). We identified 386 CAM users (70.7%) in this study. The CAM users reported a higher marginal mean total symptom burden score (40.39 ± 2.6) than non-CAM users (36.93 ± 3.21), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = .09). Triple-modality (MBP-NP-TM) CAM users had a significantly higher marginal mean total symptom burden score (47.44 ± 4.12) than single-modality (MBP) users (34.09 ± 4.43). The risk of having a high total symptom burden score was 12.9-fold higher among the MBP-NP-TM users than among the MBP users. Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among Malaysian patients who are undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer. However, CAM and non-CAM users reported similar symptom burdens, although single-modality use of MBP is likely associated with a lower symptom burden. Nurses should keep abreast of current developments and trends in CAM use. Understanding CAM use and the related symptom burden will allow nurses to initiate open discussion and guide their patients in seeking additional information or referrals for a particular therapy.

  11. Association between hypogonadism, symptom burden, and survival in male patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Rony; Hui, David; Del Fabbro, Egidio; Delgado-Guay, Marvin O; Sobti, Nikhil; Dalal, Shalini; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-05-15

    A high frequency of hypogonadism has been reported in male patients with advanced cancer. The current study was performed to evaluate the association between low testosterone levels, symptom burden, and survival in male patients with cancer. Of 131 consecutive male patients with cancer, 119 (91%) had an endocrine evaluation of total (TT), free (FT), and bioavailable testosterone (BT); high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP); vitamin B12; thyroid-stimulating hormone; 25-hydroxy vitamin D; and cortisol levels when presenting with symptoms of fatigue and/or anorexia-cachexia. Symptoms were evaluated by the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale. The authors examined the correlation using the Spearman test and survival with the log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. The median age of the patients was 64 years; the majority of patients were white (85 patients; 71%). The median TT level was 209 ng/dL (normal: ≥ 200 ng/dL), the median FT was 4.4 ng/dL (normal: ≥ 9 ng/dL), and the median BT was 22.0 ng/dL (normal: ≥ 61 ng/dL). Low TT, FT, and BT values were all associated with worse fatigue (P ≤ .04), poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (P ≤ .05), weight loss (P ≤ .01), and opioid use (P ≤ .005). Low TT and FT were associated with increased anxiety (P ≤ .04), a decreased feeling of well-being (P ≤ .04), and increased dyspnea (P ≤ .05), whereas low BT was only found to be associated with anorexia (P = .05). Decreased TT, FT, and BT values were all found to be significantly associated with elevated CRP and low albumin and hemoglobin. On multivariate analysis, decreased survival was associated with low TT (hazards ratio [HR], 1.66; P = .034), declining Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (HR, 1.55; P = .004), high CRP (HR, 3.28; P cancer, low testosterone levels were associated with systemic inflammation, weight loss, increased symptom burden, and decreased survival. A high frequency of hypogonadism has been

  12. Dementia caregiver burden in a Brazilian sample: Association to neuropsychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Paes Araujo Fialho

    Full Text Available Abstract Taking care of elderly demented individuals, especially when they present behavioral changes, can be very exhaustive for both family and caregivers. Generally, this leads to changes in the family lifestyle, and the caregiver must deal with a range of problems. Information on this topic in Latin America, including Brazil, remains scarce. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and the level of caregiver burden in a group of Brazilian elderly with dementia. Methods: The Brazilian versions of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI and of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI were administered to a total of 83 family-caregivers of patients with dementia followed at a university-affiliated outpatient clinic. Pearson's correlations were calculated to measure the level of association between the scores on both instruments. Results: Among the caregivers, 83.1% were women, and had a mean age of 55.6±12.8 years. The ZBI scores ranged from 3 to 79 (mean=31.4. Patients' NPI scores ranged from 0 to 102 (mean=26.9, consistent with a significant degree of behavioral manifestations in most patients. A significant positive correlation was found between ZBI and NPI scores (r=0.402; p=0.000. Conclusion: The presence and severity of behavioral manifestations assessed by the NPI were associated with a high level of caregiver burden in this sample of Brazilian elderly with dementia.

  13. Patient-reported symptoms during radiotherapy. Clinically relevant symptom burden in patients treated with palliative and curative intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Philipp [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum Palliativmedizin, Wuerzburg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Ehrmann, Katja [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Medizinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Soziologie und Rehabilitationswissenschaften, Wuerzburg (Germany); Hartmannsgruber, Johann [Praxis Landshut, Kinderzahnheilkunde, Landshut (Germany); Metz, Michaela; Steigerwald, Sabrina; Flentje, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Oorschot, Birgitt van [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum Palliativmedizin, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The benefits of patient-reported symptom assessment combined with integrated palliative care are well documented. This study assessed the symptom burden of palliative and curative-intent radiation oncology patients. Prior to first consultation and at the end of RT, all adult cancer patients planned to receive fractionated percutaneous radiotherapy (RT) were asked to answer the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS; nine symptoms from 0 = no symptoms to 10 = worst possible symptoms). Mean values were used for curative vs. palliative and pre-post comparisons, and the clinical relevance was evaluated (symptom values ≥ 4). Of 163 participating patients, 151 patients (90.9%) completed both surveys (116 curative and 35 palliative patients). Before beginning RT, 88.6% of palliative and 72.3% of curative patients showed at least one clinically relevant symptom. Curative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (38.6%), followed by tiredness (35.0%), anxiety (32.4%), depression (30.0%), pain (26.3%), lack of appetite (23.5%), dyspnea (17.8%), drowsiness (8.0%) and nausea (6.1%). Palliative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (62.8%), followed by pain (62.8%), tiredness (60.0%), lack of appetite (40.0%), anxiety (38.0%), depression (33.3%), dyspnea (28.5%), drowsiness (25.7%) and nausea (14.2%). At the end of RT, the proportion of curative and palliative patients with a clinically relevant symptom had increased significantly to 79.8 and 91.4%, respectively; whereas the proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant pain had decreased significantly (42.8 vs. 62.8%, respectively). Palliative patients had significantly increased tiredness. Curative patients reported significant increases in pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, lack of appetite and restrictions in general wellbeing. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms was successfully realized in radiation oncology routine. Overall, both groups showed a high symptom burden

  14. Treatment strategies for reducing the burden of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umland, Elena M

    2008-04-01

    Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), such as hot flashes and night sweats, are the most bothersome symptoms of menopause and affect an estimated 75% of women aged over 50 years. To discuss the burden, pathophysiology, and management of menopause-associated VMS and to evaluate pharmacologic options available for the treatment of VMS, including herbal remedies, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and nonhormonal therapies. Lifestyle changes, including regulation of core body temperature, relaxation techniques, regular physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation may help reduce the risk of VMS and should be implemented by all women with menopause-associated VMS. The role of herbal remedies in the treatment of VMS remains unclear, as clinical trial efficacy data are inconsistent and inconclusive. Nevertheless, soy isoflavones, red clover isoflavones, black cohosh, and vitamin E are commonly used to treat VMS and may be considered in women with mild symptoms that are not controlled by lifestyle changes alone. These herbal remedies appear to be safe when used for short durations (d 6 months). HRT, consisting of estrogen (in women without a uterus) or estrogen plus progestin (in women with a uterus) is the most widely studied and most effective treatment option for relief of menopause-associated VMS and is considered the standard of care for women with moderate-to-severe VMS. HRT should be used at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration possible (preferably d 5 years) in women in whom the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks. Nonhormonal therapies, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, gabapentin, and clonidine, may be appropriate alternatives in women who cannot or will not use HRT for VMS relief, such as those with a history of or at risk for breast cancer. The physical and financial burden imposed by menopauseassociated VMS is immense. Optimum management of VMS includes lifestyle changes

  15. Psychological symptoms among 2032 youth living with HIV: a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K; Whiteley, Laura; Harper, Gary W; Nichols, Sharon; Nieves, Amethys

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and patterns of psychological symptoms in adolescents and young adults living with HIV (YLWH) in medical care and relationships between psychological symptoms, route and duration of infection, and antiretroviral treatment (ART). A clinic-based sample of 2032 YLWH (mean age 20.3 years), recruited from 20 adolescent medicine HIV clinics, completed a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors and psychological symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Overall, 17.5% of youth reported psychological symptoms greater than the normative threshold on the Global Severity Index. A wide variety of symptoms were reported. The prevalence of clinical symptoms was significantly greater in youth with behaviorally acquired HIV compared to those with perinatally acquired infection (20.6% vs. 10.8%, OR=2.06 in Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR)), and in those not taking ART that had been prescribed (29. 2% vs. 18.8%, OR=1.68 in MLR). Knowing one's HIV status for more than one year and disclosure of HIV status were not associated with fewer symptoms. A large proportion of YLWH have psychological symptoms and the prevalence is greatest among those with behaviorally acquired infection. The high rate of psychological symptoms for youth not taking ART that is prescribed is a cause for concern. Symptoms do not appear to be a transient reaction to diagnosis of HIV.

  16. Shame, Guilt, Symptoms of Depression, and Reported History of Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…

  17. Psychological Symptoms and Concerns Experienced by International Students: Outreach Implications for Counseling Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazli, Senel

    2015-01-01

    This study examines psychological symptoms and concerns experienced by international students. Participants identified with a variety of psychological symptoms and concerns. The top three were related to academics (71%), career (60%), and stress (43%). In addition, 34% of the participants indicated being concerned about depression and/or anxiety.…

  18. The Temporal Relationship Between Environmental Factors and Psychological Symptoms in Native American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matt, Georgia Lee

    2007-01-01

    Native American youth often experience high rates of environmental risk factors that may put them at increased risk for developing psychological problems, yet research within this high-risk population is severely limited. The present study was designed to provide information on the rate of psychological symptoms in a sample of Native American youth, and evaluate the impact of environmental factors (risk, protective, and cultural) on psychological disorder symptoms over time. Data were coll...

  19. An approach to and the rationale for the pharmacological management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Manjari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD have been a difficult management area for neurologists and psychiatrists alike. The correct identification of each symptom and the underlying precipitating cause is the key to proper management-nonpharmacological as well as pharmacological. BPSD has been well documented in all types of dementia in various stages of the disease and in all dementias at an advanced stage. The proper management is not only rewarding in terms of responsiveness in an otherwise "incurable" and progressive disease, but also improves the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers alike. The caregiver burden is greatly decreased by an efficient management of BPSD. This review discusses the implications and boundaries of the term BPSD and unravels each symptom and its identification. Manifestations of psychological symptoms such as delusion, hallucination, misidentification, psychosis, depression, apathy, and anxiety are briefly described. Correct identification of behavior symptoms such as wandering, agitation, catastrophic reaction, disinhibition, and delirium has been outlined. While the subtle differences in each entity make the precise identification difficult, the different therapeutics of each make the exercise necessary. Pharmacological recommendations and side effects of medications have been mentioned thereafter. The review will help in the identification and correct pharmacological management of BPSD.

  20. [Recommendations for diagnosis and therapy of behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaskan, Egemen; Bopp-Kistler, Irene; Buerge, Markus; Fischlin, Regina; Georgescu, Dan; Giardini, Umberto; Hatzinger, Martin; Hemmeter, Ulrich; Justiniano, Isabella; Kressig, Reto W; Monsch, Andreas; Mosimann, Urs P; Mueri, Renè; Munk, Anna; Popp, Julius; Schmid, Ruth; Wollmer, Marc A

    2014-01-29

    In patients with dementia, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are frequent findings that accompany deficits caused by cognitive impairment and thus complicate diagnostics, therapy and care. BPSD are a burden both for affected individuals as well as care-givers, and represent a significant challenge for therapy of a patient population with high degree of multi-morbidity. The goal of this therapy-guideline issued by swiss professional associations is to present guidance regarding therapy of BPSD as attendant symptoms in dementia, based on evidence as well as clinical experience. Here it appears to be of particular importance to take into account professional experience, as at this point for most therapeutic options no sufficiently controlled clinical trials are available. A critical discussion of pharmaco-therapeutic intervention is necessary, as this patient-population is particularly vulnerable for medication side-effects. Finally, a particular emphasis is placed on incorporating and systematically reporting psycho-social and nursing options therapeutic intervention.

  1. Burden, screening, and treatment of depressive and anxious symptoms among women referred to cardiac rehabilitation: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Megan C.; Arthur, Heather M.; Chessex, Caroline; Oh, Paul; Turk-Adawi, Karam; Grace, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women. Women with CVD experience a greater burden of psychosocial distress than men, and practice guidelines promote screening in cardiac patients, especially women. The objectives herein were to describe the burden of psychosocial distress, extent of screening, forms of treatment, and whether receipt of treatment was related to psychosocial distress symptom severity at follow-up, among wo...

  2. Specific Pharmacological Effects of Paroxetine Comprise Psychological but Not Somatic Symptoms of Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Schalet

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of placebo-controlled trials of SSRIs suggest that only a small portion of the observable change in depression may be attributed to "true" pharmacological effects. But depression is a multidimensional construct, so treatment effects may differ by symptom cluster. We tested the hypothesis that SSRIs uniquely alter psychological rather than somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety.Outpatients with moderate to severe MDD were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (n = 120 or placebo (n = 60.Paroxetine significantly outperformed placebo on all psychological subscales of the syndrome measures, but not on any of the somatic subscales. The difference in score reduction between paroxetine and placebo was more than twice as great for the psychological symptoms compared to the somatic symptoms.Paroxetine appears to have a "true" pharmacological effect on the psychological but not on the somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Paroxetine's influence on somatic symptoms appears to be mostly duplicated by placebo.

  3. Specific Pharmacological Effects of Paroxetine Comprise Psychological but Not Somatic Symptoms of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalet, Benjamin D; Tang, Tony Z; DeRubeis, Robert J; Hollon, Steven D; Amsterdam, Jay D; Shelton, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analyses of placebo-controlled trials of SSRIs suggest that only a small portion of the observable change in depression may be attributed to "true" pharmacological effects. But depression is a multidimensional construct, so treatment effects may differ by symptom cluster. We tested the hypothesis that SSRIs uniquely alter psychological rather than somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Outpatients with moderate to severe MDD were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (n = 120) or placebo (n = 60). Paroxetine significantly outperformed placebo on all psychological subscales of the syndrome measures, but not on any of the somatic subscales. The difference in score reduction between paroxetine and placebo was more than twice as great for the psychological symptoms compared to the somatic symptoms. Paroxetine appears to have a "true" pharmacological effect on the psychological but not on the somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Paroxetine's influence on somatic symptoms appears to be mostly duplicated by placebo.

  4. Impact of different controlled ovarian stimulation protocols on the physical and psychological burdens in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deenadayal Mamata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Infertility treatment involves a considerable amount of physical and psychological burden which may impact the outcome. Aim: The objective was to understand the amount of physical and psychological burden in women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles. Setting and Design: Multi-center, prospective, parallel, observational study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted across 12 IVF centers in India. A total of 692 women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation as a part of the first cycle IVF/ICSI completed the trial. Women were recruited in 2 groups based on type of treatment (Group A - gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH] antagonist; Group B - GnRH agonist and were asked to fill questionnaires during the 2 treatment visits. Results: The mean changes between Visit 1 (baseline and Visit 2 in anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores in Group A for anxiety and depression were −0.5 (3.67, −0.1 (3.57 respectively and for Group B were −0.4 (3.68, 0.1 (3.67 respectively, which was not statistically significant. In Group A, the mean (±standard deviation [SD] Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL score was 17.9 (±5.17 in visit 1 and 19.1 (±5.45 Visit 2. The change between visits was 1.1 (P < 0.0001 with higher score reflecting higher somatic distress symptoms. In Group B, the mean (±SD HSCL score was 18.2 (±5.19 in Visit 1 and 18.8 (±5.23 in visit 2. The change between visits was 0.6 (P < 0.0014. The difference of the mean change in physical burden between Group A and Group B was not statistically significant. Conclusion: A significant impact in both treatment protocols with respect to the physical burden was found between Visit 1 and Visit 2 but no difference in physical or psychological burden between the two treatment groups was observed.

  5. Exploring correlations between positive psychological resources and symptoms of psychological distress among hematological cancer patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Yue; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Lie

    2016-07-01

    Hematological cancer patients experience high levels of psychological distress during diagnoses and intensive treatments. The aim of the present study is to explore the effects of positive psychological resources on depressive and anxiety symptoms in hematological cancer patients. This survey was conducted in a hospital during the period from July 2013 to April 2014. A total of 300 inpatients were recruited and finally 227 of them completed the questionnaires. Questionnaires included demographic and clinical variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Life Orientation Scale-Revised, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Resilience Scale-14. Results showed that the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 66.1 and 45.8%, respectively. Both optimism (β = -.479, p optimism (β = -.393, p  .05) was not significantly associated with anxiety symptoms, and self-efficacy was not significantly associated with depressive (β = -.032, p > .05) or anxiety symptoms (β = -.055, p > .05). The results suggest that hematological cancer patients who possess high levels of positive psychological resources may have fewer symptoms of psychological distress. The findings indicate that enhancing positive psychological resources can be considered in developing intervention strategies for decreasing depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  6. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, L.A.A.; de Graaff, J; Meeus, W H J; Branje, S.J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/ S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms, through mothers’ psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents’ need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in tu...

  7. COPD symptom burden: impact on health care resource utilization, and work and activity impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding B

    2017-02-01

    .001, pulmonologist visits (P=0.007, exacerbations requiring hospitalization (P<0.001 and WPAI scores (P<0.001.Conclusion: Most patients with COPD presented with high symptom levels, despite being treated for COPD. Increasing symptom burden was associated with increasing HCRU and had a detrimental impact on work productivity. Keywords: COPD, symptom, health care resource utilization, work and activity impairment, routine care

  8. Long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden and risk of cognitive decline and dementia among very old women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Vittinghoff, Eric; Byers, Amy; Covinsky, Ken; Blazer, Dan; Diem, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E; Yaffe, Kristine

    2014-05-01

    Depressive symptoms and cognitive outcomes are strongly interrelated. Despite that rates of depressive symptoms fluctuate during late life, little is known about the impact of long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden on cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. This study examines the association of nearly 20 years of cumulative depressive symptoms with cognitive outcomes in a cohort of older women. We assessed depressive symptoms in 7,240 women using the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS) at serial visits. We used a Poisson model with random slopes to estimate GDS trajectories for each participant from baseline to death or end of follow-up, and then characterized depressive symptom burden by quartile of the area under the curve. We assessed cognitive outcomes using repeated measures of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Trails B score over 20 years, Year-20 neuropsychological test battery, and adjudicated dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Adjusting for potential confounders, compared with women in the lowest quartile of cumulative depressive symptoms burden, women in the highest quartile had 21% more MMSE errors over time (95% CI = 17%, 26%), 20% worse Trails B score over time (95% CI = 17%, 23%), worse scores on most of the Year-20 cognitive tests, and a twofold greater likelihood of developing dementia or MCI (95% CI = 1.48, 3.11). Long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden was associated with cognitive decline and risk of dementia or MCI. Older adults with a history of depression should be closely monitored for recurrent episodes or unresolved depressive symptoms as well as any cognitive deficits.

  9. Smoking status and symptom burden in surgical head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterba, Katherine R; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tooze, Janet A; Hatcher, Jeanne L; Sullivan, Christopher; Tetrick, Lee Anne; Warren, Graham W; Day, Terrence A; Alberg, Anthony J; Weaver, Kathryn E

    2017-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients who smoke are at risk for poor treatment outcomes. This study evaluated symptom burden and clinical, sociodemographic, and psychosocial factors associated with smoking in surgical patients to identify potential targets for supportive care services. Cross-sectional survey. Individuals with HNSCC of the oral cavity, larynx, or pharynx were recruited from two cancer centers and completed questionnaires assessing smoking status (never, former, current/recent), patient characteristics, and symptoms before surgery. Of the 103 patients enrolled, 73% were male, 52% were stage IV, 41% reported current/recent smoking, and 37% reported former smoking. Current/recent smokers were less likely than former smokers to have adequate finances (53% vs. 89%, P = .001) and be married/partnered (55% vs. 79%, P = .03). Current/recent smokers were also more likely than both former and never smokers to be unemployed (49% vs. 40% and 13%, respectively, all P = .02) and lack health insurance (17% vs. 5% and 13%, respectively, all P ≤.04). Fatalistic beliefs (P = .03) and lower religiosity (P =.04) were more common in current/recent than never smokers. In models adjusted for sociodemographic/clinical factors, current/recent smokers reported more problems than former and never smokers with swallowing, speech, and cough (P ≤.04). Current/recent smokers also reported more problems than never smokers with social contact, feeling ill, and weight loss (P ≤ .02). HNSCC patients reporting current/recent smoking before surgery have high-risk clinical and sociodemographic features that may predispose them to poor postoperative outcomes. Unique symptoms in HNSCC smokers may be useful targets for patient-centered clinical monitoring and intervention. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:127-133, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Relationship between sexual dysfunction and psychological burden in men with infertility: a large observational study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiansheng; Su, Puyu; Liu, Jishuang; Shi, Kai; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Liang, Chaozhao

    2013-08-01

    Although infertility is known to be associated with psychological and sexual problems, the relationship between these two aspects in infertile men has not been well investigated. To investigate the incidence of sexual dysfunction and psychological burden, and their possible associations in infertile men. From June 2009 to June 2012, a total of 1,468 infertile men and 942 fertile men were evaluated. Premature ejaculation (PE) and erectile dysfunction (ED) were measured by the PE diagnostic tool (PEDT), the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the international index of erectile function (IIEF)-5. Anxiety and depression, which reflect the degree of psychological burden, were measured by the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS), respectively. PE and ED were measured by the PEDT, IELT, and IIEF-5. Anxiety and depression were measured by the SAS and SDS, respectively. The incidences of PE and ED in the infertile group were significantly higher than those in the fertile group (PE: 19.01% vs.10.93%, P infertile than fertile men (Anxiety: 38.01% vs. 26.65%, P infertile group, the PEDT score was positively associated with anxiety (adjusted r = 0.57; P psychological burden, and their possible associations in infertile men in China. Further in-depth studies are needed to confirm and extend these results. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Psychological distress and subjective burden of caregivers of people with mental illness: the role of affiliate stigma and face concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Cheung, Rebecca Y M

    2012-06-01

    The present study tested the mediating role of affiliate stigma on the relationships between face concern with psychological distress and subjective burden among caregivers of people with severe mental illnesses. One hundred and eight Chinese caregivers in Hong Kong were surveyed. Based on Baron and Kenny's (J Pers Soc Psychol 51:1173-1182, 1986) approach, affiliate stigma was found to serve as a partial mediator between face concern and caregiver distress and a full mediator between face concern and subjective burden. Cultural linkage of stigma and caregiver outcomes was identified, suggesting that researchers and practitioners should use a culturally sensitive approach to understand caregivers' experience and alleviate their stigma.

  12. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; van 't Riet, Esther; Gerritsen, Marleen J J; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K

    2016-01-01

    Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety and somatisation were associated with a change in function after shoulder surgery and postoperative patient perceived improvement of pain and function. In addition, the change of psychological symptoms after shoulder surgery was analyzed and the influence of postoperative symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery on the change in function after shoulder surgery and perceived postoperative improvement of pain and function. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed in a general teaching hospital. 315 consecutive patients planned for elective shoulder surgery were included. Outcome measures included change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and anchor questions about improvement in pain and function after surgery. Psychological symptoms were identified before and 12 months after surgery with the validated Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ). Psychological symptoms were encountered in all the various shoulder diagnoses. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders persisted after surgery in 56% of patients, 10% of patients with no symptoms of psychological disorders before surgery developed new psychological symptoms. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders were not associated with the change of DASH score and perceived improvement of pain and function after shoulder surgery. Patients with symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery were less likely to improve on the DASH score. Postoperative symptoms of distress and depression were associated with worse perceived improvement of pain. Postoperative symptoms of distress, depression and somatisation were

  13. Determinants of Weight Loss following Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: The Role of Psychological Burden, Coping Style, and Motivation to Undergo Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Figura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The amount of excess weight loss (%EWL among obese patients after bariatric surgery varies greatly. However, reliable predictors have not been established yet. The present study evaluated the preoperative psychological burden, coping style, and motivation to lose weight as factors determining postoperative treatment success. Methods. The sample included 64 morbidly obese patients with a preoperative BMI of 51±8 kg/m2 who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG. Well-established questionnaires were applied before surgery to assess the psychological burden in terms of “perceived stress” (PSQ-20, “depression” (PHQ-9, “anxiety” (GAD-7, and “mental impairment” (ISR as well as coping style (Brief COPE and motivation to lose weight. %EWL as an indicator for treatment success was assessed on average 20 months after surgery. Results. Based on the %EWL distribution, patients were classified into three %EWL groups: low (14–39%, moderate (40–59%, and high (60–115%. LSG patients with high %EWL reported significantly more “active coping” behavior prior to surgery than patients with moderate and low %EWL. Patients’ preoperative psychological burden and motivation to lose weight were not associated with %EWL. Conclusion. An “active coping” style might be of predictive value for better weight loss outcomes in patients following LSG intervention.

  14. Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

  15. [Sleep difficulties and psychological symptoms in medicine students in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafoya, Silvia A; Jurado, María M; Yépez, Norma J; Fouilloux, Mariana; Lara, María C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe sleep difficulties in first year medical students associated with psychopathological symptoms. A cross-sectional study in 572 Medicine students, who were assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), was performed. A 3.5% of students reported having a hard time sleeping, 6.3% had difficulty staying asleep and 11.4% waking up very early. Sleep difficulties were significantly associated with all psychopathological symptoms. The best predictors of sleep difficulties were anxiety, hostility and interpersonal sensitivity. In conclusion, the symptoms associated with stress, anger, worry, cognitive hyperarousal and hypervigilance are the best predictors for sleep difficulties in this population.

  16. Cybervictimization and somatic and psychological symptoms among Italian middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Lenzi, Michela; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Canale, Natale; Santinello, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Existing literature clearly documents the association between cybervictimization and psychological symptoms; less clear is the association between cybervictimization and somatic symptoms. This study aims to verify the association between cybervictimization and both psychological and somatic symptoms on a representative sample of Italian early adolescents. This study used data from 24 099 students aged 13 years participating in the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Self-completed questionnaires, devised by the HBSC international group, were administered in classrooms. Multilevel models of logistic regression (controlling for traditional bullying victimization, computer use and demographics) were used to investigate the association between cybervictimization and psychological and somatic symptoms. Overall, 3.1% of the students reported having been bullied frequently electronically and 8.7% occasionally (compared, respectively, to 4.0 and 9.2% victims of traditional forms of bullying). Overall, prevalence of students reporting psychological and somatic symptoms was 32.5 and 12.0%, respectively. Being victims of cyberbullying was positively associated to students' psychological and somatic symptoms, after controlling for traditional bullying victimization and computer use. Cybervictimization has similar psychological and somatic consequences for boys and girls, thus suggesting that intervention and prevention efforts should focus on both gender groups. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlations between psychological symptoms and social relationships among medical undergraduates in Anhui Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Sun, Li-Na; Sun, Ye-Huan; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Wu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Cao, Hong-Yuan; Sun, Ying

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety) among Chinese medical students and to find the possible relationships between psychological symptoms and social relationships. A sample of 10,140 medical students was investigated with a structured questionnaire, that included the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Social Support Rating Scale, and Family APGAR Index (adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, resolve). The present study revealed that 16.8% of the medical students suffered from depressive symptoms and 14.1% from anxiety symptoms. Female students were more likely to have anxiety, the second-year students had higher levels of psychological symptoms than the first-year students. Likewise, significant differences were found among college, satisfaction of specialty, and economic condition of the family in anxiety and depression symptoms. Social support, family function, and all dimensions were significantly negatively associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression showed that less social support, poor family function, the second-year students, and unsatisfactory specialty were associated with more psychological symptoms, after adjusting the effects of sex, age, and college. Medical students have a relatively high level of depression and anxiety symptoms. These findings support the hypothesis that if medical students are better supported and cared for, negative psychosocial consequences might be prevented or at least reduced.

  18. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS such as depression, apathy, aggression, and psychosis are now recognized as core features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and there is a general consensus that greater symptom severity is predictive of faster cognitive decline, loss of independence, and even shorter survival. Whether these symptoms result from the same pathogenic processes responsible for cognitive decline or have unique etiologies independent of AD-associated neurodegeneration is unclear. Many structural and metabolic features of the AD brain are associated with individual neuropsychiatric symptoms or symptom clusters. In addition, many genes have been identified and confirmed that are associated with symptom risk in a few cases. However, there are no single genes strongly predictive of individual neuropsychiatric syndromes, while functional and structural brain changes unique to specific symptoms may reflect variability in progression of the same pathological processes. Unfortunately, treatment success for these psychiatric symptoms may be lower when comorbid with AD, underscoring the importance of future research on their pathobiology and treatment. This review summarizes some of the most salient aspects of NPS pathogenesis.

  19. The effect of aromatherapy massage on the psychological symptoms of postmenopausal Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, S; Darsareh, F; Joolaee, S; Haghani, H

    2013-06-01

    Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. A randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of aromatherapy massage on psychological symptoms during menopause. The study population comprised 90 women. Each subject in the aromatherapy massage group received 30 min aromatherapy sessions with aroma oil, twice a week, for four weeks; each subject in the massage therapy group received the same treatment with odorless oil, while no treatment was provided to subjects in the control group. The outcome measures were psychological symptoms, as obtained through the psychological subscale of the Menopause Rating Scale. A total of 87 women were evaluated. A statistically significant difference was found between the participants' pre- and post-application psychological score in intervention groups, whereas the score in the control group did not differ significantly. Aromatherapy massage decreased the psychological score MD: -3.49 (95% Confidence Interval of Difference: -4.52 to -2.47). Massage therapy also decreased the psychological score MD: -1.20 (95% Confidence Interval of Difference: -2.19 to -0.08). To distinguish the effect of aromatherapy from massage separately, we compared the reduction in the psychological score. Aromatherapy massage decreased the psychological score more than massage therapy MD: -2.29 (95% Confidence Interval of Difference: -3.01 to -0.47). Both aromatherapy massage and massage were effective in reducing psychological symptoms, but, the effect of aromatherapy massage was higher than massage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological Symptoms Among Patients With BCR-ABL-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Polizzi, Heather; Mascarenhas, John; Kremyanskaya, Marina; Holland, Jimmie; Hoffman, Ronald

    2016-12-01

    BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) represent a heterogeneous group of diseases, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and myelofibrosis (MF). Psychological manifestations among these diseases have not been adequately described. Cross-sectional surveys measuring distress, anxiety, and depression were collected from patients with BCR-ABL-negative MPNs from May 2015 to October 2015. Participants provided demographic information and completed the Distress Thermometer and Problem List (DT&PL) to assess distress and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess distress, anxiety, and depression. They provided information on how their MPN affected their lives. Of the 117 participants, 31.2% had PV, 28.4% had ET, 28.4% had MF, and 11.9% had another type of MPN. Time with MPN varied from less than 1 year (7.5%), 1 to 3 years (19.8%), 3 to 5 years (23.6%), 5 to 10 years (19.8%), and more than 10 years (29.2%). Distress averaged 3.14 (SD, 2.83; DT&PL), with 40.4% meeting NCCN criteria for distress, and averaged 8.97 (SD, 7.44; HADS), with 38.5% meeting HADS criteria for distress. Anxiety averaged 5.54 (SD, 4.37), with 31.3% meeting HADS criteria for anxiety. Depression averaged 3.4 (SD, 3.4), with 12.5% meeting HADS criteria for depression. Distress was higher for PV (3.86), MF (3.12), and "other" MPN (4.33) than it was for ET (1.81; P=.016). Distress was more common in non-white patients (P=.015) and those with either PV or MF but not ET (DT&PL ≥4; P=.038). Patients' comments described coping strategies or symptom burden. Distress and anxiety are highly prevalent with BCR-ABL-negative MPNs and may correspond to disease-related symptom burden. These findings deserve further study. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  1. Psychological Interventions for Children with Functional Somatic Symptoms : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J; Kallesøe, Karen H; Janssens, Karin A M; Schröder, Andreas; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Rask, Charlotte U

    Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of psychological treatments on symptom load and associated disability in children with functional somatic symptoms, and to explore potential moderators of effects. Study design: Cochrane, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for randomized

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom burden and gender each affect generalization in a reward- and punishment-learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radell, Milen L; Beck, Kevin D; Gilbertson, Mark W; Myers, Catherine E

    2017-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can develop following exposure to a traumatic event. Re-experiencing, which includes intrusive memories or flashbacks of the trauma, is a core symptom cluster of PTSD. From an associative learning perspective, this cluster may be attributed to cues associated with the trauma, which have come to elicit symptoms in a variety of situations encountered in daily life due to a tendency to overgeneralize. Consistent with this, prior studies have indicated that both individuals with clinically diagnosed with PTSD, and those with self-reported symptoms who may not meet full diagnostic criteria, show changes in generalization. Building on prior research, the current study examined whether PTSD symptom burden, but also gender, veteran status, and combat experience-all associated with PTSD vulnerability-modulate learning and generalization in a computer-based task. Participants were presented with stimulus compounds consisting of a foreground and background that could be predictive of reward, punishment or no outcome. Learning was followed by a generalization test where these components were recombined to form novel configurations. An interaction between PTSD symptom burden and gender was found where females with more severe PTSD symptoms showed no evidence of sensitivity to the background. This result is consistent with increased generalization, and may indicate a decrease in the ability to process cue configurations leading to re-experiencing in a variety of situations. Further work is indicated to help elucidate the cognitive processes driving gender differences that may confer vulnerability to PTSD.

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom burden and gender each affect generalization in a reward- and punishment-learning task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milen L Radell

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD can develop following exposure to a traumatic event. Re-experiencing, which includes intrusive memories or flashbacks of the trauma, is a core symptom cluster of PTSD. From an associative learning perspective, this cluster may be attributed to cues associated with the trauma, which have come to elicit symptoms in a variety of situations encountered in daily life due to a tendency to overgeneralize. Consistent with this, prior studies have indicated that both individuals with clinically diagnosed with PTSD, and those with self-reported symptoms who may not meet full diagnostic criteria, show changes in generalization. Building on prior research, the current study examined whether PTSD symptom burden, but also gender, veteran status, and combat experience-all associated with PTSD vulnerability-modulate learning and generalization in a computer-based task. Participants were presented with stimulus compounds consisting of a foreground and background that could be predictive of reward, punishment or no outcome. Learning was followed by a generalization test where these components were recombined to form novel configurations. An interaction between PTSD symptom burden and gender was found where females with more severe PTSD symptoms showed no evidence of sensitivity to the background. This result is consistent with increased generalization, and may indicate a decrease in the ability to process cue configurations leading to re-experiencing in a variety of situations. Further work is indicated to help elucidate the cognitive processes driving gender differences that may confer vulnerability to PTSD.

  4. Dysphoric symptoms in relation to other behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, among elderly in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbo, Agnes; Gustafsson, Maria; Isaksson, Ulf; Sandman, Per-Olof; Lövheim, Hugo

    2017-09-07

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common and varied in the elderly. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between BPSD and dysphoric symptoms at different levels of cognitive impairment. Assessments of 4397 elderly individuals living in nursing homes in Sweden were performed. Data on cognitive function and BPSD were collected using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). The relationships between dysphoria and eight BPSD factors were plotted against cognitive function to investigate how dysphoria affects BPSD throughout the dementia disease. Overall, dysphoric symptoms were most prevalent in persons with moderate cognitive impairment. However, moderate to severe dysphoric symptoms showed no clear variation with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, aggressive behavior, verbally disruptive/attention-seeking behavior, hallucinatory symptoms and wandering behavior were more common with concurrent dysphoria regardless of cognitive function. In contrast, passiveness was more common with concurrent dysphoria in mild cognitive impairment but not in moderate to severe cognitive impairment. BPSD, including aggressive behavior and hallucinations, were more common with concurrent dysphoric symptoms, providing insight into behavioral and psychological symptoms among individuals with cognitive impairment. Apathy was more commonly associated with concurrent dysphoria at early stages of cognitive decline but not at later stages, indicating that apathy and dysphoria represent separate syndromes among elderly patients with moderate to severe cognitive impairment.

  5. Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) Symptom Severity: Stress Management Skills are Related to Lower Illness Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattie, Emily G; Antoni, Michael H; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Czaja, Sara; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Penedo, Frank J; Klimas, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The onset of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) typically involves reductions in activities of daily living and social interactions (jointly referred to as "illness burden"). Emotional distress has been linked to increased reported symptoms, and stress management skills have been related to lower fatigue severity in CFS patients. Symptom severity and illness burden are highly correlated. The ability to manage stress may attenuate this relationship, allowing individuals to feel less burdened by the illness independent of the severity of their symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate if perceived stress management skills affect illness burden via emotional distress, independent of ME/CFS symptom severity. A total of 117 adults with ME/CFS completed measures of perceived stress management skills, emotional distress, ME/CFS symptom severity and illness burden. Regression analyses revealed that greater perceived stress management skills related to less social and fatigue-related illness burden, via lower emotional distress. This relationship existed independent of the association of symptom severity on illness burden, and was stronger among those not currently employed. Ability to manage stress is associated with a lower illness burden for individuals with ME/CFS. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in lowering illness burden by targeting stress management skills.

  6. An Integrated Review of Psychological Stress in Parkinson's Disease: Biological Mechanisms and Symptom and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by complex symptoms and medication-induced motor complications that fluctuate in onset, severity, responsiveness to treatment, and disability. The unpredictable and debilitating nature of PD and the inability to halt or slow disease progression may result in psychological stress. Psychological stress may exacerbate biological mechanisms believed to contribute to neuronal loss in PD and lead to poorer symptom and health outcomes. The purpose of this integrated review is to summarize and appraise animal and human research studies focused on biological mechanisms, symptom, and health outcomes of psychological stress in PD. A search of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and CINAHL from 1980 to the present using the key words Parkinson's disease and stress, psychological stress, mental stress, and chronic stress resulted in 11 articles that met inclusion criteria. The results revealed significant associations between psychological stress and increased motor symptom severity and loss of dopamine-producing neurons in animal models of PD and between psychological stress and increased symptom severity and poorer health outcomes in human subjects with PD. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for these relationships, for the ultimate purpose of designing targeted interventions that may modify the disease trajectory. PMID:28058129

  7. Personality Traits and Psychological Symptoms of Music and Art Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yöndem, Sadik; Yöndem, Zeynep Deniz; Per, Meral

    2017-01-01

    The qualities of artists and musicians have attracted the attention of personality psychologists and researchers studying creativity. Artistic activities are considered by some to be therapeutic, and may offer a buffer effect on psychological health. On the other hand, research has occasionally revealed a positive relationship between creativity…

  8. Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avant, Elizabeth M.; Swopes, Rachel M.; Davis, Joanne L.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that among college students, physical and sexual abuse in intimate relationships are associated with posttraumatic stress. Psychological abuse occurs in intimate relationships among college students, and though there is evidence that such abuse has a negative emotional impact, posttraumatic stress has not been extensively…

  9. Atrial Fibrillation Symptoms and Sex, Race, and Psychological Distress: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Kelly T; Nazarian, Saman; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R

    2017-06-17

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) symptoms are a major component of treatment decisions for patients with AF and impact quality of life and functional ability yet are poorly understood. This review aimed to determine what is known about the prevalence of symptoms and the association of symptoms to AF characteristics, psychological distress, sex, and race. We performed a structured review of AF symptoms as of March 2016 using PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL and reference searches of retrieved articles. Full-text, published, peer-reviewed, English-language articles were examined. Articles were included if they reported original research data on symptom prevalence and type among patients with AF. The 3 most common symptoms were dyspnea, palpitations, and fatigue. The results suggested that, although AF characteristics are not a significant predictor of symptoms, tachycardia, female sex, race, and psychological distress have a positive association to symptoms. There is a scarcity of research examining symptoms in AF. Furthermore, the inconsistency in measurement methods and the failure to include diverse populations in AF research make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions from the current literature. Given the prevalence of AF in the United States and the impact of symptoms on quality of life and healthcare use, further research examining predictors of symptoms and interventions to alleviate symptoms is crucial.

  10. Associations between problematic internet use and adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms: possible role of sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wan, Yuhui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xi; Tao, Fangbiao

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between problematic Internet use (PIU) and physical and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescents, and to investigate the possible role of sleep quality in this association. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted in 4 cities in China. The Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire of Adolescents, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and demographic variables were used to measure adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms and sleep quality, respectively, in 13,723 students (aged 12-20 years). Problematic Internet use was assessed by the 20-item Young Internet Addiction Test. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate the effects of sleep quality and PIU on physical and psychological symptoms, and to identify the mediating effect of sleep quality in adolescents. Prevalence rates of PIU, physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and poor sleep quality were 11.7%, 24.9%, 19.8%, and 26.7%, respectively. Poor sleep quality was found to be an independent risk factor for both physical and psychological symptoms. The effects of PIU on the 2 health outcomes were partially mediated by sleep quality. Problematic Internet use is becoming a significant public health issue among Chinese adolescents that requires urgent attention. Excessive Internet use may not only have direct adverse health consequences but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation.

  11. Psychological Symptoms are Associated with Both Abstinence and Risky Sex among Men with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol T.; Solomon, Sondra E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Varni, Susan E.; Hodge, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual abstinence is often deemed the “safest behavior” in HIV prevention, but is sometimes associated with psychological symptoms (e.g., depression) just as sexually risky behavior is. This study explored whether sexual abstinence and risky sexual behavior among men with HIV are associated with similar constellations of psychological symptoms. Prior research has not addressed this issue because abstinent people often are not included in the sample, or when data are analyzed, researchers combine abstinent people with sexually active people who practice safer sex. Past research also neglects the co-morbidity of psychological symptoms. A latent class analysis of the psychological symptoms (assessed with the Symptom Check List 90-R; Derogatis, 1994) of 140 men with HIV, mostly from rural New England, revealed three latent classes; men who were asymptomatic on all symptom domains (28.8%), men who were symptomatic on all domains (34.1%), and men who were symptomatic on internalizing domains (37.1%), but were asymptomatic on the externalizing symptoms of hostility and paranoid ideation. Logistic regression showed that sexual behavior during the past 90 days of men in the all symptom class and the internalizing symptoms class was similar, with abstinence and risky sex predominating, and safer sex being relatively uncommon for both classes. The sexual behavior of men in the asymptomatic class differed, with safer sex being relatively more likely to occur compared to the symptomatic classes. These findings suggest that the psychological symptom profile of sexually abstinent people places them at risk for inconsistent condom use should they engage in sexual behavior. PMID:25614050

  12. Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label.

