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Sample records for psychological patterns dsps

  1. Psychological and Demographic Correlates of Career Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzle, Matthias; Korner, Astrid; Vondracek, Fred W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing diversity of career patterns, resulting from the relative decline of stable employment. In the present study of 1368 employed and self-employed German adults career pattern diversity was assessed using nine pictograms. The goal was to identify psychological and demographic correlates of these patterns and to…

  2. Implantation of algorithms of diffuse control in DSPS; Implantacion de algoritmos de control difuso en DSPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez C, B

    2003-07-01

    language assembler of the algorithm of diffuse control for the regulation of power of the TRIGA reactor presented in the chapter five. The chapter 3 treats the pattern of the punctual kinetics of a TRIGA Mark III reactor. Also they are defined basic concepts of the fission reactors. Due to the reaches of this thesis, the equations presented in this chapter are not used in the development of the controller since these they will cover in the master thesis where intends to simulate the dynamic behavior of the reactor in a Pc, but carrying out the power control functions in the system Dsp here developed. The chapter 4 explains the programming in C++ language of the diffuse controller for the regulation of power. This program is based on an algorithm developed with priority in ambient Mat lab. The program generated in C++ is used as pattern of reference to be able to evaluate the obtained results with the algorithm implanted in the Dsp. In the chapter 5 the numeric modifications carried out are explained to be able to manipulate the notation of floating point with operations among whole numbers. It is also described step to step the development of the program in the language assembler of the diffuse controller for the regulation of power of the TRIGA reactor. In the chapter 6 the obtained results there are shown with the control algorithm implanted in the Dsp. The program in C++ is used described in the chapter four for to be able to carry out the comparison of results generated exclusively by the stages that they conform the diffuse controller. As already was mentioned, later will be integrated this controller to a Pc which will simulate the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  3. Implantation of algorithms of diffuse control in DSPS; Implantacion de algoritmos de control difuso en DSPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez C, B

    2003-07-01

    in language assembler of the algorithm of diffuse control for the regulation of power of the TRIGA reactor presented in the chapter five. The chapter 3 treats the pattern of the punctual kinetics of a TRIGA Mark III reactor. Also they are defined basic concepts of the fission reactors. Due to the reaches of this thesis, the equations presented in this chapter are not used in the development of the controller since these they will cover in the master thesis where intends to simulate the dynamic behavior of the reactor in a Pc, but carrying out the power control functions in the system Dsp here developed. The chapter 4 explains the programming in C++ language of the diffuse controller for the regulation of power. This program is based on an algorithm developed with priority in ambient Mat lab. The program generated in C++ is used as pattern of reference to be able to evaluate the obtained results with the algorithm implanted in the Dsp. In the chapter 5 the numeric modifications carried out are explained to be able to manipulate the notation of floating point with operations among whole numbers. It is also described step to step the development of the program in the language assembler of the diffuse controller for the regulation of power of the TRIGA reactor. In the chapter 6 the obtained results there are shown with the control algorithm implanted in the Dsp. The program in C++ is used described in the chapter four for to be able to carry out the comparison of results generated exclusively by the stages that they conform the diffuse controller. As already was mentioned, later will be integrated this controller to a Pc which will simulate the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  4. Building a highly available and intrusion tolerant Database Security and Protection System (DSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liang; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Dong, Jin-Xiang

    2003-01-01

    Database Security and Protection System (DSPS) is a security platform for fighting malicious DBMS. The security and performance are critical to DSPS. The authors suggested a key management scheme by combining the server group structure to improve availability and the key distribution structure needed by proactive security. This paper detailed the implementation of proactive security in DSPS. After thorough performance analysis, the authors concluded that the performance difference between the replicated mechanism and proactive mechanism becomes smaller and smaller with increasing number of concurrent connections; and that proactive security is very useful and practical for large, critical applications.

  5. Supervised pattern recognition of archers' relative psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study explores the most significant psychological skills needed for the accomplishment of high archery scores and determines the discriminating psychological coping skills needed for archery performance. 32 archers completed psychological coping skills inventory before their shooting tests. Multivariate ...

  6. Shallow gas incident in 3-ELPS-15D-SPS well; Incidente com shallow gas no poco 3-ELPS-15D-SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rubens Fausto [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the concerns during the planning phase of an exploratory offshore well drilling is the possibility of occurrence of a shallow gas accumulation. In spite of being a rare event, taking into account that an event like this can have disastrous consequences, the cares to work with that type of incident cannot be despised. As example, in 2003, during the operations in the extension well 3-ELPS-15D-SPS, it happened the uncontrolled influx of water and gas to the bottom of the sea: the annular space between the 30'' and 13 3/8'' casings was not filled out with cement, allowing the flow from a shallow permeable interval to the bottom of the sea through the wellhead's cement return orifices, generating the need of an corrective action to make the abandonment of the well in accordance with the Regulation of Abandonment of Wells existent in Brazil. This work presents the mechanical conditions of the interval close to the wet wellhead of the 3-ELPS-15D-SPS, enumerating the sequence of operations accomplished to solve the problem. (author)

  7. Implantation of algorithms of diffuse control in DSPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, B.

    2003-01-01

    language assembler of the algorithm of diffuse control for the regulation of power of the TRIGA reactor presented in the chapter five. The chapter 3 treats the pattern of the punctual kinetics of a TRIGA Mark III reactor. Also they are defined basic concepts of the fission reactors. Due to the reaches of this thesis, the equations presented in this chapter are not used in the development of the controller since these they will cover in the master thesis where intends to simulate the dynamic behavior of the reactor in a Pc, but carrying out the power control functions in the system Dsp here developed. The chapter 4 explains the programming in C++ language of the diffuse controller for the regulation of power. This program is based on an algorithm developed with priority in ambient Mat lab. The program generated in C++ is used as pattern of reference to be able to evaluate the obtained results with the algorithm implanted in the Dsp. In the chapter 5 the numeric modifications carried out are explained to be able to manipulate the notation of floating point with operations among whole numbers. It is also described step to step the development of the program in the language assembler of the diffuse controller for the regulation of power of the TRIGA reactor. In the chapter 6 the obtained results there are shown with the control algorithm implanted in the Dsp. The program in C++ is used described in the chapter four for to be able to carry out the comparison of results generated exclusively by the stages that they conform the diffuse controller. As already was mentioned, later will be integrated this controller to a Pc which will simulate the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  8. Patterns of Gender Equality at Workplaces and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  9. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Elwér

    Full Text Available Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715 have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing

  10. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  11. Distributed Two-Dimensional Fourier Transforms on DSPs with an Application for Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey Scott

    2006-01-01

    Many applications of two-dimensional Fourier Transforms require fixed timing as defined by system specifications. One example is image-based wavefront sensing. The image-based approach has many benefits, yet it is a computational intensive solution for adaptive optic correction, where optical adjustments are made in real-time to correct for external (atmospheric turbulence) and internal (stability) aberrations, which cause image degradation. For phase retrieval, a type of image-based wavefront sensing, numerous two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) are used. To meet the required real-time specifications, a distributed system is needed, and thus, the 2-D FFT necessitates an all-to-all communication among the computational nodes. The 1-D floating point FFT is very efficient on a digital signal processor (DSP). For this study, several architectures and analysis of such are presented which address the all-to-all communication with DSPs. Emphasis of this research is on a 64-node cluster of Analog Devices TigerSharc TS-101 DSPs.