  13. Hyperemesis Gravidarum is associated with substantial economic burden in addition to severe physical and psychological suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovik, Jone; Vikanes, Åse

    2016-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) affects 1 % of all pregnant women and in western societies it is the most common cause for hospital admission during first trimester. The economic burden of the disease has barely been studied. To estimate the Israeli national burden of HG, Konikoff and co-workers obtained data retrospectively on hospital costs as well as loss of workdays from 184 women hospitalized due to HG from December 2010 until December 2013. Their findings emphasise the need for better treatment to reduce the burden of this disease both for the individual as well as the society.

  14. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

  15. The use of psychotropic drugs for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia among residents in long-term care facilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Takashi; Katsumata, Yuriko; Arai, Asuna

    2017-12-01

    To examine whether the use of psychotropic drugs (PDs) was related to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) focusing on the prevalence, numbers of symptoms, severity, and care burden among the elderly with BPSD living in long-term care facilities in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among older people with dementia or similar symptoms (n = 312) using a questionnaire for care staff in 10 selected long-term care facilities. A brief questionnaire form of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to assess BPSD. PDs were used in 45% among all participants and 47.5% among those exhibiting at least one BPSD. We found that use of PDs was associated with greater numbers, severity, and care burden of BPSD. Also, there was significantly more use of PDs among people who had specific BPSD symptoms, such as delusions, anxiety, and disinhibition, compared with those who did not. The use of PDs among residents in long-term care facilities with dementia or similar symptoms was relatively low compared with previous reports from other countries. Nonetheless, the greater numbers, severity, and care burden of BPSD were associated with the use of PDs.

  16. Comorbidity burden is associated with poor psychological well-being and physical health status in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwegt, M.T.; Kupper, N.; Jordaens, L.; Pedersen, S.S.; Theuns, D.A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Comorbidity burden has been linked to survival in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), but no study has examined the influence on psychological well-being and health status. We examined the relationship between comorbidity burden and anxiety, depression, and health

  17. Comorbidity burden is associated with poor psychological well-being and physical health status in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Kupper, Nina; Jordaens, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Comorbidity burden has been linked to survival in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), but no study has examined the influence on psychological well-being and health status. We examined the relationship between comorbidity burden and anxiety, depression, and health status...

  18. Symptom Burden and Functional Dependencies Among Cancer Patients in Botswana Suggest a Need for Palliative Care Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenby, Mark; Sebego, Miriam; Swart, Norman Carl; Lopez, Lidia; Peterson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Palliative care and cancer nursing in sub-Saharan Africa is hampered by inadequate clinical resources and evidence base but is central to symptom management amid the growing cancer burden. The aim of this study is to describe symptom burden and functional dependencies of cancer patients in Botswana using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form (MSAS-SF) and Enforced Social Dependency Scale (ESDS). A cross-sectional multisite study was conducted in Gaborone, Botswana, from June to August 2013 using MSAS-SF, ESDS, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status at 1 time point. Descriptive statistics, tests of association, correlation, and scale validity were used. Among the 100 cancer patients, 65 were women, 21 were inpatients, 48 were human immunodeficiency virus-positive, 23 had gynecological malignancies, 34 had stage 4 disease, and 54 received chemotherapy only. Sixty-four reported pain; 54, neuropathies; 51, weight loss; and 51, hunger. Most distressing symptoms were weight loss, body image, skin changes, and pain. Recreational/social role was most affected by cancer. Cronbach's α for both the MSAS-SF and ESDS was .91. Variations in means for MSAS-SF and ESDS were associated with ECOG grade 2 (P Nurses trained in palliative care are needed to meet cancer patients' pain and symptom management care needs.

  19. Do Web-based and clinic samples of gay men living with HIV differ on self-reported physical and psychological symptoms? A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Richard; Lampe, Fiona; Molloy, Tim; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-03-19

    Although the Internet is commonly used to recruit samples in studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors, it has not been used to measure patient-reported well-being. As the burden of long-term chronic HIV infection rises, the Internet may offer enormous potential for recruitment to research and interventions. This study aimed to compare two samples of gay men living with HIV, one recruited via the Web and the other recruited in outpatient settings, in terms of self-reported physical and psychological symptom burden. The Internet sample was recruited from a UK-wide Web-based survey of gay men with diagnosed HIV. Of these, 154 respondents identified themselves as resident in London and were included in this analysis. The HIV clinic sample was recruited from five HIV outpatient clinics. Of these participants, 400 gay men recruited in London clinics were included in this analysis. The Web-based sample was younger than the clinic sample (37.3 years, SD 7.0 vs 40.9 years, SD 8.3), more likely to be in paid employment (72.8%, 99/136 vs 60.1%, 227/378), less likely to be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (58.4%, 90/154 vs 68.0%, 266/391), and had worse mean psychological symptom burden compared to the clinic sample (mean scores: 1.61, SD 1.09 vs 1.36, SD 0.96) but similar physical symptom burden (mean scores: 0.78, SD 0.65 vs 0.70, SD 0.74). In multivariable logistic regression, for the physical symptom burden model, adjusted for age, ethnicity, employment status, and ART use, the recruitment setting (ie, Web-based vs clinic) was not significantly associated with high physical symptom score. The only variable that remained significantly associated with high physical symptom score was employment status, with those in employment being less likely to report being in the upper (worst) physical symptom tertile versus the other two tertiles (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.28-0.62, Ppsychological symptom burden model, those recruited via the Web were

  20. Behavioral and Psychologic Symptoms in Different Types of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jang Chiu

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: A strategy of targeting type-specific BPSD may be beneficial, such as environmental stimulus control for DLB patients who are prone to have hallucinations, design of a pacing path for patients with FTD who need support for symptoms of wandering and emotional support for patients with VaD who are susceptible to depression.

  1. Eating and Psychological Profiles of Women with Higher Depressive Symptoms Who Are Trying to Lose Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bégin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether women with higher depressive symptoms differed from women with lower depressive symptoms on early weight-loss, eating behaviors and psychological profiles. Among a sample of 45 overweight/obese women who had undertaken a self-initiated weight-loss attempt, two groups were formed based on scores from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, one with lower depressive symptoms (BDI-II < 10; n=21 and one with higher depressive symptoms (BDI ≥ 10; n=24. Even if some women in the higher depressive symptom group did not reach the clinical cut-off for depression (BDI = 14, this group tended to lose less weight in the first two months of their weight-loss attempt and to show a more disturbed eating and psychological profile compared to the group with lower depressive symptoms. In addition, among women with higher depressive symptoms, eating and psychological variables were systematically related to one another whereas these variables were not related among the other group. Results highlight the relevance of considering the presence of depressive symptoms as a marker of clinical severity among the overweight/obese population, and suggest that the BDI-II could be an interesting screening instrument to identify this particular subgroup.

  2. What else should we know about experiencing COPD? A narrative review in search of patients’ psychological burden alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzadkiewicz M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marta Rzadkiewicz,1 Ola Bråtas,2 Geir Arild Espnes2 1Second Faculty of Medicine with The English Division and The Physiotherapy Division, Department of Medical Psychology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 2Center for Health Promotion Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Abstract: The present paper is a narrative review focusing on the psychological impact, identification of protective factors, and interventions minimizing the psychological burdens of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The research reviews studies on neurocognitive functions, personality, emotional problems, and health-related quality of life. This is done with regard to resources as well as activities enabling or enhancing a patient’s adaptation. PubMed and PsychArticles databases were searched for relevant medical (eg, CODP, emphysema, psychopathology (eg, depression, and psychological (eg, personality keywords, followed by hand search. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the search resulted in 82 articles and book chapters. The choice was based on evidence accepted by evidence-based medicine, although at different levels of strength. Psychological experiencing of COPD appears to be very unequally represented with scientific research on emotional problems and functioning decrease significantly outnumbering those addressing resources or effective interventions. As our initial literature search called for an urgent need for further exploration, we have carefully pointed out numerous areas where the knowledge on how to protect or restore psychological well-being among COPD patients should be broadened. Keywords: COPD, chronic illness, psychological intervention, personality, mental health, HRQoL

  3. Symptom burden and dysphagia associated with osteoradionecrosis in long-term oropharynx cancer survivors: A cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Angela T T; Lai, Stephen Y; Gunn, G Brandon; Beadle, Beth M; Fuller, Clifton D; Barrow, Martha P; Hofstede, Theresa M; Chambers, Mark S; Sturgis, Erich M; Mohamed, Abdallah Sherif Radwan; Lewin, Jan S; Hutcheson, Katherine A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose is to examine the relationship between mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) and chronic dysphagia in long-term oropharynx cancer (OPC) survivors, and to determine the perceived symptom burden associated with ORN. Medical records of 349 OPC patients treated with bilateral IMRT and systemic therapy were reviewed. ORN was graded using a published 4-point classification schema. Patients were considered to have chronic dysphagia if they had aspiration pneumonia, stricture or aspiration detected by fluoroscopy or endoscopy, and/or feeding tube dependence in long-term follow-up ⩾1year following radiotherapy. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory - Head and Neck Module (MDASI-HN) scores were analyzed in a nested cross-sectional survey sample of 118 patients. 34 (9.7%, 95% CI: 6.8-13.3%) patients developed ORN and 45 (12.9%, 95% CI: 9.6-16.9%) patients developed chronic dysphagia. Prevalence of chronic dysphagia was significantly higher in ORN cases (12/34, 35%) compared to those who did not develop ORN (33/315, 11%, p<0.001). ORN grade was also significantly associated with prevalence of dysphagia (p<0.001); the majority of patients with grade 4 ORN requiring major surgery (6 patients, 75%) were found to have chronic dysphagia. Summary MDASI-HN symptom scores did not significantly differ by ORN grade. Significantly higher symptom burden was reported, however, among ORN cases compared to those without ORN for MDASI-HN swallowing (p=0.033), problems with teeth and/or gums (p=0.016) and change in activity (p=0.015) item scores. ORN is associated with excess burden of chronic dysphagia and higher symptom severity related to swallowing, dentition and activity limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood maltreatment, psychological resources, and depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Boyle, Chloe C; Irwin, Michael R; Ganz, Patricia A; Crespi, Catherine M; Asher, Arash; Petersen, Laura; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with elevated risk for depression across the human lifespan. Identifying the pathways through which childhood maltreatment relates to depressive symptoms may elucidate intervention targets that have the potential to reduce the lifelong negative health sequelae of maltreatment exposure. In this cross-sectional study, 271 women with early-stage breast cancer were assessed after their diagnosis but before the start of adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, endocrine therapy). Participants completed measures of childhood maltreatment exposure, psychological resources (optimism, mastery, self-esteem, mindfulness), and depressive symptoms. Using multiple mediation analyses, we examined which psychological resources uniquely mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was robustly associated with lower psychological resources and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, lower optimism and mindfulness mediated the association between childhood maltreatment and elevated depressive symptoms. These results support existing theory that childhood maltreatment is associated with lower psychological resources, which partially explains elevated depressive symptoms in a sample of women facing breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. These findings warrant replication in populations facing other major life events and highlight the need for additional studies examining childhood maltreatment as a moderator of treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychological symptoms and medical responses in nineteenth-century India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, P; Murthy, Pratima; Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

    2015-03-01

    The article documents medical approaches to mental illness in mid- to late-nineteenth-century India through examining the Indian Medical Gazette and other medical accounts. By the late nineteenth century, psychiatry in Europe moved from discussions around asylum-based care to a nuanced and informed debate about the nature of mental symptoms. This included ideas on phrenology and craniometry, biological and psycho-social causes, physical and drug treatments, many of which travelled to India. Simultaneously, indigenous socio-medical ideas were being debated. From the early to the mid-nineteenth century, not much distinction was made between the Western and the native 'mind', and consequently the diagnosis and investigation of mental symptoms did not differ. However, by the late nineteenth century Western medicine considered the 'Western mind' as more civilized and sophisticated than the 'native mind. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Psychological symptoms and quality of life among residents ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Elevated levels of air manganese (air-Mn) exposure have been associated with adverse health effects. This study examined the relationship of air-Mn concentrations with mood and quality of life.Participants and methods: 185 residents (age mean (M)=55.13±10.88; education yrs M=13.77±2.60; residence yrs M=41.01±16.91) exposed to long-term air-Mn from two Ohio towns, and 90 residents (age M=55.53±10.96; education yrs M=15.18±3.04; residence yrs M=33.59±17.25) from an unexposed Ohio town completed the Healthy Days Measures of the BRFSS, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). In the SCL-90-R, “caseness” is defined as at least two symptom dimensions at or above 90th percentile of the normative population. Air-Mn concentrations were estimated over ten years using the U.S. EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model. ANCOVA, chi-square and regression analyses were used with years of residence and education as covariates.Results: The exposed towns had proportionally more residents with ≥2 elevated SCL-90-R dimensions (“cases”) than the unexposed town (χ²=3.602, p=.058). Air-Mn concentrations were associated with higher levels of Anxiety (β=.162, p=.031) and higher Positive Symptom Distress (β=.147, p=.048). Obsessive-compulsive (β=.137, p=.071) and Psychoticism (β=.136, p=.072) approached significance. Air-Mn concentrations were associated with poor mental health in the past 30 days (β=.168, p=.026). Exposed “case” residents compared to

  7. EXPERIENCED STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS, SELF-RATED HEALTH AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SWEDISH UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaez, Marjan; Laflamme, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    ...) by self-administered questionnaires. Students' sociodemographic characteristics, their experience of stressors, psychological symptoms, and mental and general health ratings were linked to their academic achievement (degree completed...

  8. Measuring the symptom burden associated with the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Loretta A; Garcia Gonzalez, Araceli G; Ault, Patricia; Mendoza, Tito R; Sailors, Mary L; Williams, Janet L; Huang, Furong; Nazha, Aziz; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Cleeland, Charles S; Cortes, Jorge E

    2013-08-01

    We developed a module of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). To develop the MDASI-CML, we identified CML-specific symptoms from qualitative interviews with 35 patients. A list of candidate symptoms was reduced by a panel of patients, caregivers, and clinicians to the 13 core MDASI symptom items and 6 CML-specific items; these items were subsequently administered to 30 patients. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that the items were clear, relevant, and easy to use. One additional CML-specific symptom item was added, for a total of 7. The refined MDASI-CML was administered to 152 patients once every 2 weeks for 1 year. The content, concurrent, known-group, and construct validity of the MDASI-CML were evaluated. The internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities of the module were adequate. Longitudinal analysis showed relatively stable symptom severity scores over time. The most severe symptoms were fatigue, drowsiness, disturbed sleep, muscle soreness and cramping, and trouble remembering things. Approximately one-third of the patients who completed the MDASI-CML reported persistent moderate-to-severe symptoms. The MDASI-CML is a valid and reliable symptom assessment instrument that can be used in clinical studies of symptom status in patients with CML.

  9. Investigation of the relationship between suicide probability in inpatients and their psychological symptoms and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Sabanciogullar, Selma; Yilmaz, Feride T

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between suicide probability and psychological symptoms and coping strategies in hospitalized patients with physical illness. This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2014 in Bandirma State Hospital, Balikesir, Turkey. The sample of the study consisted of 470 inpatients who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study. The data were collected with the Personal Information Form, Suicide Probability Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and Ways of Coping with Stress Inventory. In the study, 74.7% were at moderate risk for suicide, whereas 20.4% were at high risk for suicide. According to the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, sub-dimensions of the Ways of Coping with Stress Inventory and Brief Symptom Inventory were the significant predictors of suicide probability. The majority of the patients with physical illness were at risk for suicide probability. Individuals who had psychological symptoms and used maladaptive coping ways obtained significantly higher suicide probability scores.

  10. CYBER BULLYING, CYBER VICTIMIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS: A STUDY IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Mustafa; AYDIN, Betul; Serkan Volkan SARI

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between cyber bullying, cyber victimization and psychological symptoms was investigated in adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 300 high school student adolescents who attend different types of high schools in Trabzon in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study, demographic data form, The Scale of Cyber bullying and Brief Symptom Inventory were used as data collection instruments. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients, One-Way ANOVA and independent samp...

  11. Association of Psychological Disorders with Extra-intestinal Symptoms in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mirbagher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available present study, we determined the relationship between psychological disorders and extraintestinal symptoms in patients with IBS.Methods: Adult patients with IBS referred to 4 gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan, Iran, completed the irritable bowel severity scoring system (IBSSS, extraintestinal symptoms scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Irritable Bowel SyndromeQuality of Life (IBS-QOL Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted.Results: The patients included 113 females and 45 males with mean age of 34.8 ± 11.1 years. Cumulative frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was 3.3 ± 2.4 (0 to 10. Anxiety and depression were present in 79.7% and 54.4% of the patients, respectively. Frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was correlated with anxiety and depression (r = 0.289 to 0.531, IBS severity (r = 0.373 to 0.505, and quality of life (r = -0.317 to -0.398. Severity of IBS was independently associated with extraintestinal digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = 0.248. Female gender, education level, and anxiety were independently associated with extraintestinal non-digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = -0.225 to 0.260. Severity of IBS and frequency of non-digestive symptoms were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.494 and -0.218. After controlling for psychological factors, IBS severity and depression were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.435 and -0.318.Conclusion: Extraintestinal symptoms and psychological disorders are common in patients with IBS and impact their quality of life. Psychological disorders are associated with extraintestinal symptoms, especially non-digestive symptoms. These results highlight the need for an integrated biopsychosocial approach to the management of IBS patients with physical and mental comorbidities.

  12. Effects of work burden, job strain and support on depressive symptoms and burnout among Japanese physicians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Chiba, Shigeru; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kawanishi, Yasuyuki; Nakagi, Yoshihiko; Itoh, Toshihiro; Sugioka, Yoshihiko; Kitaoka-Higashiguchi, Kazuyo; Yoshida, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    .... The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to evaluate burnout. Possible confounder adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios for depressive symptoms...

  13. Gay male sexual assault survivors: the relations among internalized homophobia, experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sari D; Marx, Brian P; Lexington, Jennifer M

    2007-03-01

    This study explored the relations among internalized homophobia (IH), experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity in a community sample of 74 gay male sexual assault survivors. Results indicated that IH is associated with both depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. IH accounted for more variance than assault severity in predicting both PTSD and depression symptom severity. IH and experiential avoidance similarly predicted PTSD symptom severity. In comparison with IH, however, experiential avoidance is a stronger predictor of depression symptom severity. Results also showed that experiential avoidance partially mediated the relation between IH and both depressive and PTSD symptom severity. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.

  14. Lifetime co-occurrence of violence victimisation and symptoms of psychological ill health: a cross-sectional study of Swedish male and female clinical and population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Johanna; Wijma, Barbro; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2015-09-28

    violence or violence by one kind of perpetrator is considered this may lead to a misinterpretation of the association between violence and psychological ill health. When the effect of unmeasured traumata is ignored, the full burden of violence experienced by victims may be underestimated. Different kinds of victimisation can work interactively, making exposure to multiple forms of violence as well as violence by multiple perpetrators more strongly associated with symptoms of psychological ill health than any one kind of victimisation alone.

  15. Maternal Psychological Control and Child Internalizing Symptoms: Vulnerability and Protective Factors across Bioregulatory and Ecological Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Kelly, Ryan J.; Erath, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background: We examined ecological (family socioeconomic status (SES)) and bioregulatory (sleep duration, sleep efficiency) moderators of the link between maternal psychological control and children's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Method: A large socioeconomically diverse sample of third graders (N = 141) and their mothers participated.…

  16. Predicting Adjustment during the Transition to College: Alexithymia, Perceived Stress, and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Sandra; Johnson, Vanessa K.; Gans, Susan E.; Krumrine, Jodi

    2004-01-01

    Fifty-six incoming college students were assessed in a study of the contribution of alexithymia, stress, and psychological symptoms to college adjustment. Alexithymia predicted fall semester adjustment, suggesting that interventions aimed at encouraging awareness and discussion of emotions may improve academic and emotional well-being for students…

  17. Emotional Intelligence, Cognitive Flexibility and Psychological Symptoms in Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence, cognitive flexibility and psychological symptoms in pre-service teachers. The study included 414 pre-service teachers at the Faculty of Education, Mersin University, Turkey. Pearson product-moment correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to…

  18. Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence: Concurrent and Stable Roles and Psychological Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Modena, Marco; Tani, Franca

    2009-01-01

    From an initial sample of 1,278 Italian students, the authors selected 537 on the basis of their responses to a self-report bully and victim questionnaire. Participants' ages ranged from 13 to 20 years (M = 15.12 years, SD = 1.08 years). The authors compared the concurrent psychological symptoms of 4 participant groups (bullies, victims,…

  19. Diagnosing Cartman: Psychology Students' Use of Symptoms and Traits to Assess Child Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…

  20. Betrayal Trauma: Associations with Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma, or trauma perpetrated by someone with whom a victim is close, is strongly associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, few studies have examined associations between different forms of trauma and emotional and physical symptoms. The present study compared betrayal trauma to other forms…

  1. Depressive symptoms in adolescence : Longitudinal links with maternal empathy and psychological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Lente L. A. A.; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, Susan J. T.

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers'

  2. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, L.A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413575535; van der Graaff, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/321887425; Meeus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; Branje, S.J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/192657860

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/ S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms, through mothers’

  3. The Contributions of Attachment Styles, Irrational Beliefs and Psychological Symptoms to the Prediction of Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the contributions of styles of attachment, irrational beliefs and psychological symptoms to the prediction of cognitive flexibility were analysed. The sample consists of 436 students studying in various departments and faculties in Mersin University. The Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Relationships Scale, Irrational Beliefs Scale…

  4. Role of Virtues and Perceived Life Stress in Affecting Psychological Symptoms among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Siu, Bowie P. Y.; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship among virtues, self-perceived life stress, and psychological symptoms. Participants: A total of 235 undergraduates participated in the study in March 2013. Methods: The participants were recruited to complete the Life Stress Rating Scale for College Students, the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire that…

  5. The Relationship between Childhood Abuse, Psychological Symptoms and Subsequent Sex Offending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood sexual and physical abuse has been related to subsequent offending behaviour in non-disabled individuals as well as people with intellectual disabilities, but there is a dearth of research examining the link between these two characteristics and psychological, behavioural and psychiatric symptoms amongst sex offenders with…

  6. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  7. The Effect of Gender and Attachment Styles on the Relationship between Marital Adjustment and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruk, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the moderating effects of attachment styles and gender on the predictive strength of marital adjustment on psychological symptoms among Turkish married individuals. Correlational model was used and the sample consisted of 178 married individuals. The data was gathered through online survey. The Turkish form…

  8. Acculturation, Enculturation, Perceived Racism, and Psychological Symptoms among Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamilla, Saul G.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Walker, Tamisha; Sisson, Frederick Riley

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating influences of behavioral and values acculturation and enculturation in a sample of 113 Asian Americans. Findings from regression analyses revealed that acculturation to European American cultural values, alone and in interaction with perceived racism, was related to less psychological symptoms, whereas…

  9. [Body image, psychological symptoms and eating disorders among Chilean adolescents and young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat-Mandich, Claudia; Díaz-Castrillón, Fernanda; Lizana-Calderón, Paula; Castro, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The construction of body image is crucial during adolescent development. Several studies show that body dissatisfaction is common, especially among women. This is a risk factor for eating behavior disorders. To describe psychological variables and dimensions about body image among adolescents and young adults. Three self-administered questionnaires, MBSRQ (Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire) that measures body image, Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) that measures the presence of psychological and psychiatric symptoms and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), which measures eating problems, were applied to 1,438 students aged 19 ± 2.7 years (53% women) from three Chilean regions. Sixty five percent of respondents would like to weigh less. Compared with men, women have greater psychological distress, concerns about their appearance and their weight, are more obsessed with thinness, and have fewer behaviors aimed at solving these problems. A high percentage of respondents want to lose weight. In addition, women have serious desires and search for thinness.

  10. Adding to the Burden: Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Syndromes in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Levinthal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS patients often suffer from gastrointestinal (GI symptoms. However, the full extent and prevalence of such symptoms are not clearly established. Thus, we sought to define the prevalence of GI symptoms and syndromes in those with MS. Methods. 218 MS patients completed self-reported demographic and clinical data questionnaires as well as several standardized surveys probing MS severity and GI health. Results. Nearly two thirds (65.6% of patients endorsed at least one persistent GI symptom. Constipation (36.6%, dysphagia (21.1%, and fecal incontinence (15.1% were common. Surprisingly, nearly 30% (28.4% of the patients reported dyspeptic symptoms. Using validated diagnostic algorithms, patients met criteria for functional dysphagia (14.7%, functional dyspepsia (16.5%, functional constipation (31.7%, and IBS (19.3%, among others. Functional dysphagia, functional dyspepsia, and IBS were significantly more common in those with self-identified mood disorders. Conclusions. Constipation, fecal incontinence, and dysphagia are indeed frequent symptoms seen in MS patients. We also noted a ~30% prevalence of dyspepsia in this population. The mechanisms driving this association are not clear and require further study. However, due to this high prevalence, dyspeptic symptoms should be incorporated into the routine assessment of MS patients and, if found, may warrant collaborative referral with a GI specialist.

  11. Personality moderates the longitudinal relationship between psychological symptoms and alcohol use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Clare J; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Conrod, Patricia J

    2011-04-01

    A great deal of research has emerged on the comorbidity between alcohol misuse and psychological symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety, and antisocial behavior or conduct disorder) in adolescence. Research has also shown that personality traits underlie vulnerability to alcohol use and psychological symptoms, but how personality moderates this association has not been comprehensively examined. The goals of this study are to clarify (i) whether early alcohol use effects the rate of change of psychological symptoms and vice versa, (ii) whether initial levels and rate of change in both domains vary according to individual differences in personality traits, and (iii) whether personality moderates the relationship between alcohol use and psychological symptoms. Self-reported alcohol use, depression, anxiety, and antisocial behavior were collected from 393 adolescents at four separate time points across an 18-month period. Parallel growth models were used to assess the main objectives of the study. Personality traits [anxiety sensitivity (AS), hopelessness (H), impulsivity (IMP), and sensation seeking (SS)] were included as time-invariant predictors of initial levels and rates of change of each construct. The results indicated that elevated levels of depression predicted faster rates of increase in alcohol use. Personality-specific relationships were demonstrated across all models. IMP was shown to moderate the relationship between alcohol use and depression, suggesting that adolescents who showed a susceptibility to elevated levels of IMP, and heavier drinking were less likely to demonstrate a normative decline in depression. Adolescents with higher levels of AS and anxiety were more likely to show a faster rate of increase in alcohol use. These results highlight the importance of examining personality traits in studying the associations between alcohol use and psychological symptoms. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Psychosocial and socioeconomic burden of vasomotor symptoms in menopause: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utian Wulf H

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many women experience vasomotor symptoms at or around the time of menopause. Hot flushes and night sweats are considered primary menopausal symptoms that may also be associated with sleep and mood disturbances, as well as decreased cognitive function. All of these symptoms may lead to social impairment and work-related difficulties that significantly decrease overall quality of life. Hot flushes have shown a great deal of variability in their frequency and severity in women. In some women, hot flushes persist for several months; in others, they may last for more than 10 years. Traditionally vasomotor symptoms were reported to begin 5 to 10 years prior to the cessation of the final menstrual cycle, corresponding with the initial decline in circulating gonadal hormones; however, night sweats in particular most often begin in perimenopause. The pathogenesis of hot flushes has not yet been fully elucidated, but the circuitry involving estrogen and neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and serotonin specifically, are hypothesized to play a major role in the altered homeostatic thermoregulatory mechanisms underlying these events. Menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms are associated with significant direct and indirect costs. Overall costs of traditional pharmacotherapy or complementary and alternative medicine modalities, including over-the-counter treatments and dietary supplements, for managing menopause-related vasomotor symptoms are substantial and include initial and follow-up physician visits and telephone calls. Additional costs include laboratory testing, management of adverse events, loss of productivity at work, and personal and miscellaneous costs. Pharmacoeconomic analyses, including those that consider risks identified by the Women's Health Initiative, generally support the cost-effectiveness of hormonal therapy for menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms, which have been the mainstay for the management of these symptoms for more

  13. Psychosocial and socioeconomic burden of vasomotor symptoms in menopause: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utian, Wulf H

    2005-08-05

    Many women experience vasomotor symptoms at or around the time of menopause. Hot flushes and night sweats are considered primary menopausal symptoms that may also be associated with sleep and mood disturbances, as well as decreased cognitive function. All of these symptoms may lead to social impairment and work-related difficulties that significantly decrease overall quality of life. Hot flushes have shown a great deal of variability in their frequency and severity in women. In some women, hot flushes persist for several months; in others, they may last for more than 10 years. Traditionally vasomotor symptoms were reported to begin 5 to 10 years prior to the cessation of the final menstrual cycle, corresponding with the initial decline in circulating gonadal hormones; however, night sweats in particular most often begin in perimenopause. The pathogenesis of hot flushes has not yet been fully elucidated, but the circuitry involving estrogen and neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and serotonin specifically, are hypothesized to play a major role in the altered homeostatic thermoregulatory mechanisms underlying these events. Menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms are associated with significant direct and indirect costs. Overall costs of traditional pharmacotherapy or complementary and alternative medicine modalities, including over-the-counter treatments and dietary supplements, for managing menopause-related vasomotor symptoms are substantial and include initial and follow-up physician visits and telephone calls. Additional costs include laboratory testing, management of adverse events, loss of productivity at work, and personal and miscellaneous costs. Pharmacoeconomic analyses, including those that consider risks identified by the Women's Health Initiative, generally support the cost-effectiveness of hormonal therapy for menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms, which have been the mainstay for the management of these symptoms for more than 50 years. However

  14. Psychological symptoms and quality of life of dermatology outpatients and hospitalized dermatology patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Ibsen, Hans Henning

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to compare psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life of dermatology patients and healthy controls. The sample consisted of 333 consecutively recruited patients from four dermatology outpatient clinics, 172 hospitalized dermatological patients from...... and older patients, and patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis were more distressed than patients with urticaria and eczemas. Disease-related impairment of quality of life was the main predictor of psychological symptoms, when controlling for diagnosis, age, gender, disease duration and disease...... two university hospitals and 293 matched healthy controls. All patients and controls completed Beck's Depression Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Hospitalized patients were more distressed than outpatients and healthy controls and reported greater...

  15. Peer victimization predicts psychological symptoms beyond the effects of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Iffland, Benjamin; Neuner, Frank

    2014-12-30

    Experiences of peer victimization have been repeatedly associated with psychological symptoms and disorders. However, as peer victimization is correlated with child maltreatment occurring within the family, it remains unclear whether the pathological effect of peer victimization is an artifact that can be attributed to previous aversive events. To separate the effects of peer victimization from child maltreatment, we studied both event types as well as psychological symptoms in a mixed clinical sample of ambulant and psychiatric patients (N=168), a self-selected community sample recruited through the internet (N=995), and a student sample (N=272). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that, after controlling for child maltreatment, peer victimization accounted for an incremental proportion of the variance of different symptom dimensions in each sample. These results indicate that peer victimization is an independent predictor of psychopathology.

  16. The Predictive Strength of Perceived Parenting and Parental Attachment Styles on Psychological Symptoms among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körük, Serdar; Öztürk, Abdülkadir; Kara, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and…

  17. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  18. Investigation into psychological correlates of patients with vocal nodules using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jae Ho; Lee, Kyung Chul; Jin, Sung Min

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychological characteristics of patients with vocal nodules and to establish the relationship between these characteristics and the development of vocal nodules. A tertiary medical centre. The patient group consisted of 41 housewives with vocal nodules, and the control group consisted of 35 housewives who did not have any vocal pathology. The subjects completed questionnaires related to the voice disorder and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision. The scores of the patient group with less than 1 year of symptom duration (acute) and more than 1 year of symptom duration (chronic) were also compared with those of the controls. The total patient group differed statistically from the control group on seven neurotic dimensions (p vocal nodules. The dimensions in which the total patient group differed significantly from the control group may indicate the changes that occur in the psychological characteristics following voice change. The collective results indicate that psychological characteristics play an important role in the pathogenesis of vocal nodules. Hence, greater attention should be given to the psychological and emotional aspects of patients for the treatment and prevention of vocal nodules.

  19. Psychological factors mediate key symptoms of fibromyalgia through their influence on stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2016-09-01

    The clinical features of fibromyalgia are associated with various psychological factors, including stress. We examined the hypothesis that the path that psychological factors follow in influencing fibromyalgia symptoms is through their direct effect on stress. Ninety-eight females with ACR 1990 classified fibromyalgia completed the following questionnaires: The Big 5 Personality Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Mastery Scale, and Perceived Control of Internal States Scale. SPSS (PASW version 22) was used to perform basic t tests, means, and standard deviations to show difference between symptom characteristics. Pathway analysis using structural equation modelling (Laavan) examined the effect of stress on the relationships between psychological factors and the elements that define the fibromyalgia phenotype. The preferred model showed that the identified path clearly linked the psychological variables of anxiety, neuroticism and mastery, but not internal control, to the three key elements of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep (p fibromyalgia symptoms. This has implications for the understanding of contributing mechanisms and the clinical care of patients with fibromyalgia.

  20. The family model stress and maternal psychological symptoms: mediated pathways from economic hardship to parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Crnic, Keith A; Cox, Martha J; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

    2013-02-01

    Although much of the extant research on low-income families has targeted parental depression as the predominant psychological response to economic hardship, the current study examined a range of maternal psychological symptoms that may mediate the relations between early economic pressure and later parenting behaviors. A family stress model was examined using data from 1,142 mothers living in 2 areas of high rural poverty, focusing on the infancy through toddlerhood period. Maternal questionnaires and observations of mother-child interactions were collected across 4 time points (6, 15, 24, and 36 months). Results from structural equation analyses indicated that early economic pressure was significantly related to a variety of symptoms (depression, hostility, anxiety, and somatization), but only depression and somatization were significantly related to decreased levels of sensitive, supportive parenting behaviors. In contrast, anxiety was positively associated with sensitive parenting. Depression and anxiety were both found to mediate the relations between economic pressure and sensitive parenting behaviors. Results further suggest that mothers did not experience change in objective economic hardship over time but did experience a small decrease in economic pressure. Discussion centers on the apparent indirect influence of early economic hardship on later psychological symptoms and parenting behaviors, as well as detailing the need for broader and more complex perspectives on maternal psychological responses that arise as a result of economic disadvantage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Representations of control and psychological symptoms in couples dealing with cancer: a dyadic-regulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Giannousi, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between illness representations of personal and treatment control and psychological symptoms (i.e. symptoms of anxiety and depression) in 72 married couples dealing with a recently diagnosed cancer. Patients were first-diagnosed with early stage (45.83%) or metastatic cancer (54.17%). Dyadic responses were examined with the actor-partner interdependence model. Also, in order to examine whether patients and spouses' representations of control moderate the relation of their partners' corresponding representations to psychological symptoms, we used the relevant bootstrapping framework developed by Hayes and Matthes [(2009). Computational procedures for probing interactions in OLS and logistic regression: SPSS and SAS implementations. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 924-936]. Patients' symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated with both partners' representations of control. Chi-square difference tests indicated that actor and partner effects were equal. Spouses' symptoms of anxiety and depression were related only to their own representations. Moreover, spouses' representations of personal control moderated the relation of patients' corresponding representations to depressive symptoms, whereas patients' representations of treatment control moderated the relation of their spouses' corresponding representations to both anxiety and depression. Findings suggest that both partners' representations of control are important for adaptation to illness. Moreover, they indicate that dyadic regulation may be equally important to self-regulation as far as adaptation to illness is concerned.

  2. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.

  3. A structural model of mechanisms predicting depressive symptoms in women following childhood psychological maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Aubrey A; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2014-01-01

    Two underlying mechanisms, emotion dysregulation and negative internalized beliefs, were examined as potential mediators of the association between childhood psychological maltreatment (PM) and depression in emerging adult women. PM was assessed as a multi-faceted construct including aspects of psychological abuse (e.g., corrupting) and psychological neglect (e.g., emotional unresponsiveness) that occurred by parents. Female undergraduates (n=771) completed anonymous, retrospective, self-report surveys assessing childhood PM, current depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation (lack of emotional clarity and regulation strategies), and negative internalized beliefs (mistrust, shame, and defectiveness). Psychological maltreatment was represented as four subtypes of psychological abuse or neglectful behavior: Emotional Non-Responsiveness, Spurning/Terrorizing, Corrupting, and Demanding/Rigid (i.e., controlling behavior). Both emotion dysregulation and negative internalized beliefs significantly mediated the link between childhood PM and depressive symptoms, accounting for approximately 68% of the variance in symptomatology. Findings suggest the importance of focusing intervention on development of emotion regulation capacity including emotional awareness and regulatory strategies, as well as a focus on core negative beliefs including shame, defectiveness, and mistrust of others. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Linking family cohesion and flexibility with expressed emotion, family burden and psychological distress in caregivers of patients with psychosis: A path analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Simos, Panagiotis; Triliva, Sofia; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2016-06-30

    The present study aimed to evaluate a path analytic model accounting for caregivers' psychological distress that takes into account perceived family cohesion and flexibility, expressed emotion and caregiver's burden associated with the presence of mental illness in the family. 50 first-episode and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) recruited from the Inpatient Psychiatric Unit of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was assessed in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES-IV), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of family dynamics on caregivers' psychological distress. The results showed that neither family cohesion nor family flexibility exerted significant direct effects on caregivers' psychological distress. Instead, the effect of flexibility was mediated by caregivers' criticism and family burden indicating an indirect effect on caregivers' psychological distress. These results apply equally to caregivers of first episode and chronic patients. Family interventions aiming to improve dysfunctional family interactions by promoting awareness of family dynamics could reduce the burden and improve the emotional well-being of family caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Symptom Burden, Medication Detriment, and Support for the Use of the 15D Health-Related Quality of Life Instrument in a Chronic Pain Clinic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. Dick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic noncancer pain is a prevalent problem associated with poor quality of life. While symptom burden is frequently mentioned in the literature and clinical settings, this research highlights the considerable negative impact of chronic pain on the individual. The 15D, a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL, is a user-friendly tool with good psychometric properties. Using a modified edmonton symptom assessment scale (ESAS, we examined whether demographics, medical history, and symptom burden reports from the ESAS would be related statistically to HRQOL measured with the 15D. Symptom burden, medication detriment scores, and number of medical comorbidities were significant negative predictors of 15D scores with ESAS symptom burden being the strongest predictor. Our findings highlight the tremendous symptom burden experienced in our sample. Our data suggest that heavier prescription medication treatment for chronic pain has the potential to negatively impact HRQOL. Much remains unknown regarding how to assess and improve HRQOL in this relatively heterogeneous clinical population.

  6. Do Cancer-Related Beliefs Influence the Severity, Incidence, and Persistence of Psychological Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desautels, Caroline; Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Ruel, Sophie; Ivers, Hans; Savard, Josée

    Previous studies have suggested that negative beliefs about cancer may impair patients' psychological well-being, but only a few of these studies focused on specific psychological symptoms, and many were cross-sectional. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the relationship of cancer-related cognitions with the severity, incidence, and persistence of anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence, depression, and insomnia symptoms during an 18-month period. Patients scheduled to undergo surgery for cancer (N = 962) completed a questionnaire assessing cancer-related cognitions at baseline (T1), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the severity subscale of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, and the Insomnia Severity Index at baseline (T1) and 2 (T2), 6 (T3), 10 (T4), 14 (T5), and 18 (T6) months later. Group × time factorial analyses using mixed models revealed that participants endorsing more negative cancer-related cognitions consistently reported more severe symptoms throughout the 18-month period. Logistic regression analyses suggested that endorsing more negative cancer-related cognitions at T1 significantly increased incidence and persistence rates of clinical levels of psychological symptoms. These findings suggest that the endorsement of negative cancer-related beliefs at the perioperative period influences the longitudinal evolution of anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence, depression, and insomnia symptoms in the following months. These results highlight the relevance of using cognitive restructuring early during the cancer care trajectory to potentially revise erroneous beliefs about cancer and prevent the incidence and persistence of psychological disturbances over time.

  7. Fatigue in lung cancer patients: symptom burden and management of challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carnio S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Simona Carnio, Rosario Francesco Di Stefano, Silvia Novello Oncology Department, University of Turin, AOU San Luigi, Orbassano, Italy Abstract: Lung cancer (LC remains the most common cause of cancer death in several countries across the world. Fatigue is the most frequently reported symptom in LC patients throughout the entire course of disease, and all international guidelines recommend early screening for cancer-related fatigue (CRF and symptoms that can affect patients' quality of life. In patients with LC, fatigue belongs to the symptom cluster of pain, depression, and insomnia, which are commonly observed simultaneously, but are typically treated as separate although they may have common biological mechanisms. The treatment of CRF remains one of the difficult areas in the oncology field: scarce evidence supports pharmacological therapies, while some interesting data arising indicates alternative remedies and physical exercise seem to be one of the most effective approaches for CRF at any stage of LC. Keywords: fatigue, lung cancer, symptom cluster, quality of life

  8. Postintensive care unit psychological burden in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and informal caregivers: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Sandra; Pochard, Frédéric; Chaize, Marine; Megarbane, Bruno; Cuvelier, Antoine; Bele, Nicolas; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jesus; Aboab, Jérome; Lautrette, Alexandre; Lemiale, Virginie; Roche, Nicolas; Thirion, Marina; Chevret, Sylvie; Schlemmer, Benoit; Similowski, Thomas; Azoulay, Elie

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder-related symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their relatives after an intensive care unit stay. Prospective multicenter study. Nineteen French intensive care units. One hundred twenty-six patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who survived an intensive care unit stay and 102 relatives. None. Patients and relatives were interviewed at intensive care unit discharge and 90 days later to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and posttraumatic stress disorder-related symptoms using the Impact of Event Scale (IES). At intensive care unit discharge, 90% of patients recollected traumatic psychological events in the intensive care unit. At day 90, we were able to conduct telephone interviews with 53 patients and 47 relatives. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores indicated symptoms of anxiety and depression in 52% and 45.5% of patients at intensive care unit discharge and in 28.3% and 18.9% on day 90, respectively. Corresponding prevalence in relatives were 72.2% and 25.7% at intensive care unit discharge and 40.4% and 14.9% on day 90, respectively. The Impact of Event Scale indicated posttraumatic stress disorder-related symptoms in 20.7% of patients and 29.8% of relatives on day 90. Peritraumatic dissociation assessed using the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire was independently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder-related symptoms in the patients and relatives. Previous intensive care unit experience and recollection of bothersome noise in the intensive care unit predicted posttraumatic stress disorder-related symptoms in the patients. Psychiatric symptoms were found to be common in a group of 126 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who survived an intensive care unit stay and their relatives at intensive care

  9. Effects of work burden, job strain and support on depressive symptoms and burnout among Japanese physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Saijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Days off, on call, night duty, working hours and job stress can affect physicians’ mental health, and support from supervisors and co-workers may have a buffering effect. This study elucidates whether job strain and job factors affect physicians’ mental health, and whether support from supervisors and co-workers has a protective effect on their mental health. Material and Methods: The subjects included 494 physicians. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ was used to evaluate job demand, job control and support. High job strain was defined as a combination of high job demand and low job control. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The Maslach Burnout Inventory- General Survey was used to evaluate burnout. Possible confounder adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios for depressive symptoms and burnout. Results: As per the analysis, high job strain had significantly higher odds ratios, and support from co-workers had significant protective odds ratios for depressive symptoms. High job strain and having only 2–4 days off per month (compared to > 8 days off per month had significantly higher odds ratios, and support from co-workers had significant protective odds ratios for burnout. Conclusions: High job strain was related to depressive symptoms and burnout, and support from co-workers had a buffering effect on depressive symptoms and burnout. An inadequate number of days off was related to burnout. Assessment of job strain may be a good tool to measure physicians’ mental health, and a sufficient number of days off may be needed to prevent burnout.

  10. Well-being in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Relationship to Symptoms and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, H; MacLeod, A K

    2017-07-01

    There is growing recognition in psychology that wellness is more than the absence of disease and distress. Well-being has been defined in numerous ways. Two dominant models include Diener, Eunkook, Suh, Lucas and Smith's (1999) model of subjective well-being (SWB) and Ryff's (1989) model of psychological well-being (PWB). In contrast to the abundance of research investigating negative constructs and psychopathology in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), there has been a paucity of positive psychology studies. This study had two aims: to examine PWB and SWB and their relationship to symptoms in CFS and to compare PWB scores in a subgroup of the CFS sample to a matched control group. Chronic fatigue syndrome participants (n = 60) completed self-report scales of PWB, SWB, fatigue, anxiety and depression. PWB scores in a subgroup of the CFS sample (n = 42) were compared with those of a matched nonclinical control group (n = 42). Correlations between scales of symptoms and well-being were complex. Well-being dimensions were largely independent of physical components of fatigue but strongly related to psychological components of fatigue and psychological distress. Multiple regression indicated that five dimensions of well-being uniquely predicted symptomatology. Compared with the control group, the CFS group scored significantly lower on five of Ryff's six PWB dimensions, with particularly marked deficits in personal growth, environmental mastery and self-acceptance. This multidimensional assessment of well-being advances our understanding of CFS and offers new treatment targets. Future research must investigate whether interventions targeting theses well-being deficits can boost the efficacy of symptom-focused treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Previous psychological research into CFS has largely focused on the identification of negative constructs and CBT, a treatment that targets evidenced-based negative constructs, has demonstrated efficacy

  11. Psychological burden in adult neurofibromatosis type 1 patients: impact of disease visibility on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granström, Sofia; Langenbruch, Anna; Augustin, Matthias; Mautner, Victor-Felix

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of disease visibility on psychological stress factors in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and to explore the body image of NF1 patients. 228 adult NF1 patients participated in this cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire assessed perceived disease visibility and patients' body image. Outcome parameters were depression, distress and quality of life. Mediation models were performed to test if body experience mediated the effect of disease visibility on outcome parameters. Adult NF1 patients had a negative body image, expressed by bodily insecurity/uneasiness and fewer feelings of attractiveness and self-confidence. Compared to the body image of patients with other disfiguring diseases, patients with NF1 felt less attractive, displayed less self-confidence (women: p bodies (men: p stress was completely mediated by how patients experienced their bodies. Our study shed light on the importance of how NF1 patients experience and appraise their own bodies. We revealed that body image is an important link between disease visibility and psychological well-being. The body image of patients can be improved with psychotherapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Why not Seek Therapy? The Role of Stigma and Psychological Symptoms in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makilim Nunes Baptista

    Full Text Available Abstract: The decision to seek therapy can reduce psychological distress and factors like public stigma, self stigma, fear of self exposure to therapist, among others, may constitute barriers in this process. This study investigated: how is the group of variables described in the literature as predictors of seeking therapy, and the relationship of variables associated with stigma and depressive symptoms, anxiogenic symptoms and stress with this search. For this purpose, 272 students responded scales that assessed these variables. The principal component analysis indicated four clusters of variables (symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress; feelings of shame, inadequacy and inhibition; perception of benefits to seek therapy; self stigma and stigma by the others. These components are hierarchically inserted into the multiple regression, indicating that the symptoms have little importance compared to the attitude of seeking therapy and stigmas.

  13. Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Caparros-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, there is a lack of evidence of biological forecasters. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychological variables along with hair cortisol levels during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy that could predict postpartum depression symptoms. A sample of 44 pregnant women was assessed during 3 trimesters of pregnancy and the postpartum period using psychological questionnaires and hair cortisol levels. Participants were divided into 2 groups: a group with postpartum depression symptoms and a group with no postpartum depression symptoms. Results showed significant positive differences between groups in the first trimester regarding the Somatization subscale of the SCL-90-R (p < .05. In the second trimester, significant differences were found in the Somatization, Depression, Anxiety, and GSI subscales (p < .05. In the third trimester significant differences between both groups were found regarding pregnancy-specific stress. We found significant positive differences between groups regarding hair cortisol levels in the first and the third trimester. Hair cortisol levels could predict 21.7% of the variance of postpartum depression symptoms. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that psychopathological symptoms, pregnancy-specific stress, and hair cortisol levels can predict postpartum depression symptoms at different time-points during pregnancy. These findings can be applied in future studies and improve maternal care in clinical settings.

  14. Psychological Interventions for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Psychosis: A Systematic Review of Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Sarah; Keen, Nadine; Reynolds, Nicola; Onwumere, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with severe mental health problems, such as psychosis, are consistently shown to have experienced high levels of past traumatic events. They are also at an increased risk of further traumatisation through victimization events such as crime and assault. The experience of psychosis itself and psychiatric hospitalization have also been recognized to be sufficiently traumatic to lead to the development of post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are elevated in people with psychosis compared to the general population. The current guidance for the treatment of PTSD is informed by an evidence base predominately limited to populations without co-morbid psychiatric disorders. The systematic review therefore sought to present the current available literature on the use of psychological treatments targeting PTS symptoms in a population with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. The review aimed to investigate the effect of these interventions on PTS symptoms and also the effect on secondary domains such as psychotic symptoms, affect and functioning. Fifteen studies were identified reporting on cognitive behavior therapy, prolonged exposure, eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing and written emotional disclosure. The review provides preliminary support for the safe use of trauma-focused psychological interventions in groups of people with severe mental health problems. Overall, the interventions were found to be effective in reducing PTS symptoms. Results were mixed with regard to secondary effects on additional domains. Further research including studies employing sufficiently powered methodologically rigorous designs is indicated.

  15. Emotion Regulation of Memories Central to Our Identity: The Relationship with Concurrent and Prospective Psychological Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Employing trait-like maladaptive emotion regulation strategies is related to the severity and maintenance of depressive symptoms. However, whether emotion regulation specific to an event highly central for an individual’s identity is predictive of depressive symptoms has not been empirically....... The results document the role of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in relation to events that are central to an individual’s identity, regardless of event valence. The findings suggest an important interplay between event centrality and emotion regulation strategies that previous research has...... overlooked and that may have implications for understanding emotion regulation in psychological disorders....

  16. The Economic Burden of Insomnia: Direct and Indirect Costs for Individuals with Insomnia Syndrome, Insomnia Symptoms, and Good Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Meagan; Morin, Charles M.; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Savard, Josée

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Insomnia is a highly prevalent problem that is associated with increased use of health care services and products, as well as functional impairments. This study estimated from a societal perspective the direct and indirect costs of insomnia. Participants and Methods: A randomly selected sample of 948 adults (mean age = 43.7 years old; 60% female) from the province of Québec, Canada completed questionnaires on sleep, health, use of health-care services and products, accidents, work absences, and reduced productivity. Data were also obtained from the Quebec government administered health insurance board regarding consultations and hospitalizations. Participants were categorized as having insomnia syndrome, insomnia symptoms or as being good sleepers using a standard algorithm. Frequencies of target cost variables were obtained and multiplied by unit costs to generate estimates of total costs for the adult population of the province of Quebec. Results: The total annual cost of insomnia in the province of Quebec was estimated at $6.6 billion (Cdn$). This includes direct costs associated with insomnia-motivated health-care consultations ($191.2 million) and transportation for these consultations ($36.6 million), prescription medications ($16.5 million), over the-counter products ($1.8 million) and alcohol used as a sleep aid ($339.8 million). Annual indirect costs associated with insomnia-related absenteeism were estimated at $970.6 million, with insomnia-related productivity losses estimated at $5.0 billion. The average annual per-person costs (direct and indirect combined) were $5,010 for individuals with insomnia syndrome, $1,431 for individuals presenting with symptoms, and $421 for good sleepers. Conclusions: This study suggests that the economic burden of insomnia is very high, with the largest proportion of all expenses (76%) attributable to insomnia-related work absences and reduced productivity. As the economic burden of untreated

  17. Subjective symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome correlate more with psychological factors than electrophysiological severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firosh Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied. Boston CTS Assessment Questionnaire (BCTSAQ and visual analog scale (VAS were used to assess subjective symptom severity. Psychological status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Electrophysiological severity of CTS was estimated by median motor distal latency and median to ulnar peak sensory latency difference across the wrist. Each parameter in both hands was scored from 0 to 3 depending on the severity grade, and a composite electrophysiological severity score (CEPSS was calculated for each patient by summing up the scores in both hands. Statistical analysis was done by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: There was significant correlation of BCTSAQ with VAS (P = 0.001, HADS anxiety score (P < 0.001, and HADS depression score (P = 0.01. CEPSS had no significant correlation with VAS (P = 0.103, HADS anxiety score (P = 0.211, or HADS depression score (P = 0.55. CEPSS had a borderline correlation with BCTSAQ (P = 0.048. Conclusions: While the subjective symptoms of CTS are well correlated with psychological factors, their correlation with objective electrophysiological severity is weak. Hence, prompt treatment of psychological comorbidity is important in symptomatic management of CTS; decision about surgical intervention should be based on electrophysiological severity rather than symptom severity.

  18. Psychological Symptoms among Workers Employed in Companies Undergoing Privatization in Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin; Hodžić, Medin; Selimbašić, Zihnet

    2011-01-01

    In Central and Eastern European countries, after abandoning communism, significant political, economic and social changes occurred, followed by the increase in income inequality and social disparity. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological symptoms and monthly income of employees in companies undergoing privatization. The study included 258 workers from seven companies undergoing privatization in the Tuzla Canton region. For the study purposes,...

  19. Psychological and Drug Abuse Symptoms Associated with Non-medical Use of Opioid Analgesics among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E

    2014-01-01

    Background This exploratory study examined the psychological and substance abuse symptoms and motivations associated with adolescents’ medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. We compared three groups of adolescents: 1) those who never used an opioid analgesic; 2) those who used a prescribed opioid analgesic (medical users); and 3) those who used someone else’s opioid analgesics (nonmedical users). Nonmedical use was defined as using someone else’s opioid analgesic medication. Comparisons among the groups were made on psychological and substance abuse symptoms as well as motivations to engage in nonmedical use. Methods A web-based survey, the Secondary Student Life Survey (SSLS) was administered to a sample of students who attended one of five secondary schools in southeastern Michigan. The sample included 2,627 respondents and was evenly distributed by sex and grade. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) were White/Caucasian and 29.5% African-American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD=1.9). Results Seventy percent (70.4%, n=1850) reported never using opioid analgesics in their lifetimes. Of the remaining 24.5% (n=644) of opioid analgesic users, most were medical users. However, 3.5% (n=92) were classified as nonmedical users who used someone else’s medication for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n=41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g. to get high). In contrast to never users, both medical users and nonmedical users reported more substance abuse symptoms and symptoms associated with pain. Further, those nonmedical users who used opioids to sensation seek had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. Conclusions These data: 1) provide additional support for the existence of distinct subgroups of adolescent opioid analgesic users; 2) provide evidence of psychological symptoms associated with nonmedical use; and 3) highlight the psychological differences among nonmedical users who self-treat for pain versus

  20. The Influence of Psychological Symptoms on Mental Health Literacy of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E.; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan

    2015-01-01

    Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report two studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. PMID:26052815

  1. Posttraumatic Psychological Symptoms are Associated with Reduced Inhibitory Control, not General Executive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; McCulloch, Bay; Rosenblatt, Andrew; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2015-05-01

    Although there is mounting evidence that greater PTSD symptoms are associated with reduced executive functioning, it is not fully understood whether this association is more global or specific to certain executive function subdomains, such as inhibitory control. We investigated the generality of the association between PTSD symptoms and executive function by administering a broad battery of sensitive executive functioning tasks to a cohort of returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with varying PTSD symptoms. Only tasks related to inhibitory control explained significant variance in PTSD symptoms as well as symptoms of depression, while measures of working memory, measures of switching, and measures simultaneously assessing multiple executive function subdomains did not. Notably, the two inhibitory control measures that showed the highest correlation with PTSD and depressive symptoms, measures of response inhibition and distractor suppression, explained independent variance. These findings suggest that greater posttraumatic psychological symptoms are not associated with a general decline in executive functioning but rather are more specifically related to stopping automatic responses and resisting internal and external distractions.

  2. Clinically relevant and simple immune system measure is related to symptom burden in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler-Forsberg, Ole; Sylvia, Louisa; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ostacher, Michael Joshua; McInnis, Melvin; Iosifescu, Dan; Bowden, Charles; McElroy, Susan; Calabrese, Joseph; Thase, Michael; Shelton, Richard Charles; Tohen, Mauricio; Kocsis, James; Friedman, Edward; Ketter, Terence; Nierenberg, Andrew Alan

    2017-12-07

    Immunological theories, particularly the sickness syndrome theory, may explain psychopathology in mood disorders. However, no clinical trials have investigated the association between overall immune system markers with a wide range of specific symptoms including potential gender differences. We included two similar clinical trials, the lithium treatment moderate-dose use study and clinical and health outcomes initiatives in comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder study, enrolling 765 participants with bipolar disorder. At study entry, white blood cell (WBC) count was measured and psychopathology assessed with the Montgomery and Aasberg depression rating scale (MADRS). We performed analysis of variance and linear regression analyses to investigate the relationship between the deviation from the median WBC, and multinomial regression analysis between different WBC levels. All analyses were performed gender-specific and adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, race, and somatic diseases. The overall MADRS score increased significantly for each 1.0×109/l deviation from the median WBC among 322 men (coefficient=1.10; 95% CI=0.32-1.89; p=0.006), but not among 443 women (coefficient=0.56; 95% CI=-0.19-1.31; p=0.14). Among men, WBC deviations were associated with increased severity of sadness, inner tension, reduced sleep, reduced appetite, concentration difficulties, inability to feel, and suicidal thoughts. Among women, WBC deviations were associated with increased severity of reduced appetite, concentration difficulties, lassitude, inability to feel, and pessimistic thoughts. Both higher and lower WBC levels were associated with increased severity of several specific symptoms. Immune system alterations were associated with increased severity of specific mood symptoms, particularly among men. Our results support the sickness syndrome theory, but furthermore emphasise the relevance to study immune suppression in bipolar disorder. Due to the explorative nature

  3. Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Laura E; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18-19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The mediating role of psychological symptoms on falls risk among older adults with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sumaiyah Mat,1 Chin Teck Ng,1–3 Farhana Fadzil,4 Faizatul Izza Rozalli,4 Maw Pin Tan1,5 1Ageing and Age-Associated Disorders Research Group, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Singapore General Hospital, 3Duke-NUS Medical School, National University Singapore, Singapore; 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Geriatric Division, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of fear of falling (FoF and psychological symptoms in explaining the relationship between osteoarthritis (OA symptom severity and falls. Individuals aged ≥65 years with ≥2 falls or ≥1 injurious fall over the past 12 months were included in the falls group, while volunteers aged ≥65 years with no history of falls over 12 months were recruited as controls. The presence of lower extremity OA was determined radiologically and clinically. Severity of symptoms was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC questionnaire. FoF and psychological status were measured with the shortened version of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International and the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21, respectively. Of 389 (229 fallers, 160 non-fallers potential participants, mean (SD age: 73.74 (6.60 years, 141 had clinical OA and 171 had radiological OA. Fallers with both radiological OA and clinical OA had significantly higher FoF and DASS-21 scores than non-fallers. FoF was significantly positively correlated with symptom severity in fallers and non-fallers with radiological and clinical OA. Depression, anxiety, and stress scores were only significantly correlated with symptom severity among fallers but not non-fallers in both clinical and radiological OA. The relationship between mild symptoms and reduced risk of falls

  6. A protocol for a systematic review of research on managing behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia for community-dwelling older people: evidence mapping and syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Daksha; Goodman, Claire; Dickinson, Angela; Gage, Heather; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Manthorpe, Jill; Ashaye, Kunle; Iliffe, Steve

    2013-08-28

    Non-cognitive behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia affect up to 90% of people with dementia during the disease course and result in distress, increased carer burden, high service utilization and unwanted moves to care homes. Research has focused on long-term settings and has not considered people with dementia living at home and at different stages of the disease trajectory. Our aim is to review systematically the evidence concerning non-pharmacological strategies to minimise behavioural and psychological symptoms in community-dwelling older people with dementia. Our approach is a two-stage co-design: a systematic mapping of the broad evidence around behavioural and psychological symptoms followed by an in-depth systematic review of studies of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms from the perspective of their impact on community-dwelling older people with dementia and their carers. The review will include published literature involving a wide range of electronic databases using sensitive and comprehensive searches and lateral searching including checking citations.We will produce a descriptive map of the studies by design and by the focus of interventions and apply further inclusion criteria, developed in conjunction with lay experts, to select studies for an in-depth systematic review that will include independent quality assessment and detailed data extraction by two reviewers.The review process will be integrated with stakeholder meetings and a multidisciplinary expert advisory group to guide the review parameters and shape the research questions on the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms in people with dementia. Because studies are likely to be diverse in methodology and interventions, we will conduct a narrative synthesis of the in-depth systematic review. If appropriate, we will pool studies in a meta-analysis. We will explore review findings at both stages through focus groups and

  7. Children's exposure to violence and distress symptoms: influence of caretakers' psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Ryan, Louise; Bellinger, David C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Wright, Rosalind J

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies linking violence exposure to adverse child behavior have typically relied on parental report of child symptoms without accounting for the informant's mental well-being, despite evidence that parental mental health can influence children's mental health and the parent's report of distress symptoms. We assess the influence of maternal depression on the violence exposure and child distress association in a subset of the Maternal Infant Smoking Study of East Boston, a prospective birth cohort. Mothers reported on their children's violence exposure using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence (ETV) and completed the Checklist of Child Distress Symptoms (CCDS). The children also completed the ETV survey and the self-report version of the CCDS. Linear regression was used to assess the influence of violence exposure on distress symptoms adjusting for potential confounders, first using parent's report of exposure and outcome and a second time using the child's self-report. The mediating effect of maternal depression on the violence and distress association was also tested. Among the 162 children ages 7 to 11, 51% were boys and 43% self-identified as Hispanic. When using child self-report, increased violence exposure was significantly associated with a broader range of distress symptoms (numbness, arousal, intrusion, avoidance subscales) compared to parent reported findings, which were only significantly related to the intrusion and avoidance subscales. Moreover, a significant mediation effect of maternal depression on the violence and distress association was noted only when mother's report of exposure and outcome was used. Considering both parent and child self-report of violence is necessary to obtain a complete picture of violence exposure because parents and children may be offering different, although equally valid information. The influence of maternal depressive symptoms on preadolescent's distress symptoms may be attributed to

  8. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; McMillan, Susan C

    2016-11-02

    Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping), and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning), behavioral (pain-related distress), and demographic characteristics. Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  9. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  10. Integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce multiple psychiatric symptoms of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Ton J E M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; van der Lee, Jacqueline; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Ribbe, Miel W

    2011-06-01

    To test the effectiveness of an integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program (integrative reactivation and rehabilitation [IRR]) to reduce multiple neuropsychiatry symptoms (MNPS) of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden (CB). Randomized controlled trial. Psychiatric-skilled nursing home (IRR) and usual care (UC), consisting of different types of nursing home care at home or in an institution. N = 168 (81 IRR and 87 UC). Patients had to meet classification of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition for dementia, amnestic disorders, or other cognitive disorders. Further inclusion criteria: Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) ≥3; Mini-Mental State Examination ≥18 and ≤27; and Barthel Index (BI) ≥5 and ≤19. IRR consisted of a person-oriented integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce MNPS of the patient and CB. UC consisted of different types of nursing home care at home or in an institution, mostly emotion oriented. Primary outcome variable was MNPS (number and sum-severity of NPI). Furthermore, burden and competence of caregiver were also measured. T1 (inclusion), T2 (end of treatment), T3 (after 6 months of follow-up). Cohen's d (Cd) was calculated for mean differences (intention to treat). For confounding, repeated measurement modeling (random regression modeling [RRM]) was applied. In the short term from the perspective of the caregiver, IRR showed up to 34% surplus effects on MNPS of the patients; NPI symptoms: 1.31 lower (Cd, -0.53); and NPI sum- severity: 11.16 lower (Cd, -0.53). In follow-up, the effects were sustained. However, from the perspective of the nursing team, these effects were insignificant, although the trend was in the same direction and correlated significantly with the caregiver results over time (at T3: r = 0.48). In addition, IRR showed surplus effects (up to 36%) on burden and competence of caregiver: NPI emotional distress: 3.78 (Cd, -0.44); CB: 17.69 (Cd, -0

  11. Quality of life, psychological burden, needs, and satisfaction during specialized inpatient palliative care in family caregivers of advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Anneke; Ascherfeld, Lilian; Marx, Gabriella; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Bergelt, Corinna; Oechsle, Karin

    2017-05-10

    This pilot study aimed to investigate quality of life, psychological burden, unmet needs, and care satisfaction in family caregivers of advanced cancer patients (FCs) during specialized inpatient palliative care (SIPC) and to test feasibility and acceptance of the questionnaire survey. During a period of 12 weeks, FCs were recruited consecutively within 72 h after the patient's admission. They completed validated scales on several outcomes: quality of life (SF-8), distress (DT), anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9), supportive needs (FIN), palliative care outcome (POS), and satisfaction with care (FAMCARE-2). We used non-parametric tests, t-tests and correlation analyses to address our research questions. FCs showed high study commitment: 74 FCs were asked to participate whereof 54 (73%) agreed and 51 (69%) returned the questionnaire. Except for "bodily pain", FCs' quality of life (SF-8) was impaired in all subscales. Most FCs (96%) reported clinically significant own distress (DT), with sadness, sorrows and exhaustion being the most distressing problems (80-83%). Moderate to severe anxiety (GAD-7) and depression (PHQ-9) were prevalent in 43% and 41% of FCs, respectively. FCs scored a mean number of 16.3 of 20 needs (FIN) as very or extremely important (SD 3.3), 20% of needs were unmet in >50% of FCs. The mean POS score assessed by FCs was 16.6 (SD 5.0) and satisfaction (FAMCARE-2) was high (73.4; SD 8.3). This pilot study demonstrated feasibility of the questionnaire survey and showed relevant psychosocial burden and unmet needs in FCs during SIPC. However, FCs' satisfaction with SIPC seemed to be high. A current multicenter study evaluates these findings longitudinally in a large cohort of FCs.

  12. Childhood socioeconomic circumstances and depressive symptom burden across 15 years of follow-up during midlife: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, Joyce T; Schott, Laura L; Matthews, Karen A; Kravitz, Howard M; Harlow, Siobán D; Montez, Jennifer Karas

    2017-08-01

    Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage may contribute to adult depression. Understanding pathways by which early socioeconomic adversity may shape adult depression is important for identifying areas for intervention. Studies to date have focused on one potential pathway, adult socioeconomic status (SES), and assessed depression at only one or a few time points. Our aims were to examine (a) the association between childhood SES (low vs. high) and depressive symptom burden in midlife and (b) whether adult socioeconomic, psychosocial, and physical health characteristics are important pathways. Using annual data from a cohort of 1109 black and white US women recruited in 1996-1997, we evaluated the association between childhood SES and depressive symptom burden across 15 years in midlife and whether adult characteristics-financial difficulty, lower education, stressful events, low social support, low role functioning, medical conditions, and bodily pain-mediated the association. Depressive symptom burden was estimated by calculating area under the curve of annual scores across 15 years of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D). In unadjusted models, low childhood SES was associated with greater depressive burden (P = 0.0002). Each hypothesized mediator, individually, did not reduce the association. However, when five of the hypothesized mediators were included together in the same analysis, they explained more than two thirds of the association between childhood SES and depressive symptom burden reducing the P value for childhood SES to non-significance (P = 0.20). These results suggest that childhood SES influences midlife depressive symptom burden through a cluster of economic stress, limited social resources, and physical symptoms in adulthood.

  13. [The Relationship Between Marital Adjustment and Psychological Symptoms in Women: The Mediator Roles of Coping Strategies and Gender Role Attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study were to investigate the mediator role of coping strategies and gender roles attitudes on the relationship between women's marital adjustment and psychological symptoms. 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form. Regression analyses revealed that Submissive (Sobel z= -2.47, prole on the relationship between marital relationship score and psychological symptom level. Also, having Egalitarian Gender Role Attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but it is seen that this effect is not higher enough to play a mediator role (Sobel z =-1.21, p>.05). Regression analysis showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between women's marital adjustment and their psychological symptoms, indicating that the marital adjustment decreases as the psychological symptoms increases. It is also found out that submissive and helpless coping approach have mediator roles in this relationship. Also, contrary to expectations, having egalitarian gender role attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but this effect does not seem to play a mediator role. It is thought that the effects of marriage and couple therapy approaches considering couples’s problem solving and coping styles should be examined in further studies.

  14. Pain and physical and psychological symptoms in ambulatory HIV patients in the current treatment era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S; Cen, Liyi; Praestgaard, Amy; Turner, Michelle; Obando, Aura; Alpert, Craig; Woolston, Sophie; Casarett, David; Kostman, Jay; Gross, Robert; Frank, Ian

    2012-03-01

    HIV infection has become a manageable chronic disease. There are few studies of pain and symptoms in the current treatment era. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for pain and physical and psychological symptoms in a population of ambulatory HIV patients. We performed a cross-sectional study using the Brief Pain Inventory and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form (MSAS). We evaluated 156 individuals with a median age of 47.5 years (range 21-71), median time since HIV diagnosis of 11 years (range <1 to 25), and median CD4+ cell count of 502 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range [IQR] 308-683). Most (125, 80.6%) of the patients had an undetectable viral load. Seventy-six (48.7%) patients reported pain, of whom 39 (51.3%) had moderate to severe pain, and 43 (57.3%) had pain that caused moderate to severe interference with their lives. The median number of symptoms was eight (IQR 5-14.5) of 32 queried. In multivariable analyses, patients with psychiatric illness were 39.8% more likely to have pain (P<0.001). Psychiatric illness was associated with 0.7 and 1.2 point higher MSAS subscale scores, and IV drug use was associated with 0.4 and 0.5 higher subscale scores (out of four). Pain and other physical and psychological symptoms were common among ambulatory HIV patients. Pain and symptoms were strongly associated with psychiatric illness and IV drug use. Future investigation should evaluate interventions that include psychiatric and substance abuse components for HIV patients with pain. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the home-care setting: A nation-wide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayakawa, Makoto; Ogawa, Asao; Konno, Michiko; Kurata, Akiko; Hamano, Jun; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Aoyama, Maho; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-12-01

    The psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill cancer patients are highly problematic and have been associated with greater burden among caregivers. Until now, the extent of these problems in the home care setting was unclear. This retrospective study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan (J-HOPE3). The bereaved family members rated the symptoms of delirium and suicidal ideation of patients with cancer, and the sleeplessness and depressed mood of family caregivers utilizing home care services in the one month before the patients' deaths. Regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with caregivers' sleeplessness or depressed mood. Of the 532 subjects analyzed, between 17% and 65% of patients experienced various symptoms of delirium, and 27% suicidal ideation. Among family caregivers, 60% experienced sleeplessness and 35% experienced depressed mood at least once during the week. Caregivers' psychological symptoms were associated with their own poor health status, being the spouse of the patient, and the patients' psychological or psychiatric symptoms. To manage patients' symptoms, 11% of caregivers had consulted psychiatrists or psychologists while another 11% wanted to do so. Psychological problems assessed were common among patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the one month of home care prior to the patient's death. An effective complementary care system, run by home-visit physicians, nurses, and experts in mental disorders, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  17. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.C.W.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Beurden-Berkers, K.M.; Terluin, B.; Ruotsalainen, J.H.; Woo, J.; Choi, K.S.; Eguchi, H.; Moriguchi, J.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; van Weeghel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  18. [Screening for bipolar disorder in primary care patients with psychological symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Escobar-Rabadán, Francisco; Téllez-Lapeira, Juan; Mínguez, José; Párraga, Ignacio; Suárez-Hernández, Tatiana; Piñero, María José; Guzón, Marta-Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of positive results in the screening of bipolar disorder (BD) among primary care patients presenting with psychological symptoms, and to analyze their characteristics. Multicenter cross-sectional study. Nineteen Primary Care clinics in different Spanish regions. A total of 360 consecutive primary care patients aged 18 to 70, presenting with psychological symptoms. Screening for BP was performed by means of the Mood Disorders Questionnaire. Data on quality of life (EuroQol-5D) and functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Inventory) were obtained. Data on psychiatric comorbidity and data on the use of psychotropic medication were acquired by review of medical records. Of the patients screened, 11.9% were positive (95%CI: 8.8%-15.7%). Only two patients had a diagnosis of BP in their clinical records and, although more than half received treatment with antidepressants, only two received treatment with mood stabilizers. Positive screening is associated with work, social and family dysfunction, greater perceived stress and poor quality of life. BD screening in primary care patients with psychological problems leads to a striking proportion of positive results, indicating that there may be a significant prevalence of BP patients, most of them undiagnosed and untreated. Further research is needed to determine the role that Primary Care can or should assume in the screening, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of 6-yr symptom course trajectories of anxiety disorders by diagnostic, clinical and psychological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Batelaan, Neeltje; Rhebergen, Didi; van Balkom, Anton; Schoevers, Robert; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify course trajectories of anxiety disorder using a data-driven method and to determine the incremental predictive value of clinical and psychological variables over and above diagnostic categories. 703 patients with DSM-IV panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder were selected from a prospective cohort study. Latent Growth Mixture Modeling was conducted, based on symptoms of anxiety and avoidance as assessed with the Life Chart Interview covering a 6-year time period. In 44% of the participants symptoms of anxiety and avoidance improved, in 24% remained stable, in 25% slightly increased, and in 7% severely increased. Identified course trajectories were predicted by baseline DSM-IV anxiety categories, clinical variables (i.e., severity and duration and level of disability) and psychological predictors (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety sensitivity, worry, and rumination). Clinical variables better predicted unfavorable course trajectories than psychological predictors, over and above diagnostic categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Beckett, Stephen; Rigby, Alan S; Mellor, Duane D; Atkin, Stephen L

    2010-11-22

    Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP)) on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range) Exact Sig. (2-tailed)] [33 (25 - 38) vs. 21.5 (6 - 35) 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP) [ 28.5 (17 - 20) vs. 34.5 (13-26) 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62) vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83) 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68) vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.62)0.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome.

  1. Associations Between Personality Disorder Characteristics, Psychological Symptoms, and Sexual Functioning in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogl, Andrea; Pelzer, Britt; Radder, Veerle; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2017-12-21

    Recently, the etiology of sexual dysfunctions in women has been approached from different angles. In clinical practice and in previous studies, it has been observed that women with sexual problems experience anxiety problems and express more rigid and perfectionistic personality traits than women without these problems. To investigate whether personality disorder characteristics according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and psychological symptoms are associated with sexual problems in women. 188 women 18 to 25 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires measuring sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index), personality disorder characteristics (Assessment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Questionnaire), and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The main outcome measure used was sexual functioning assessed by self-report. Results, using analysis of variance, indicated that women with sexual problems report significantly more cluster A (specifically schizoid) and C (specifically avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder characteristics than women without sexual problems. Furthermore, using multiple regression analyses, higher cluster A (specifically schizoid) and lower cluster B (specifically borderline and antisocial) personality disorder characteristics indicated lower levels of sexual functioning. Psychological symptoms partly mediated the effect of cluster A personality disorder characteristics on sexual functioning. The results of this study indicate that clinical practice should extend its scope by focusing more on improving adaptive personality characteristics, such as extraversion and individualism seen in cluster B personality characteristics, and decreasing the perfectionistic, introvert, and self-doubting characteristics seen in cluster C personality characteristics

  2. Perceived autonomy support, psychological needs satisfaction, depressive symptoms and apathy in French hospitalized older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souesme, Guillaume; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Based on the self-determination theory, the aim of the present study was (1) to provide a better understanding of older people's psychological needs satisfaction in geriatric care units, then to link this information with depressive symptoms and apathy; (2) to examine whether the perceived autonomy support from health care professionals differs between needs satisfaction profiles; and (3) to investigate for all participants how each need satisfaction was related to depressive symptoms and apathy. Participants (N=100; Mage=83.33years, SD=7.78, 61% female) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, perceived autonomy support, geriatric depression and apathy. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Cluster analyses showed three distinct profiles: one profile with low-moderate need satisfaction, one profile with high-moderate need satisfaction and one profile with high need satisfaction. These profiles are distinct, and did not differ in terms of participants' characteristics, except gender. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed that participants with low-moderate need satisfaction profile have significantly higher level of depressive symptoms and apathy, and lower levels of perceived autonomy support than participants of the two other profiles. Moreover, for all participants, regression analyses revealed that both competence and relatedness needs satisfaction significantly and negatively explained 28% of the variance in depressive symptoms score and 44% of the variance in apathy score. Our results highlight the interest to examine more thoroughly the variables fostering autonomy-supportive environment in geriatric care units, and to deepen the relationship between competence and relatedness needs satisfaction and depressive symptoms and apathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive conflict resolution during psychotherapy: Its impact on depressive symptoms and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Clara; Montesano, Adrián; Winter, David; Feixas, Guillem

    2017-11-26

    The aim of this study was to assess the resolution of cognitive conflicts (CCs) within a randomized controlled trial testing the differential efficacy of group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) plus an individually tailored intervention module focused on CCs vs. group plus individual CBT, and to determine whether CC resolution was related to improvement in symptoms and psychological distress. The data come from 104 adults meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and/or dysthymia. Change in scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure was assessed at the end of treatment and at three-month follow-up. Outcomes were compared between those participants who resolved their CCs and those who maintained them using three-level multilevel growth models. CC resolution did not depend on treatment allocation. Participants who resolved their CCs acquired greater benefits with regards to reduction of depressive symptoms and psychological distress than those who maintained their conflicts. CC seems to be a relevant notion to take into consideration to understand symptom improvement. Further research on CC might lead to the advancement of treatments which involve conflict resolution as a change mechanism.

  4. Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in Brazil: II. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Francisco de Assis Carvalho; Corrêa Neto, Ylmar; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Machado, João Carlos Barbosa; da Silva, Delson José; Allam, Nasser; Balthazar, Márcio Luiz Figueredo

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Brazil, with special focus on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). It constitutes a revision and broadening of the 2005 guidelines based on a consensus involving researchers (physicians and non-physicians) in the field. The authors carried out a search of articles published since 2005 on the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases. The search criteria were pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of AD. Studies retrieved were categorized into four classes, and evidence into four levels, based on the 2008 recommendations of the American Academy of Neurology. The recommendations on therapy are pertinent to the dementia phase of AD. Recommendations are proposed for the treatment of BPSD encompassing both pharmacological (including acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, neuroleptics, anti-depressives, benzodiazepines, anti-convulsants plus other drugs and substances) and non-pharmacological (including education-based interventions, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, music therapy, therapy using light, massage and art therapy) approaches. Recommendations for the treatment of cognitive disorders of AD symptoms are included in a separate article of this edition. PMID:29213743

  5. Systematic review of psychological approaches to the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Gill; Johnston, Kate; Katona, Cornelius; Paton, Joni; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2005-11-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature on psychological approaches to treating the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. Reports of studies that examined effects of any therapy derived from a psychological approach that satisfied prespecified criteria were reviewed. Data were extracted, the quality of each study was rated, and an overall rating was given to each study by using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. A total of 1,632 studies were identified, and 162 satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. Specific types of psychoeducation for caregivers about managing neuropsychiatric symptoms were effective treatments whose benefits lasted for months, but other caregiver interventions were not. Behavioral management techniques that are centered on individual patients' behavior or on caregiver behavior had similar benefits, as did cognitive stimulation. Music therapy and Snoezelen, and possibly sensory stimulation, were useful during the treatment session but had no longer-term effects; interventions that changed the visual environment looked promising, but more research is needed. Only behavior management therapies, specific types of caregiver and residential care staff education, and possibly cognitive stimulation appear to have lasting effectiveness for the management of dementia-associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Lack of evidence regarding other therapies is not evidence of lack of efficacy. Conclusions are limited because of the paucity of high-quality research (only nine level-1 studies were identified). More high-quality investigation is needed.

  6. The effect of social support derived from World of Warcraft on negative psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Huon; O'Connor, Erin; Obst, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    Previous research examining players of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) suggests that players form meaningful relationships with each other. Other research indicates that people may derive social support from online sources, and this social support has been associated with greater well-being. This study used an online survey of players (N = 206) of the MMOG World of Warcraft (WoW) to examine if social support can be derived from MMOGs and to examine its relationship with negative psychological symptoms. Players of WoW were found to derive social support from playing and a positive relationship was found between game engagement and levels of in-game social support. Higher levels of in-game social support were associated with fewer negative psychological symptoms, although this effect was not maintained after accounting for social support derived from the offline sources. Additionally, a small subsample of players (n = 21) who played for 44 to 82 hours per week (M = 63.33) was identified. These players had significantly lower levels of offline social support and higher levels of negative symptoms compared to the rest of the sample. This study provides evidence that social support can be derived from MMOGs and the associated potential to promote well-being but also highlights the potential harm from spending excessive hours playing.

  7. Dealing with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a general overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azermai M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Majda Azermai Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: Dealing with the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD is often complex. Given the controversy with regard to antipsychotics for behavioral problems in people with dementia, there has been a renewed emphasis on nonpharmacological interventions, with progress in the design of the relevant studies. Potential nonpharmacological interventions for BPSD are: cognitive training/stimulation, rehabilitative care, activities of daily living, music therapy, massage/touch, physical activity, education/training of professionals, and education and psychosocial support of informal caregivers. Use of antipsychotics in the management of BPSD is controversial due to limited efficacy and the risk of serious adverse effects, but credible alternatives remain scarce. The problem of chronic use of antipsychotics in nursing homes should be tackled. Discontinuation of antipsychotic medication in older individuals with BPSD appears to be feasible. Discontinuation efforts are needed to differentiate between patients for whom antipsychotics have no added value and patients for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. Keywords: behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms, dementia, interventions, nonpharmacological intervention

  8. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Brazil: II. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Carvalho do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reports the recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD in Brazil, with special focus on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. It constitutes a revision and broadening of the 2005 guidelines based on a consensus involving researchers (physicians and non-physicians in the field. The authors carried out a search of articles published since 2005 on the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases. The search criteria were pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of AD. Studies retrieved were categorized into four classes, and evidence into four levels, based on the 2008 recommendations of the American Academy of Neurology. The recommendations on therapy are pertinent to the dementia phase of AD. Recommendations are proposed for the treatment of BPSD encompassing both pharmacological (including acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, neuroleptics, anti-depressives, benzodiazepines, anti-convulsants plus other drugs and substances and non-pharmacological (including education-based interventions, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, music therapy, therapy using light, massage and art therapy approaches. Recommendations for the treatment of cognitive disorders of AD symptoms are included in a separate article of this edition.

  9. Childhood life events and psychological symptoms in adult survivors of the 2004 tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Lars; Michélsen, Hans; Schulman, Abbe; Backheden, Magnus

    2010-08-01

    Negative life events in childhood have an adverse influence on adult psychological health, and increase vulnerability to subsequent potential traumas. It remains unclear whether this is also true in the case of disasters. This study investigates whether the experience of negative life events in childhood and adolescence was associated with psychological symptoms in groups of Swedish survivors with different types of exposure to the tsunami. 1505 survivors from Stockholm responded to a questionnaire on psychological distress, which was sent by post 14 months after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Psychological distress was measured by General Health Questionnaire-12 and suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress was measured by Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Life events prior to age 16 were collected and categorized under the indices accident, violence, loss and interpersonal events. Exposure to the tsunami was categorized in different types, and controlled for in the analyses. With the adjustment for confounders, significant odds ratios were found for all indices on at least one outcome measure, despite the powerful effect of the tsunami. We could not discern any distinct difference in the distribution of the tendency to report the different outcomes depending on types of prior life events. The implication of the study is that, for adult survivors of disaster, the reporting of adverse life events from childhood may influence future decisions regarding therapy.

  10. The burden of normality: from 'chronically ill' to 'symptom free'. New ethical challenges for deep brain stimulation postoperative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frederic

    2012-07-01

    Although an invasive medical intervention, Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been regarded as an efficient and safe treatment of Parkinson's disease for the last 20 years. In terms of clinical ethics, it is worth asking whether the use of DBS may have unanticipated negative effects similar to those associated with other types of psychosurgery. Clinical studies of epileptic patients who have undergone an anterior temporal lobectomy have identified a range of side effects and complications in a number of domains: psychological, behavioural, affective and social. In many cases, patients express difficulty adjusting from being chronically ill to their new status as 'treated' or 'seizure free'. This postoperative response adjustment has been described in the literature on epilepsy as the 'Burden of Normality' (BoN) syndrome. Most of the discussion about DBS postoperative changes to self is focused on abnormal side effects caused by the intervention (ie, hypersexuality, hypomania, etc). By contrast, relatively little attention is paid to the idea that successfully 'treated' individuals might experience difficulties in adjusting to becoming 'normal'. The purpose of this paper is (1) to articulate the postoperative DBS psychosocial adjustment process in terms of the BoN syndrome, (2) to address whether the BoN syndrome illustrates that DBS treatment poses a threat to the patient's identity, and (3) to examine whether the current framework for rehabilitation after DBS procedures should be updated and take into account the BoN syndrome as a postoperative self-change response.

  11. The influence of psychological symptoms on mental health literacy of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan

    2015-11-01

    Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report 2 studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. CAM and energy psychology techniques remediate PTSD symptoms in veterans and spouses.