  12. Psychological distress through immigration: the two-phase temporal pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsner, M; Ponizovsky, A

    1999-01-01

    A large community sample, cross-sectional and in part longitudinal design, and comparison groups was used to determine the timing of psychological distress among immigrants. A total of 2,378 adult immigrants from the former Soviet Union to Israel completed the self-administered questionnaire Talbieh Brief Distress Inventory. The aggregate levels of distress and six psychological symptoms--obsessiveness, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and paranoid ideation--were compared at 20 intervals covering 1 to 60 months after resettlement. The level of psychological distress was significantly higher in the immigrants than that of Israeli natives but not in the potential immigrant controls. A two-phase temporal pattern of development of psychological distress was revealed consisting of escalation and reduction phases. The escalation phase was characterized by an increase in distress levels until the 27th month after arrival (a peak) and the reduction phase led to a decline returning to normal levels. The 1-month prevalence rate was 15.6% for the total sample, and for highly distressed subjects it reached 24% at the 27th month after arrival, and it declined to 4% at the 44th month. The time pattern of distress shared males and females, married and divorced/widowed (but not singles), as well as subjects of all age groups (except for immigrants in their forties). The two-phase pattern of distress obtained according to cross-sectional data was indirectly confirmed through a longitudinal way. Claims of early euphoric or distress-free period followed by mental health crisis frequently referred to in the literature on migration was not supported by this study.

  13. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. [Patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles and psychological disturbances in offspring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumnig, Martin; Höfer, Stefan; Huber, Alexandra; Messner, Carmen; Renn, Daniela; Mestel, Robert; Klingelhöfer, Jürgen; Kopp, Martin; Doering, Stephan; Schüßler, Gerhard; Rumpold, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles represent a risk factor for the development of psychological disturbances. The present study investigated the differential validity of the German language Fragebogen zur Erfassung dysfunktionaler Erziehungsstile (FDEB; Measurement of Parental Styles, MOPS) and determined whether different forms of psychological disorders are associated with specific patterns of parenting styles. 145 inpatients, 108 outpatients and a control group of 633 representative individuals from the general population were investigated by adapting the FDEB. A comparison of dysfunctional parenting styles showed different distress levels within the diagnostic groups: Patients suffering from depression reported high levels of maternal indifference and over protectiveness together with an abusive rearing behavior on the part of both parents. Patients with anxiety disorders reported having overprotective mothers. Bulimic patients as well as those with personality disorders significantly exhibited stress in almost all areas. However, anorexic patients did not differ significantly from the control group, which appeared to be the least affected of all. The FDEB showed a satisfactory differential validity. There was evidence that specific patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles were associated with different diagnostic groups.

  15. Design and Implementation of Numerical Linear Algebra Algorithms on Fixed Point DSPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Frantz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical linear algebra algorithms use the inherent elegance of matrix formulations and are usually implemented using C/C++ floating point representation. The system implementation is faced with practical constraints because these algorithms usually need to run in real time on fixed point digital signal processors (DSPs to reduce total hardware costs. Converting the simulation model to fixed point arithmetic and then porting it to a target DSP device is a difficult and time-consuming process. In this paper, we analyze the conversion process. We transformed selected linear algebra algorithms from floating point to fixed point arithmetic, and compared real-time requirements and performance between the fixed point DSP and floating point DSP algorithm implementations. We also introduce an advanced code optimization and an implementation by DSP-specific, fixed point C code generation. By using the techniques described in the paper, speed can be increased by a factor of up to 10 compared to floating point emulation on fixed point hardware.

  16. Patterns of psychological acculturation in adult and adolescent Moroccan immigrants living in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, G.W.J.M.; Pels, T.V.M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Psychological acculturation patterns within a Moroccan adult and adolescent population in the Netherlands were determined through latent class analysis. The Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS) was adapted, and strong psychometric properties were demonstrated. We found Dutch and Moroccan

  17. The Pattern of History of Psychology Teaching on British Undergraduate Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Graham

    2005-01-01

    Teaching of History of Psychology is likely to become increasingly important as the British Psychological Society's 2002 guidelines for approved undergraduate courses are implemented. Results of a survey of History of Psychology teaching during the academic year 1999-2000 are summarised and discussed in the light of these new requirements. While…