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    Church, Dawson; Brooks, Audrey J

    2014-01-01

    Male veterans and their spouses (N = 218) attending one of six-week-long retreats were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms pre- and postintervention. Participants were evaluated using the PTSD checklist (PCL), on which, a score of >49 indicates clinical symptom levels. The mean pretest score was 61.1 (SD ± 12.5) for veterans and 42.6 (SD ± 16.5) for spouses; 83% of veterans and 29% of spouses met clinical criteria. The multimodal intervention used Emotional Freedom Techniques and other energy psychology (EP) methods to address PTSD symptoms and a variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities for stress reduction and resource building. Interventions were delivered in group format as well as individual counseling sessions. Data were analyzed for each retreat, as well as for the six retreats as a whole. Mean post-test PCL scores decreased to 41.8 (SE ± 1.2; p < .001) for veterans, with 28% still clinical. Spouses demonstrated substantial symptom reductions (M = 28.7, SE ± 1.0; p < .001), with 4% still clinical. A follow-up assessment (n = 63) found PTSD symptom levels dropping even further for spouses (p < .003), whereas gains were maintained for veterans. The significant reduction in PTSD symptoms is consistent with other published reports of EP treatment, though counter to the usual long-term course of the condition. The results indicate that a multimodal CAM intervention incorporating EP may offer benefits to family members as well as veterans suffering from PTSD symptoms. Recommendations are made for further research to answer the questions posed by this study. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Role of Mindfulness and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies on Predicting the Psychological Symptoms of Medical Students

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    Sajjadi MS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Besides many problems during education courses, an increase in the level of stress, depression, or anxiety leads to interferences with the students’ professional roles. Mindfulness and cognitive strategies to regulate emotions positively affect human health in different human classes and different psychological symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the differentiation roles of mindfulness and cognitive strategies to regulate emotions in prediction of the psychological symptoms in the medical students.  Instrument & Methods: As a descriptive-correlational study, 375 students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences were randomly studied in 2014-15. The study tools were 5-dimension Mindfulness Questionnaire, Cognitive Strategies to Regulate the Emotions Questionnaire, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Questionnaire. Data was analyzed in SPSS 20 software using Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Stepwise Regression test. Findings: There was a significant correlation between the emotion regulation strategies and mindfulness and depression, anxiety, and stress (p<0.01. 25% of variance changes in depression were explained by the emotion regulation negative cognitive strategies (12%, the emotion regulation positive cognitive strategies (9%, and mindfulness (4%. 17% of the variance changes in anxiety were explained by the emotion regulation negative (12% and positive (5% cognitive strategies. 19.3% of the variance changes in stress were explained by the emotion regulation negative (17% and positive (2.3% cognitive strategies (p<0.05. Conclusion: The effectiveness of cognitive strategies to regulate the emotions and especially, negative cognitive strategies to regulate the emotions is more considerable in explaining the psychological symptoms in the medical students than mindfulness. 

  14. Day-to-day co-variations of psychological and physical symptoms of the menstrual cycle: insights to individual differences in steroid reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2010-04-01

    The associations between physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle have not been carefully studied in past research, but may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these symptoms. The present study examines the day-to-day co-variations among physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle. These symptoms were evaluated on a daily basis across one entire menstrual cycle, with a non-clinical sample of 92 university students. Results showed that headaches, gastrointestinal problems, lower abdominal bloating, skin changes, and breast changes, were all significantly associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms; whereas back and joint pain, lower abdominal cramps, cervical mucous, and menstrual flow, were not associated with psychological symptoms. However, significant differences in these associations were observed across individuals for back and joint pain, headaches, lower abdominal cramps, skin changes, and menstrual flow: Whereas some women demonstrated higher levels of psychological symptoms associated with these physical symptoms, other women demonstrated lower levels of psychological symptoms. Finally, correlations among the associations between physical and psychological symptoms (slopes) demonstrated clear differences across the different physical symptoms. These results indicate that, although higher levels of some physical symptoms are associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms, there are significant differences in the magnitude and direction of these relations across individuals. Further consideration of physical symptoms may provide useful information for understanding individual differences in symptom profiles and response to steroid fluctuations, and for improving differential diagnosis and treatment planning and evaluation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Individuals with Learning Disabilities

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    Rajal Devshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of 23 studies investigating the prevalence of Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in the general and learning disability population and measures used to assess BPSD was carried out. BPSD are non-cognitive symptoms, which constitute as a major component of dementia regardless of its subtype Research has indicated that there is a high prevalence of BPSD in the general dementia population. There are limited studies, which investigate the prevalence of BPSD within individuals who have learning disabilities and dementia. Findings suggest BPSDs are present within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia. Future research should use updated tools for investigating the prevalence of BPSD within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia.

  16. Psychological symptoms and quality of life of dermatology outpatients and hospitalized dermatology patients

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    Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Ibsen, Hans Henning

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to compare psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life of dermatology patients and healthy controls. The sample consisted of 333 consecutively recruited patients from four dermatology outpatient clinics, 172 hospitalized dermatological patients from...... two university hospitals and 293 matched healthy controls. All patients and controls completed Beck's Depression Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Hospitalized patients were more distressed than outpatients and healthy controls and reported greater...... impairment of disease-related quality of life than outpatients. More hospitalized patients had suicidal thoughts and were characterized as having severe to moderate depression compared with outpatients and controls. Female patients and younger patients were generally more distressed than male patients...

  17. Prevalence of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Individuals with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devshi, Rajal; Shaw, Sarah; Elliott-King, Jordan; Hogervorst, Eef; Hiremath, Avinash; Velayudhan, Latha; Kumar, Satheesh; Baillon, Sarah; Bandelow, Stephan

    2015-12-02

    A review of 23 studies investigating the prevalence of Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in the general and learning disability population and measures used to assess BPSD was carried out. BPSD are non-cognitive symptoms, which constitute as a major component of dementia regardless of its subtype Research has indicated that there is a high prevalence of BPSD in the general dementia population. There are limited studies, which investigate the prevalence of BPSD within individuals who have learning disabilities and dementia. Findings suggest BPSDs are present within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia. Future research should use updated tools for investigating the prevalence of BPSD within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia.

  18. Somatoform symptoms profiles in relation to psychological disorders - A population classification analysis in a large sample of general adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Feizi, Awat; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Payman

    2017-08-01

    In order to identifying somatoform symptoms profiles, classifying study population and evaluating of psychological disorders in extracted classes, we carried out a cross-sectional study on 4762 Iranian adults. Somatoform symptoms were assessed using a comprehensive 30-items questionnaire and psychological disorders were evaluated by 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Factor analysis and factor mixture modeling (FMM) were used for data analysis. Four somatoform symptoms profiles were extracted, including 'psycho-fatigue', 'gastrointestinal', 'neuro- skeletal' and 'pharyngeal-respiratory'. According to FMM results, a two-class four-factor structure, based somatoform symptoms, was identified in our study population. Two identified classes were labeled as "low psycho-fatigue complaints" and "high psycho-fatigue complaints". The scores of psychological disorders profile was significantly associated with four somatoform symptoms profiles in both classes; however the stronger relationship was observed in high psycho-fatigue complaints class. The prevalence of all the somatoform symptoms among participants assigned to the "high psycho-fatigue complaints" class was significantly higher than other class. We concluded that somatoform symptoms have a dimensional-categorical structure within our study population. Our study also provided informative pathways on the association of psychological disorders with somatoform symptoms. These findings could be useful for dealing with treatment's approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Methods Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232 receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping, and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning, behavioral (pain-related distress, and demographic characteristics. Results Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. Conclusions It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  20. 50 How can informal support impact child PTSD symptoms following a psychological trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support. Parents, in particular, are often the primary source of support. However, it remains unclear what types of parental responses may be effective, and parents themselves report experiencing uncertainty about the best approach. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the capacity for specific aspects of parental responding in the aftermath of child trauma to facilitate or hinder children's psychological recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study of 132 parent-child pairs, recruited following the child's experience of trauma and subsequent attendance at one of four regional emergency departments. At an initial assessment, within 1 month post-trauma, we examined how parents appraised and responded to their child following the event, using both questionnaires and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSD symptom severity at 1 month, and at a follow up 6 months later. Children also reported on their own appraisals of the trauma and their coping behaviours, which were considered as potential mediators between parental support and later child symptoms. Controlling for relevant covariates and initial PTSD symptoms, parent negative appraisals of the trauma and encouragement of avoidant coping in children were associated with higher child-reported PTSD symptoms at 6 month follow-up. There was some evidence that children's own trauma related appraisals and coping styles mediated these effects. Findings indicate that

  1. The Impact of Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Trauma on Psychological Symptoms in Refugees: The Moderating Role of Gender and Trauma Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, Joanne; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-10-01

    Research findings have documented a relationship between the number of types of traumatic events to which refugees were exposed and psychological disorders. It is unclear, however, if gender moderates the impact of trauma on refugee mental health. The participants in this study were 60 male and 31 female refugees and asylum-seekers resettled in Australia. Participants had a mean age of 34.54 years (SD = 9.70), and were from a variety of countries including Iraq, Iran, and Sri Lanka. We conducted a multigroup path analysis to test if the relationship between psychological outcomes of exposure to trauma (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms, symptoms of anxiety, and symptoms of depression) was different as a function of the type of traumatic exposure (interpersonal vs. noninterpersonal) or as a function of gender. We found a significant relationship between interpersonal trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms (β = .77) and anxiety symptoms (β = .32) in women, and a significant association between noninterpersonal trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms (β = .59), anxiety (β =.49), and depression symptoms (β = .32) in men. For men, the effect sizes of the relationship between exposure to specific types of noninterpersonal trauma and psychological symptoms ranged from d = 0.14 to 1.01; for exposure to interpersonal trauma, they ranged from d = -0.53 to 0.43. For women, the effect sizes of the relationship between exposure to specific types of noninterpersonal trauma and psychological symptoms ranged from d = -0.79 to 0.67; for exposure to interpersonal trauma, they ranged from d = -0.09 to 1.46. These results suggested supporting refugees in their efforts to overcome the psychological impact of trauma, including the allocation of resources in clinical services to support the psychological recovery of refugees. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  2. Quality of Life in healthy old age: relationships with childhood IQ, minor psychological symptoms and optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Gillian H; Lemmon, Helen; Teunisse, Saskia; Starr, John M; Fox, Helen C; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relationships in old age between Quality of Life (QoL), childhood IQ, current cognitive performance and minor psychological symptoms, and to estimate possible contributions to these relationships made by sex, education, socioeconomic deprivation, current living group, sex, and balance and 6m walk time. We conducted a follow-up study on 88 community residents without dementia who were survivors of the Aberdeen City 1921 birth cohort. QoL was measured by the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual QoL-Direct Weighting (SEIQoL-DW), current cognition by MMSE and Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), childhood IQ, minor psychological symptoms as assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and optimism by the Life Orientation Test (LOT); we included balance, 6m walk time and demographic data. QoL was better in men than in women. Women reported more anxiety and depression. QoL correlated significantly with current cognition measured by RPM, childhood intelligence, anxiety and depressive symptoms, optimism and balance. The best model to predict QoL relied on childhood intelligence (13.4% of the variance) and was improved by addition of HADS (8.8 %) and LOT (4.8 %). Other variables did not contribute to the prediction of QoL. In the absence of dementia, childhood IQ, HADS and LOT explain 26.9% of the variance in QoL as reported by community-resident old people. The direction of association between current anxiety and depressive symptoms and lower QoL is uncertain. Lower childhood IQ may contribute to coping less well with later life. Lower QoL is not an invariable concomitant of mild cognitive decline.

  3. Association between caregiver depression and individual behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Taiwanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Si-Sheng; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Fu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate caregiver depression associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms in Taiwanese people. A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Two hundred seventy-six pairs of patients with dementia and their caregivers who visited the memory clinic of a general hospital from July 2001 to October 2008 were recruited. Caregiver depression was evaluated with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Demographic data of the patients and caregivers, including cognitive functions and clinical dementia ratings, were collected. In addition to descriptive statistics, we examined the relationship between each parameter and caregiver depression using Pearson correlation, independent t-test, or analysis of variance. The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score and CES-D score (r = 0.345, P dementia, agitation/aggression, anxiety, nighttime behavior disturbances, irritability/lability, and hallucinations were the five leading symptoms significantly associated with caregiver depression (CES-D). Carefully managing these symptoms is likely to reduce depression in dementia caregivers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Attachment to Parents and Depressive Symptoms in College Students: The Mediating Role of Initial Emotional Adjustment and Psychological Needs

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    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.

  5. The relationship of hardiness, sense of coherence, sports participation, and gender to perceived stress and psychological symptoms among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirka, N

    2000-03-01

    This study addresses the issue of why under conditions of stress some people stay physically and psychologically healthy while others become ill. Being able to deal with stress, to cope with the pressures of daily life, and yet stay healthy, is seen as a function of such factors as physical health, psychological health, constitutional predisposition, social support, exercise habits, and personality. This study examined the moderating effects of the personality constructs of hardiness and sense of coherence, sports participation (college varsity athletes and college nonathletes), and gender on the relationship between perceived stress and psychological symptoms. College varsity athletes (n = 135) and college nonathletes (n = 135), all undergraduates at New York University, completed four questionnaires: Hardiness Scale, Sense of Coherence Scale, Daily Hassles Scale, and Profile of Mood States. Participants also completed a background questionnaire providing basic demographic data. Psychological symptoms and perceived stress were the criterion variables: hardiness, sense of coherence, sports participation, and gender were the predictor variables. Correlational analyses were applied to the resulting data and used to answer and to test the research hypotheses. There was a significant positive correlation between perceived stress and psychological symptoms among college varsity athletes and college nonathletes. There was a significant positive correlation between the personality scales of Hardiness and Sense of Coherence for both college varsity athletes and college nonathletes. When controlling for gender, college varsity athletes scored significantly higher on hardiness, scored slightly higher on sense of coherence, and reported significantly less perceived stress and significantly fewer psychological symptoms than the college nonathletes. Comparing by gender, no statistically significant mean differences were found on the four main variables. A significant negative

  6. Psychological dimensions after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: reduced mental burden, improved eating behavior, and ongoing need for cognitive eating control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieber, Nicole; Giel, Katrin E; Meile, Tobias; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Obesity as a chronic disease has spread worldwide. Conservative treatment, especially with severe obesity, often fails. Obesity surgery has been shown to be an effective treatment. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), as a restrictive procedure, has low risks and results in good weight loss outcomes. However, to date, no studies have investigated the changes in psychological dimensions-especially concerning eating behavior and cognitive restraint-after LSG. The present study investigated, for the first time, eating behavior (cognitive restraint, disinhibition, hunger), depression, and perceived stress before and 1 year after LSG. The setting was a university hospital, comprehensive obesity center. Of 59 patients who had undergone LSG from 2008 to 2010, 40 patients were evaluated using questionnaires on eating behavior, depression, and stress, with measurements made before and 1 year after surgery. The body mass index had decreased, on average, by 15.5 kg/m(2) 1 year after LSG (62.7% excess weight loss). The eating behaviors had changed, with patients experiencing less hunger, fewer food cravings, and decreased disinhibition. Depressive symptoms and perceived stress improved. However, the results showed high levels in the dimension of cognitive restraint of eating 1 year after LSG. Most psychological dimensions improved as expected. The patients were less distracted by food, experienced less hunger, and were less disturbed by emotional distress. However, we found persistent cognitive restraint, reflecting an ongoing need for central eating control. Additional investigations are needed to describe the communication between the gut and brain after surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioural and psychological symptoms in the older population without dementia - relationship with socio-demographics, health and cognition

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    Brayne Carol

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural and psychological symptoms are associated with dementia, but are also present in a significant number of the older population without dementia. Here we explore the distribution of behavioural and psychological symptoms in the population without dementia, and their relationship with domains and severity of health and cognitive impairment. Methods The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study is a two-phase longitudinal study of ageing representative of the population aged 65 and over of England and Wales. A subsample of 1781 participants without a study diagnosis of dementia was included in this study. Information on symptoms including depression, apathy, anxiety, feelings of persecution, hallucination, agitated behaviour, elation, irritability, sleep problems, wandering, confabulation and misidentification, cognitive function, health related factors and socio-demographic information was extracted from interviews with participants and knowledgeable informants. Participants were classified according to the Mini-Mental State Examination and by criteria for subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The prevalence of behavioural and psychological symptoms and associations with cognitive function, health and socio-demographics was examined. Co-occurrence of symptoms was tested using factor analysis. Results Most symptoms were reported more frequently in those with more severe cognitive impairment. Subjective memory complaints were the strongest independent predictor of reported symptoms, and most were reported more often in those classified as having MCI than in those with cognitive impairments that did not meet the MCI criteria. The pattern of co-occurrence of symptoms is similar to that seen in dementia. Conclusions Our results highlight that behavioural and psychological symptoms are prevalent in the cognitively impaired older population, and partly explain the variation observed in previous

  8. Dysfunctional remembered parenting in oncology outpatients affects psychological distress symptoms in a gender-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzoupis, Anastasios V; Lyrakos, Dimitrios; Kokras, Nikolaos; Panagiotarakou, Meropi; Syrigos, Kostas N; Papadimitriou, George N

    2012-12-01

    Evidence suggests that gender differences appear in a variety of biological and psychological responses to stress and perhaps in coping with acute and chronic illness as well. Dysfunctional parenting is also thought to be involved in the process of coping with stress and illness; hence, the present study aimed to verify whether dysfunctional remembered parenting would influence psychological distress in a gender-specific manner in patients suffering from cancer. Patients attending an outpatient oncology clinic completed the Remembered Relationships with Parents (RRP), Hospital Anxiety and Depression and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scales and the National Cancer Center Network Distress Thermometer. Although no baseline gender differences were detected, a multivariate analysis confirmed that anxiety and depression symptoms of men and women suffering from cancer are differentially affected by the RRP Control and Alienation scores. Women with remembered parental alienation and overprotection showed significantly more anxiety symptoms than men, whereas men were more vulnerable to remembered alienation than overprotection with regard to the Distress Thermometer scores. These results suggest that remembered dysfunctional parenting is crucially, and in a gender-specific manner, involved in the coping strategy adopted by male and female cancer patients. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Doing Gender Online: New Mothers' Psychological Characteristics, Facebook Use, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Yavorsky, Jill E; Bartholomew, Mitchell K; Sullivan, Jason M; Lee, Meghan A; Kamp Dush, Claire M; Glassman, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Online social networking sites, such as Facebook, have provided a new platform for individuals to produce and reproduce gender through social interactions. New mothers, in particular, may use Facebook to practice behaviors that align with their mothering identity and meet broader societal expectations, or in other words, to "do motherhood." Given that Facebook use may undermine well-being, it is important to understand the individual differences underlying new mothers' experiences with Facebook during the stressful first months of parenthood. Using survey data from a sample of 127 new mothers with Facebook accounts residing in the U.S. Midwest, we addressed two key questions: (a) Are individual differences in new mothers' psychological characteristics associated with their use and experiences of Facebook? and (b) Are new mothers' psychological characteristics associated with greater risk for depressive symptoms via their use and experiences of Facebook? Regression analyses revealed that mothers who were more concerned with external validation of their identities as mothers and those who believed that society holds them to excessively high standards for parenting engaged in more frequent Facebook activity and also reported stronger emotional reactions to Facebook commentary. Moreover, mothers who were more concerned with external validation were more likely to have featured their child in their Facebook profile picture. Mediation analyses indicated that mothers who were more prone to seeking external validation for their mothering identity and perfectionistic about parenting experienced increases in depressive symptoms indirectly via greater Facebook activity.

  10. Doing Gender Online: New Mothers’ Psychological Characteristics, Facebook Use, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Yavorsky, Jill E.; Bartholomew, Mitchell K.; Sullivan, Jason M.; Lee, Meghan A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Glassman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Online social networking sites, such as Facebook, have provided a new platform for individuals to produce and reproduce gender through social interactions. New mothers, in particular, may use Facebook to practice behaviors that align with their mothering identity and meet broader societal expectations, or in other words, to “do motherhood.” Given that Facebook use may undermine well-being, it is important to understand the individual differences underlying new mothers’ experiences with Facebook during the stressful first months of parenthood. Using survey data from a sample of 127 new mothers with Facebook accounts residing in the U.S. Midwest, we addressed two key questions: (a) Are individual differences in new mothers’ psychological characteristics associated with their use and experiences of Facebook? and (b) Are new mothers’ psychological characteristics associated with greater risk for depressive symptoms via their use and experiences of Facebook? Regression analyses revealed that mothers who were more concerned with external validation of their identities as mothers and those who believed that society holds them to excessively high standards for parenting engaged in more frequent Facebook activity and also reported stronger emotional reactions to Facebook commentary. Moreover, mothers who were more concerned with external validation were more likely to have featured their child in their Facebook profile picture. Mediation analyses indicated that mothers who were more prone to seeking external validation for their mothering identity and perfectionistic about parenting experienced increases in depressive symptoms indirectly via greater Facebook activity. PMID:28239228

  11. The relationship between psychological symptoms and frequency of eating disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Çam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses that are associated with significant physical complications. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of disordered eating attitudes and their relationship to psychological symptoms among adolescent students.  Methods: 338 high school students participated in this descriptive study. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT˗26, the Duke Health Profile and a socio-demographic questionnaire. An EAT-26 score of 20 or higher was defined as the presence of disordered eating attitudes. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 16.0, through the use of both descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The frequency of eating disorder attitudes was found to be 18.3% (7.1% among boys and 21.3% among girls. The  results indicate that there are statistically significant associations between the risk of developing eating disorders and age, gender and mental health. Conclusion: Eating disorders are becoming more prevalent amongst adolescents, particularly among females. As eating disorder are strongly associated with adolescent mental health, intervention programmes should be implemented, with a focus on adolescent developmental challenges and issues for both sexes, particularly in school education syllabi.Key words: Eating disorders, frequency, adolescents, psychological symptoms

  12. Individual Prognosis of Symptom Burden and Functioning in Chronic Diseases: A Generic Method Based on Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik Ingvar

    2017-01-01

    to a Web-based prototype of this implementation for individual use. METHODS: The method used to describe individual prognosis of a PRO outcome was based on the selection of a specific subcohort of patients who have the same score as the patient in question at the same time (eg, after diagnosis or treatment......BACKGROUND: Information to the patient about the long-term prognosis of symptom burden and functioning is an integrated part of clinical practice, but relies mostly on the clinician’s personal experience. Relevant prognostic models based on patient-reported outcome (PRO) data with repeated...... measurements are rarely available. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe a generic method for individual long-term prognosis of symptom burden and functioning that implied few statistical presumptions, to evaluate an implementation for prognosis of depressive symptoms in stroke patients and to provide open access...

  13. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

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    Kim H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77 and control subjects (n=37 were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuro­psychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured.Results: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating.Conclusion: Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the

  14. The effect of psychomotor physical therapy on subjective health complaints and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitve, Monica H; Hynninen, Minna J; Kvåle, Alice

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of Norwegian psychomotor physical therapy on subjective health complaints and psychological symptoms. A non-randomized waiting list controlled design was used. Physiotherapists in Norway recruited patients for a treatment group (n = 40) and waiting list control group (n = 22). Patients on the waiting list could only be included for 6 months, as they then started treatment. Symptoms registration was obtained from both groups at baseline and 6 months, and only for the treatment group also at 12 months. The following self-report forms were used; Subjective Health Complaints Inventory (SCH); Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II); Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T); Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS); Fatigue Questionnaire (FQ); Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI); The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ). The patients had had widespread and clinically significant health problems for an average of 9 years upon entrance to the study. After 6 months in psychomotor physical therapy, all the measured symptoms in the treatment group were significantly reduced, but only quality of life was significantly reduced when compared to the waiting list control group. After 12 months in therapy, the patients in the treatment group had continued to improve on all measured variables. The symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as quality of life, were improved from clinical to non-clinical level. Norwegian psychomotor physical therapy seems to have potential for reducing symptoms of subjective health complaints, depression, anxiety, insomnia, fatigue and improving quality of life, although the process takes time. Further research is needed to gain more rigorous data, and randomized controlled studies are highly welcomed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [The mediating role of the interpersonal schemas between parenting styles and psychological symptoms: a schema focused view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soygüt, Gonca; Cakir, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived parenting styles and interpersonal schemas. The second purpose was to investigate the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms. University students (N=94), ages ranging between 17-26, attending to different faculty and classes, have completed Interpersonal Schema Questionnaire, Young Parenting Inventory and Symptom Check List-90. A series of regression analyses revealed that perceived parenting styles have predictive power on a number of interpersonal schemas. Further analyses pointed out that the mediator role of Hostility situation of interpersonal schemas between psychological symptoms and normative, belittling/criticizing, pessimistic/worried parenting styles on the mother forms (Sobel z= 1.94-2.08, p parenting styles (Sobel z= 2.20-2.86, p parenting styles on interpersonal schemas. Moreover, the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms was also observed. Excluding pessimistic/anxious parenting styles, perceived parenting styles of mothers and fathers differed in their relation to psychological symptoms. In overall evaluation, we believe that, although schemas and parental styles have some universalities in relation to their impacts on psychological health, further research is necessary to address their implications and possible paternal differences in our collectivistic cultural context.

  16. Perceived job insecurity and perceived employability in relation to temporary and permanent workers' psychological symptoms: a two samples study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirves, Kaisa; De Cuyper, Nele; Kinnunen, Ulla; Nätti, Jouko

    2011-12-01

    To clarify the role of perceived job insecurity and perceived employability in relation to psychological symptoms among permanent and temporary employees in two samples. Sample 1 was representative of the Finnish working population in 2008 (n = 4,330; Study 1). Sample 2 was collected among Finnish university personnel and in two waves (n = 1,212; Study 2). Perceived job insecurity, perceived employability, and psychological symptoms were measured by questionnaires in both studies. Hypotheses were tested with regression analyses. The pattern of results was similar in the two samples. Perceived job insecurity was positively associated with psychological symptoms among permanent workers but not among temporary workers. No such differential relationships were observed for perceived employability, instead perceived employability was negatively associated with psychological symptoms among all respondents. Furthermore, perceived employability did not buffer the positive relation between perceived job insecurity and psychological symptoms. Knowledge about the relationship between contract type and workers' well-being can be enhanced when the combined effects of contract type and job conditions are accounted for.

  17. Differential role of CBT skills, DBT skills and psychological flexibility in predicting depressive versus anxiety symptom improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christian A; Beard, Courtney; Kertz, Sarah J; Hsu, Kean J; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2016-06-01

    Studies have reported associations between cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) skill use and symptom improvement in depressed outpatient samples. However, little is known regarding the temporal relationship between different subsets of therapeutic skills and symptom change among relatively severely depressed patients receiving treatment in psychiatric hospital settings. Adult patients with major depression (N = 173) receiving combined psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment at a psychiatric hospital completed repeated assessments of traditional CBT skills, DBT skills and psychological flexibility, as well as depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated that only use of behavioral activation (BA) strategies significantly predicted depressive symptom improvement in this sample; whereas DBT skills and psychological flexibility predicted anxiety symptom change. In addition, a baseline symptom severity X BA strategies interaction emerged indicating that those patients with higher pretreatment depression severity exhibited the strongest association between use of BA strategies and depressive symptom improvement. Findings suggest the importance of emphasizing the acquisition and regular use of BA strategies with severely depressed patients in short-term psychiatric settings. In contrast, an emphasis on the development of DBT skills and the cultivation of psychological flexibility may prove beneficial for the amelioration of anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep quality and its association with fatigue, symptom burden, and mood in patients with advanced cancer in a clinic for early-phase oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Goldy C; Iwuanyanwu, Eucharia C; Anderson, Karen O; Yusuf, Alizeh; Zinner, Ralph G; Piha-Paul, Sarina A; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M; Naing, Aung; Fu, Siqing; Janku, Filip; Subbiah, Vivek; Cleeland, Charles S; Mendoza, Tito R; Hong, David S

    2016-11-15

    Limited data exist about sleep quality for patients with advanced cancer in phase 1 clinical trials. Poor sleep quality is often not captured as an adverse event, and its association with fatigue, one of the most frequently reported adverse events, is not documented routinely. This article describes sleep quality and its relation with fatigue, symptom burden, and mood in patients recruited from an early-phase clinic for targeted therapy. Sleep, fatigue, symptom burden, and mood were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Brief Fatigue Inventory, the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), and the Brief Profile of Mood States, respectively; the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) was determined from medical records. The sample (n = 256) was 51.2% female, 90% had an ECOG PS of 0 or 1, and the mean age was 58 ± 0.8 years. Poor sleepers (global PSQI score > 5) constituted 64% of the sample. In separate multiple regression models, poor sleepers had higher levels of fatigue (P associated with greater fatigue, symptom burden, and mood disturbance. Sleep quality should be routinely assessed in patients with advanced cancer who are participating in early-phase clinical trials. Cancer 2016;122:3401-3409. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  19. The Predictive Strength of Perceived Parenting and Parental Attachment Styles on Psychological Symptoms among Turkish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Körük

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and uses causal comparative research design. The sample of this study consists of 400 university students. Young Parenting Inventory, Parental Bonding Instrument and Brief Symptom Inventory were used for gathering data. The depressive, hostility and anxiety symptoms were determined as the most prevalent psychological symptoms among the sample. The conditional/achievement-oriented and ruling/former mother perceptions were found as the most prevalent perceived parenting styles for mother and the conditional/achievement-oriented and close/repressed feelings perceived as parenting styles for father. Pessimistic/fearful mother, belittling/captious mother and overprotective/worrywart father were found as the most predictive perceived parenting styles which predict the psychological symptoms in a significant level and in a positive way

  20. Autonomic symptom burden in the hypermobility type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a comparative study with two other EDS types, fibromyalgia, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wandele, Inge; Calders, Patrick; Peersman, Wim; Rimbaut, Steven; De Backer, Tine; Malfait, Fransiska; De Paepe, Anne; Rombaut, Lies

    2014-12-01

    This study provides insight into the profile and importance of autonomic symptoms in the hypermobility type (HT) of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The impact of these symptoms is put into perspective by comparing with fibromyalgia (FM) and two other EDS types. Overall, 80 patients with EDS-HT participated, as well as 11 with classical EDS (cEDS), seven with vascular EDS (vEDS), 38 with FM, and 43 healthy controls. All participants filled out the autonomic symptom profile (ASP). Furthermore, they were inquired about quality of life (QOL, SF-36) and factors contributing to the EDS disease burden, e.g., hypermobility (5-point questionnaire, GHQ), fatigue (checklist individual strength, CIS), pain (pain detect questionnaire, PDQ), affective distress (hospital anxiety and depression scale, HADS), and physical activity (Baecke). The total autonomic symptom burden was higher in EDS-HT (57.9 ± 21.57) than in controls (11.3 ± 19.22), cEDS (32.3 ± 19.47), and vEDS (29.1 ± 19.18), but comparable to FM (53.8 ± 19.85). Especially orthostatic and gastrointestinal complaints were prevalent. The importance of autonomic symptoms in EDS-HT was emphasized by the correlation with lowered QOL (r = -0.402), fatigue (r = 0.304), and pain severity (r = 0.370). Although affective distress and decreased physical activity are often suggested as possible causes for dysautonomia, the ASP did not correlate with the HADS and Baecke score. By contrast, the correlation of the GHQ (r = 0.298) and PDQ (r = 0.413) with the ASP supports the hypothesis that joint hypermobility and neuropathy may play a role in the development of autonomic symptoms. Autonomic symptoms, especially orthostatic and gastrointestinal complaints, are frequent extraarticular manifestations of EDS-HT and contribute to the disease burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of psychological symptoms and social group memberships in the development of post-traumatic stress after traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janelle M; Williams, W Huw; Jetten, Jolanda; Haslam, S Alexander; Harris, Adrian; Gleibs, Ilka H

    2012-11-01

    The costs associated with traumatic injury are often exacerbated by the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms. However, it is unclear what decreases the development of post-traumatic symptoms over time. The aim of the present research was to examine the role of psychological symptoms and social group memberships in reducing the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms after orthopaedic injuries (OIs) and acquired brain injuries (ABIs). A longitudinal prospective study assessed self-reported general health symptoms, social group memberships, and post-traumatic stress symptoms among participants with mild or moderate ABI (n= 62) or upper limb OI (n= 31) at 2 weeks (T1) and 3 months (T2) after injury. Hierarchical regressions revealed that having fewer T1 general health symptoms predicted lower levels of T2 post-traumatic stress symptoms after OI but forming more new group memberships at T1 predicted lower levels of T2 post-traumatic stress symptoms after ABI. A focus on acquiring group memberships may be particularly important in reducing the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms after injuries, such as ABI, which result in long-term life changes. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Psychological factors: anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms in low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Verjee, Mohamud; Dafeeah, Elnour E; Falah, Omar; Al-Juhaishi, Taha; Schlogl, Josia; Sedeeq, Alhasan; Khan, Shehryar

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP), investigate the sociodemographic characteristics of patients with LBP, and examine its association with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression, and somatization. Of the 2742 patients approached, 2180 agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study (79.5% response rate). The survey was conducted among primary health care visitors from March to October 2012 and collected sociodemographic details and LBP characteristics. General Health Questionnaire-12 was used to identify the probable cases. Anxiety was assessed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, depression was assessed with Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and somatization was measured with Patient Health Questionnaire-15. The study sample consisted of 52.9% males and 47.1% females. The prevalence of LBP was 59.2%, comprising 46.1% men and 53.9% women. LBP was significantly higher in Qataris (57.9%), women (53.9%), housewives (40.1%), and individuals with higher monthly income (53.9%). Somatization (14.9%) was observed more in LBP patients, followed by depression (13.7%) and anxiety disorders (9.5%). The most frequently reported symptoms were "headaches" (41.1%) and "pain in your arms, legs, or joints" (38.5%) in LBP patients with somatization. The most frequent symptoms among depressed LBP patients were "thinking of suicide or wanting to hurt yourself" (51.4%) and "feeling down, depressed, or hopeless" (49.2%). "Not being able to stop or control worrying" (40.2%), "worrying too much about different things" (40.2%), and "feeling afraid as if something awful might happen" (40.2%) were the most common anxiety symptoms in LBP patients. Psychological distress such as anxiety (9.5% versus 6.2%), depression (13.7% versus 8.5%), and somatization (14.9% versus 8.3%) were significantly higher in LBP patients. The prevalence of LBP in this study sample was comparable with other studies. Furthermore, psychological distress such as anxiety, depression, and

  3. The relationship between financial strain, perceived stress, psychological symptoms, and academic and social integration in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Danielle R; Meyers, Steven A; Beidas, Rinad S

    2016-07-01

    Financial strain may directly or indirectly (i.e., through perceived stress) impact students' psychological symptoms and academic and social integration, yet few studies have tested these relationships. The authors explored the mediating effect of perceived stress on the relationship between financial strain and 2 important outcomes: psychological symptomology and academic and social integration. Participants were 157 undergraduate students. Data were collected from December 2013 to March 2014. Cross-sectional data collection conducted using online survey software. It was found that perceived stress mediated the relationship between financial strain and (a) psychological symptomology and (b) academic and social integration. Both models included first-generation status as a covariate. Results suggest that perceived stress is an important intervention target for reducing psychological symptoms and improving academic and social integration for undergraduate students. Implications for university health centers and mental health professionals include incorporating a public health model to minimize stress risk.

  4. Comorbidity burden is associated with poor psychological well-being and physical health status in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Kupper, Nina; Jordaens, Luc; Pedersen, Susanne S; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2013-10-01

    Comorbidity burden has been linked to survival in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), but no study has examined the influence on psychological well-being and health status. We examined the relationship between comorbidity burden and anxiety, depression, and health status in patients with an ICD during the first 12 months post-implantation using a prospective study design. Consecutively, implanted ICD patients (N = 401; 78% men) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36) at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months post-implantation. Data were analysed using general linear mixed modelling repeated measures multivariable analysis of variance. The mean Charlson comorbidity index score was 3.5 (± 2.4). In adjusted analyses, comorbidity burden was significantly associated with depression (P = 0.003) and the physical health status domains of the SF-36 (Physical Functioning: P Physical: P = 0.023; Bodily Pain: P = 0.004; and General Health: P = 0.025) but not with anxiety (P = 0.62) and the mental health status domains of the SF-36 (all P's > 0.05). Chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, and renal failure were the comorbidities with the most impact on depression and physical health status. Comorbidity burden was a significant predictor of poorer psychological well-being and physical health status in ICD patients during the first 12 months post-implantation. In the care and management of ICD patients, it is important to recognize the impact of comorbidity burden on patients' mood and health status, and that adjunctive intervention may be warranted to enhance well-being.

  5. Psychological symptoms of family members of high-risk intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Jennifer L; Fontaine, Dorrie K; White, Douglas B; Dracup, Kathleen A; Puntillo, Kathleen A

    2012-11-01

    Family members of patients in intensive care are at increased risk for psychological symptoms. To compare levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression during and 3 months after the intensive care experience in family members of patients at high risk for dying and to determine if differences were related to the patient's final disposition. Longitudinal descriptive study of 41 family members in 3 tertiary care intensive care units. By repeated-measures analysis of variance, family members' levels of posttraumatic stress disorder were significantly lower (P = .01) at 3 months after (mean score, 1.27; SD, 0.86) than during (mean, 1.61; SD, 0.81) the experience. Mean anxiety and depression scores were significantly lower (P intensive care experience and did not differ according to the patients' final disposition. However, many family members still had significant risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline anxiety and depression at 3 months.

  6. How music and social engagement provides healthy aging and prevents behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2018-01-01

    engagement and learning, and further affects cognitive reserve and the way we age. Music and musical elements affect listeners differently but seem to regulate our body and brain at a much deeper level than we are aware of. When music touches and engages us, a release of the neurotransmitter Norepinephrine....... In addition, through musical interaction, meaningful expression of psychosocial needs may indirectly lead to a reduction of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. For the person with severe dementia, with sensory and cognitive decline, this offers a healthy means of remaining active, autonomous......Music is much more than a simple stimulus bringing individual pleasure; it also facilitates interpersonal synchrony. In this chapter professor of music therapy, Hanne Mette Ridder, brings together evidence from various disciplines to provide a new perspective on how music stimulates social...

  7. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  8. Considering Positive Psychology Constructs of Life Satisfaction and School Connectedness When Assessing Symptoms Related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B. Mancil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD demonstrate significant difficulty with academic and behavioral functioning. This, in turn, can lead to lower educational attainment and vocational achievement, which has serious long-term consequences and costs to individuals and society (Barkley, 2002, 2006; Mannuzza, Klein, Bessler, Malloy, & LaPadula, 1993. Researchers from a positive psychology framework suggest that ADHD symptoms (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity alone may not fully explain academic impairment (Diener, Scollon, & Lucas, 2004. From the standpoint of positive psychology, life satisfaction and school connectedness are important constructs that examine positive life functioning; however, they have been understudied, particularly in the area of ADHD. The current study investigated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and these positive psychological constructs. Results indicate that as ADHD symptoms increase, life satisfaction decreases; however, no relationship between ADHD symptoms and school connectedness was found. Beyond our primary analysis, we examined the relationship between gender and these variables. Results suggest that gender significantly moderates the relationship between ADHD and life satisfaction, with life satisfaction ratings decreasing for males as ADHD symptoms increase, yet remaining stable for females. ADHD symptoms did not significantly predict changes in school connectedness. Furthermore, gender did not significantly moderate the relationship between school connectedness and ADHD symptoms.

  9. Distress in Spouses of Service Members with Symptoms of Combat-Related PTSD: Secondary Traumatic Stress or General Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Keith D.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Blais, Rebecca K.; Markman, Howard J.; Stanley, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked with elevated psychological distress in service members’/veterans’ spouses. Researchers use a variety of terms to describe this distress, and recently, secondary traumatic stress and secondary traumatic stress disorder (STS/STSD) have become increasingly commonly used. Although STS/STSD connotes a specific set of symptoms that are linked to service members’/veterans’ symptoms, researchers often use general measures of distress or generically worded measures of PTSD symptoms to assess STS/STSD. To determine how often scores on such measures appear to be an accurate reflection of STS/STSD, we examined responses to a measure of PTSD symptoms in 190 wives of male service members with elevated levels of PTSD symptoms. Wives rated their own PTSD symptoms, and then answered questions about their attributions for the symptoms they endorsed. Fewer than 20% of wives who endorsed symptoms on the PTSD measure attributed these symptoms completely to their husbands’ military experiences. Moreover, compared with wives who attributed symptoms only to events in their own lives, wives who attributed symptoms completely or partially to their husbands’ military experiences had a greater overlap between some of their responses on the PTSD measure and their responses to a measure of general psychological distress. These results suggest that most wives of service members/veterans with PTSD experience generic psychological distress that is not conceptually consistent with STS/STSD, although a subset does appear to endorse a reaction consistent with this construct. Implications of these findings for intervention and research with this vulnerable population are discussed. PMID:21639635

  10. Effect of wearing fingers rings on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Teruo; Okamura, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Watanabe, Katsuya; Yokoi, Shigeko; Atae, Hitoshi; Ueda, Masayuki; Kuwayama, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Shigekazu; Tomino, Saaya; Fujii, Hideo; Honda, Takefumi; Morita, Takayosi; Yukawa, Takafumi; Harada, Nobuko

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of an approach that wears finger rings on elderly females with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The subjects were seven Japanese dementia patients living in elderly nursing homes. A single-case experimental design was adopted for the study. Each study subject was asked to put rings on her finger (from 9:00 to 19:00) for 7 days. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory, scenes of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, interest in wearing rings, self-awareness, and overall profile were determined to assess the effect on the patients of wearing rings. The majority of nursing care providers stated, based on their assessment, that the "irritability/lability" that was noted during the baseline period disappeared during the ring-wearing intervention period in the three patients who displayed an interest in rings. In the assessment of the self-awareness ability, these three women were aware themselves of their intellect collapsing and were capable of conjecturing their own and others' minds. It was commonly seen that the nursing staff, even though they had not been asked to do so by the researchers, told the patients, "Mrs. XX, you look so beautiful" when they found a patient wearing rings. Individuals with low self-esteem are inclined to get angry and display aggression. In subjects with low self-esteem, anger and aggression readily arise when they are slighted by others. Self-esteem is low in those women who are aware of their own status of collapsing intellect. It is concluded that the words of conjuration, "you look so beautiful," which the wearing of the ring per se by the patient elicited from the caregivers heightened the self-esteem and alleviated "irritability/lability" in the study subjects.

  11. The relationship among psychological factors, neglect-like symptoms and postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain.

  12. The relationship among psychological factors, neglect-like symptoms and postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. METHODS: The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. RESULTS: At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain. PMID:25101335

  13. Approach to the notice of insanity. Symptom - mental health and clinical structures. Psychology and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Chacón-Afanador

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work of reflection proposes the approach of the concepts of clinical structures and mental health, starting from the position of psychoanalysis and the question is asked if it is possible to think the madness within them. To do this, it starts from an approach to training and symptom in psychoanalysis and psychology, pointing out the importance of differentiating the psychic from the organic, as well as the psychic from the mental. In this sense, the concept of mental health proposed by WHO is addressed and the place of psychology and psychoanalysis in this concept is questioned. In the same way a reflection is made around the questions: Is it possible to speak of madness in the XXI century, when psychiatry has tried to eradicate this term? To talk about crazy again is to return to a debate that has somehow been left out of the scientific debate? Is it possible to think nowadays the importance of elaborating a nosography that includes Insanity?

  14. Evaluation on Hope and Psychological Symptoms in Infertile Couples Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam mohammadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated hope, depression, anxiety, and stress among three groups of infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of three groups of infertile couples-candidates for oocyte donation (n=60, embryo donation (n=60, and normal infertile (n=60. Participants included couples seen at Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran between 2013-2014 who were at least 18 years of age and could read and write in Persian. Participants provided demographic and general characteristics and completed the Persian version of the Adult Trait Hope Scale (hope, agency and pathway and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS. Data was analyzed by the paired t test, ANOVA, ANCOVA and Pearson correlation tests using SPSS statistical software. Results: Overall, 180 infertile couples participated in the three groups. There was a significant higher mean score for hope in husbands compared to wives in the normal infertile group (P=0.046. Husbands in the normal infertile group also had a significantly higher mean score for pathway (P=0.032. The frequency of anxiety significantly differed in female subjects (P=0.028. In the normal infertile group, the anxiety distribution significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.006. There was a significantly different stress frequency in male subjects (P=0.048. In the embryo donation group, stress significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.002. In the normal infertile group, stress also significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.05. Conclusion: The results have suggested that hope might be important in reducing psychological symptoms and psychological adjustment in those exposed to infertility problems who follow medical recommendations, which accelerates recovery. It is recommended to hold psychological counseling sessions (hope therapy during reproduction cycles.

  15. Evaluation on Hope and Psychological Symptoms in Infertile Couples Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omani Samani, Reza; Vesali, Samira; Navid, Behnaz; Vakiliniya, Bahareh; Mohammadi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated hope, depression, anxiety, and stress among three groups of infertile couples. This cross-sectional study consisted of three groups of infertile couples-candidates for oocyte donation (n=60), embryo donation (n=60), and normal infertile (n=60). Participants included couples seen at Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran between 2013-2014 who were at least 18 years of age and could read and write in Persian. Participants provided demographic and general characteristics and completed the Persian version of the Adult Trait Hope Scale (hope, agency and pathway) and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). Data was analyzed by the paired t test, ANOVA, ANCOVA and Pearson correlation tests using SPSS statistical software. Overall, 180 infertile couples participated in the three groups. There was a significant higher mean score for hope in husbands compared to wives in the normal infertile group (P=0.046). Husbands in the normal infertile group also had a significantly higher mean score for pathway (P=0.032). The frequency of anxiety significantly differed in female subjects (P=0.028). In the normal infertile group, the anxiety distribution significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.006). There was a significantly different stress frequency in male subjects (P=0.048). In the embryo donation group, stress significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.002). In the normal infertile group, stress also significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.05). The results have suggested that hope might be important in reducing psychological symptoms and psychological adjustment in those exposed to infertility problems who follow medical recommendations, which accelerates recovery. It is recommended to hold psychological counseling sessions (hope therapy) during reproduction cycles.

  16. Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji

    2014-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Symptom burden and quality of life in end-stage renal disease: a study of 179 patients on dialysis and palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, D S P; Kwok, A O L; Wong, D M L; Suen, M H P; Chen, W T; Tse, D M W

    2009-03-01

    Palliative care for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is developing in Hong Kong. This is the first local study to explore the symptom burden and quality of life (QOL) of ESRD patients on chronic dialysis and palliative care. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted on ESRD patients in a hospital in Hong Kong from January 2006 to April 2007. Data collected included demographics, socioeconomic status, modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), prevalence and intensity of 23 ESRD-related symptoms as rated by numerical rating scale (0-10), Brief Pain Inventory and QOL by MOS SF-36. A total of 179 ESRD patients completed the study; 45 patients (25.1%) were in the palliative care group and 134 patients (74.9%) in the dialysis group. The palliative care group were older (73.1 +/- 7.1 vs 58.2 +/- 11.4 years, P diabetics (62.2 vs 35.8%, P < 0.001) and were of poorer socioeconomic status than the dialysis group. The mean number of symptoms was 8.2 +/- 3.9 and 9.3 +/- 4.7 in the palliative care and the dialysis group, respectively (P = NS). Fatigue, cold aversion, pruritus, lower torso weakness and difficulty sleeping were the five most prevalent symptoms in both groups, and were also among the most intense symptoms. QOL was significantly impaired in both groups. Scores of all QOL domains correlated negatively with the number of symptoms (P < 0.001). Our ESRD patients under palliative care and dialysis had overlapping symptom prevalence and intensity, significant symptom burden and impaired QOL.

  18. Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: Correlates and Impact on Caregiver Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adreesh Mukherjee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, to determine their correlation with types and stages of dementia and patient demographics, and to assess the impact on caregiver distress. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited consecutive dementia patients and caregivers who attended our cognitive clinic. Standard criteria were used to classify types of dementia. BPSD were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and its distress scale was used for caregiver distress. Results: Of a total 107 patients, nearly all (99.1% had at least one BPSD; 71% had ≥4 symptoms. Most frequent were apathy and agitation, followed by irritability, sleep and appetite disorders, and mood disorders; disinhibition and euphoria were least frequent. BPSD were less prominent with increasing age; males showed more agitation. Apathy and eating disorders were more prevalent in the rural community. BPSD were highest in frontotemporal dementia (FTD, followed by dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, and least in vascular dementia. Hallucinations were more common in DLB, aberrant motor behaviour in FTD. All domains of BPSD, except for anxiety and euphoria, were more prominent with increasing severity of dementia. Increasing BPSD (except for euphoria caused higher caregiver distress. Conclusion: BPSD are universally present, bear correlates with dementia type and severity, and cause significant caregiver distress.

  19. Psychological and drug abuse symptoms associated with nonmedical use of opioid analgesics among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 18% of US adolescents engaged in prescription opioid abuse in 2013. However, this estimate may be misleading because it includes both medical misusers and nonmedical users, and there is evidence that these are 2 groups that differ relative to substance abuse and criminal risk. Thus, this study does not combine medical and nonmedical users; rather, it seeks to better understand the characteristics of nonmedical users. This was a school-based, cross-sectional study that was conducted during 2009-2010 in southeastern Michigan with a sample of 2627 adolescents using a Web-based survey. Three mutually exclusive groups were created based on responses regarding medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. Group 1 had never used an opioid analgesic, Group 2 used an opioid analgesic only as prescribed, and Group 3 nonmedically used an opioid analgesic. In addition, Group 3 was divided into 2 mutually exclusive subgroups (self-treaters and sensation-seekers) based on reasons for nonmedical use. A series of multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to determine if the groups differed on the presence of pain, psychological symptoms (e.g., affective disorder, conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]), and drug abuse. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) of the sample was white/Caucasian and 29.5% was African American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.9). Seventy percent (70.4%; n = 1850) reported no lifetime opioid use, 24.5% (n = 644) were medical users, 3.5% (n = 92) were nonmedical users who used for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n = 41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g., to get high). Both medical users and nonmedical users reported more pain and substance abuse symptoms compared with never users. Those nonmedical users who used opioids for sensation-seeking motivations had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. These data support the need to further consider subgroups of

  20. The relationship of perfectionism with psychological symptoms in cancer patients and the contributing role of hyperarousability and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Savard, Josée; Slim, Lisa-Maria; Roy, Renée-Claude; Flett, Gordon L; Hewitt, Paul L; Ivers, Hans

    2017-04-01

    Significant levels of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms are found in cancer patients. Perfectionism, arousability and coping have been associated with these psychological symptoms in the general population but their role among cancer patients remains to be assessed. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between perfectionism and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, insomnia), and the intermediate role of the arousability trait and coping strategies. Participants (N = 853) completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems questionnaire and the Arousal Predisposition Scale at the perioperative period (T1), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index two months later (T2). Higher levels of perfectionism (T1) were correlated with greater symptoms of anxiety, depression and insomnia (T2). Moderated mediation models indicated that arousability contributed to the association of perfectionism with all symptoms, with stronger associations found in men than in women. Coping was a significant pathway between perfectionism and anxiety, with associations of a comparable magnitude across sexes. If these results are replicated by future longitudinal studies, they would suggest that perfectionist cancer patients are at a higher risk of experiencing psychological symptoms, partly through their hyperarousability and the coping strategies they use.

  1. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms Impact Clinical Competence in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Bertrand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is considered a fundamental aspect of personal autonomy and can be affected in psychiatric and neurologic diseases. It has been shown that cognitive deficits in dementia impact negatively on decision-making. Moreover, studies highlighted impaired clinical competence in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this context, the current study explored the relationship between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD and clinical competence, especially the capacity to consent to treatment, in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Seventy-one patients with mild to moderate AD participated, completing assessments for capacity to consent to treatment, general cognition and neuropsychiatric disturbances. For each neuropsychiatric symptom, patients with and without the particular disturbance were compared on the different subscales of the MacArthur Competence Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T; Understanding, Appreciation, Reasoning and Expression. The results showed that patients presenting delusions, as well as apathetic patients, had a lower ability to express a clear treatment choice compared to patients without these symptoms. By contrast, patients with dysphoria/depression had higher scores on this variable. Additionally, AD patients with euphoria had more difficulties discussing consequences of treatment alternatives compared to patients without this disturbance. None of the differences were confounded by global cognition. There were no between-group differences in clinical decision-making for patients with hallucinations, agitation/aggression, anxiety, irritability, disinhibition and aberrant motor behavior. These findings highlight the importance of taking BPSD into account when assessing decision-making capacity, especially clinical competence, in AD. Furthermore, reducing BPSD may lead to better clinical competence in patients with AD, as well as to improvements in patients and caregivers

  2. Needs in nursing homes and their relation with cognitive and functional decline, behavioral and psychological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmet needs are becoming acknowledged as better predictors of the worst prognostic outcomes than common measures of functional or cognitive decline. Their accurate assessment is a pivotal component of effective care delivery, particularly in institutionalized care where little is known about the needs of its residents, many of whom suffer from dementia and show complex needs. The aims of this study were to describe the needs of an institutionalized sample and to analyze its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample from three nursing homes. All residents were assessed with a comprehensive protocol that included Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and Adults and Older Adults Functional Inventory (IAFAI. To identify needs, the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE was used. The final sample included 175 residents with a mean age of 80.6(sd=10.1. From these, 58.7% presented cognitive deficit (MMSE and 45.2% depressive symptoms (GDS. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between MMSE score and met(rs=-0.425, unmet(rs=-0.369 and global needs(rs=-0.565. Data also showed significant correlations between depressive symptoms and unmet(rs=0.683 and global needs(rs=0.407 and between behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD and unmet (rs=0.181 and global needs (rs=0.254. Finally, significant correlations between functional impairment and met(rs=0.642, unmet(rs=0.505 and global needs(rs=0.796 were also found. These results suggest that in this sample, more unmet needs are associated with the worst outcomes measured. This is consistent with previous findings and seems to demonstrate that the needs of those institutionalized elderly remain under-diagnosed and untreated.

  3. Five Alzheimer's disease cases with refractory behavioural psychological symptoms of dementia treated with blonanserin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuro, Atsushi; Saito, Satona

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy, side-effects and tolerability of blonanserin for treating refractory behavioural psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). The present study was a 12-week, prospective, structured clinical trial of blonanserin for the treatment of BPSD. The degree of cognitive function, activities of daily living score, and the degree of BPSD were determined using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Rating Scale for Aggressive Behaviour in the Elderly (RAGE). The severity of extrapyramidal symptoms was assessed using the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms scale (DIEEPS). Five patients were enrolled. These patients met the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. The patients were prescribed more than two kinds of existing antipsychotic drugs and were considered refractory cases; the drugs were discontinued because they were ineffectual and side-effects appeared. Each drug was prescribed independently for at least 2 weeks. The mean changes (at baseline and at the last week, respectively) in the MMSE (12.25, 9.25), in the DAD (6.5, 6.75), in the RAGE (5.5, 5.3) and in the DIEEPS (0.5, 1.5) were minimal. The mean changes in the NPI were two or fewer points. Some side-effects (one gait abnormality and one pneumonia) were observed. The results of this preliminary study show that blonanserin does not have adequate efficacy for the treatment of refractory BPSD. © 2010 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2010 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  4. Structural equation modeling to assess gender differences in the relationship between psychological symptoms and dental visits after dental check-ups for university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-07-01

    Some studies have shown a relationship between psychological symptoms and oral health behaviors. However, it is unknown whether gender differences affect the relationship between psychological symptoms and oral health behaviors. In addition, gender differences in the relationship between dental anxiety and dental visits for treatment or regular check-up are unclear. The objective of the present study was to explain the relationships among gender differences, psychological symptoms, oral health behaviors, dental anxiety and 'expectation of dental visit', evaluated as 'dental visits when treatments are recommended' in university students. A total of 607 students (311 males, 296 females) aged 18-38 years old were examined. The information was collected via questionnaire regarding gender, psychological symptoms and oral health behaviors. Psychological symptoms were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways from these factors to 'expectation of dental visit'. Multiple-group modeling was also conducted to test for gender differences. Psychological symptoms were related to low expectation of dental visit in females, but there was no such relationship in males. Oral health behaviors were related to expectation of dental visit in both genders. Psychological symptoms were directly related to expectation of dental visit in females and oral health behaviors were related to expectation of dental visit in both genders. To promote dental visits after dental check-ups at school, it might be necessary to improve oral health behaviors in both genders and to evaluate psychological symptoms, especially in females.

  5. Psychological Distress Is More Prevalent in Fertile Age and Premenopausal Women With PCOS Symptoms: 15-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjula, Salla; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Auvinen, Juha; Ruokonen, Aimo; Puukka, Katri; Franks, Stephen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tapanainen, Juha S; Jokelainen, Jari; Miettunen, Jouko; Piltonen, Terhi T

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased psychological distress, obesity and hyperandrogenism being suggested as key promoters. To investigate the prevalence of anxiety/depression and their coexistence in women with PCOS/PCOS-related symptoms at ages 31 and 46. The roles of obesity, hyperandrogenism, and awareness of PCOS on psychological distress were also assessed. Population-based follow-up. Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with 15-year follow-up. At age 31, a questionnaire-based screening for oligoamenorrhea (OA) and hirsutism (H): 2188 asymptomatic (controls), 331 OA, 323 H, and 125 OA plus H (PCOS). Follow-up at age 46: 1576 controls, 239 OA, 231 H, and 85 PCOS. Questionnaire-based screening for anxiety and depression symptoms (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25) and previously diagnosed/treated depression at ages 31 and 46. Body mass index (BMI), serum testosterone/free androgen index, and awareness of polycystic ovaries/PCOS on psychological distress were also assessed. Population-based prevalence of anxiety and/or depression in women with PCOS/PCOS-related symptoms at ages 31 and 46. Anxiety and/or depression symptoms, their coexistence, and rate of depression were increased at ages 31 and 46 in women with PCOS or isolated H compared with controls. High BMI or hyperandrogenism did not associate with increased anxiety or depression symptoms. The awareness of PCOS was associated with increased anxiety. Women with PCOS or isolated H present more often with anxiety and/or depression symptoms and their coexistence compared with controls. High BMI or hyperandrogenism did not provoke psychological distress in PCOS. The awareness of PCOS increased anxiety but did not associate with severe anxiety or depression.

  6. Effects of Short-Term Exercise Interventions on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Patients with Dementia : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleiner, Tim; Leucht, Stefan; Förstl, Hans; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Haussermann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Observational and interventional studies indicate a direct link between the patients' physical activity and the extent of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). At present, there are no evidence-based recommendations for physical exercise in the acute dementia care settings.

  7. Herbal medicine for management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Anna J; May, Brian H; Dong, Lin; Feng, Mei; Liu, Shaonan; Guo, Xinfeng; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2017-02-01

    Management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia remains a challenge worldwide. Herbal medicines may play a role in the development of new interventions. To determine effects of herbal medicines for management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, meta-analysis was conducted of 31 controlled trials (3613 participants). Frequently tested herbal medicines were the Ginkgo biloba leaf extract EGb 761 (seven studies) and the multi-ingredient formula Yokukansan (eight studies). Sixteen studies tested other herbal medicines. Improvements were detected in Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores in EGb 761 groups compared to placebo (MD -3.46 [-5.94, -0.98]; I 2 = 93%; n = 1757) and Yokukansan groups compared to no treatment (SMD -0.53 [-0.86, -0.21]; I 2 = 0%; n = 150). Cognitive scores were improved in EGb 761 groups while Yokukansan did not appear to affect cognitive function. Of the other herbal medicines, there were improvements in the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia and cognitive outcomes in two of four placebo-controlled studies. EGb 761 and Yokukansan appeared safe and well tolerated. Adverse effects and dropouts were not reported consistently for the other herbal medicines. Weaknesses of these included short durations, small sample sizes, lack of blinding and other risks of bias. Well-designed studies are needed to further investigate the reported effects of these interventions on the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.

  8. Exposure to Violence and Parenting as Mediators between Poverty and Psychological Symptoms in Urban African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.E.; McCormick, A.; Poindexter, L.; Simpkins, T.; Janda, C.M.; Thomas, K.J.; Campbell, A.; Carleton, R.; Taylor, J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study builds on past research that has found support for a conceptual model in which poverty is linked with adolescent psychological symptoms through economic stressors and impaired parenting. The present study examined this model in a sample of urban African American mothers and their adolescent children. In addition, an alternative…

  9. Influence of psychological symptoms on home-recorded sleep-time masticatory muscle activity in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Fabbri, A.; Peretta, R.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation attempts to describe the correlation between sleep-time masticatory muscle activity (MMA) and psychological symptoms by the use of a four-channel electromyography (EMG) home-recording device in a group of 15 healthy volunteers completing a battery of psychometric

  10. A randomized controlled trial of an internet intervention for adults with insomnia: effects on comorbid psychological and fatigue symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Frances P; Ritterband, Lee M; Gonder-Frederick, Linda A; Lord, Holly R; Ingersoll, Karen S; Morin, Charles M

    2013-10-01

    Insomnia is frequently comorbid with other medical and psychological disorders. This secondary data analysis investigated whether an Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) intervention could also reduce comorbid psychological and fatigue symptoms. Data from a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the efficacy of Internet-delivered CBT-I relative to a waitlist control was used to examine changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety, mental health quality of life (QOL), and fatigue. Group by time interactions from repeated measures analyses revealed significant post intervention improvements in Internet participants (n = 22) relative to control participants (n = 22) on all psychological symptoms, mental health QOL, and fatigue. A small post hoc subsample of Internet participants with mild or moderate depression also showed large effect size changes in these constructs (depression, anxiety, mental health QOL, and fatigue). Internet-delivered CBT-I appears to not only improve sleep but also reduce comorbid psychological and fatigue symptoms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Relationship between Financial Strain, Perceived Stress, Psychological Symptoms, and Academic and Social Integration in Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Danielle R.; Meyers, Steven A.; Beidas, Rinad S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Financial strain may directly or indirectly (i.e., through perceived stress) impact students' psychological symptoms and academic and social integration, yet few studies have tested these relationships. The authors explored the mediating effect of perceived stress on the relationship between financial strain and 2 important outcomes:…

  12. Behavioural and psychological symptoms are not related to white matter hyperintensities and medial temporal lobe atrophy in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staekenborg, S.S.; Gillissen, F.; Romkes, R.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The neuropathology of behavioural and psychological symptoms is much less understood than the neuropathology of cognitive impairment in AD. On MRI, medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is presumed to reflect Alzheimer-type pathology. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are considered

  13. Optimism and Psychological Resilience in Relation to Depressive Symptoms in University Students: Examining the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin; Acun-Kapikiran, Necla

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of self-esteem as a mediator in the relationships between optimism and psychological resilience on depressive symptoms in university students. A total of 494 undergraduate students, comprising of 253 female and 241 male participated in this study. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 30 (M = 20.85, SD = 1.57).…

  14. Discrimination Fully Mediates the Effects of Incarceration History on Depressive Symptoms and Psychological Distress Among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Miller, Reuben Jonathan; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne; Keith, Verna; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-04-12

    Using a nationally representative sample of African American men, this study investigated the associations between lifetime history of incarceration, discrimination, and mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms and psychological distress). We hypothesized that discrimination would fully mediate the association between incarceration history and mental health outcomes among African American men. Using a cross-sectional design, our analysis included 1271 African American men who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. Incarceration history was the main independent variable. Depressive symptoms and psychological distress were the dependent variables. Everyday discrimination was the mediator. Age, education, and income were covariates. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used for data analysis. Among African American men, incarceration history was positively associated with perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress. Everyday discrimination fully mediated the associations between incarceration history and both depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Discrimination may play an important role in the mental health problems of African American men with a history of incarceration. These findings have public policy implications as well as clinical implications for mental health promotion of African American men. Policies that reduce preventable incarceration or at least reduce subsequent discrimination for those who have been incarcerated may enhance mental health of previously incarcerated African American men.

  15. Electroencephalogram, cognitive state, psychological disorders, clinical symptom, and oxidative stress in horticulture farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrami, Mansour; Hashemi, Touraj; Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Faraji, Fardin; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the toxicity of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in exposed farmers for electroencephalography, cognitive state, psychological disorders, clinical symptom, oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase, and DNA damage. A comparative cross-sectional analysis was carried out in 40 horticulture farmers who were exposed to OPs in comparison to a control group containing 40 healthy subjects with the same age and sex and education level. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, DNA damage, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in the blood of subjects. Clinical examination and complete blood test were undertaken in order to record any abnormal sign or symptoms. Cognitive function, psychological symptoms, and psychological distress were examined and recorded. Comparing with controls, the farmers showed higher blood levels of SOD and LPO while their TAC decreased. Farmers showed clinical symptoms such as eczema, breathing muscle weakness, nausea, and saliva secretion. Regarding cognitive function, the orientation, registration, attention and calculation, recall, and language were not significantly different in farmers and controls. Among examinations for psychological distress, only labeled somatization was significantly higher in farmers. The present findings indicate that oxidative stress and inhibition of AChE can be seen in chronically OP-exposed people but incidence of neuropsychological disorders seems a complex multivariate phenomenon that might be seen in long-term high-dose exposure situations. Use of supplementary antioxidants would be useful in the treatment of farmers.

  16. Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Relationship With Psychological Symptoms and Personality Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Meily, J. M. Anne; Rhebergen, Marloes L.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; van Zandvoort, Martine J.; Post, Marcel W. M.

    Background and Purpose-Many patients who survive an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage experience decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Physical factors have been identified as determinants of HRQoL. We describe long-term HRQoL and assessed whether psychological symptoms and personality

  17. The Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Abuse and its Correlation with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukomanovic Ivana Simic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abuse in younger populations has been an issue of growing concern globally since youth already face various life situations that can heighten the occurrence of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical and psychological abuse and its correlation with depressive and anxiety symptoms among students.

  18. Efficacy of Acupuncture for Psychological Symptoms Associated with Opioid Addiction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Boyuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review systematically assessed the clinical evidence for and against acupuncture as a treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The database was accessed from MEDLINE and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. We included all randomized clinical trials published in Chinese and English regardless of their controls. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan software, version 5.2. We conducted a literature search of 16 databases from their inception to January 2014. Four studies from Western countries did not report any clinical gains in the treatment of psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. 10 of 12 studies from China have reported positive findings regarding the use of acupuncture to treat the psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. The methodological quality of the included studies was poor. The meta-analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between the treatment group and the control group for anxiety and depression associated with opioid addiction, although groups did not differ on opioid craving. This review and meta-analysis could not confirm that acupuncture was an effective treatment for psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction. However, considering the potential of acupuncture demonstrated in the included studies, further rigorous randomized controlled trials with long followup are warranted.

  19. Impact of symptom burden on health related quality of life of cancer survivors in a Danish cancer rehabilitation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Trille Kristina; Johansen, Christoffer; Ibfelt, Else

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Little research has been conducted on the effect of self-reported rating of symptom severity on quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of symptoms and whether information about self-reported symptom severity adds value...

  20. Psychological factors: anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms in low back pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulbari Bener,1–3 Mohamud Verjee,4 Elnour E Dafeeah,5 Omar Falah,4 Taha Al-Juhaishi,4 Josia Schlogl,4 Alhasan Sedeeq,4 Shehryar Khan41Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Hamad Medical Corporation, 2Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 3Department of Evidence for Population Health Unit, School of Epidemiology and Health Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 4Department of Medical Education, Weill Cornell Medical College, 5Department of Psychiatry, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QatarAim: To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP, investigate the sociodemographic characteristics of patients with LBP, and examine its association with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression, and somatization.Subjects and methods: Of the 2742 patients approached, 2180 agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study (79.5% response rate. The survey was conducted among primary health care visitors from March to October 2012 and collected sociodemographic details and LBP characteristics. General Health Questionnaire-12 was used to identify the probable cases. Anxiety was assessed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, depression was assessed with Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and somatization was measured with Patient Health Questionnaire-15.Results: The study sample consisted of 52.9% males and 47.1% females. The prevalence of LBP was 59.2%, comprising 46.1% men and 53.9% women. LBP was significantly higher in Qataris (57.9%, women (53.9%, housewives (40.1%, and individuals with higher monthly income (53.9%. Somatization (14.9% was observed more in LBP patients, followed by depression (13.7% and anxiety disorders (9.5%. The most frequently reported symptoms were "headaches" (41.1% and "pain in your arms, legs, or joints" (38.5% in LBP patients with somatization. The most frequent symptoms among depressed LBP patients were "thinking of suicide or wanting to hurt yourself

  1. Short-Term Exercise Approaches on Menopausal Symptoms, Psychological Health, and Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Ağıl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to determine the effects of different short-term exercise programs on menopausal symptoms, psychological health, and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Forty-two women were chosen from volunteering postmenopausal women presenting to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Bayındır Hospital between March and December 2009. The women aged 45–60 years and experiencing menopause naturally were included in the study. They were randomly divided into aerobic (=18 and resistance (=18 exercise groups. The women exercised 3 days per week for 8 weeks under the supervision of a physiotherapist. Aerobic exercise training was performed through a bicycle ergometer. Before and after the training, lipid profiles were measured and menopausal symptoms, psychological health, depression, and the quality of life were assessed through questionnaires. Results. In both exercise groups, no significant changes in lipid profiles were observed. In the resistance exercise group, excluding the urogenital complaints, there were significant improvements in all subscales of Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS. In the resistance exercise group, excluding the phobic anxiety, there were significant improvements in all subscales of The Symptom Checklist. Depression levels significantly decreased in both groups. Improvements were observed in all subscales of menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire in both groups except for sexual symptoms. Conclusion. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise were found to have a positive impact on menopausal symptoms, psychological health, depression, and quality of life.

  2. Coping with physical and psychological symptoms: a qualitative study of advanced lung cancer patients and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Ott, Mary A; Hanna, Nasser; Jalal, Shadia I; Champion, Victoria L

    2015-07-01

    Advanced lung cancer patients have high rates of multiple physical and psychological symptoms, and many of their family caregivers experience significant distress. However, little is known about strategies that these patients and their family caregivers employ to cope with physical and psychological symptoms. This study aimed to identify strategies for coping with various physical and psychological symptoms among advanced, symptomatic lung cancer patients and their primary family caregivers. Patients identified their primary family caregiver. Individual semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 advanced, symptomatic lung cancer patients and primary family caregivers. Thematic analysis of interview data was framed by stress and coping theory. Patients and caregivers reported maintaining a normal routine and turning to family and friends for support with symptom management, which often varied in its effectiveness. Whereas support from health-care professionals and complementary and alternative medicine were viewed favorably, reactions to Internet and in-person support groups were mixed due to the tragic nature of participants' stories. Several cognitive coping strategies were frequently reported (i.e., changing expectations, maintaining positivity, and avoiding illness-related thoughts) as well as religious coping strategies. Results suggest that advanced lung cancer patients and caregivers may be more receptive to cognitive and religious approaches to symptom management and less receptive to peer support. Interventions should address the perceived effectiveness of support from family and friends.

  3. Behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drugs among people with cognitive impairment in nursing homes in 2007 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Maria; Isaksson, Ulf; Karlsson, Stig; Sandman, Per-Olof; Lövheim, Hugo

    2016-08-01

    The use of psychotropic drugs to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among people with dementia has been widely questioned because of its limited efficacy and risk of harmful side-effects. The objectives of this study was to compare the prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms and the use of psychotropic drug treatments among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care units in 2007 and 2013. Two questionnaire surveys were performed in 2007 and 2013, comprising all those living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. A comparison was made between 1971 people from 2007 and 1511 people from 2013. Data were collected concerning psychotropic and antidementia drug use, functioning in the activities of daily living (ADL), cognition, and behavioral and psychological symptoms, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). Between 2007 and 2013, the use of antipsychotic drugs declined from 25.4 to 18.9 %, and of anxiolytic, hypnotic, and sedative drugs from 35.5 to 29.4 %. The prevalence of people prescribed antidepressant drugs remained unchanged while antidementia drug prescription increased from 17.9 to 21.5 %. When controlled for demographic changes, 36 out of 39 behavioral and psychological symptoms showed no difference in prevalence between the years. The use of antipsychotic, anxiolytic, hypnotic, and sedative drugs declined considerably between 2007 and 2013 among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care units. Despite this reduction, the prevalences of behavioral and psychological symptoms remained largely unchanged.

  4. Evaluation of a hospital-based day-structuring exercise programme on exacerbated behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia--the exercise carrousel: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiner, Tim; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Dauth, Hannah; Haussermann, Peter

    2015-05-26

    Conceptual reviews and observational studies describe a link between physical inactivity and behavioural disturbances in people with dementia. Consequently, treatment of these symptoms requires physical activation and pharmacological or physical immobilization should be avoided. The few trials that have been conducted in inpatient dementia care to investigate the effects of exercise on behavioural and psychological symptoms revealed inconsistent results. Due to a lack of evidence, there is a paucity of recommendations for physical activation in this stage of care. Therefore, this trial seeks to investigate the effects of a day-structuring exercise programme on behavioural and psychological symptoms as well as on circadian rhythms of patients with dementia, hospitalized because of their behavioural and psychological disturbances. A single-centre randomised controlled trial will be conducted in three special dementia care units of an old age psychiatry hospital. Enrolled patients will receive either a 2-week exercise programme, or a 2-week social stimulation programme in addition to usual care. Due to the provision of four day-structuring exercise-sessions in the course of an intervention day, the exercise programme for the study group is called exercise-carrousel. Baseline and post-intervention assessment for the primary outcome variable - the overall effects on behavioural and psychological symptoms--will be measured by the Alzheimer's disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change. The following objectives are set up as secondary outcomes: dimensions of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and caregiver burden, routine and on-demand psychotropic medication, patients' motor behaviour, diurnal cortisol-levels from saliva probes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-levels from blood serum. In order to be regarded as an important treatment option for behavioural and psychological symptoms, physical activation in inpatient

  5. [Adult mother-daughter relationships and psychological well-being: attachment to mothers, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kotomi

    2008-06-01

    This study examined how daughter's reported quality of their mother-daughter relationships during childhood and adulthood is related to their psychological well-being (depressive symptoms and self-esteem). A cross-sectional sample of 363 women, age 26 to 35 years, completed questionnaires. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on the daughters' marital and parental status. Regression estimates suggested that among single daughters and married daughters with children, childhood attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) significantly contributed to psychological well-being, even after controlling for the effects of current closeness and excessive dependence. Current closeness, and excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother contributed to the psychological well-being of single daughters and married daughters without children, even after controlling for the effects of childhood attachment.

  6. Radiofrequency ablation as initial therapy in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: results on health-related quality of life and symptom burden. The MANTRA-PAF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfridsson, H; Walfridsson, U; Nielsen, J Cosedis; Johannessen, A; Raatikainen, P; Janzon, M; Levin, L A; Aronsson, M; Hindricks, G; Kongstad, O; Pehrson, S; Englund, A; Hartikainen, J; Mortensen, L S; Hansen, P S

    2015-02-01

    The Medical ANtiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (MANTRA-PAF) trial assessed the long-term efficacy of an initial strategy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) vs. antiarrhythmic drug therapy (AAD) as first-line treatment for patients with PAF. In this substudy, we evaluated the effect of these treatment modalities on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and symptom burden of patients at 12 and 24 months. During the study period, 294 patients were enrolled in the MANTRA-PAF trial and randomized to receive AAD (N = 148) or RFA (N = 146). Two generic questionnaires were used to assess the HRQoL [Short Form-36 (SF-36) and EuroQol-five dimensions (EQ-5D)], and the Arrhythmia-Specific questionnaire in Tachycardia and Arrhythmia (ASTA) was used to evaluate the symptoms appearing during the trial. All comparisons were made on an intention-to-treat basis. Both randomization groups showed significant improvements in assessments with both SF-36 and EQ-5D, at 24 months. Patients randomized to RFA showed significantly greater improvement in four physically related scales of the SF-36. The three most frequently reported symptoms were breathlessness during activity, pronounced tiredness, and worry/anxiety. In both groups, there was a significant reduction in ASTA symptom index and in the severity of seven of the eight symptoms over time. Both AAD and RFA as first-line treatment resulted in substantial improvement of HRQoL and symptom burden in patients with PAF. Patients randomized to RFA showed greater improvement in physical scales (SF-36) and the EQ-visual analogue scale. URL http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00133211. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Communicating advanced cancer patients' symptoms via the Internet: a pooled analysis of two randomized trials examining caregiver preparedness, physical burden, and negative mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Ming-Yuan; DuBenske, Lori L; Hawkins, Robert P; Brown, Roger L; Dinauer, Susan K; Cleary, James F; Gustafson, David H

    2013-06-01

    Using available communication technologies, clinicians may offer timely support to family caregivers in managing symptoms in patients with advanced cancer at home. To assess the effects of an online symptom reporting system on caregiver preparedness, physical burden, and negative mood. A pooled analysis of two randomized trials (NCT00214162 and NCT00365963) was conducted to compare caregiver outcomes at 6 and 12 months after intervention between two randomized, unblinded groups using General Linear Mixed Modeling. Caregivers in one group (Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System-Only) were given access to an interactive cancer communication system, the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System. Those in the other group (Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System + Clinician Report) received access to Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System plus an online symptom reporting system called the Clinician Report. Clinicians of patients in the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System + Clinician Report group received e-mail alerts notifying them when a symptom distress was reported over a predetermined threshold. Dyads (n = 235) of advanced-stage lung, breast, and prostate cancer patients and their adult caregivers were recruited at five outpatient oncology clinics in the United States. Caregivers in the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System + Clinician Report group reported less negative mood than those in the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System-Only group at both 6 months (p = 0.009) and 12 months (p = 0.004). Groups were not significantly different on caregiver preparedness or physical burden at either time point. This study provides new evidence that by using an online symptom reporting system, caregivers may experience less emotional distress due to the Clinician Report's timely communication of caregiving needs in symptom management to clinicians.

  8. Abdominoplasty Improves Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai M. M. Saariniemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, Raitasalo’s modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI, and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI 26.4. Fifty-three (83% women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women’s overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02151799.

  9. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Lambert, Sharon F; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.

  10. Relationship between psychological factors and symptoms of TMD in university undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris A; Zuim, Paulo R J; Monteiro, Douglas R; Ribeiro, Paula Do Prado; Garcia, Alicio R

    2010-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders is a collective term used to describe a number of related disorders involving the temporomandibular joints, masticatory muscles and occlusion with common symptoms such as pain, restricted movement, muscle tenderness and intermittent joint sounds. The multifactorial TMD etiology is related to emotional tension, occlusal interferences, tooth loss, postural deviation, masticatory muscular dysfunction, internal and external changes in TMJ structure and the various associations of these factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the relationship between signs of psychological distress and temporomandibular disorder in university students. A total 150 volunteers participated in this study. They attended different courses in the field of human science at one public university and four private universities. TMD was assessed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) questionnaire. Anxiety was measured by means of a self-evaluative questionnaire, Spielberger's Trait-State anxiety inventory, to evaluate students'state and trait anxiety. The results of the two questionnaires were compared to determine the relationship between anxiety levels and severity degrees of chronic TMD pain by means of the chi-square test. The significance level was set at 5%. The statistical analysis showed that the TMD degree has a positive association with state-anxiety (p = 0.008; p students (40%). This study concluded that there is a positive association between TMD and anxiety.

  11. A new simple score (ABS) for assessing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Yamashita, T; Hishikawa, N; Ohta, Y; Deguchi, K; Sato, K; Matsuzono, K; Nakano, Y; Ikeda, Y; Wakutani, Y; Takao, Y

    2015-03-15

    In addition to cognitive impairment, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are another important aspect of most dementia patients. This study was designed for a new simple assessment of BPSD. We first employed a clinical survey for the local community with sending an inquiry letter to all members (n=129) of dementia caregiver society, and then attempted to create a new BPSD score for dementia with 10 BPSD items. This new simple BPSD score was compared to a standard-detailed BPSD score neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) for a possible correlation (n=792) and a time to complete (n=136). Inter-rater reliability was examined comparing scores between main and second caregivers (n=70) for AD. Based on the clinical survey for local caregivers, a new BPSD score for dementia (ABS, Abe's BPSD score) was newly created, in which each BPSD item was allotted by an already-weighted score (maximum 1-9) based on the frequency and severity, and was finalized with taking temporal occurrences into account. ABS was filled by the main caregiver with a full score of 44, was well correlated with NPI (r=0.716, **pABS in secondary than the main caregivers. ABS provides a new simple and quick test for BPSD assessment, with a good correlation to NPI but a shorter time, and with a high inter-rater reliability. Thus ABS is useful for evaluating BPSD for mild to moderate dementia patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Maintaining wellbeing for South Africans receiving ART: The burden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Physical and psychological symptom burden among people with HIV infection is associated with poor quality of life, poorer treatment adherence, viral rebound and risk behaviour. Symptomatology has not been investigated among outpatients in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. To measure the seven-day period ...

  13. Impact of Psychological Grief Counseling on the Severity of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Mothers after Stillbirths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Saravani, Zahra; Shakiba, Mansour

    2017-08-01

    Planned support and interventions are necessary in the care and support of women who have experienced stillbirth. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of psychological grief counseling on the symptom severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers after stillbirths. This interventional study is semi-experimental. The study was conducted on 100 women who had recently had stillbirths. Eligible samples were selected and randomly divided into the two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool was the PPQ,(1) which was completed as a pre-test and post-test in both groups. The intervention group received four sessions of psychological grief counseling over two weeks, and the control group received only routine postnatal care. PTSD severity was evaluated in both groups at the end of the fourth week after the final session. The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the mean score of the severity of the PTSD symptoms in both groups after the intervention (P = 0.0001), which means that psychological grief counseling led to the reduction of PTSD severity in mothers. Given the positive impact of psychological grief counseling on reducing the severity of PTSD, integration of intensive psychological interventions in the maternity care system seems essential for faster transition of grief stages and for the prevention of severe cases of PTSD.

  14. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2009-05-01

    Do positive psychology interventions-that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions-enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.29) and decrease depressive symptoms (mean r=.31). In addition, several factors were found to impact the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions, including the depression status, self-selection, and age of participants, as well as the format and duration of the interventions. Accordingly, clinicians should be encouraged to incorporate positive psychology techniques into their clinical work, particularly for treating clients who are depressed, relatively older, or highly motivated to improve. Our findings also suggest that clinicians would do well to deliver positive psychology interventions as individual (versus group) therapy and for relatively longer periods of time. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse.

  16. Psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life in idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellqvist, Anna; Palmquist, Eva; Nordin, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Need for better understanding of the etiology of idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) motivated the present study of psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in person who attribute health problems to electromagnetic fields. Participants with IEI-EMF (n=114) and a population-based sample of referents (n=104) were investigated with six subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) to assess psychological symptoms, and with eight subscales of the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) to assess HRQoL. Significantly higher scores were found on obsessive/compulsive behavior, interpersonal hypersensitivity, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid thoughts in the IEI-EMF group compared to referents, whereas only a tendency of such a difference was found for psychotism. Furthermore, poorer HRQoL in the IEI-EMF group, compared to referents, were found regarding physical and social functioning, physical and emotional role limitations, general health, vitality, bodily pain, and mental health. Significant correlation with moderate to strong effect sizes were found between several of the SCL-90 and SF-36 subscales. The results suggest that IEI-EMF is associated with various types of psychological symptoms and with poor HRQoL. Clinical implications include theoretical support for cognitive behavioral therapy, and, although further research is needed, that attention should be directed towards feelings of inferiority and uneasiness in relationships as well as anger, hostility and resentment towards other people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Making sense of traumatic memories: memory qualities and psychological symptoms in emerging adults with and without abuse histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer Greenhoot, Andrea; Sun, Shengkai; Bunnell, Sarah L; Lindboe, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the connections between multiple measures of meaning making and psychological adjustment in people with and without histories of abuse. Young adults (n =177), recollected their three most stressful memories and rated them on importance and emotional and sensory qualities. We analysed the narratives for lexical markers of meaning making and explicit references to meaning or meaning-making attempts. There was little overlap between self-reported qualities and narrative content, and they were differentially predictive of psychological symptoms and transient emotional reactions. Consistent with the PTSD literature, more salient self-report memory characteristics (e.g., visceral emotions), and negative emotion and sensation terms predicted more symptoms. The narrative indices provided the best prediction to psychological adjustment, with several meaning indices (e.g., references to positive impact) predicting reduced symptoms, particularly for the Abuse group. Contrary to meaning-making models, resolutions predicted more symptoms, suggesting that aversive feelings during memory telling may trigger on-the-spot sense making to cope with distress.

  18. Auditory symptoms and psychological characteristics in adults with auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Obuchi

    2017-09-01

    We have to take notice of a subject's psychological state when they perceive their listening difficulties as a large-scale problem and feel anxious as a result. For this purpose, we should take psychological characteristics into consideration at the time of the medical examination interview before audio-psychological testing.