  18. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  19. Patterns of electronic cigarette use and level of psychological distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hyun Park

    Full Text Available Psychological distress has been correlated with higher levels of nicotine dependence. To date, the possible association between individuals' levels of psychological distress and e-cigarette use has not been investigated, despite the dramatic growth of e-cigarette use in the US. We examined this possible association using a nationally representative sample of US adults.A total of 36,697 adults from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS were included. The Kessler 6 scale was used to measure psychological distress. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between level of psychological distress and e-cigarette use.Both e-cigarette and cigarette use varied according to level of psychological distress as well as multiple socio-demographic characteristics. In a multivariate model, psychological distress was significantly associated with the following groups: (a exclusive e-cigarette ever-use (aOR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.6, 8.6, (b current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes (aOR = 4.6; 95% CI = 3.1, 6.7, (c former cigarette use and ever use of e-cigarette (aOR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.2, 4.8 and (d current use of cigarettes only (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.7, 2.6.These are the first data to demonstrate that, as is true for cigarettes, e-cigarette use is associated with increased levels of psychological distress. Further large-scale, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the direction of this relationship and to evaluate the long-term positive and negative consequences of such use.

  20. Family of Origin Addiction Patterns amongst Counseling and Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Fred T.; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the authors surveyed graduate students (n = 129) in counseling and psychology regarding the extent to which addiction was present in their families. A high percentage of respondents, particularly females, reported that their families had alcoholism/drug addiction present. A statistically significant difference was yielded…

  1. Differential Effects of Psychological and Physical Stress on the Sleep Pattern in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ranji; Li, Bingjin; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 2 different kinds of stress, namely physical stress (foot shock) and psychological stress (non-foot shock) induced by the communication box method, on the sleep patterns of rats. The sleep patterns were recorded for 6 h immediately after 1 h of stress. Physical and psychological stress had almost opposite effects on the sleep patterns: In the physical stress group, hourly total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and total non-REM sleep we...

  2. Scientific communication in clinical psychology: examining patterns of citations and references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselica, Andrew M; Ruscio, John

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of scientific communication used citation mapping, establishing psychology as a 'hub science' from which many other fields draw information. Within psychology, the clinical and counselling discipline is a major 'knowledge broker'. This study analyzed scientific communication among three major subdisciplines of clinical psychology-the cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic and humanistic schools of thought-by examining patterns of references within and citations to 305 target articles published in leading journals of these subdisciplines. The results suggest that clinical researchers of each theoretical orientation engage in more insular scientific communication than an integrationist would find desirable and that cognitive-behavioural articles are more closely connected to mainstream psychology and related fields. Eclectic practitioners draw on several different theoretical orientations to inform their practice; as such, they should be interested in understanding the patterns of scientific communication within and across theoretical orientations. Practitioners work in a variety of different mental health settings, with a variety of other professionals in psychology-related fields, and should be interested in how much influence their particular theoretical orientation has on the work of colleagues. Many practitioners rely on new, evidence-based research to inform their work. The results of this study provide these individuals with an objective measure of the influence of empirical work in different areas of clinical psychology. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Lay psychology of the hidden mental life: attribution patterns of unconscious processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maor, Ofri; Leiser, David

    2013-06-01

    In spite of extensive research on theory of mind, lay theories about the unconscious have scarcely been investigated. Three questionnaire studies totaling 689 participants, examined to what extent they thought that a range of psychological processes could be unconscious. It was found that people are less willing to countenance unconscious processes in themselves than in others, regardless of the time period considered--present, past or future. This is especially true when specific experience-like situations are envisioned, as opposed to considering the question in abstract or generic terms. In addition, the notion of unconscious psychological processes is resisted for certain domains in particular: intending, sensing, believing, and thinking. We interpret this pattern by positing the existence of two conceptions about the unconscious that are differentially applied according to circumstances: one originating in prevalent social representations about the unconscious, the other based on self-model of the person as an intentional actor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Patterns of Change in Psychological Variables Leading up to Competition in Superior Versus Inferior Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boat, Ruth; Taylor, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    The study explored patterns of change in a number of potentially performance-related variables (i.e., fatigue, social support, self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, mental skills) during the lead-up to a competitive triathlon, and whether these patterns of change differed for relatively superior versus inferior performers. Forty-two triathletes completed an inventory measuring the study variables every other day during a 2-week period leading up to competition. Performance was assessed using participants' race time, and using a self-referenced relative score compared with personal best times. Multilevel growth curve analyses revealed significant differences in growth trajectories over the 2-week period in mental skills use, social support, and fatigue. The results provide novel insight into how athletes' fluctuating psychological state in the 2 weeks before competition may be crucial in determining performance.

  5. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-09

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as "meal" and "bout" (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount over the 24 h in both young and aged mice, but as a result of a time course study it was persistent in aged mice. In addition, the decreased bout number was more pronounced in aged mice than in young mice. The 24-h meal and bout parameters did not change in either the young or aged mice following water avoidance stress (WAS). However, the meal amount and bout number increased in aged mice for 0-6 h after WAS exposure but remained unchanged in young mice. Our findings suggest that changes in bout number may lead to abnormal stress-related feeding patterns and may be one tool for evaluating eating abnormality in aged mice.

  6. [A study on family pattern and psychological aspects of parent and child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, M H; Hong, M S

    1988-12-01

    This study reviews the relationship between family patterns and psychological aspects of the mother-child relationship. As the population increase in Korea will reach 50 million in 2020, population policy must deal with population quality. The data come from 118 5th and 6th grade students and their mothers. Survey results shows that the number of children and the family type are related to mothers' child rearing attitudes. Mothers in nuclear families tended to be warmer and freer towards their children than others. Family type was not related to the self-esteem of children, and the number of siblings showed a weak relationship. Children with siblings have stronger self-esteem. Birth order and younger sibling spacing had a stronger relationship with self-esteem. First borns and those who had younger siblings within a 2-year interval had the weakest self-esteem. Since families are becoming smaller, child quality is becoming more important. Not only family size but also family type, birth order, and spacing need to be considered for the psychological well-being of the population.

  7. Physical Activity Patterns and Psychological Correlates of Physical Activity among Singaporean Primary, Secondary, and Junior College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. K. John; Koh, K. T.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Liu, W. C.; Chye, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine physical activity patterns and psychological correlates of physical activity among primary, secondary, and junior college students in Singapore. A sample of 3,333 school students aged 10 to 18 years took part in the study. Results showed that the younger students had significantly higher physical…

  8. Patterns of similarity and difference between the vocabularies of psychology and other subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjafield, John G

    2014-02-01

    The vocabulary of Anglophone psychology is shared with many other subjects. Previous research using the Oxford English Dictionary has shown that the subjects having the most words in common with psychology are biology, chemistry, computing, electricity, law, linguistics, mathematics, medicine, music, pathology, philosophy, and physics. The present study presents a database of the vocabularies of these 12 subjects that is similar to one previously constructed for psychology, enabling the histories of the vocabularies of these subjects to be compared with each other as well as with psychology. All subjects have a majority of word senses that are metaphorical. However, psychology is not among the most metaphorical of subjects, a distinction belonging to computing, linguistics, and mathematics. Indeed, the history of other subjects shows an increasing tendency to recycle old words and give them new, metaphorical meanings. The history of psychology shows an increasing tendency to invent new words rather than metaphorical senses of existing words. These results were discussed in terms of the degree to which psychology's vocabulary remains unsettled in comparison with other subjects. The possibility was raised that the vocabulary of psychology is in a state similar to that of chemistry prior to Lavoisier.