  19. Turo (Qi Dance Training Attenuates Psychological Symptoms and Sympathetic Activation Induced by Mental Stress in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jin Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagal withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity accompany various types of stress. Qi training is reported to reduce sympathetic hyper-reactivity in a stressful situation. Turo, which is a type of dance that uses the Meridian Qi System, may reduce the psychological symptoms induced by an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. We observed whether Turo training alters psychopathological and psychological symptoms using the Symptom Checklist 90-Revision (SCL-90-R and examined whether it attenuates the stress response to mental stress in healthy adolescent females using the power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability (HRV. Twenty-one subjects received Turo training and 27 subjects were trained with mimicking movements. The SCL-90-R was measured before and after the 2-month training period. Heart rate (HR, total power (TP and the LF/HF ratio of HRV were compared between the Turo and control groups during and after mental stress. The somatization and hostility subscales of the SCL-90-R of the Turo group were significantly lower than those of the control group after 2 months. The increases in HR and the LF/HF ratio of HRV induced by the stress test were significantly lower in the Turo group than in the control group. The TP of the Turo group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The psychological symptoms and sympathetic activation induced by the artificial stress were significantly reduced by the Turo training. These findings suggest that Turo training can play a critical role in attenuating psychological symptoms and stress-induced sympathetic activation.

  20. Changes in circulating cytokine levels in midlife women with psychological symptoms with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and Japanese traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masayo; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ueno, Shu-Ichi; Numata, Shusuke; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Tsuchiya, Naoko; Noguchi, Masamichi; Yuzurihara, Mitsutoshi; Kase, Yoshio; Irahara, Minoru

    2009-02-20

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on serum cytokine concentrations of paroxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, and kamishoyosan, a Japanese traditional medicine, in midlife women with psychological symptoms. Seventy-six women with psychological symptoms such as anxiety and mild depression as menopausal symptoms were enrolled in this study. Thirty-eight women received oral administration of 10mg paroxetine every day, and 38 women received oral administration of kamshoyosan every day for 6 months. Overall climacteric symptoms were assessed using Greene's climacteric scale. Serum levels of cytokines were measured using a multiplexed human cytokine assay. Greene's total scores in both women treated with paroxetine and in women treated with kamishoyosan decreased significantly. Percentage decreases in Greene's total, psychological and vasomotor scores during the 6-month period in the paroxetine group were significantly greater than those in the kamishoyosan group. Serum IL-6 concentration in women treated with paroxetine decreased significantly. Serum concentrations of IL-8, IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in women treated with paroxetine decreased significantly. On the other hand, serum IL-6 concentration in women treated with kamishoyosan decreased significantly, but other serum concentrations did not change significantly. Decrease in IL-6 concentration may be involved in the mechanism of the actions of both paroxetine and kamishoyosan in women with psychological symptoms, and IL-6 may therefore be useful as a marker of treatment. The action of paroxetine may also be associated with decreases in IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1beta.

  1. Benefit finding trajectories in cancer patients receiving psychological care: Predictors and relations to depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Ranchor, Adelita V; Helgeson, Vicki S; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E; Sanderman, Robbert; Schroevers, Maya J

    2017-11-15

    This study aimed to (1) identify benefit finding trajectories in cancer patients receiving psychological care; (2) examine associations of benefit finding trajectories with levels of and changes in psychological symptoms; and (3) examine whether socio-demographic and medical characteristics distinguished trajectories. Naturalistic longitudinal study design. Participants were 241 cancer patients receiving psychological care at specialized psycho-oncological institutions in the Netherlands. Data were collected before starting psychological care, and three and 9 months thereafter. Latent class growth analysis was performed to identify benefit finding trajectories. Five benefit finding trajectories were identified: 'high level-stable' (8%), 'very low level-small increase' (16%), 'low level-small increase' (39%), 'low level-large increase' (9%), and 'moderate level-stable' (28%). People in distinct benefit finding trajectories reported significant differential courses of depression but not of anxiety symptoms. Compared with the other four trajectories, people in the 'low level-large increase' trajectory reported the largest decreases in depression over time. Perceptions of cancer prognosis distinguished these trajectories, such that people with a favourable prognosis were more likely to belong to the 'high level-stable' trajectory, while people perceiving an uncertain prognosis were more likely to belong to the 'low level-large increase' trajectory of benefit finding. Cancer patients showed distinct benefit finding trajectories during psychological care. A small proportion reporting a large increase in benefit finding were also most likely to show decreases in depressive symptoms over time. These findings suggest a relation between perceiving benefits from cancer experience and improved psychological functioning in cancer patients receiving psychological care. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? People vary in course of benefit finding

  2. History of Abuse and Psychological Distress Symptoms among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica; Semple, Shirley J.; Rao, Swati; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel A.; Bucardo, Jesus; De la Torre, Adela; Salazar-Reyna, Juan; Orozovich, Prisci; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S.; Amaro, Hortensia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined histories of past emotional, physical, and sexual abuse as correlates of current psychological distress using data from 916 female sex workers (FSWs) who were enrolled in a safer-sex behavioral intervention in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez, Mexico. We hypothesized that histories of abuse would be associated with higher symptom levels of depression and somatization, and that social support would moderate the relationship. Nonparametric correlations and a series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that all forms of past abuse predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms. Social support was also significantly associated with fewer symptoms of distress; however, it was not shown to moderate the relationship between abuse history and distress. PMID:19634364

  3. Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Weze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004. Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.

  4. The role of psychological factors in bipolar disorder: prospective relationships between cognitive style, coping style and symptom expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya

    2014-04-01

    Psychological factors contribute to bipolar disorder illness course, representing targets for psychological intervention. Research to date has focused on bipolar I disorder, extrapolating results to bipolar II disorder. The current study addresses this discrepancy by exploring cognitive and coping styles in patients diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Participants were recruited from the Sydney-based Black Dog Institute. Diagnoses were derived via the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Baseline cognitive and coping style measures were completed, and mood symptoms assessed over a 6-month period. Clinician-rated mood status was assessed at follow-up to determine the predictive utility of cognitive and coping styles. The follow-up sample comprised 151 participants. Differential relationships between cognitive style, coping styles and mood symptoms emerged across the bipolar sub-types. Some key differences were that a broader set of negative cognitive styles were associated with bipolar II depression symptoms; while few relationships were observed between coping styles and bipolar II symptoms. Differences in cognitive and coping style relationships with symptom expression across bipolar I and II disorder may provide clinicians with fruitful guides for directing treatment interventions when relevant maladaptive styles are observed. Further exploration of differences in cognitive and coping styles in bipolar I and II disorder is warranted.

  5. Burden of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients receiving low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Pratt, Stephen; Elkin, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users.......Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users....

  6. A cross-sectional survey of current treatment and symptom burden of patients with COPD consulting for routine care according to GOLD 2014 classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding B

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bo Ding,1 Mark Small,2 Ulf Holmgren3 1Medical Evidence and Observational Research, AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden; 2Real World Research (Respiratory, Adelphi Real World, Bollington, UK; 3Global Payer Evidence and Pricing, AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden Background: As part of the Respiratory Disease Specific Program (DSP conducted to provide observations of clinical practice from a physician and matched patient viewpoint, this study aimed to establish how patients with COPD are treated according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD classification system and to quantify the symptom burden.Methods: Data were obtained from the Respiratory DSP, a cross-sectional survey of patients with a diagnosis of COPD consulting for routine care in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, and the USA during the third quarter of 2013. Patients’ exacerbation risk and symptom data were used for classification into GOLD groups A-D based on GOLD 2014 criteria. Prescribing practices were stratified by physician type and time since patient diagnosis.Results: A total of 903 physicians participated in the Respiratory DSP, with data from 1,641 patients included in this analysis. Most patients were classified into GOLD groups B (n=742; 45.2% and D (n=704; 42.9%. Patients in groups A and D were most likely to be treated in line with GOLD recommendations (61.5% and 77.5%, respectively, compared with 40.1% for group B. Patients with a diagnosis within the past 12 months were more likely to be treated according to recommendations. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs in combination with one or more long-acting bronchodilator were prescribed across all GOLD groups. Patterns of treatment were, in general, similar for patients treated by a primary care physician or a pulmonologist. COPD assessment test scores ≥10 indicating a high symptom burden were reported for >80% of patients.Conclusion: This analysis confirmed a high symptom

  7. Disease Burden and Symptom Structure of Autism in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Study of the International NF1-ASD Consortium Team (INFACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephanie M; Acosta, Maria T; Garg, Shruti; Green, Jonathan; Huson, Susan; Legius, Eric; North, Kathryn N; Payne, Jonathan M; Plasschaert, Ellen; Frazier, Thomas W; Weiss, Lauren A; Zhang, Yi; Gutmann, David H; Constantino, John N

    2016-12-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated a higher incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substantially elevated autistic trait burden in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, important discrepancies regarding the distribution of autistic traits, sex predominance, and association between ASD symptoms and attentional problems have emerged, and critical features of the ASD phenotype within NF1 have never been adequately explored. Establishing NF1 as a monogenic cause for ASD has important implications for affected patients and for future research focused on establishing convergent pathogenic mechanisms relevant to the potential treatment targets for ASD. To characterize the quantitative autistic trait (QAT) burden in a pooled NF1 data set. Anonymized, individual-level primary data were accumulated from 6 tertiary referral centers in the United States, Belgium, United Kingdom, and Australia. A total of 531 individuals recruited from NF1 clinical centers were included in the study. Distribution of ASD traits (Social Responsiveness Scale, second edition [SRS-2], with T scores of ≥75 associated with a categorical ASD diagnosis); attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits (4 versions of Conners Rating Scale, with T scores of ≥65 indicating clinically significant ADHD symptoms); ASD symptom structure, latent structure, base rate derived from mixture modeling; and familiality. Of the 531 patients included in the analysis, 247 were male (46.5%); median age was 11 years (range, 2.5-83.9 years). QAT scores were continuously distributed and pathologically shifted; 13.2% (95% CI, 10.3%-16.1%) of individuals scored within the most severe range (ie, above the first percentile of the general population distribution) in which the male to female ratio was markedly attenuated (1.6:1) relative to idiopathic ASD. Autistic symptoms in this NF1 cohort demonstrated a robust unitary factor structure, with the first principal component explaining 30.9% of

  8. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: Associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Lei, Ulrikke

    2008-01-01

    , sleep quality and pruritus-related quality of life. Psoriasis severity was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis of descriptors confirmed both an affective and a sensory pruritus severity dimension. Multivariate statistics, controlling for age, gender, disease duration...... and severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality....

  9. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R.; Zachariae, C.O.; Lei, U.

    2008-01-01

    , sleep quality and pruritus-related quality of life. Psoriasis severity was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis of descriptors confirmed both an affective and a sensory pruritus severity dimension. Multivariate statistics, controlling for age, gender, disease duration...... and severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  10. Predictors of home discharge among patients hospitalized for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochimoto, Shinnichi; Kitamura, Maki; Hino, Shoryoku; Kitamura, Tatsuru

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese government recently announced the 'Five-Year Plan for Promotion of Measures Against Dementia (Orange Plan)' to promote people with dementia living in their communities. To achieve this, it is imperative that patients hospitalized with behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are helped to return to their own homes. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of home discharge among patients hospitalized for BPSD. A single-centre chart review study was conducted on consecutive patients hospitalized from home between April 2006 and March 2011 for the treatment of BPSD. The frequency of discharge back to home was examined in relation to a patient's active behavioural problems and demographics at the time of admission. Diagnoses of dementia were made on the basis of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies. In all, 391 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these patients, 163 (42%) returned home. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified high Mini-Mental State Examination and Nishimura-style senile activities of daily living scores as significant independent predictors of home discharge. In contrast, living alone and manifestation of aggressiveness at the time of admission were negatively associated with home discharge. Few patients hospitalized for BPSD are discharged home, and this number is affected by a patient's clinical and demographic characteristics at the time of admission. These findings should be considered in designing and implementing optimal management and care strategies for patients with BPSD. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  11. Moderating effects of coping styles on anxiety and depressive symptoms caused by psychological stress in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C-X; Tse, L-A; Ye, X-Q; Lin, F-Y; Chen, Y-M; Chen, W-Q

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to assess possible interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Three hundred and four patients with Type 2 diabetes underwent a face-to-face interview by trained research staff according to a standardized questionnaire including information on socio-demographic characteristics, psychological stress, coping styles and anxiety and depressive symptoms. The interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed by hierarchical multiple regression analyses. There were significant associations of the four domains of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms, except for the relationship between 'reduced economic condition' and depressive symptoms. 'Negative coping style' significantly increased the level of both anxiety and depressive symptoms; whereas, 'active coping style' and 'avoidant coping style' decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The interactions of 'negative coping style' with 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' and 'reduced economic condition' significantly increased the risk of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and the interaction of 'social/family crisis caused by the disease' with 'avoidance coping style' and 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' with 'active coping style' significantly decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The results of this study suggest that certain coping styles might moderate the association of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  12. Effects of an intervention program for female victims of intimate partner violence on psychological symptoms and perceived social support

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Nina B.; Sara B. Eriksen; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV.Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression) and perceived social support. Gi...

  13. Relationship between Dementia Severity and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoru Hashimoto; Yusuke Yatabe; Tomohisa Ishikawa; Ryuji Fukuhara; Keiichiro Kaneda; Kazuki Honda; Seiji Yuki; Yusuke Ogawa; Toru Imamura; Hiroaki Kazui; Naoto Kamimura; Syunichiro Shinagawa; Katsuyoshi Mizukami; Etsuro Mori; Manabu Ikeda

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in the clinical manifestation of dementia. Although most patients with dementia exhibit some BPSD during the course of the illness, the association of BPSD with the stage of dementia remains unclear. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the impact of severity of dementia on the expression of BPSD in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Ninety-seven patients ...

  14. Using Religious Songs as an Integrative and Complementary Therapy for the Management of Psychological Symptoms Among African American Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill B; Worthy, Valarie C; Kurtz, Melissa J; Cudjoe, Joycelyn; Johnstone, Peter A

    Acupuncture, acupressure, yoga, meditation, cognitive-behavioral techniques, and, to a lesser extent, music are among those integrative and complementary therapies with known beneficial effects on psychological symptoms. However, noticeably absent from this research is the use of religious song as a type of integrative and complementary therapy. The aim of this study was to explore how religious songs were used to alleviate psychological symptoms associated with a cancer diagnosis among a sample of older African American cancer survivors. Thirty-one older African American cancer survivors residing in the Southeastern US participated in a qualitative descriptive study involving criterion sampling, open-ended semistructured interviews, and qualitative content analysis. Participants used religious songs in response to feeling depressed, low, or sad; feeling weak and seeking strength to endure treatment; and feeling worried, anxious, or fearful. Religious songs were also a source of support and hope. Types of religious songs included instructive, thanksgiving and praise, memory of forefathers, communication with God, and life after death. Religious songs appear to be an important form of religious expression in this population and used to manage psychological symptoms. Integrative and complementary oncology therapy has generally focused on yoga, meditation, acupuncture, and cognitive-behavioral techniques. However, religious songs are an important strategy used among older African American cancer patients. Religious songs can be readily integrated into cancer care. The incorporation of religious songs into spiritually based support groups and other integrative and complementary therapies might enhance health outcomes among this medically underserved cancer population.

  15. Being a mother of preterm multiples in the context of socioeconomic disadvantage: perceived stress and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Joana; Moutinho, Vanessa; Mateus, Vera; Guimarães, Hercília; Clemente, Fátima; Almeida, Sara; Andrade, Maria Agostinha; Dias, Clara Paz; Freitas, Alice; Martins, Carla; Soares, Isabel

    2017-11-07

    This study aimed to examine the differences between mothers of preterm multiples and mothers of preterm singletons regarding perceived stress and maternal psychological symptoms, and to explore the putative adverse amplified effect of socioeconomic disadvantage. Ninety-five mothers of 1-year-olds born preterm participated in this cross-sectional study. Data collection was carried out in two public hospitals from Northern Portugal. To assess maternal perceived daily stress and psychological symptoms, mothers completed two questionnaires. Mothers reported on socioeconomic factors, including family poverty, parent unemployment, and low education, and two groups of family socioeconomic disadvantage were created. A child medical risk index was calculated. Results indicated that mothers of preterm multiples reported higher levels of stress than mothers of preterm singletons. Moreover, and specifically regarding psychological functioning, mothers of preterm multiples reported more symptoms than mothers of preterm singletons, but only when living in a context of socioeconomic adversity. The results of the present study have important implications for practice. Mothers of preterm multiples are at higher risk to present mental health difficulties, in comparison to mothers of singletons, especially when exposed to socioeconomic adversities. The development of psychosocial intervention programs and public policies are of decisive importance in helping mothers of multiples adjust to parenthood. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of examination stress on psychological responses, sleep and allergic symptoms in atopic and non-atopic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernelöv, Susanna; Höglund, Caroline Olgart; Axelsson, John; Axén, Jennie; Grönneberg, Reidar; Grunewald, Johan; Stierna, Pontus; Lekander, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that atopics may be more vulnerable to stress than non-atopics. However, the roles of psychological well-being and sleep in this presumed increased sensitivity are not known. To investigate the effects of a brief naturalistic stressor on psychological responses, sleep, and allergic symptoms and to compare those responses between atopic and non-atopic individuals. We assessed atopic and non-atopic students during a period without and during a period with examinations. For both atopic and non-atopic students, tension, anxiety, and depression deteriorated in response to examination, as did sleep latency and sleep quality. Overall, atopics were more tense, had more anxiety, longer sleep latencies, and were less well rested than non-atopics. Non-atopic students rose from bed later during the examination period. In response to examination, atopic students reported increased frequency of stress behaviors (e.g., eating fast), while decreased stress behaviors were reported by non-atopic students. Allergic symptoms were not affected. Atopic students were worse off in aspects of psychological well-being and sleep, but displayed only partly stronger responses to a stressor compared to non-atopic students. In spite of a broad negative response to examination, allergic symptoms were not affected.

  17. Antisaccadic eye movements are correlated with corpus callosum white matter mean diffusivity, stroop performance and symptom burden in mild traumatic brain injury and concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windsor Kwan-Chun eTing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisaccades are thought to involve higher level inputs from neural centers involved in rapid eye movement inhibition and control. Previous work has demonstrated that performance on the antisaccade task can help in assessment of injury in acute and/or chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. In this exploratory study we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of rapid eye movement, followed by correlations of antisaccade performance with assessments of symptom burden, diffusion tensor imaging, and a neuropsychological test of response inhibition. Significant deficits in antisaccade median latency, F(2, 31 = 3.65, p = 0.04 and prosaccade error mean duration, F(2, 31 = 3.63, p = 0.04 were found between patient groups and controls: the former was correlated with loss of white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum in acute mTBI, rho (8 = 0.90, p = 0.0005. Furthermore, increased antisaccade median latency was also correlated with poor performance on an executive functioning task, r2 = 0.439, p = 0.03, and greater symptom burden, r2 = 0.480, p = 0.02 in the acute mTBI patients. Our preliminary research suggests that the antisaccade task could be useful as a neurological marker for mTBI and concussion but more work is required.

  18. Mixture model analysis identifies irritable bowel syndrome subgroups characterised by specific profiles of gastrointestinal, extraintestinal somatic and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, A; Van Oudenhove, L; Jones, M; Öhman, L; Törnblom, H; Simrén, M

    2017-09-01

    Current subgrouping of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is exclusively based on stool consistency without considering other relevant gastrointestinal (GI), extraintestinal somatic or psychological features. To identify subgroups based on a comprehensive set of IBS-related parameters. Mixture model analysis was used, with the following input variables: 13 single-item scores from the IBS-specific Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, average stool consistency and frequency from a 7-day Bristol Stool Form diary, 12 single-item extraintestinal symptom scores from the Patient Health Questionnaire-12, and anxiety and depression subscale scores from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The resulting latent subgroups were compared regarding symptom profiles using analysis of variance followed by pair-wise comparisons. One hundred and seventy-two IBS patients (Rome III; 69% female; mean age 33.7 [range 18-60] years) were included. The optimal subgrouping showed six latent groups, characterised by: (I) constipation with low comorbidities, (II) constipation with high comorbidities, (III) diarrhoea with low comorbidities, (IV) diarrhoea and pain with high comorbidities, (V) mixed GI symptoms with high comorbidities, (VI) a mix of symptoms with overall mild severity. The subgroups showed differences in the distribution of Rome III-subtypes, IBS severity, presence of anxiety and depression, and gender, but not regarding age, IBS duration or reported post-infectious onset of IBS. This model-based subgrouping of IBS partly supports the distinction of subgroups based on bowel habits, but additionally distinguishes subgroups with or without co-morbid extraintestinal somatic and psychological symptoms. The resulting groups show specific profiles of symptom combinations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of 12 weeks of yoga training on the somatization, psychological symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Hiramoto, Tetsuya; Oka, Takakazu; Kubo, Chiharu; Sudo, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-03

    Previous studies have shown that the practice of yoga reduces perceived stress and negative feelings and that it improves psychological symptoms. Our previous study also suggested that long-term yoga training improves stress-related psychological symptoms such as anxiety and anger. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of yoga practice on somatization, the most common stress-related physical symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers. We performed a prospective, single arm study to examine the beneficial effects of 12 weeks of yoga training on somatization, psychological symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers. We recruited healthy women who had no experience with yoga. The data of 24 participants who were followed during 12 weeks of yoga training were analyzed. Somatization and psychological symptoms were assessed before and after 12 weeks of yoga training using the Profile of Mood State (POMS) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaires. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), biopyrrin, and cortisol levels were measured as stress-related biomarkers. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the stress-related biomarkers and the scores of questionnaires before and after 12 weeks of yoga training. After 12 weeks of yoga training, all negative subscale scores (tension-anxiety, depression, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion) from the POMS and somatization, anxiety, depression, and hostility from the SCL-90-R were significantly decreased compared with those before starting yoga training. Contrary to our expectation, the urinary 8-OHdG concentration after 12 weeks of yoga training showed a significant increase compared with that before starting yoga training. No significant changes were observed in the levels of urinary biopyrrin and cortisol after the 12 weeks of yoga training. Yoga training has the potential to reduce the somatization score and the scores related to mental health indicators, such as anxiety, depression

  20. Impact of symptom burden on work-related abilities in patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: Results from a substudy of the VIRGO observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeland, Charles S; Mayer, Musa; Dreyer, Nancy A; Yim, Yeun Mi; Yu, Elaine; Su, Zhaohui; Mun, Yong; Sloan, Jeff A; Kaufman, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Limited data exist on the association of symptom burden, daily activity impairment, and work productivity (WP) in patients with advanced breast cancer. This cross-sectional analysis evaluated baseline patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) receiving first-line hormonal therapy or chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy in the VIRGO observational study. The primary PRO study endpoint, symptom severity and interference score, was measured using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Secondary endpoints included Activity Level Scale (ALS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI:SHP) scores. Overall, 152 patients (chemotherapy cohort, 104; hormonal therapy cohort, 48) answered questionnaires. Fatigue, decreased sexual interest, disturbed sleep, emotional distress, and drowsiness were the most common severe symptoms, and were of moderate-to-severe intensity in 38.8%-52.0% of patients. Mean percent daily activity impairment was 30% for study patients, and WP impairment ranged from 20% to 40% across indices in employed patients (n, 58). Significant positive correlations existed for MDASI severity and interference scores with activity impairment and WP indices (Pearson correlation coefficients [R] = 0.47-0.82; p work-related ability. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Mental disorders, psychological symptoms and quality of life 8 years after an earthquake: findings from a community sample in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Marchi, Fabio; Bini, Lucia; Flego, Martina; Costa, Ana; Galeazzi, Gian

    2011-07-01

    Various studies assessed mental disorders and psychological symptoms following natural disasters, including earthquakes. Yet, samples were often non-representative, and the periods of time between earthquake and assessments were usually short. This study aims to assess the prevalence of mental disorders, level of psychological symptoms and subjective quality of life in a random sample in a rural region in Italy 8 years after an earthquake. Using a random sampling method, a pool of potential participants of working age who had experienced the earthquake were identified 8 years after the earthquake. They were sequentially approached until the target sample of 200 was reached. Mental disorders were assessed on the MINI, psychological symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and subjective quality of life on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). 200 people were interviewed, and the response rate of contacted people was 43%. In the MINI, 15 participants (7.5%) had any type of mental disorder; 5 participants had PTSD at any time since the earthquake, and 1 participant at the time of the interview. Symptom levels were low (Global Severity Index of BSI mean = 0.29, SD = 0.30; IES total mean = 0.40, SD = 3.33) and subjective quality of life (MANSA mean = 5.26, SD = 0.59) was in a positive range. The distribution of mental health outcomes made it difficult to explore factors associated with them. There is no evidence that the earthquake had a negative impact on the mental health of the affected population years later. Possible reasons include the relatively weak nature of the earthquake, strong community support that helped overcome mental distress, the long period of time (8 years) between the occurrence of the earthquake and the study, and a capacity of people to maintain or restore mental health after a natural disaster in the long term.

  2. Risperidone: a review of its use in the management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, N; Spencer, C M

    2000-06-01

    Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivative which has proven efficacy against the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. It has more recently been investigated and shown efficacy as a treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms associated with dementia in the elderly. Risperidone has pharmacological properties resembling those of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and an improved tolerability profile compared with the conventional antipsychotic haloperidol. Risperidone has antagonistic activity primarily at serotonin 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptors. In the first 2 large, well controlled trials of an antipsychotic agent used in the treatment of elderly patients with Alzheimer's dementia, vascular dementia or mixed dementia, risperidone 1 mg/day was at least as effective as haloperidol and superior to placebo, as assessed by the rating scales for global behaviour, aggression and psychosis. In extension phases of the 2 trials, clinical benefits were maintained for treatment periods of up to 1 year, with an incidence rate of tardive dyskinesia (2.6%) one-tenth of that seen with conventional antipsychotics. Risperidone, administered at a low dosage of 1 mg/day was associated with fewer extrapyramidal symptoms compared with haloperidol in elderly patients. Risperidone was well tolerated with no clinically relevant abnormalities in laboratory tests, vital signs or electrocardiogram results. The efficacy of risperidone has been demonstrated in the treatment of the behavioural and psychological symptoms associated with dementia in the elderly. Preliminary results from 1-year extension studies confirm the favourable efficacy and tolerability profile of risperidone 1 mg/day. Although head to head studies with other atypical antipsychotic agents are required and the long term use of the drug requires clarification, risperidone represents a generally well tolerated and effective treatment in the management of dementia-associated behavioural and

  3. Effects of an intervention program for female victims of intimate partner violence on psychological symptoms and perceived social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina B. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV. Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV. Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression and perceived social support. Given that many of the women dropped out before and during the intervention program, potential differences in initial levels of psychological symptoms, perceived social support, as well as descriptive variables were explored between the women who completed the whole program and the groups of women who dropped out prematurely. Method: The initial sample consisted of 212 female victims of IPV. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and level of perceived social support were measured with validated scales before the start of the intervention and after completion of each treatment phase. Results: Results showed a significant effect of the intervention program on reducing psychological symptoms and increasing levels of perceived social support. Effect sizes ranged from medium to very high. Significant positive effects were found for each of the treatment phases. There were no significant differences between the women who completed the whole program and those women who dropped out prematurely in terms of initial level of symptoms and perceived social support as well as descriptive characteristics. Conclusions: Specifically developed intervention programs for female victims of IPV are effective in reducing the harmful personal consequences of IPV. Future studies should consider employing controlled study designs and address the issue of high drop out rates found in intervention studies.

  4. [Rate and characteristics of dementia patients who visit psychiatric emergency hospitals for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiro; Kazui, Hiroaki; Sawa, Yutaka; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral changes, known as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), are often observed in patients with dementia. BPSD impairs a patient's quality of life, increases the burden on the caregivers, and can be a predictor of the need for institutionalization. BPSD can aggravate on holidays or at night, when general psychiatric clinics are closed. When psychiatric symptoms aggravate on holidays or at night in patients with psychiatric disorders other than dementia, such as schizophrenia and manic psychosis, the patients visit psychiatric emergency hospitals. However, it has not been assessed whether patients with dementia visit psychiatric emergency hospitals for the treatment of BPSD on holidays or at night, although dementia patients are increasing and account for 10.5% of psychiatric outpatients in Japan. To determine the percentage of dementia patients with BPSD in all psychiatric patients who visit psychiatric emergency hospitals, and the characteristics of patients with BPSD in Japan. We developed two questionnaires. One was for psychiatric emergency hospitals and assessed the numbers of all patients, patients over 65 years old, and patients over 65 years and with BPSD or BPSD-like symptoms, who visited the psychiatric emergency hospitals on holidays or at night. The other questionnaire was for each patient over 65 years and with BPSD, and assessed the patients' characteristics, including their diagnosis, sex, what kinds of BPSD or BPSD-like symptoms brought them to the hospital, and whether they had visited a psychiatric clinic or hospital during the preceding 12 months. The questionnaires were sent to 360 hospitals that belong to the Japan Psychiatric Hospitals Association and treat patients with acute psychotic symptoms or dementia. This prospective survey was conducted from October 1 to November 30, 2009. One hundred and forty-three hospitals returned the questionnaires (response rate: 39.7%). In the survey

  5. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  6. Psychological and physical correlates of musculoskeletal symptoms in male professional divers and offshore workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John As; Macdiarmid, Jennifer I; Rostron, Claire L; Watt, Stephen J; Crawford, John R

    2013-02-01

    Underwater divers are more likely to complain of musculoskeletal symptoms than a control population. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine whether musculoskeletal symptoms reflected observable physical disorder, to ascertain the relationship between symptoms and measures of mood, memory and executive function and to assess any need for future screening. A 10% random sample of responders to a prior postal health questionnaire was examined (151 divers, 120 non-diving offshore workers). Participants underwent physical examination and a neuropsychological test battery for memory and executive function. Participants also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for anxiety (HADSa) and depression (HADSd), and questionnaires for physical health-related quality of life (SF36 PCS), mental health-related quality of life (SF36 MCS), memory (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ)), executive function (dysexecutive syndrome questionnaire (DEX)), musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and general unrelated symptom reporting. Of participants with moderate/severe musculoskeletal symptoms, 52% had physical signs, and of participants with no symptoms, 73% had no physical signs. There was no difference in the prevalence of signs or symptoms between groups. Musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with lower SF36 PCS for both groups. In divers, musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with higher general unrelated symptom reporting and poorer scoring for HADSa, PRMQ, CFQ and DEX with scores remaining within the normative range. A positive physical examination was associated with general unrelated symptom reporting in divers. There were no differences in neuropsychological test scores attributable to either group or musculoskeletal symptoms. Musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with physical signs, but this was not a strong effect. Reporting of musculoskeletal symptoms by the divers studied was also associated

  7. Impact of Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Symptoms on College Performance among Students of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2003-01-01

    Study examined relationships among exposure to community violence during high school, psychological distress during first semester of college, and academic performance during first three semesters of college. Exposure to community violence and academic performance; and psychological distress and grade point average were not related. Exposure to…

  8. Cognitive responses to stress, depression, and anxiety and their relationship to ADHD symptoms in first year psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sandra J; Harrison, Allyson G

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationship between levels of reported depression, anxiety, and stress with scores on the Conners's Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Information was obtained from 84 1st-year psychology students using the CAARS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES). Approximately 23%, 18%, and 12% of students scored above critical values on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) Inattention Symptoms, the DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total, and the Inattention/Restlessness subscales, respectively. CAARS scores were positively related to reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, which accounted for significant variance among the three subscales. Only 5% of participants scored above recommended critical values on the ADHD index; however, a significant amount of the variance on this measure was also attributable to the DASS. Mood symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and stress may obscure correct attribution of cause in those being evaluated for ADHD.

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and psychological comorbidity in eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, L; Martinotti, G; Carenti, M L; Romo, L; Oumaya, M; Pham-Scottez, A; Rouillon, F; Gorwood, P; Janiri, L

    2017-05-22

    There is some evidence that eating disorders (ED) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share common clinical features and that ADHD might contribute to the severity of eating disorders. A greater understanding of how the presence of comorbid ADHD may affect the psychopathological framework of eating disorder seems of primary importance. The aim of our study was to evaluate rates of ADHD in three ED subgroups of inpatients: anorexia nervosa restricting type (AN-R), anorexia nervosa binge-eating/purging type (AN-BP) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The secondary aim was the evaluation of the associated psychological characteristics. The sample consisted of 73 females inpatients (mean age 28.07 ± 7.30), all with longstanding histories of eating disorder (ED). The presence of a diagnosis of ADHD was evaluated in a clinical interview based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. The following psychometric instruments were used: the eating attitude test (EAT-40), the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS), the Hamilton scales for Anxiety (HAM-A) and Depression (HAM-D), and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-10). Among the three ED subgroups, 13 patients reported comorbidity with ADHD; three in the AN-R subtype, nine in the AN-BP and one in the BN. The remaining 60 patients (n = 34 AN-R; n = 19 AN-BP; n = 7 BN) presented only a diagnosis of ED. The EAT (p = 0.04) and HAM-A (p = 0.02) mean scores were significantly higher in patients with comorbid ADHD. In our study the comorbidity between ADHD and ED appeared to be frequent, particularly among patients with AN-BP. ED inpatients with higher level of anxiety and more abnormal eating attitudes and bulimic symptoms should be assessed for potentially associated ADHD.

  10. Effect of intragastric FODMAP infusion on upper gastrointestinal motility, gastrointestinal, and psychological symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome vs healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuy, I; Van Oudenhove, L; Tack, J; Biesiekierski, J R

    2017-08-01

    The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a treatment strategy to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Acute effects of FODMAPs on upper gastrointestinal motility are incompletely understood. Our objectives were to assess the acute effects of intragastric FODMAP infusions on upper gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms in healthy controls (HC) and IBS patients. A high-resolution solid-state manometry probe and an infusion tube were positioned into the stomach. Fructans, fructose, FODMAP mix, or glucose was intragastrically administered to HC, and fructans or glucose was administered to IBS patients until full satiation (score 0-5), in a randomized crossover fashion. Manometric measurements continued for 3 hours. Gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms were assessed by questionnaires at predefined time points. The study was registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02980406). Twenty HC and 20 IBS patients were included. Fructans induced higher postprandial gastric pressures compared with glucose over both groups (P<.001). Bloating, belching, and pain increased more in IBS over both carbohydrates (P<.041). In addition, IBS patients reported more flatulence and cramps compared with HC following fructans (P<.001). Glucose induced more fatigue and dominance compared with fructans (P=.028, P=.001). Irritable bowel syndrome patients reported a higher increase in anger (P=.030) and a stronger decrease in positive affect (P=.021). The upper gastrointestinal motility response varies between carbohydrates. Irritable bowel syndrome patients are more sensitive to fructan infusion, reflected in their higher gastrointestinal symptom scores. Acute carbohydrate infusion can have differential psychological effects in IBS and HC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Associations of Psychological Stress with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Chinese Bladder and Renal Cancer Patients: The Mediating Role of Resilience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Mengyao; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aims to explore the associations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients and the mediating role of resilience in these relationships...

  12. Development of a checklist of short-term and long-term psychological symptoms associated with ketamine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ni; Xu, Ke; Ning, Yuping; Wang, Daping; Ke, Xiaoyin; Ding, Yi; Sun, Bin; Zhou, Chao; Deng, Xuefeng; Rosenheck, Robert; He, Hongbo

    2015-06-25

    Ketamine is an increasingly popular drug of abuse in China but there is currently no method for classifying the psychological effects of ketamine in individuals with ketamine dependence. Develop a scale that characterizes the acute and long-term psychological effects of ketamine use among persons with ketamine dependence. We developed a preliminary symptom checklist with 35 dichotomous ('yes' or 'no') items about subjective feelings immediately after ketamine use and about perceived long-term effects of ketamine use that was administered to 187 inpatients with ketamine dependence recruited from two large hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on a randomly selected half of thesample to reduce the items and to identify underlying constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the second half of the sample to assess the robustness of the identified factor structure. Among the 35 symptoms, the most-reported acute effects were 'floating or circling' (94%), 'euphoric when listening to rousing music' (86%), and 'feeling excited, talkative, and full of energy' (67%). The mostreported long-term symptoms were 'memory impairment' (93%), 'personality changes' (86%), and 'slowed reactions' (81%). EFA resulted in a final 22-item scale best modelled by a four-factor model: two factors representing chronic symptoms (social withdrawal and sleep disturbances), one about acute psychoticlike symptoms, and one that combined acute drug-related euphoria and longer-term decreased libido. CFA showed that these 4 factors accounted for 50% of the total variance of the final 22-item scale and that the model fit was fair (Goodness of Fit Index, GIF=83.3%; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, RMSEA=0.072). A four-factor model including social withdrawal, sleep disturbance, psychotic-like symptoms, and euphoria at the time of drug use provides a fair description of the short-term and long-term psychological symptoms associated with

  13. Longitudinal effects of psychological symptoms on non-suicidal self-injury: a difference between adolescents and young adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yu-Hui; Xu, Shao-Jun; Chen, Jing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2015-02-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the psychological symptoms that may lead to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Chinese adolescents and young adults. This study determined the predictive effects of psychological symptoms for NSSI during a 9-month follow-up period. Data from 17,622 students, 12-24 years of age, were analyzed in a cross-sectional fashion with respect to associations between psychological symptoms and NSSI. Follow-up surveys were performed 3, 6, and 9 months later. Incident cases of NSSI during follow-up were correlated with the psychological symptoms at baseline. A total of 3,001 (17.0%) students reported that they had NSSI in the 12 months before the initial assessment. The total rate of NSSI revealed no statistically significant differences by gender, but marked differences between grades. The response rate 3, 6, and 9 months later was 91.8, 81.8, and 79.1%, respectively. Our cross-sectional study demonstrated statistically significant associations between emotional problems, conduct problems, social adaptation problems, psychological problems, and NSSI (P problems, conduct problems, social adaptation problems, and psychological problems at baseline had statistically significant associations with incident NSSI in follow-up involving the adolescents, while the association in young adults was attenuated after adjustment for confounding variables. Moreover, psychological symptoms at baseline showed a monotonic dose-response relationship with NSSI in follow-up involving adolescents. The findings suggest that adolescents with psychological symptoms are a group with elevated risks for later NSSI. The prevention programs of NSSI should target attenuating the severity of psychological symptoms.

  14. The association between pre-treatment occupational skill level and mood and symptom burden in early-stage, postmenopausal breast cancer survivors during the first year of anastrozole therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Bethany D; Sereika, Susan M; Rosenzweig, Margaret; McCue, Michael; Merriman, John D; Bender, Catherine M

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has explored occupational activity of breast cancer survivors but has not examined the influence of occupational level on symptoms prospectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational classification and changes in mood and symptom burden for postmenopausal breast cancer survivors during the first year of anastrozole therapy. This was an exploratory secondary analysis in 49 postmenopausal women receiving anastrozole therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Participants reported their occupation at baseline and completed self-report questionnaires measuring mood and symptom burden at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Occupation was classified according to four major skill levels delineated by the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Breast cancer survivors employed at occupational skill levels 1 through 3 reported significantly higher depressive symptoms, fatigue, and total symptoms on average than those employed at ISCO skill level 4. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, this pattern remained for the musculoskeletal, vasomotor, and gastrointestinal symptom subscales. Breast cancer survivors employed at lower skill levels (i.e., ISCO 1-3) reported poorer mood and greater symptom burden than breast cancer survivors employed at a higher skill level (i.e., ISCO 4). Assessing baseline occupation of occupationally active breast cancer survivors may improve understanding of the association between types of occupations and mood and symptom trajectories and may inform development of interventions to mitigate symptom severity in order to help breast cancer survivors maintain optimal occupational function and adherence to therapy.

  15. A cross-sectional assessment of the burden of COPD symptoms in the US and Europe using the National Health and Wellness Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bo Ding,1 Marco DiBonaventura,2 Niklas Karlsson,1 Gina Bergström,1 Ulf Holmgren1 1AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden; 2Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA Introduction: Past research has suggested significant relationships between symptoms and health outcomes among patients with COPD. However, these studies have generally focused on a broad COPD sample and may have included those not receiving proper treatment. As a result, the aim of this study was to document the burden of COPD symptoms among those who are currently treated with the standard-of-care (SOC medications in both the US and Western Europe. Methods: Data from the 2013 US (N=75,000 and 2011 (N=57,512/2013 (N=62,000 European (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK; 5EU National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS were used. The NHWS is a health survey administered to a demographically representative sample of the adult population in each country. A total of 1,666 and 2,006 patients with self-reported physician diagnosis of COPD in the 5EU and US, respectively, were being treated with the appropriate SOC (based on self-reported medication use and were included in the analyses. Symptoms (eg, dyspnea, coughing, wheezing were reported descriptively and summed to create a symptom score (with higher score indicating more frequent symptoms. The relationships between the symptom score and patient outcomes (eg, health status using the Short Form-36 version 2 [SF-36v2], work productivity and activity impairment [WPAI], and self-reported health care resource use were explored using regression modeling. Results: Nearly all patients (99.7% and 99.8% in the 5EU and US, respectively reported experiencing symptoms and >80% reported experiencing at least one symptom “often”. Increasing symptom scores were associated with poorer health status (unstandardized beta [b] =-0.87 and -0.78 for mental component summary and physical component summary, respectively, in the US and b =-0.67 and -0.79 in the 5

  16. A qualitative study exploring the experience of people with IBD and elevated symptoms of anxiety and low mood and the type of psychological help they would like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Cheryl; Ohlsen, Ruth; Hayee, Bu'Hussain; Chalder, Trudie

    2017-09-26

    People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing anxiety and low mood. We sought to explore the experience of people with IBD and moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety/low mood to identify psychological processes which could be targeted in psychological interventions, as well as the kind of psychological support preferred. Twenty-five participants with IBD and moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety/low mood were recruited for interview. Template analysis was utilised to analyse interview data. We explored the situations, cognitions and behaviour linked to symptoms of anxiety and low mood by people with IBD, as well as the kind of psychological help preferred. Two themes were identified within participants accounts of symptoms of anxiety; 'under performance' and 'preventing an accident'. Two further themes were identified for symptoms of low mood; 'lack of understanding' and 'stigma'. Expertise and understanding was the main theme identified for the type of psychological help desired. The analysis highlights situations, cognitions and behaviour linked to anxiety and low mood by people with IBD and the type of psychological support desired. Our findings link to the knowledge and competencies set for psychological therapist working with long-term conditions.

  17. Determinants of depression and somatisation symptoms in low back pain patients and its treatment: global burden of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Dafeeah, Elnour Elnaem; Salem, Mohamad Omar

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of Low Back Pain in primary care setting population and to examine its association with symptoms of depression and somatisation. The cross-sectional study was conducted at 13 Primary Healthcare Centres (throughout Qatar from March to December, 2012. A General Health Questionnaire was used to identify the probable cases. A specially designed questionnaire with three parts was used for data collection: socio-demographic information of the studied subjects, modified version of the Roland-Morris scale for evaluating back-related functional disability, and Symptom Cheklist-90-Revised for depression and somatisation subscales. A representative sample of 2,600 patients was approached and 1,829(70.0%) of them participated in the study. The prevalence of low back pain in the study sample was 56.5%. There were statistically significant differences between subjects with and without low back pain in terms of body mass index (ppain in terms of all aspects of functional disability. Somatisation disorder in low back pain was 203 (19.6%) and depression disorder was 265 (25.4%). Most of the patients with LBP reported pain in the arms and legs (ppain (ptreatment taken by the patients for relief were bed rest 695 (67.2%) followed by warm compression 480 (47.6%), physiotherapy 491 (47.5%), regular exercise 414 (40%), and back plasters 346 (33.5%). The present study showed that the symptoms of depression and somatisation were prevalent among low back pain patients. Functional disability was higher in the patients. Recognising this problem may lead to better patient-treatment matching and improved clinical outcomes.

  18. Association between behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug use among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Maria; Sandman, Per-Olof; Karlsson, Stig; Gustafson, Yngve; Lövheim, Hugo

    2013-09-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms are common among cognitively impaired individuals and psychotropic drugs are widely used for their treatment. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care settings. The study comprised 2,019 cognitively impaired people living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. Data concerning psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use, function in activities of daily living, cognitive function, and prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms were collected, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale. Of the study population, 1,442 individuals (71%) were prescribed at least one psychotropic drug (antidepressants (49%), anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives (36%), antipsychotics (25%)). Furthermore, 363 individuals (18%) received anti-dementia drugs. Associations between various behavioral and psychological symptoms were found for all psychotropic drug classes and anti-dementia drugs. Verbally disruptive/attention-seeking behavior was associated with all psychotropic drugs. Use of antipsychotics was associated with several behavioral and psychological symptoms, including aggressive behavior. The associations between behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug use found in this study indicate that these drugs are prescribed to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among cognitively impaired individuals despite limited evidence of their efficacy. Given the significant risk of adverse effects among old people with cognitive impairment, it is important to ensure that any medication used is both appropriate and safe.

  19. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology.

  20. Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia is not a unitary concept: A critical review with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson Laks

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD is an important feature of dementia. However, this definition comprises a large array of symptoms and syndromes. This hampers understanding of the behavior of patients with dementia and the devising of strategies to ameliorate these symptoms. Objectives: This review aimed to describe the main factors and syndromes that comprise BPSD, as well as neuroimaging, psychopharmacological, and genetic data derived from studies of these factors. Methods: A search on the Medline, Scielo, and ISI databases was performed using the keyword BPSD for articles published within the last five years. Selected publications were favored, so this review should not be regarded as a systematic study on the subject. Results: The main factors and syndromes comprising BPSD were identified, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. Different ways of clustering symptoms were considered. The main manifestations of psychosis, apathy and depression were focused, relating phenomenology to neuroimaging and pharmacological issues. Conclusions: BPSD is a heterogeneous array of symptoms which can be better understood as clusters. At least three factors can be separated in BSPD, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. This division may offer guidance to clinicians regarding treatment management and follow up of the chosen therapeutic strategy.

  1. Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia is not a unitary concept: A critical review with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) is an important feature of dementia. However, this definition comprises a large array of symptoms and syndromes. This hampers understanding of the behavior of patients with dementia and the devising of strategies to ameliorate these symptoms. This review aimed to describe the main factors and syndromes that comprise BPSD, as well as neuroimaging, psychopharmacological, and genetic data derived from studies of these factors. A search on the Medline, Scielo, and ISI databases was performed using the keyword BPSD for articles published within the last five years. Selected publications were favored, so this review should not be regarded as a systematic study on the subject. The main factors and syndromes comprising BPSD were identified, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. Different ways of clustering symptoms were considered. The main manifestations of psychosis, apathy and depression were focused, relating phenomenology to neuroimaging and pharmacological issues. BPSD is a heterogeneous array of symptoms which can be better understood as clusters. At least three factors can be separated in BSPD, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. This division may offer guidance to clinicians regarding treatment management and follow up of the chosen therapeutic strategy.

  2. Effects of animal-assisted therapy on behavioral and/or psychological symptoms in dementia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Lena; Engström, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Recently, interest in nonpharmaceutical interventions in dementia care has increased. Animal-assisted therapy has been shown to be one promising intervention but more knowledge is needed. The present article reports on a pilot study involving an 84-year-old woman with vascular dementia who was systematically trained with a therapy dog team for 8 weeks. A quasi-experimental longitudinal interventional design with pre-post measures was used. Data were collected on 3 occasions. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Some effects on the woman's ability to walk and move were identified. In addition, some effects in the woman's cognitive state were observed. Physical, psychological, and/or social training with certified therapy dog teams can have effects on behavioral and psychological symptoms in people living with dementia. Further research is needed.

  3. Impact of a disease-management program on symptom burden and health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and their care partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Kathleen Oare; Olshansky, Ellen; Song, Mi-Kyung; Zullo, Thomas G; Gibson, Kevin F; Kaminski, Naftali; Hoffman, Leslie A

    2010-01-01

    Patients were recruited from the Dorothy P. and Richard P. Simmons Center for Interstitial Lung Disease, located within the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis results in scarring of the lung and respiratory failure, and has a median survival of 3 to 5 years from the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and their care partners could be more optimally managed by a disease-management intervention entitled "Program to Reduce Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms and Improve Management," which nurses delivered using the format of a support group. We hypothesized that participation would improve perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and decrease symptom burden. Subjects were 42 participants randomized to an experimental (10 patient/care partner dyads) or control (11 patient/care partner dyads) group. Experimental group participants attended the 6-week program, and controls received usual care. Before and after the program, all participants completed questionnaires designed to assess symptom burden and HRQoL. Patients and care partners in the intervention group were also interviewed in their home to elicit information on their experience after participating in the Program to Reduce Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms and Improve Management. After the intervention, experimental group patients rated their HRQoL less positively (P = .038) and tended to report more anxiety (P = .077) compared with controls. Care partners rated their stress at a lower level (P = .018) compared with controls. Course evaluations were uniformly positive. Post-study qualitative interviews with experimental group participants suggested benefits not exemplified by these scores. Patient participants felt less isolated, were able to put their disease into perspective, and valued participating in research and helping others. Further exploration of the impact of disease

  4. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Role Conflict and Symptoms of Psychological Distress in College-Educated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Barbara; Reznikoff, Marvin

    1976-01-01

    Sex role attitudes, need for achievement, and employment patterns of 136 Wellesley graduates out of college 10 years and 132 out of college 25 years were studied in relation to symptoms of mental illness. Women with contemporary sex role orientations exhibited significantly higher symptom scores. (Author)

  6. The role of psychological factors in oncology nurses' burnout and compassion fatigue symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the role of several psychological factors in professional quality of life in nurses. Specifically, we tried to clarify the relationships between several dimensions of empathy, self-compassion, and psychological inflexibility, and positive (compassion satisfaction) and negative (burnout and compassion fatigue) domains of professional quality of life. Using a cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of 221 oncology nurses recruited from several public hospitals filling out a battery of self-report measures. Results suggested that nurses that benefit more from their work of helping and assisting others (compassion satisfaction) seem to have more empathic feelings and sensibility towards others in distress and make an effort to see things from others' perspective. Also, they are less disturbed by negative feelings associated with seeing others' suffering and are more self-compassionate. Nurses more prone to experience the negative consequences associated with care-providing (burnout and compassion fatigue) are more self-judgmental and have more psychological inflexibility. In addition, they experience more personal feelings of distress when seeing others in suffering and less feelings of empathy and sensibility to others' suffering. Psychological factors explained 26% of compassion satisfaction, 29% of burnout and 18% of compassion fatigue. We discuss the results in terms of the importance of taking into account the role of these psychological factors in oncology nurses' professional quality of life, and of designing nursing education training and interventions aimed at targeting such factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame as mediators of sexual abuse and psychological symptoms in adult sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Relyea, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame mediate relationships of trauma histories with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in adult sexual assault victims (N = 1863). A path analysis showed that theorized mediators partially mediated associations between trauma history variables and psychological symptoms. Specifically, child sexual abuse severity was related to greater post-traumatic stress disorder and depression indirectly through maladaptive coping and decreased emotion regulation but not self-blame. Other traumas had direct relationships with symptoms and partially mediated effects through maladaptive coping and emotion regulation. Child sexual abuse was unrelated to self-blame, but other traumas were related to greater self-blame. Results differed according to whether women had counseling post-assault. Implications are drawn for future research and clinical treatment of adult sexual assault victims.

  8. [Predicting factors of eating disorders and general psychological symptoms in female college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Atila; Toprak, Gülser; Yazici, Fadime

    2002-01-01

    To compare and determine the relative effects of six of the variables (family functioning, self-esteem, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms, locus of control and Body Mass Index-BMI) related to the etiology of eating disorders in predicting eating disorder symptoms and the general symptom index. Two hundred and ninety-two female college students completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Family Assessment Device (FAD), the Eating Attitude Test (EAT), the Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R), Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (RIELCS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Multiple regression analysis was employed, and scores of the obsessive-compulsive subscale of SCL-90-R, BMI, RSES, FAD, BDI and RIELCS were used as predictors of EAT total scores. The second multiple regression analysis was employed with the same independent variables as predictors of the General Symptom Index (GSI) of SCL-90-R. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were the best predictor of the total score of EAT, and the second was the BMI scores. Depressive symptoms and self-esteem scores were significantly correlated with EAT scores but these variables were not chosen for inclusion in the regression equation. There was a strong relation between scores on BMI and scores on EAT. BMI scores were correlated nonsignificantly with the scores of the other variables. RIELCS and FAD scores were not significantly correlated with EAT scores. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were also the best predictor of GSI of SCL-90-R and the second best predictor was the RSES. FAD was significantly correlated with SCL-90-R GSI scores, depression and obsessive compulsive scores. It appears that obsessive-compulsive symptoms were the best predictor of pathologic eating behavior. BMI was the second predictor of EAT scores. Locus of control and family functioning were not correlated with eating pathology. Family functioning scores were significantly correlated with the GSI scores, and

  9. Compulsive buying in university students: its prevalence and relationships with materialism, psychological distress symptoms, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz; Otero-López, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Compulsive buying has become a severe problem among young people. The prominent role that psychological variables play in this phenomenon support their consideration in establishing a risk profile for compulsive buying that serves as a guide for the development of prevention and treatment programs with guarantees of effectiveness. However, there are only a small number of studies in existence which have explored the compulsive buying prevalence among students, and none of them have been conducted in a Mediterranean country. This study aims to estimate the compulsive buying prevalence in a sample of university students from the region of Galicia (Spain). We also intend to determine if statistically significant differences exist between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in relation with gender, materialistic values, psychological distress symptoms and subjective well-being. Lastly, the clarification of which of the determinants examined represent risk or protection factors for compulsive buying constitutes another important objective of this paper. A total sample of 1448 university students participated in this study. They answered a battery of self-reports assessing gender, compulsive buying propensity, materialism, distress symptomatology, and well-being. Participants were initially classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared for the aforementioned variables through chi-square testing or variance analyses. Then, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants make up a risk profile for compulsive buying. The estimated prevalence of compulsive buying in the sample of university students considered was 7.4%. Statistically significant differences between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers were detected for gender, and each and every one of the psychological variables explored. Specifically, it was confirmed that compulsive buyers obtained significantly

  10. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988

  11. Psychological Distress and Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya Symptoms Following the 2016 Earthquake in Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Hargrave, Anita; Diaz, Avriel; Kenneson, Aileen; Madden, David; Romero, Moory M; Molina, Juan Pablo; Saltos, David Macias

    2017-12-05

    On 16 April 2016, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck coastal Ecuador, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity, damages to infrastructure, and psychological trauma. This event coincided with the first outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) and co-circulation with dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We tested whether the degree of psychological distress was associated with the presence of suspected DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV (DCZ) infections three months after the earthquake. In July 2016, 601 household members from four communities in Bahía de Caráquez, Manabí Province, Ecuador, were surveyed in a post-disaster health evaluation. Information was collected on demographics, physical damages and injuries, chronic diseases, self-reported psychological distress, and DCZ symptoms. We calculated the prevalence of arbovirus and distress symptoms by community. ANOVA was used to compare the mean number of psychological distress symptoms between people with versus without suspected DCZ infections by age, gender, community and the need to sleep outside of the home due to damages. The prevalence of suspected DCZ infections was 9.7% and the prevalence of psychological distress was 58.1%. The average number of psychological distress symptoms was significantly higher among people with suspected DCZ infections in the periurban community of Bella Vista, in women, in adults 40-64 years of age and in individuals not sleeping at home (p psychological distress and arboviral infections following natural disasters.

  12. A four-session acceptance and commitment therapy based intervention for depressive symptoms delivered by masters degree level psychology students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohtala, Aino; Lappalainen, Raimo; Savonen, Laura; Timo, Elina; Tolvanen, Asko

    2015-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are one of the main reasons for seeking psychological help. Shorter interventions using briefly trained therapists could offer a solution to the ever-rising need for early and easily applicable psychological treatments. The current study examines the effectiveness of a four-session Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) based treatment for self-reported depressive symptoms administered by Masters level psychology students. This paper reports the effectiveness of a brief intervention compared to a waiting list control (WLC) group. Participants were randomized into two groups: ACT (n = 28) and waiting list (n = 29). Long-term effects were examined using a 6-month follow-up. The treatment group's level of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) decreased by an average of 47%, compared to an average decrease of 4% in the WLC group. Changes in psychological well-being in the ACT group were better throughout, and treatment outcomes were maintained after 6 months. The posttreatment "between-group" and follow-up "with-in group" effect sizes (Cohen's d) were large to medium for depressive symptoms and psychological flexibility. The results support the brief ACT-based intervention for sub-clinical depressive symptoms when treatment was conducted by briefly trained psychology students. It also contributes to the growing body of evidence on brief ACT-based treatments and inexperienced therapists.

  13. Physiologic and psychologic symptoms associated with use of injectable contraception and 20 microg oral contraceptive pills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berenson, AB

    2008-01-01

    ... with a reduced pill-free interval and those not using hormonal contraception. A total of 608 women reported their experience regarding 17 symptoms prior to initiating contraception and every 6 months thereafter for 24 months...

  14. Patients' Outcome Expectations Matter in Psychological Interventions for Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Schroevers, Maya J.; Tovote, Annika; Sanderman, Robbert; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Fleer, Joke

    This study examined whether patients' expectations of treatment outcome predict treatment completion, homework compliance, and depressive symptom improvement in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Study participants were patients with diabetes and

  15. Patients’ Outcome Expectations Matter in Psychological Interventions for Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Schroevers, Maya J.; Tovote, K. Annika; Sanderman, Robbert; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether patients’ expectations of treatment outcome predict treatment completion, homework compliance, and depressive symptom improvement in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Study participants were patients with diabetes and

  16. Increased dosage of donepezil for the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yuta; Ino, Teruo; Yamanaka, Katsuo; Kosaka, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    As with other types of dementia, the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) can make caregiving difficult for patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We hypothesized that administration of donepezil at an increased dose of 10 mg/day might dose-dependently improve BPSD in DLB patients with relapse, after their symptoms had been controlled initially by donepezil therapy at the standard dose. The present study was as an open-label trial. We enrolled 24 patients with DLB (diagnosed according to the Consortium on Dementia with Lewy Bodies Guideline-Revised) who experienced a relapse of BPSD despite treatment with donepezil at the standard dose (5 mg/day). The donepezil dose for these patients was increased to 10 mg/day, and we evaluated the efficacy and safety of this dose escalation strategy. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores for BPSD showed statistically significant improvements as a result of the increased dosage, except those for anxiety and euphoria, disinhibition, irritability/lability. High-dose donepezil therapy caused gastrointestinal symptoms in 4 patients, but there were no life-threatening adverse events, such as arrhythmias, or no exacerbation of parkinsonian symptoms. We found that donepezil dose-dependently improved relapsing BPSD in these patients. Therefore, increasing the dosage of donepezil is a safe and effective treatment for patients with DLB who experience a relapse of BPSD. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  17. Prediction of 6-yr symptom course trajectories of anxiety disorders by diagnostic, clinical and psychological variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Batelaan, Neeltje; Rhebergen, Didi; van Balkom, Anton; Schoevers, Robert; Penninx, Brenda W.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify course trajectories of anxiety disorder using a data-driven method and to determine the incremental predictive value of clinical and psychological variables over and above diagnostic categories. 703 patients with DSM-IV panic disorder with or without agoraphobia,

  18. Latent profile analysis of regression-based norms demonstrates relationship of compounding MS symptom burden and negative work events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frndak, Seth E; Smerbeck, Audrey M; Irwin, Lauren N; Drake, Allison S; Kordovski, Victoria M; Kunker, Katrina A; Khan, Anjum L; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2016-10-01

    We endeavored to clarify how distinct co-occurring symptoms relate to the presence of negative work events in employed multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was utilized to elucidate common disability patterns by isolating patient subpopulations. Samples of 272 employed MS patients and 209 healthy controls (HC) were administered neuroperformance tests of ambulation, hand dexterity, processing speed, and memory. Regression-based norms were created from the HC sample. LPA identified latent profiles using the regression-based z-scores. Finally, multinomial logistic regression tested for negative work event differences among the latent profiles. Four profiles were identified via LPA: a common profile (55%) characterized by slightly below average performance in all domains, a broadly low-performing profile (18%), a poor motor abilities profile with average cognition (17%), and a generally high-functioning profile (9%). Multinomial regression analysis revealed that the uniformly low-performing profile demonstrated a higher likelihood of reported negative work events. Employed MS patients with co-occurring motor, memory and processing speed impairments were most likely to report a negative work event, classifying them as uniquely at risk for job loss.

  19. Positive Psychological Factors are Associated with Lower PTSD Symptoms among Police Officers: Post Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Violanti, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Following Hurricane Katrina, police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges. This cross-sectional study examined the association between resilience, satisfaction with life, gratitude, posttraumatic growth, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in 84 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana. Protective factors were measured using the Connor–Davidson Resilience scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were measured using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist—Civilian (PCL-C). Potential associations were measured using linear regression and analysis of variance. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and alcohol. Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.5 ± 14.5 for females and 27.8 ± 12.1 for males. Adjusted mean levels of PCL-C symptoms significantly decreased as quartiles of resilience (p <.001), satisfaction with life (p <.001), and gratitude (p <.001) increased. In contrast, PCL-C symptoms were not associated with posttraumatic growth in this sample. These results indicate that positive factors such as resilience, satisfaction with life, and gratitude may help mitigate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. To further explore these relationships, longitudinal follow-up in a larger population would be of interest. PMID:25476965

  20. Positive psychological factors are associated with lower PTSD symptoms among police officers: post Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanlies, Erin C; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M

    2014-12-01

    Following Hurricane Katrina, police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges. This cross-sectional study examined the association between resilience, satisfaction with life, gratitude, posttraumatic growth, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in 84 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana. Protective factors were measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were measured using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist--Civilian (PCL-C). Potential associations were measured using linear regression and analysis of variance. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and alcohol. Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.5 ± 14.5 for females and 27.8 ± 12.1 for males. Adjusted mean levels of PCL-C symptoms significantly decreased as quartiles of resilience (p < .001), satisfaction with life (p < .001), and gratitude (p < .001) increased. In contrast, PCL-C symptoms were not associated with posttraumatic growth in this sample. These results indicate that positive factors such as resilience, satisfaction with life, and gratitude may help mitigate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. To further explore these relationships, longitudinal follow-up in a larger population would be of interest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Stressors and psychological symptoms in students of medicine and allied health professions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omigbodun, Olayinka O; Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O; Yusuf, O Bidemi; Bella, Tolulope T; Olayemi, Oladopo

    2006-05-01

    Studies suggest that high levels of stress and psychological morbidity occur in health care profession students. This study investigates stressors and psychological morbidity in students of medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy and nursing at the University of Ibadan. The students completed a questionnaire about their socio-demographic characteristics, perceived stressors and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Qualitative methods were used initially to categorise stressors. Data was then analysed using univariate and logistic regression to determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Medical and dental students were more likely to cite as stressors, overcrowding, strikes, excessive school work and lack of holidays while physiotherapy and nursing students focused on noisy environments, security and transportation. Medical and dental students (1.66; SD: 2.22) had significantly higher GHQ scores than the physiotherapy and nursing students (1.22; SD: 1.87) (t = 2.3; P = 0.022). Socio-demographic factors associated with psychological morbidity after logistic regression include being in a transition year of study, reporting financial distress and not being a 'Pentecostal Christian'. Although males were more likely to perceive financial and lecturer problems as stressors and females to perceive faculty strikes and overcrowding as source of stress, gender did not have any significant effect on psychological morbidity. Stressors associated with psychological distress in the students include excessive school work, congested classrooms, strikes by faculty, lack of laboratory equipment, family problems, insecurity, financial and health problems. Several identified stressors such as financial problems, academic pressures and their consequent effect on social life have an adverse effect on the mental health of students in this environment especially for students of medicine and dentistry. While stressors outside the reach of the school authorities are difficult to

  2. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Allergic Reaction to Food Symptoms of an Allergic Reaction to Food Learn about the mild and severe ... the food to which you are allergic. An allergic reaction to food can affect the skin, the gastrointestinal ...

  3. Vasculopathy related to manic/hypomanic symptom burden and first-generation antipsychotics in a sub-sample from the collaborative depression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Coryell, William H; Rice, John P; Warren, Lois L; Haynes, William G

    2012-01-01

    Mood disorders substantially increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, though the mechanisms are unclear. We assessed for a dose-dependent relationship between course of illness or treatment with vasculopathy in a well-characterized cohort. Participants with mood disorders were recruited for the National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Depression Study (CDS) and followed prospectively. A cross-sectional metabolic and vascular function evaluation was performed on a sub-sample near completion after a mean follow-up of 27 years. A total of 35 participants from the University of Iowa (33) and Washington University (2) sites of the CDS consented to a metabolic and vascular function assessment at the Iowa site. In multivariate linear regression, controlling for age, gender, and smoking, manic/hypomanic, but not depressive, symptom burden was associated with lower flow-mediated dilation. Cumulative exposure to antipsychotics and mood stabilizers was associated with elevated augmentation pressure and mean aortic systolic blood pressure. This appeared specifically related to first-generation antipsychotic exposure and mediated by increases in brachial systolic pressure. Although second-generation antipsychotics were associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, they were not associated with vasculopathy. These results provide evidence that chronicity of mood symptoms contribute to vasculopathy in a dose-dependent fashion. Patients with more manic/hypomanic symptoms had poorer endothelial function. First-generation antipsychotic exposure was associated with arterial stiffness, evidenced by higher augmentation pressure, perhaps secondary to elevated blood pressure. Vascular phenotyping methods may provide a promising means of elucidating the mechanisms linking mood disorders to vascular disease. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. [Evaluation of the psychological feature and quality of life in outpatients with somatic symptoms disorder in a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, F H; Xiong, N N; Hong, X; Duan, Y P; Wei, J

    2017-11-07

    Objective: To explore the psychological features and quality of life in outpatients with somatic symptoms disorder in a general hospital. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2014-05 to 2015-06. Patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and somatic symptoms disorder (SSD) were recruited from psychological outpatient department, and patients with peptic ulcer (PU) / reflux esophagitis (RE) were recruited from Gastroenterology. Depression scale of the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7), Toronto Alexithymia scale (TAS), 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), items from Somatoform Disorder Screening Questionnaire were employed to evaluate the severity of depression, anxiety, alexithymia, quality of life, health care use and subjective feelings. Results: Scores of PHQ-9 (10±6), GAD-7 (8±5), TAS (74±7) in patients with SSD were significantly higher than PU/RE patients (5±4, 5±4, 71±8, respectively), and the physical component summary (PCS) (40±8) and mental component summary (MCS) (37±10) of SSD patients were much lower than PU/RE (PCS 45±6, MCS 47±9) (Pevaluate patients according to bio-psycho-social aspects and give intervention individually.

  5. Behavioral and psychological symptoms and the progression of dementia of the Alzheimer type in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzan, Leszek; Pachalska, Maria; Grochmal-Bach, Bozena; Bidzan, Mariola; Jastrzebowska, Grazyna

    2008-11-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms are common in the course of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Some behavioral and psychological symptoms may be predictors of the progression of dementia and cognitive impairment in DAT. However, studies on this topic face serious methodological problems. The aim of our study was to investigate how aggressive and impulsive behaviors correlate with the progression of dementia and related cognitive impairments in DAT patients. Using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the ADAS-cog we examined 39 nursing home residents diagnosed with mild to moderate DAT. Of these participants, 26 were re-evaluated with the ADAS-cog two years after baseline. Aggressive and impulsive behaviors correlated with the degree of cognitive impairment. However, we also found that particular ADAS-cog items correlated differently with the CMAI score. Moreover, various CMAI categories were differently related to cognitive disorders. Impairments in cognitive functioning best explain the fluctuations of verbal aggression and physical agitation (non-aggressive). At baseline, the more demented subjects had a higher general score on the CMAI scale and showed greater rates of physical aggression, verbal aggression and non-aggressive physical agitation. Particular items of the CMAI scale significantly differentiated our subjects in terms of progression of cognitive impairment. Aggressive behaviors in patients with DAT are linked to both the severity of dementia and the rate of its progression. At the same time, significant differences were noted with respect to particular behaviors.

  6. The impact of peer victimization and psychological symptoms on quality of life in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuner, Selcuk; Sahin, Sezgin; Durcan, Gizem; Adrovic, Amra; Barut, Kenan; Kilicoglu, Ali Guven; Bilgic, Ayhan; Bahali, Kayhan; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2017-06-01

    There is no documentation about the association between peer victimization, psychological status, and quality of life (QOL) in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between peer victimization, psychological symptoms, and QOL in a cohort of children and adolescents with SLE. Forty-one patients (aged 9-18 years) participated in this study. The control group (n = 49) was composed of healthy children and adolescents from local community. Questionnaires were used to evaluate the peer victimization, psychological status, and QOL of children and adolescents with and without SLE. No significant difference was found between the study and control groups for peer victimization, depression, state and trait anxiety, and QOL scores. The peer victimization, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem scores were negatively correlated with psychosocial and total subscale scores of QOL in the study group. According to regression analyses, trait anxiety had a negative predictive effect on the physical health domain scores of QOL, whereas trait anxiety and peer victimization had a negative effect on the psychosocial domain and total scores of QOL in the SLE patients. This study suggests that trait anxiety and peer victimization are risk factors for poor QOL in adolescents with SLE.

  7. Psychological distress longitudinally mediates the effect of vertigo symptoms on vertigo-related handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Thomas; Dinkel, Andreas; Schmid-Mühlbauer, Gabriele; Radziej, Katharina; Limburg, Karina; Pieh, Christoph; Lahmann, Claas

    2017-02-01

    Vertigo symptoms can lead to more or less vertigo-related handicap. This longitudinal study investigated whether depression, anxiety, and/or somatization mediate the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. N=111 patients with vertigo/dizziness provided complete data on the following measures: Vertigo symptoms at baseline, depression at 6-month follow-up, anxiety at 6-month follow-up, somatization at 6-month follow-up, and vertigo handicap at 12-month follow-up. Mediation analyses with bootstrapping were performed to investigate the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization in the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. When the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization was evaluated separately from each other in single mediation models, the effect vertigo symptoms at baseline exerted on vertigo-related handicap at 12-month follow-up was significantly mediated by depression at 6-month follow-up (phandicap at 12-month follow-up (phandicap. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mental Health Literacy for Anxiety Disorders: How perceptions of symptom severity might relate to recognition of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel J; Wadsworth, Lauren Page; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A

    Improving mental health literacy is an important consideration when promoting expedient and effective treatment seeking for psychological disorders. Low recognition serves as a barrier to treatment (Coles and Coleman, 2010), and this article examines recognition by lay individuals of severity for three psychological disorders: social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and major depression using a dimensional approach. Vignettes of mild/subclinical, moderate, and severe cases of each disorder were rated for severity by a team of expert assessors and 270 participants (mean age = 26.8; 76.7% women). Difference ratings were calculated comparing participants' responses to scores from the assessors. A within-groups factorial ANOVA with LSD follow-up was performed to examine the effects of Diagnosis and Severity on difference ratings. Both main effects [Diagnosis, F(2, 536)=35.26, Mse=1.24; Severity, F(2, 536)=9.44, Mse=1.93] and the interaction were significant [F(4, 1072)=13.70, Mse=1.13] all p's anxiety cases were underrated in the mild/subclinical and moderate cases, generalized anxiety cases were underrated at all three severities, and major depression cases were overrated at all three severities. Judgments of severity may underlie the low recognition rates for social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Future efforts should focus on improved recognition and education regarding anxiety disorders in the population, particularly before they become severe. This project demonstrates the importance of considering judgments of symptom severity on a continuum, and in a range of cases, rather than just the ability to correctly label symptoms, when determining whether or not people recognize psychological disorders.

  9. ["I do not worry about ...!" How the Berkeley Puppet Interview may reveal self-report of psychological symptoms of 4 to 8 years old children exposed to parental cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gabriele; Dieball, Stefanie; Falk, Carina; Weis, Sascha; Brähler, Elmar; Romer, Georg; Bergelt, Corinna; Keller, Monika; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Weschenfelder-Stachwitz, Heike; Resch, Franz; von Klitzing, Kai; Ernst, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) enables us to investigate psychological symptoms of children aged four to eight years under a multi-informant perspective by the means of self and parent report measures. 45 families with one parent suffering from cancer have been examined with regard to internalizing and externalizing symptoms of the children. Results have been compared to two different age-appropriate samples (Swiss preschool study of Basel and German KiGGS study). A small, highly selective sample of twelve children aged four to eight years could have been examined both from the self and parent perspective. Our results show, that four to eight year old children of cancer patients do not differ from other children of the same age in the way they express emotional symptoms in the BPI, but they are judged more emotionally burdened than other children by their parents (SDQ). Self and parent report do not significantly correlate. It seems as if parents in families struck by a cancer disease see their children's emotional symptoms more pronounced than the children themselves do express in the puppet interview. Implications for clinical and research practice will be discussed.

  10. Self-Compassion: Association with Psychological Symptoms and Usage in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Korkmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-compassion is defined by Neff as approaching to the self without judgment, criticism or punishment, sharing the stressful experiences with other people without isolation and holding the painful emotions and thoughts in mindful awareness without over identification. The studies showed that self-compassion has positive relationship with psychological well-being; has negative relationships with depression, anxiety, eating disorders, trauma and other psychological problems. Also, the findings from psychotherapy studies that try to strength self-compassion attracted a great deal of attention. The main aims of this article were reviewing the self-compassion concept toward the literature, summarizing the empirical findings in the context of self-compassion and discussing the usage of self-compassion in psychotherapy.

  11. Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE, respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p < .05 the variance of females’ EAT-26 scores, whereas BD, DPCE, fat percentage, age, ethnicity and competitive level significantly explained ( p < .05 the variance of risk behaviours for males’ ED. Thus, only BD influenced risk behaviours for ED in both sexes.

  12. Incontinence and psychological symptoms in individuals with Mowat-Wilson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Justine; Einfeld, Stewart; Mowat, David; Equit, Monika; Wagner, Catharina; Curfs, Leopold; von Gontard, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Mowat-Wilson Syndrome (MWS) is caused by deletion/mutation of the ZEB2 gene on chromosome 2q22. MWS is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, severe intellectual disability and other anomalies, e.g. seizures and/or Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Most individuals have a sociable demeanor, but one third show psychological problems. The aim was to investigate incontinence and psychological problems in MWS. 26 children (4-12 years), 13 teens (13-17 years) and 8 adults (>18years) were recruited through a MWS support group. The Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence, as well as the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) were completed by parents or care-givers. 97.7% of persons with MWS had incontinence (nocturnal enuresis 74.4%; daytime urinary incontinence 76.2%; fecal incontinence 81.4%). Incontinence remained high over age groups (children 95.8%, teens 100%, adults 100%). 46.2% of children, 25% of teens and 37.5% of adults exceeded the clinical cut-off on the DBC. The ability to use the toilet for micturition improved with age. MWS incontinence rates are very high. All had physical disabilities including anomalies of the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract. Due to the high prevalence rates, a screening for incontinence and psychological problems in MWS is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Urologic symptoms and burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in older men: the Aging Study of PyeongChang Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang IY

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Il-Young Jang,1,2 Chang Ki Lee,3 Hee-Won Jung,4,5 Sang Soo Yu,2 Young Soo Lee,1 Eunju Lee,1 Dae Hyun Kim6,7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2PyeongChang Health Center & County Hospital, PyeongChang, Gangwon-Do, Republic of Korea; 3Goldman Urology Clinic, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; 5Geriatric Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 6Division of Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 7Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Purpose: Frailty is an important consideration in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in older men; frailty increases vulnerability to treatment-related adverse outcomes, but its burden is not known. The authors aimed to examine the burden of frailty and associated geriatric conditions in community-dwelling older men.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 492 community-dwelling older men (mean age, 74.2 years; standard deviation, 5.6 years. All the participants were administered the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS (range: 0–35 and a five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 (range: 5–25. Frailty phenotype was assessed based on exhaustion, inactivity, slowness, weakness, and weight loss. Prevalence of frailty phenotype and geriatric conditions were assessed by the IPSS severity category (mild, 0–7; moderate, 8–19; severe, 20–35 points and the first IIEF-5 question, which assesses the confidence in erectile function (low, 1–2; moderate, 3; high, 4–5 points.Results: Older men with severe urologic

  14. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Brouwers, Evelien P M; van Beurden, Karlijn M; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J L; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-05-01

    We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network Library and PubMed. Members of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), were also consulted. Guidelines recommendations were compared and reporting quality was assessed using the AGREE II instrument. Of 2126 titles retrieved, 14 guidelines were included: 1 Japanese, 2 Finnish, 2 Korean, 2 British and 7 Dutch. Four guidelines were of high-reporting quality. Best described was the Scope and Purpose, and the poorest described were competing interests (Editorial independence) and barriers and facilitators for implementation (Applicability). Key recommendations were often difficult to identify. Most guidelines recommend employing an inventory of symptoms, diagnostic classification, performance problems and workplace factors. All guidelines recommend specific return-to-work interventions, and most agreed on psychological treatment and communication between involved stakeholders. Practice guidelines to address work disability due to mental disorders and stress-related symptoms are available in various countries around the world, however, these guidelines are difficult to find. To promote sharing, national guidelines should be accessible via established international databases. The quality of the guideline's developmental process varied considerably. To increase quality and applicability, guideline developers should adopt a common structure for the development and reporting of their guidelines, for example Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) criteria. Owing to differences in social systems, developers can learn from each other through reviews of this kind. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  15. Work overload, burnout, and psychological ill-health symptoms: a three-wave mediation model of the employee health impairment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Leon T; Pienaar, Jaco; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2016-07-01

    The study reported here investigated the causal relationships in the health impairment process of employee well-being, and the mediating role of burnout in the relationship between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms, over time. The research is deemed important due to the need for longitudinal evidence of the health impairment process of employee well-being over three waves of data. A quantitative survey design was followed. Participants constituted a longitudinal sample of 370 participants, at three time points, after attrition. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling methods were implemented. Work overload at time one predicted burnout at time two, and burnout at time two predicted psychological ill-health symptoms at time three. Indirect effects were found between work overload time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three via burnout time two, and also between burnout time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three, via burnout time two. The results provided supportive evidence for an "indirect-only" mediation effect, for burnout's causal mediation mechanism in the health impairment process between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms.

  16. Influence of caregiver personality on the burden of family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Hyun; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Shim, Hyun-Jeong; Hwang, Jun-Eul; Chung, Ik-Joo; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2016-02-01

    To determine the influence of caregiver personality and other factors on the burden of family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients. We investigated a wide range of factors related to the patient-family caregiver dyad in a palliative care setting using a cross-sectional design. Caregiver burden was assessed using the seven-item short version of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-7). Caregiver personality was assessed using the 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), which measures the following five personality dimensions: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Patient- and caregiver-related sociodemographic and psychological factors were included in the analysis because of their potential association with caregiver burden. Clinical patient data were obtained from medical charts or by using other measures. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify the independent factors associated with caregiver burden. We analyzed 227 patient-family caregiver dyads. The multivariate analysis revealed that caregiver extroversion was protective against caregiver burden, whereas depressive symptoms in caregivers were related to increased burden. Neuroticism was positively correlated with caregiver burden, but this relationship was nonsignificant following adjustment for depressive symptoms. Patient-related factors were not significantly associated with caregiver burden. Evaluating caregiver personality traits could facilitate identification of individuals at greater risk of high burden. Furthermore, depression screening and treatment programs for caregivers in palliative care settings are required to decrease caregiver burden.

  17. Psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Laura A; Dewey, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    To examine eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to investigate the associations among social support, self-esteem, health locus of control, eating disorder symptoms and body image. Forty-six adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 27 healthy comparison adolescents completed questionnaires. No significant differences were identified in eating disorder symptoms and body image between adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy comparison adolescents. Regression analyses were completed with the full sample of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy comparison adolescents. Higher levels of social support and being male were associated with a more positive body image, less body dissatisfaction and a lower drive for thinness. A belief by the adolescents that parents or healthcare providers (i.e. external powerful others locus of control) were in control of their health was associated with a more positive body image and less body dissatisfaction. Higher self-esteem was associated with a greater drive for thinness and a higher level of body dissatisfaction. Social support, health locus of control and self-esteem appear to be important correlates of eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with diabetes and their typically developing peers. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychological functioning in non-clinical young adults: Protective and risk factors for internalizing symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Mabilia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The present research proposes the analysis of specific aspects of psychosocial functioning and development with a focus on issues related to internalizing symptoms, attachment styles and interpersonal dimensions of interpersonal functioning. Developmental theories emphasized the importance of transitions, as periods of biologically and socially characterized changes (Arnett, 1997; Gurevitz Stern, 2004; Schulenberg, Magges, Hurrelmann, 1997; Schulenberg & Zarrett, 2006). The development...

  19. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  20. Associating Parental to Child Psychological Symptoms: Investigating a Transactional Model of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Panayiotou, Georgia; Fanti, Savvas

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal transactional association among paternal and maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Data were collected on preschool- to adolescent-age youth via a total of six assessments. The sample (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]…

  1. The symptom burden of cancer: Evidence for a core set of cancer-related and treatment-related symptoms from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeland, Charles S; Zhao, Fengmin; Chang, Victor T; Sloan, Jeff A; O'Mara, Ann M; Gilman, Paul B; Weiss, Matthias; Mendoza, Tito R; Lee, Ju-Whei; Fisch, Michael J

    2013-12-15

    A set of common cancer-related and treatment-related symptoms has been proposed for quality of care assessment and clinical research. Using data from a large, multicenter, prospective study, the authors assessed the effects of disease site and stage on the percentages of patients rating these proposed symptoms as moderate to severe. The severity of 13 symptoms proposed to represent "core" oncology symptoms was rated by 3106 ambulatory patients with cancer of the breast, prostate, colon/rectum, or lung, regardless of disease stage or phase of care; 2801 patients (90%) repeated the assessment 4 to 5 weeks later. At the time of the initial assessment, approximately 33% of the patients reported ≥ 3 symptoms in the moderate-to-severe range; 11 of the 13 symptoms were rated as moderate to severe by at least 10% of all patients and 6 were rated as moderate to severe by at least 20% of those receiving active treatment. Fatigue/tiredness was the most severe symptom, followed by disturbed sleep, pain, dry mouth, and numbness/tingling. More patients with lung cancer and patients receiving active treatment reported moderate to severe symptoms. Percentages of symptomatic patients increased by disease stage, less adequate response to therapy, and declining Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. The percentages of patients reporting moderate to severe symptoms were stable across both assessments. The results of the current study support a core set of moderate to severe symptoms that are common across outpatients with solid tumors, that can guide consideration of progression-free survival as a trial outcome, and that should be considered in clinical care and in assessments of quality of care and treatment benefit. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  2. Depressive symptoms and psychological distress during the first five years after traumatic brain injury: Relationship with psychosocial stressors, fatigue and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Andelic, Nada; Roe, Cecilie; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2013-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to identify predictors of depressive symptoms and psychological distress. A longitudinal study with assessments at 3 months, 1 year and 5 years after injury. A total of 118 individuals (29% females; mean age 32.5; range 16-55 years) with mild-to-severe TBI who were hospitalized in the Trauma Referral Centre from 2005 to 2007. Self-report assessments using the Hospital Anxiety- and Depression Scale, the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised and the Fatigue Severity Scale. Injury severity, trauma scores, pain, fatigue, substance abuse and demographic characteristics were also recorded. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 18% at 3 months, 13% at 1 year and 18% at 5 years after injury. Only 4% had persistent depressive symptoms at all time-points. At 1 year post-injury, anxiety, age, ongoing stressors and employment status predicted depressive symptoms (R2 = 0.43, p stressors, employment status, fatigue and pain predicted psychological distress (R2 = 0.45, p stressors and employment status contributed to depressive symptoms and psychological distress, whereas injury severity did not have any predictive value. The prevalence of depressive symptoms remained stable over time, emphasizing the importance of recognizing and treating depression early after the injury.

  3. Different Patterns of Correlation between Grey and White Matter Integrity Account for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovac, Elena; Serra, Laura; Spanò, Barbara; Giulietti, Giovanni; Torso, Mario; Cercignani, Mara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bozzali, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral disorders and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are known to correlate with grey matter (GM) atrophy and, as shown recently, also with white matter (WM) damage. WM damage and its relationship with GM atrophy are reported in AD, reinforcing the interpretation of the AD pathology in light of a disconnection syndrome. It remains uncertain whether this disconnection might account also for different BPSD observable in AD. Here, we tested the hypothesis of different patterns of association between WM damage of the corpus callosum (CC) and GM atrophy in AD patients exhibiting one of the following BPSD clusters: Mood (i.e., anxiety and depression; ADmood), Frontal (i.e., dishinibition and elation; ADfrontal), and Psychotic (delusions and hallucinations; ADpsychotic) related symptoms, as well as AD patients without BPSD. Overall, this study brings to light the strict relationship between WM alterations in different parts of the CC and GM atrophy in AD patients exhibiting BPSD, supporting the hypothesis that such symptoms are likely to be caused by characteristic patterns of neurodegeneration of WM and GM, rather than being a reactive response to accumulation of cognitive disabilities, and should therefore be regarded as potential markers of diagnostic and prognostic value in AD.

  4. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and its correlations with positive psychological variables among Chinese medical students: an exploratory cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Liu, Li; Wang, Zi Yue; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-11

    Knowledge about the prevalence of depressive symptoms among Chinese medical students and its related factors is rather limited. Understanding the correlates of depressive symptoms and the roles that positive psychological variables play in depressive symptoms is of vital importance for future interventions. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the integrated effects of resilience, hope and optimism on depressive symptoms among Chinese medical students. This multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. The questionnaires that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14), Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS), Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), and socio-demographic characteristics, were distributed to students at four medical colleges or universities in Liaoning province, China. A total of 2925 medical students became the final subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to explore the integrated effects of resilience, hope and optimism on depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among Chinese medical students was 66.8 % (CES-D ≥ 16). Resilience, hope and optimism were all negatively correlated with depressive symptoms and they accounted for 26.1 % of the variance in depressive symptoms. The high prevalence of depressive symptoms among Chinese medical students calls for special attention from all stakeholders, especially university authorities. Intervention strategies that focus on enhancing the positive psychological variables of resilience, hope and optimism can be integrated into depression prevention and treatment programs.

  5. Personality traits such as neuroticism and disability predict psychological distress in medically unexplained symptoms: A three-year experience from a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vikas; Shanmuganathan, Balasubramanian; Thamizh, Jaiganesh Selvapandian; Arun, Anand Babu; Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2017-11-17

    People with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) may have psychological co-morbidities. Our objectives were to assess the rates and identify correlates of psychological distress in MUS. A total of 171 subjects with MUS seeking treatment at a tertiary care facility were assessed over a 3-year period. Psychological distress was assessed using the Tamil version of General Health Questionnaire-12. Apart from socio-demographic factors, personality, coping, perceived social support and subjective disability were assessed using standard instruments. Ninety subjects (52.6%) endorsed symptoms of psychological distress. MUS subjects with psychological distress reported higher levels of neuroticism (p disability (p disability (odds ratio 1.302, 95% CI 1.147 to 1.478) emerged as independent predictors of psychological distress in MUS. More than half of subjects with MUS have associated psychological distress. High levels of neuroticism and disability are potential markers of psychological distress in MUS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A case-control study regarding relative factors for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia at a Canadian regional long-term extended care facility: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Minoru; Chan, Peter; Donnelly, Martha; McKenna, Mario; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji; Ganesan, Soma

    2014-03-01

    Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are prevalent and have an impact on the care of persons with dementia. Previous studies regarding predisposing factors have included pharmacotherapy, but other factors may not have been sufficiently studied. We hypothesized that psychotropic medications, past history, comorbid psychiatric disorders and other factors may be relevant factors related to BPSD. Data were collected from patients' medical charts at an extended care facility over a 2-year period from 1 May 2008 to 30 April 2010. Information obtained included the presence of BPSD, gender, age, marital status, past history, comorbid psychiatric disorder and medication use. Patients were divided into two groups: a group with BPSD (n = 29) and a group without BPSD (n = 10). A binomial logistic regression analysis was performed for the above factors. Comorbid major depression was linked to BPSD (odds ratio = 12.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.31-120.74) as well as to the use of antidepressants (odds ratio = 6.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-41.25). There was a trend towards statistical significance in the relationship between greater use of antidepressants for the patients with comorbid major depression and the presence of BPSD. Past history of depression (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.03) and cerebral vascular accident (degrees of freedom = 1, χ(2) = 4.44, P = 0.04) were linked to the presence of BPSD and comorbid major depression. Accurate evaluation and treatment of comorbid major depression may affect BPSD. In order to reduce the burden of BPSD on patients and caregivers, there should be a careful and thoughtful diagnosis of comorbid major depression in patients with dementia. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  7. Psychometric Properties of a Generic, Patient-Centred Palliative Care Outcome Measure of Symptom Burden for People with Progressive Long Term Neurological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Crosby, Vincent; Wilcock, Andrew; Burman, Rachael; Silber, Eli; Hepgul, Nilay; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Higginson, Irene J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no standard palliative care outcome measure for people with progressive long term neurological conditions (LTNC). This study aims to determine the psychometric properties of a new 8-item palliative care outcome scale of symptom burden (IPOS Neuro-S8) in this population. Data and Methods Data were merged from a Phase II palliative care intervention study in multiple sclerosis (MS) and a longitudinal observational study in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The IPOS Neuro-S8 was assessed for its data quality, score distribution, ceiling and floor effects, reliability, factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, concurrent validity with generic (Palliative care Outcome Scale) and condition specific measures (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale; Non-motor Symptoms Questionnaire; Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire), responsiveness and minimally clinically important difference. Results Of the 134 participants, MS patients had a mean Extended Disability Status Scale score 7.8 (SD = 1.0), patients with an IPD, MSA or PSP were in Hoehn & Yahr stage 3–5. The IPOS Neuro-S8 had high data quality (2% missing), mean score 8 (SD = 5; range 0–32), no ceiling effects, borderline floor effects, good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.7) and moderate test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient = 0.6). The results supported a moderately correlated two-factor structure (Pearson’s r = 0.5). It was moderately correlated with generic and condition specific measures (Pearson’s r: 0.5–0.6). There was some evidence for discriminant validity in IPD, MSA and PSP (p = 0.020), and for good responsiveness and longitudinal construct validity. Conclusions IPOS Neuro-S8 shows acceptable to promising psychometric properties in common forms of progressive LTNCs. Future work needs to confirm these findings with larger samples and its usefulness in wider disease groups. PMID

  8. Environmental illness: evaluation of salivary flow, symptoms, diseases, medications, and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, J; Bergdahl, M

    2001-04-01

    Patients with symptoms allegedly caused by abnormal sensitivity to dental fillings and/or to electromagnetic fields and other environmental factors frequently report oral complaints. Forty-four consecutive patients with these symptoms were studied. The aim was to investigate whether unstimulated salivary flow rate was associated with Candida, symptoms, disease, medication, age, sex, anxiety, depression, and stress. Furthermore, the aim was to compare the level of anxiety, depression, and stress in these patients with an age- and sex-matched control group. Fifty percent had no or low flow rate from the minor salivary glands. Candida pseudohyphae were found in 50% of the patients. Hypothyroidism and/or intake of thyroid hormones, headache, fatigue, and age were negatively associated with unstimulated salivary flow rate, and dizziness was positively associated. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was positively associated with stimulated salivary flow rate and flow rate from the minor salivary glands. Burning mouth and subjective oral dryness were reported by 48%, and 46%, respectively. The patients were more anxious, stressed, and especially more depressed than the control group. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was negatively associated with state anxiety. Measurement of salivary flow rate is important in patients with environmental illness and can be used in combination with other measurements as a diagnostic tool.

  9. Psychological detachment and savoring in adaptation to cancer caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wai Kai; Lau, Kam Man; Ng, Sin Man; Lee, Tatia Mei Chun; Cheung, Hester Yui Shan; Shum, Tracy Chui Yu; Cheng, Ashley Chi Kin

    2016-07-01

    Recovery experience including psychological detachment from caregiving and savoring positive moments in life could be complementary coping processes for cancer caregivers. This study aims to examine the nature of their associations with caregiving burden and anxiety and depressive symptoms among Chinese cancer caregivers in Hong Kong. A total of 155 Chinese caregivers of recently diagnosed cancer patients (mean time since diagnosis = 42.57 days, SD = 39.25) were recruited from two major government-funded hospitals and administered a questionnaire assessing psychological detachment, savoring, caregiving burden, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and demographics. Controlling for demographic and medical covariates, structural equation modeling revealed significant associations of detachment, savoring, and their interaction term with caregiving burden and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Detachment and savoring were inversely associated with caregiving burden only when the other was at lower/medium levels. Detachment was inversely associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms at lower/medium levels of savoring, but savoring was inversely associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms across all levels of detachment. Detachment and savoring could overshadow the positive impact of the other on caregiving burden if either one is at higher levels, while they could demonstrate concurrent positive impact on burden when both are at lower/medium levels. Savoring could have a prioritized role in ameliorating caregivers' anxiety and depressive symptoms, supplemented by detachment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Association between Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Female Nurses: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Psychological Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Junhui; Wu, Di; Liu, Li; Li, Xirui; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-12

    Depressive symptoms have been in the limelight for many kinds of people, but few studies have explored positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between work-family conflict (WFC) and depressive symptoms among Chinese female nurses, along with the mediating and moderating role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was completed during the period of September and October 2013. A questionnaire that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Work-Family Conflict scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnair scale was distributed to nurses in Shenyang, China. A total of 824 individuals (effective response rate: 74.9%) participated. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of PsyCap in the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the moderating role of PsyCap. Both WFC and family-work conflict (FWC) were positively related with depressive symptoms. PsyCap positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy and hope positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Hope and optimism partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Work-family conflict, as the risk factor of depressive symptoms, can increase nurses' depressive symptoms, and PsyCap is a positive resource to combat nurses' depressive symptoms. PsyCap can aggravate the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms and FWC can impact PsyCap to increase nurses' depressive symptoms.

  11. Association between Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Female Nurses: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Psychological Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms have been in the limelight for many kinds of people, but few studies have explored positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between work-family conflict (WFC and depressive symptoms among Chinese female nurses, along with the mediating and moderating role of psychological capital (PsyCap in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was completed during the period of September and October 2013. A questionnaire that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Work-Family Conflict scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnair scale was distributed to nurses in Shenyang, China. A total of 824 individuals (effective response rate: 74.9% participated. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of PsyCap in the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the moderating role of PsyCap. Both WFC and family-work conflict (FWC were positively related with depressive symptoms. PsyCap positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy and hope positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Hope and optimism partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Work-family conflict, as the risk factor of depressive symptoms, can increase nurses’ depressive symptoms, and PsyCap is a positive resource to combat nurses’ depressive symptoms. PsyCap can aggravate the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms and FWC can impact PsyCap to increase nurses’ depressive symptoms.

  12. The Associations of Psychological Stress with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Chinese Bladder and Renal Cancer Patients: The Mediating Role of Resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyao Li

    Full Text Available The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and their associated factors in bladder and renal cancer patients are not well evaluated in China. Given the growing attention to positive psychological constructs in the field of oncology, it is necessary to explore the effects of these constructs on depressive and anxiety symptoms. This study aims to explore the associations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients and the mediating role of resilience in these relationships.A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning province. 327 bladder cancer patients and 268 renal cancer patients completed questionnaires on demographic variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Resilience Scale-14, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 during the period from July 2013 to July 2014. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of resilience.The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 78.0% and 71.3% in bladder cancer patients, and 77.6% and 68.3% in renal cancer patients. Psychological stress was positively related to depressive and anxiety symptoms, while resilience was negatively related to these symptoms. Resilience partially mediated the relations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms.The high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients should receive more attention from medical institutions and government agencies. In addition to reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms, resilience development should be included in depression and anxiety prevention and treatment strategies in China.

  13. The Associations of Psychological Stress with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Chinese Bladder and Renal Cancer Patients: The Mediating Role of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyao; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and their associated factors in bladder and renal cancer patients are not well evaluated in China. Given the growing attention to positive psychological constructs in the field of oncology, it is necessary to explore the effects of these constructs on depressive and anxiety symptoms. This study aims to explore the associations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients and the mediating role of resilience in these relationships. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning province. 327 bladder cancer patients and 268 renal cancer patients completed questionnaires on demographic variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Resilience Scale-14, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 during the period from July 2013 to July 2014. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of resilience. The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 78.0% and 71.3% in bladder cancer patients, and 77.6% and 68.3% in renal cancer patients. Psychological stress was positively related to depressive and anxiety symptoms, while resilience was negatively related to these symptoms. Resilience partially mediated the relations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms. The high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients should receive more attention from medical institutions and government agencies. In addition to reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms, resilience development should be included in depression and anxiety prevention and treatment strategies in China.

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Antidepressant Medication versus Psychological Intervention on Depression Symptoms in Women with Infertility and Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Hajar; Basirat, Zahra; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Kheirkhah, Farzan

    2018-04-01

    Fertility loss is considered as a challenging experience. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of antidepressant medication and psychological intervention on depression symptoms in women with infertility and sexual dysfunctions (SD). This randomized, controlled clinical trial study was completed from December 2014 to June 2015 in Babol, Iran. Of the 485 participants, 93 were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to psychosexual therapy (PST), bupropion extended-release (BUP ER) at a dose of 150 mg/d, and control (no intervention) groups. The beck depression inventory (BDI) was completed at the beginning and end of the study. Duration of study was eight weeks. Statistical analyses were performed by using paired-test and analysis of covariance. The mean depression score on the BDI was 22.35 ± 8.70 in all participants. Mean BDI score decreased significantly in both treatment groups (PST: Pinfertility and SD (Registration number: IRCT2015042721955N2).

  15. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy on Psychological Symptoms and Quality of Life in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Kamal Solati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT on psychological symptoms and quality of life (QoL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods: We conducted a randomized single-blind clinical trial in patients with SLE referred from the Imam Ali Clinic in Shahrekord, southwest Iran. The patients (46 in total in two groups of 23 each were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. Both groups underwent routine medical care, and the experimental group underwent eight group sessions of MBCT in addition to routine care. The patient,s QoL was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-28 and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey before, after, and six months after intervention (follow-up. Results: A significant difference was seen in psychological symptoms and QoL between MBCT and control groups immediately after the intervention and at follow-up (p ≤ 0.050. However, the difference was not significant for the physical components of QoL (p ≥ 0.050. Conclusions: MBCT contributed to decreased psychological symptoms and improved QoL in patients with SLE with a stable effect on psychological symptoms and psychological components of QoL, but an unstable effect on physical components.

  16. Effects of Relaxation Exercises and Music Therapy on the Psychological Symptoms and Depression Levels of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavak, Funda; Ünal, Süheyla; Yılmaz, Emine

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of relaxation exercises and music therapy on the psychological symptoms and depression levels of patients with chronic schizophrenia. This semi-experimental study was conducted using pre- and post-tests with a control group. The study population consists of patients with schizophrenia who regularly attended community mental health centers in the Malatya and Elazığ provinces of Turkey between May 2015 and September 2015. The study's sample consists of 70 patients with schizophrenia (n=35 in the control group; n=35 in the experimental group) who were selected randomly based on power analysis. The "Patient Information Form," the "Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)" and the "Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS)" were used for data collection. Patients in the experimental group participated in relaxation exercises and music therapy 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group of 35 persons was divided into three groups of approximately 10-12 individuals in order to enable all participants to attend the program. No intervention was applied to the patients in the control group. The data were evaluated using percentage distribution, arithmetic means, standard deviations, Chi-square and independent samples t-tests. The study found that patients in the experimental group showed a decrease in total mean scores on the BPRS and CDSS; the difference between the post-test scores of the experimental group and the post-test scores of the control group was statistically significant (pmusic therapy was proven to be effective in reducing schizophrenic patients' psychological symptoms and levels of depression. Relaxation exercises and music therapy can be used as a complementary therapy in the medical treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological intimate partner violence and sexual risk behavior: examining the role of distinct posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the partner violence-sexual risk link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-01-01

    Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior: Examining the Role of Distinct PTSD Symptoms in the Partner Violence-sexual Risk Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762

  19. Community Resilience, Psychological Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms: An Examination of the Mississippi Gulf Coast 10 Years After Hurricane Katrina and 5 Years After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Blackmon, Bret J; Cochran, David M; Kar, Bandana; Rehner, Timothy A; Gunnell, Mauri Stubbs

    2017-08-30

    This study examined the role of community resilience and psychological resilience on depressive symptoms in areas on the Mississippi Gulf Coast that have experienced multiple disasters. Survey administration took place in the spring of 2015 to a spatially stratified, random sample of households. This analysis included a total of 294 subjects who lived in 1 of the 3 counties of the Mississippi Gulf Coast at the time of both Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The survey included the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) scale, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). There was a significant inverse relationship between psychological resilience and depressive symptoms and a significant positive relationship between community resilience and psychological resilience. The results also revealed that community resilience was indirectly related to depressive symptoms through the mediating variable of psychological resilience. These findings highlight the importance of psychological resilience in long-term disaster recovery and imply that long-term recovery efforts should address factors associated with both psychological and community resilience to improve mental health outcomes. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 8).

  20. [A case of depression whose symptoms cured by setting her psychological base on the transcendent level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Masayuki; Tagami, Shinji; Inoue, Yoichi; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    she prayed to God for healing when she read a part in the Bible about a woman suffering from a hemorrhage for twelve years who touched the hem of Jesus' garment and was healed immediately (Matthew 9:20-22 and Luke 8:43-48), the patient suddenly experienced "the salvation of God" and realized what trust really meant. Through the experience, her clinical problems became totally cured, and the therapy concluded with her discharge from hospital. Several months later, she sent the therapist a letter including the following message: "I am grateful to the Lord for salvation from anxiety and irritation, but to the therapist for helping me realize it." This clinical course can be understood based on the patient's clinical problems (e.g., despair, anxiety, and depression), arising from the breakdown of her efforts to maintain stability by founding her psychological base on her feelings of omnipotence, avoiding facing her internal negative psychological factors (e.g., rage), and these were automatically resolved when her psychological base was switched to the transcendent level through "the Great being" experience and "the salvation of God." Such a sudden, marked improvement resembles what Miller and C'de Baca reported as "quantum change," of which the characteristics are vividness, surprise, benevolence, and permanence. The therapist paid attention to maintain a constant psychological distance from the patient, not persisting in modifying her cognition, with the transcendent level being the basis for the entire therapy. This stance of the therapist itself was considered to prompt her transcendence and bring about her eventual cure. This clinical course seemed to be highly suggestive of a psychotherapeutic mechanism, indicating the close relationship between the transcendent level and basic trust.

  1. The influence of demographics, psychological factors and self-efficacy on symptom distress in colorectal cancer patients undergoing post-surgical adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-fen; Zheng, Mei-chun; Liu, Wei-yan; Wen, Yong-shan; Wu, Xiao-dan; Liu, Qian-wen

    2015-02-01

    To explore the influence of self-efficacy and demographic, disease-related, and psychological factors on symptom distress among Chinese colorectal cancer patients receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Two-hundred and fifty-two colorectal cancer patients who had undergone postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy completed Chinese versions of M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-GI), Stanford Inventory of Cancer Patient Adjustment (SICPA), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Associations between patients' self-efficacy and demographic, disease-related, psychological factors and symptom distress were examined. Patients' overall symptom distress level was mild; MDASI median subscale scores showed mild symptom severity and symptom interference. Anxiety and depression were positively associated with symptom distress. Multivariable analysis showed that more severe symptoms were associated with age ≥60 years, female gender, suburban residence, body mass index 60 years, female gender, body mass index <18.5, suburban residence and stage III disease. Nurse-administered self-efficacy interventions may help to improve self-efficacy and reduce symptom distress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Patients with chronic headache tend to have more psychological symptoms than those with sporadic episodes of pain

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    Maria Aparecida Junqueira Zampieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are controversial associations between headaches and psychological symptoms. Objective To design a profile of neuroticism, a term that groups variables related to negative personality traits, in patients with chronic daily headache (CDH when compared to episodic migraine (EM patients, applying the Factorial Scale of Emotional Adjustment/Neuroticism (NFS. Method One hundred adult patients with CDH and forty with EM answered the NFS. Results Comorbidities of subtypes of neuroticism (p=0.006 were more common in chronic daily headache patients, with three or more disorders (p=0.0002: dependent personality disorder (p=0.0001, anxiety, reduced concentration and production (p=0.0008, depression (p<0.0001, suicidal ideation (p=0.0008 and hopelessness even without depression (p<0.0001. Conclusion Patients with CDH tend to have dependent personality disorder, low production and concentration, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and hopelessness, superimposing two or more psychological disorders. These factors should be pondered for a better resolution in the treatment of CDH.

  3. Shared versus specific features of psychological symptoms and cigarettes per day: structural relations and mediation by negative- and positive-reinforcement smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameringer, Katherine J; Chou, Chih-Ping; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the extent to which shared versus specific features across multiple manifestations of psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, ADHD, aggression, alcohol misuse) associated with cigarettes per day. Subsequently, we investigated whether negative- (i.e., withdrawal relief) and positive- (i.e., pleasure enhancement) reinforcement smoking motivations mediated relations. Adult daily smokers (N = 338) completed self-report measures and structural equation modeling was used to construct a 3-factor (low positive affect-negative affect-disinhibition) model of affective and behavioral symptoms and to test relations of each latent factor (shared features) and indicator residual (specific features) to smoking level. Shared dimensions of low positive affect, negative affect, and disinhibition associated with smoking rate. Negative-reinforcement smoking mediated the link between latent negative affect and heavier daily smoking. Specific features of psychological symptoms unique from latent factors were generally not associated with cigarettes per day. Features shared across several forms of psychological symptoms appear to underpin relations between psychological symptoms and smoking rate.

  4. Correlation of understanding of physics and psychological symptoms among high-school students in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggeliki, Anagnostopoulou; Miltiades, Kyprianou; Antigoni-Elisavet, Rota; Evangelia, Pavlatou; Loizos, Zaphiris

    2017-09-01

    Depression may essentially influence cognitive function contributing to poor school performance. The present study undertakes to determine the existence and strength of correlation between depressive symptomatology and other mental conditions with the acquired level of understanding of Newtonian physics taught in schools. The current study recruited 490 students (262 girls, 228 boys) attending the first semester of the Greek Second Grade of General Lyceum School. Force Concept Inventory (FCI) tested the depth of the students’ understanding of Newtonian Physics. Symptom Checklist-90-R assessed general mental status. The tests took place in the classroom during a 1 h session. Low FCI scores significantly correlated with mental conditions, with depression ranking first. Girls had higher scores in all nine symptoms scales of SCL-90 and lower FCI scores. Stepwise regression models proved that the gender effect on FCI could be effectively explained through the significant effect of depression. An understanding of Newtonian physics among high school students may be restricted by common problematic mental conditions, with depression being the greatest among all. Further research, using a more systematic approach to measure depression among adolescents with poor understanding of physics, would help to elucidate the nature of the effect.

  5. Tratando os sintomas comportamentais e psicológicos da demência (SCPD Treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD

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    Paulo Caramelli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os transtornos neuropsiquiátricos na demência, também denominados de sintomas comportamentais e psicológicos da demência (SCPD, têm prevalência elevada no curso clínico da doença de Alzheimer e de outras desordens relacionadas. A relevância dessas manifestações é bem reconhecida, estando relacionada a evolução clínica mais desfavorável, maior sobrecarga do cuidador e maior incidência de institucionalização, entre outros fatores. O objetivo desta conferência clínica é procurar responder a algumas questões relacionadas a este tema, com o intuito de oferecer aos leitores uma breve atualização sobre o assunto. Os seguintes tópicos foram selecionados para discussão: se a nomenclatura SCPD é adequada para denominar essas manifestações clínicas; se há uma forma de classificar e como diagnosticar esses sintomas; qual a sua prevalência, seu impacto no curso clínico das demências e quais os fatores de risco associados ao seu aparecimento; quais as bases fisiopatológicas conhecidas; e, finalmente, como abordar esses pacientes e também suas famílias e cuidadores, do ponto de vista terapêutico, tanto em relação a intervenções farmacológicas quanto não farmacológicas.Neuropsychiatric disturbances in dementia, also named behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, are highly prevalent in the clinical course of Alzheimer disease and related disorders. The clinical relevance of these manifestations is well recognized, being related to a poor clinical outcome, greater caregiver burden and to higher institutionalization rates, among others. This clinical conference attempts to respond to some questions related to this subject, in order to offer a brief update to the readers. The following topics are discussed: if the nomenclature BPSD is adequate for these clinical manifestations; how to classify and to diagnose these symptoms; how prevalent they are; which is their impact on the clinical course of the

  6. Effects of Short-Term Exercise Interventions on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Patients with Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiner, Tim; Leucht, Stefan; Förstl, Hans; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Haussermann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Observational and interventional studies indicate a direct link between the patients' physical activity and the extent of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). At present, there are no evidence-based recommendations for physical exercise in the acute dementia care settings. Hence, this systematic review investigates the effects of short-term exercise trials on BPSD. Trials with a length up to three months investigating the effects of structured exercise interventions on BPSD in acute dementia care settings were included. Five trials, referring to a total of N = 206 patients, met the inclusion criteria. The trial durations ranged from three up to twelve weeks. All trials conducted three sessions per week of 30 to 45 minutes. Three trials reported significant reductions of BPSD and differences in comparison to the pre-test and control groups. Out of the three trials investigating the effects of exercise interventions on depressive symptoms, one reported significant reduction and two reported no differences in pre-post analysis. Exercise represents a potentially worthwhile approach for the treatment of patients suffering from BPSD. Given the scarcity of available studies, more randomized controlled short-term exercise trials in acute dementia care settings are needed to define appropriate exercise recommendations for clinicians treating these patients.

  7. Relationship between Dementia Severity and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease Patients

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    Mamoru Hashimoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are common in the clinical manifestation of dementia. Although most patients with dementia exhibit some BPSD during the course of the illness, the association of BPSD with the stage of dementia remains unclear. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the impact of severity of dementia on the expression of BPSD in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Ninety-seven patients with DLB and 393 patients with AD were recruited from 8 dementia clinics across Japan. BPSD were assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. A relationship between BPSD and dementia stage classified by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR in each type of dementia was assessed. Results: No significant difference was seen in NPI total score across CDR staging in the DLB group. On the other hand, the NPI total score significantly increased with dementia stage in the AD group. Conclusion: The relationship of dementia stage with the expression of BPSD was different according to the type of dementia. BPSD and dementia stage were correlated in AD subjects, in whom psychiatric symptoms increase as the disease progresses, but not in DLB subjects.

  8. Investigating the current methods of assessing behavioral and psychological symptoms in residential aged care facilities in a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Samantha M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2017-05-01

    Up to 90% of people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) display behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and these are associated with poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. In order to implement appropriate interventions, it is important to understand the symptoms in more detail. Despite the availability of BPSD assessment tools, it is unknown what the current practice of monitoring of BPSD in RACFs. We sought to investigate the current BPSD assessment tools being used in RACFs and explore different stakeholders' views on current practices. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 21 clinicians were identified and administered a questionnaire. Old age psychiatrists, aged psychiatry clinicians, behavior management teams and RACF staff completed the questionnaires. Clinicians reported that objective consistent information about BPSD were important for recommending and implementing pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies for BPSD; however, the use of validated BPSD assessments in RACFs was not a usual part of clinical practice. RACF staff stated the major barrier to assessment of BPSD was lack of time. Alternate methods of assessing BPSD which consider preferences from clinicians and RACF staff should be further investigated. Modern technology which can allow "real time" assessment may be a solution.

  9. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

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    Ernesto Magallón-Neri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74 and matched community controls (MCC n = 74 using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5 dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation.

  10. Psychological Distress and Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya Symptoms Following the 2016 Earthquake in Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador

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    Anna M. Stewart-Ibarra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 16 April 2016, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck coastal Ecuador, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity, damages to infrastructure, and psychological trauma. This event coincided with the first outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV and co-circulation with dengue virus (DENV and chikungunya virus (CHIKV. We tested whether the degree of psychological distress was associated with the presence of suspected DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV (DCZ infections three months after the earthquake. In July 2016, 601 household members from four communities in Bahía de Caráquez, Manabí Province, Ecuador, were surveyed in a post-disaster health evaluation. Information was collected on demographics, physical damages and injuries, chronic diseases, self-reported psychological distress, and DCZ symptoms. We calculated the prevalence of arbovirus and distress symptoms by community. ANOVA was used to compare the mean number of psychological distress symptoms between people with versus without suspected DCZ infections by age, gender, community and the need to sleep outside of the home due to damages. The prevalence of suspected DCZ infections was 9.7% and the prevalence of psychological distress was 58.1%. The average number of psychological distress symptoms was significantly higher among people with suspected DCZ infections in the periurban community of Bella Vista, in women, in adults 40–64 years of age and in individuals not sleeping at home (p < 0.05. The results of this study highlight the need to investigate the interactions between psychological distress and arboviral infections following natural disasters.

  11. Esophageal Sensorimotor Function and Psychological Factors Each Contribute to Symptom Severity in Globus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Arts, Joris; Caenepeel, Philip; Tack, Jan; Pauwels, Ans

    2016-10-01

    Altered upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and esophageal body (EB) sensorimotor function and psychosocial factors may both be involved in symptom generation in globus, but their common impact is not yet assessed. The aim of the study is (1) to compare UES and EB sensitivity and compliance of globus patients with healthy controls (HC); (2) to study the association of globus symptom severity (GSS) with UES and EB sensitivity and compliance, UES motor function and psychosocial factors. In 58 globus patients, GSS, somatization, and anxiety disorders were determined using validated questionnaires. In 26 HC and 42/58 patients, UES and EB sensitivity and compliance were assessed twice using barostat measurements. UES function of 27 globus patients was evaluated using high-resolution manometry. Bivariate correlations and a general linear model tested the association of these factors with GSS. UES and EB compliance did not differ between globus patients and HC. Upon repeated distension, UES habituation was seen in both groups, whereas EB sensitization (23.3±1.3 vs. 19.5±1.5 mm Hg, P<0.0001) only occurred in globus patients, (P=0.038). UES compliance (ρ=0.37, P=0.04), change in EB compliance upon repeated distension (ρ=0.45, P=0.007), somatization (ρ=0.43, P=0.003), panic disorder (t=3.04, P=0.004), and post-traumatic stress severity (ρ=0.40, P=0.005) were associated with GSS. UES compliance and somatization were independently associated with GSS. A trend (P=0.061) was found for the association of GSS with change in EB compliance. UES compliance, change in EB compliance, and somatization explain 40% of the variance in GSS. This indicates that globus is a complex disorder of the brain-gut axis rather than a "psychosomatic" disorder or a peripheral esophageal disorder.

  12. Personal resilience resources predict post-stem cell transplant cancer survivors' psychological outcomes through reductions in depressive symptoms and meaning-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A; Wu, Lisa M; Austin, Jane; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Rini, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether post-transplant cancer survivors (N = 254, 9 months to 3 years after stem cell transplant treatment) with greater personal resilience resources demonstrated better psychological outcomes and whether this could be attributed to reductions in depressive symptoms and/or four meaning-making processes (searching for and finding reasons for one's illness; searching for and finding benefit from illness). Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined associations of survivors' baseline personal resilience resources (composite variable of self-esteem, mastery, and optimism), which occurred an average of 1.7 years after transplant, and 4-month changes in psychological outcomes highly relevant to recovering from this difficult and potentially traumatic treatment: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and purpose in life. Boot-strapped analyses tested mediation. Greater personal resilience resources predicted decreases in PTSD stress symptoms (b = -0.07, p = 0.005), mediated by reductions in depressive symptoms (b = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.027, -0.003) and in searching for a reason for one's illness (b = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.034, -0.0003). In addition, greater resilience resources predicted increases in purpose in life (b = 0.10, p personal resilience resources may promote better psychological adjustment after a difficult cancer treatment, largely because of improvements in depressive symptoms, although decreased use of a potentially maladaptive form of meaning-making (searching for a reason for one's illness) was also important for reducing PTSD symptoms.

  13. Effects of Cognition, Function, and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms on Medicare Expenditures and Health Care Utilization for Persons With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkowitz, Eric; Kane, Robert L; Dowd, Bryan; Gaugler, Joseph E; MacLehose, Richard F; Kuntz, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    Clinical features of dementia (cognition, function, and behavioral/psychological symptoms [BPSD]) may differentially affect Medicare expenditures/health care utilization. We linked cross-sectional data from the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study to Medicare data to evaluate the association between dementia clinical features among those with dementia and Medicare expenditures/health care utilization (n = 234). Cognition was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Function was evaluated as the number of functional limitations (0-10). BPSD was evaluated as the number of symptoms (0-12). Expenditures were estimated with a generalized linear model (log-link and gamma distribution). Number of hospitalizations, institutional outpatient visits, and physician visits were estimated with a negative binomial regression. Medicare covered skilled nursing days were estimated with a zero-inflated negative binomial model. Cognition and BPSD were not associated with expenditures. Among individuals with less than seven functional limitations, one additional limitation was associated with $123 (95% confidence interval: $19-$227) additional monthly Medicare spending. Better cognition and poorer function were associated with more hospitalizations among those with an MMSE less than three and less than six functional limitations, respectively. BPSD had no effect on hospitalizations. Poorer function and fewer BPSD were associated with more skilled nursing among individuals with one to seven functional limitations and more than four symptoms, respectively. Cognition had no effect on skilled nursing care. No clinical feature was associated with institutional outpatient care. Of individuals with an MMSE less than 15, poorer cognition was associated with fewer physician visits. Among those with more than six functional limitations, poorer function was associated with fewer physician visits. Poorer function, not cognition or BPSD, was associated with higher Medicare

  14. Types of dizziness and its relationship with psychological symptoms in patients with chronic dizziness

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    Ahmad Chitsaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dizziness could be categorized as one of the most common medical complaints of patients referred to the neurology clinics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the type of dizziness and its relationship with psychological disorders in patients with chronic complaints. 179 patients with a range of 18 to 65 years were studied. Patients were asked to complete the revised questionnaire form that contained 90 questions related to the signs based on severity scale vertigo tool. Subsequently to detect organic or non-organic vertigo, the patients were divided into two groups. Patients were asked to complete the given questionnaire form. For psychiatric disorders screening questions of international standard for testing SCL-90-R were used. Vertigo severity scale was used for the evaluation of dizziness severity. To compare quantitative variables between the two groups independent t-Test was used and p value of ≤0.05 was considered as significant. Of the total population 70.9% were females. 74% of patients have had dizziness due to organic causes and 26% have had dizziness due to non-organic causes. Dimension scores related to somatic complaints, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, paranoid ideation and global severity index in individuals with non-organic vertigo was significantly higher than other groups. There was a significant direct relationship between the overall score related to intensity of dizziness and all of the questionnaire dimensions'. There was significant correlation between the extent of physical complaints and the fear for morbid (p<0.001. The score of extent related to dizziness/balance in patient with vertigo due to organic causes and score of extent related to autonomic/anxiety in patient with vertigo due to non-organic causes was significantly higher than other groups.

  15. Brain metastases in non-small cell lung cancer patients on epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: symptom and economic burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ancilla W; Wu, Bingcao; Turner, Ralph M

    2017-11-01

    This study describes the symptom and economic burden associated with brain metastases (BM) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). This retrospective study included adults with ≥2 medical claims, within 90 days, for lung cancer and ≥1 administration of EGFR-TKIs. Based on ICD-9 codes, patients were stratified into cohorts by type of metastases (BM, other metastases [OM], or no metastases [NM]), and by when the metastasis diagnosis occurred (synchronous or asynchronous). The population (synchronous BM [SBM] = 24, synchronous OM [SOM] = 23, asynchronous BM [ASBM] = 15, asynchronous OM [ASOM] = 49, NM = 85) was mostly female (57%), average age 69 years (SD = 11). SBM patients experienced more fatigue and nausea/vomiting compared with SOM and NM patients and more headaches and loss of appetite than NM patients. ASBM was associated with more fatigue, nausea/vomiting, headaches, pain/numbness, altered mental status, and seizures than NM, and more headaches and pain/numbness than ASOM. SBM patients experienced a greater increase in per-member-per-month all-cause total healthcare costs after diagnosis ($20,301) vs SOM ($9,131, p = .001) and NM ($2,493, p = .001). ASBM's cost increase between baseline and follow-up ($7,867) did not differ from ASOM's ($4,947, p = .195); both were larger than NM ($2,493, p = .001 and p = .009, respectively). EGFR mutation status was inferred based on EGFR-TKI treatment, not by molecular testing. Patients were from US commercial insurance plans; results may not be generalizable to other populations. Among patients with EGFR-TKI-treated NSCLC, patients with BM experienced more symptoms and, when diagnosed synchronously, had significant increases in total medical costs vs patients with OM and NM. Therapeutic options with central nervous system activity may offer advantages in symptomatology and

  16. The buffering effect of tangible social support on financial stress: influence on psychological well-being and psychosomatic symptoms in a large sample of the adult general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åslund, Cecilia; Larm, Peter; Starrin, Bengt; Nilsson, Kent W

    2014-09-28

    Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health. Two separate postal surveys were sent to random samples in five counties in Sweden in 2004 and 2008, with a total of 84 263 respondents. The questionnaires included questions about financial stress, tangible social support, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12). Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being. Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life.

  17. Psychological symptoms in family members of brain death patients in intensive care unit in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinrezaei, Hakimeh; Pilevarzadeh, Motahareh; Amiri, Masoud; Rafiei, Hossin; Taghati, Sedigheh; Naderi, Mosadegheh; Moradalizadeh, Mohammad; Askarpoor, Milad

    2014-02-08

    Having patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) remains an extremely stressful live event for family members, especially for those having to confront with brain death patients. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among relatives of brain dead patients in ICU in Kerman, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, using DASS- 42 questionnaire, the symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress of family members of brain death patients were explored in Kerman, Iran. Of 244 eligible family members, 224 participated in this study (response rate of 91%). Generally, 76.8%, 75% and 70.1% of family members reported some levels of anxiety, depression and stress, respectively. More specifically, the rate of severe levels of anxiety, depression and stress among the participants were 48.7%, 33%, and 20.1% respectively. Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in family members of brain death patients in ICU remains high. Health care team members, especially nurses, should be aware and could consider this issue in the caring of family members of brain death patients.

  18. Experience of critical incident stress among ambulance service staff and relationship to psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sharon; McGilloway, Sinéad

    2009-01-01

    This two-stage study was undertaken to assess the extent and nature of Critical Incident Stress (CIS) amongst frontline staff in a large ambulance service in Ireland. In Stage One, 63% (112/180) of participants completed a Screening Questionnaire and the GHQ-12. In Stage Two, 27 participants, who had experienced a critical incident (CI) during the previous year completed several measures to assess PTSD symptomatology, burnout, health-related Quality of Life, and dispositional optimism. Eighty-one per cent (80/94) of the Stage One group reported that their health had been affected by a CI; 42% (44/106) were identified as 'cases' on the GHQ-12. Stage Two results indicated that 12 participants had PTSD symptoms while this entire group showed moderate levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, despite experiencing high levels of personal accomplishment and optimism. The findings suggest a high prevalence of CIS among ambulance personnel in Ireland and a significant impact on overall health and wellbeing. This has important implications for the effective management of CIS and suggests an important role for occupational health and organizational psychologists in providing routine support to ambulance service staff andpossibly other emergency services personnel.

  19. Gastro oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)-related symptoms and its association with mood and anxiety disorders and psychological symptomology: a population-based study in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Livia; Stuart, Amanda L; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Girardi, Paolo; Williams, Lana J

    2013-07-24

    Psychopathology seems to play a role in reflux pathogenesis and vice versa, yet few population-based studies have systematically investigated the association between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and psychopathology. We thus aimed to investigate the relationship between GORD-related symptoms and psychological symptomatology, as well as clinically diagnosed mood and anxiety disorders in a randomly selected, population-based sample of adult women. This study examined data collected from 1084 women aged 20-93 yr participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Mood and anxiety disorders were identified using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-patient edition (SCID-I/NP), and psychological symptomatology was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). GORD-related symptoms were self-reported and confirmed by medication use where possible and lifestyle factors were documented. Current psychological symptomatology and mood disorder were associated with increased odds of concurrent GORD-related symptoms (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5, and OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.7-5.6, respectively). Current anxiety disorder also tended to be associated with increased odds of current GORD-related symptoms (p = 0.1). Lifetime mood disorder was associated with a 1.6-fold increased odds of lifetime GORD-related symptoms (adjusted OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) and lifetime anxiety disorder was associated with a 4-fold increased odds of lifetime GORD-related symptoms in obese but not non-obese participants (obese, age-adjusted OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.8-9.0). These results indicate that psychological symptomatology, mood and anxiety disorders are positively associated with GORD-related symptoms. Acknowledging this common comorbidity may facilitate recognition and treatment, and opens new questions as to the pathways and mechanisms of the association.

  20. Meaning in life and mastery mediate the relationship of negative reminiscence with psychological distress among older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Cappeliez, Philippe; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2012-01-01

    To understand the adaptive value of reminiscence, a mediational model of reminiscence was tested in a sample of older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Using structural equation modeling, we investigated if psychological resources (mastery and meaning in life) mediate the relation

  1. Watching pornographic pictures on the Internet: role of sexual arousal ratings and psychological-psychiatric symptoms for using Internet sex sites excessively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity.

  2. Burden of Chinese stroke family caregivers: the Hong Kong experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wai-Kwong; Lau, Chieh G; Mok, Vincent; Ungvari, Gabor S; Wong, Ka-Sing

    2011-09-01

    To ascertain the clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with family caregivers' burden in Chinese patients with stroke in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional design. Stroke Clinic. Patients (N=123) from a stroke clinic and their family caregivers. Not applicable. Predictive factors of family caregivers' burden in Chinese stroke patients in Hong Kong. Caregivers' burden was assessed with the Caregiving Burden Scale (CBS). Patients' and caregivers' sociodemographic data and clinical characteristics were recorded. Physical and psychological conditions were measured and rated with the following instruments: Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Barthel Index, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Mini-Mental State Examination, Lubben Social Network Scale, Modified Life Event Scale (MLES), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and a single question about fatigue. In the univariate analysis, the CBS score had significant correlations with certain characteristics of caregivers (sex, GDS, HADS, depressive symptoms, fatigue, and MLES) and those of patients' (sex, age, education, GDS). Regression analysis revealed that caregivers' GDS and patients' education were the independent correlates of the CBS. The severity of depressive symptoms in Chinese stroke caregivers and patients' education are independent factors associated with the caregivers' burden. Further studies evaluating interventions on caregivers' burden should include the assessment and management of mood disorders. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The direction of effects between perceived parental behavioral control and psychological control and adolescents' self-reported GAD and SAD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsbroek, Saskia A M; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the direction of effects and age and sex differences between adolescents' perceptions of parental behavioral and psychological control and adolescents' self-reports of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms. The study focused on 1,313 Dutch adolescents (early-to-middle cohort n = 923, 70.3%; middle-to-late cohort n = 390, 29.7%) from the general population. A multi-group, structural equation model was employed to analyze the direction of the effects between behavioral control, psychological control and GAD and SAD symptoms for the adolescent cohorts. The current study demonstrated that a unidirectional child effect model of the adolescents' GAD and SAD symptoms predicting parental control best described the data. Additionally, adolescent GAD and SAD symptoms were stronger and more systematically related to psychological control than to behavioral control. With regard to age-sex differences, anxiety symptoms almost systematically predicted parental control over time for the early adolescent boys, whereas no significant differences were