  9. Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2011-08-01

    To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

  10. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, René; De Ruiter, Melanie; Van Loon, Joost; Kuijpers, Evy; Van Regenmortel, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation), dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution) and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state). The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem-focused coping will most

  11. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schalk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation, dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state. The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem

  12. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, René; De Ruiter, Melanie; Van Loon, Joost; Kuijpers, Evy; Van Regenmortel, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation), dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution) and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state). The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem-focused coping will most

  13. Health Behavioral Patterns Associated with Psychologic Distress Among Middle-Aged Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Shin, PhD, RN

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion: The study found cultural characteristics of middle-aged Korean women in psychologic distress. Health care providers should consider marital satisfaction, self-actualization, nutrition, and interpersonal relations, in particular, among Korean middle-aged women.

  14. Dynamic P-Technique for Modeling Patterns of Data: Applications to Pediatric Psychology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Brandon S.; Rausch, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Dynamic p-technique (DPT) is a potentially useful statistical method for examining relationships among dynamic constructs in a single individual or small group of individuals over time. The purpose of this article is to offer a nontechnical introduction to DPT. Method An overview of DPT analysis, with an emphasis on potential applications to pediatric psychology research, is provided. To illustrate how DPT might be applied, an example using simulated data is presented for daily pain and negative mood ratings. Results The simulated example demonstrates the application of DPT to a relevant pediatric psychology research area. In addition, the potential application of DPT to the longitudinal study of adherence is presented. Conclusion Although it has not been utilized frequently within pediatric psychology, DPT could be particularly well-suited for research in this field because of its ability to powerfully model repeated observations from very small samples. PMID:21486938

  15. Links Among Eating Disorder Characteristics, Exercise Patterns, and Psychological Attributes in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Brehm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations among eating disorder characteristics, excessive exercise, and selected psychological attributes in college students (N = 499. Male and female participants were recruited from university psychology courses and administered the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire (OEQ, Mental Health Inventory, Eating Self-Efficacy Scale, Revised Restraint Scale, and Eating Disorder Inventory. Results confirmed the multidimensionality of excessive exercise for both males and females. Profiles of male and female exercisers were developed based on the clustering of scores on the OEQ’s factor analytically derived subscales. Specific qualitative aspects of exercise (e.g., emotionality and obsession, rather than the quantity of exercise, were found to be associated with eating disorder traits and, for some groups, psychological distress (PD. For other groups, such as female excessive exercisers, exercise seems to act as a coping mechanism, thereby lessening PD and enhancing well-being.

  16. Dynamic p-technique for modeling patterns of data: applications to pediatric psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D; Aylward, Brandon S; Rausch, Joseph R

    2011-10-01

    Dynamic p-technique (DPT) is a potentially useful statistical method for examining relationships among dynamic constructs in a single individual or small group of individuals over time. The purpose of this article is to offer a nontechnical introduction to DPT. An overview of DPT analysis, with an emphasis on potential applications to pediatric psychology research, is provided. To illustrate how DPT might be applied, an example using simulated data is presented for daily pain and negative mood ratings. The simulated example demonstrates the application of DPT to a relevant pediatric psychology research area. In addition, the potential application of DPT to the longitudinal study of adherence is presented. Although it has not been utilized frequently within pediatric psychology, DPT could be particularly well-suited for research in this field because of its ability to powerfully model repeated observations from very small samples.

  17. Reliability of self-rated tinnitus distress and association with psychological symptom patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, W; Goebel, G; Rief, W

    1994-05-01

    Psychological complaints were investigated in two samples of 60 and 138 in-patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. We administered the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ), a 52-item self-rating scale which differentiates between dimensions of emotional and cognitive distress, intrusiveness, auditory perceptual difficulties, sleep disturbances and somatic complaints. The test-retest reliability was .94 for the TQ global score and between .86 and .93 for subscales. Three independent analyses were conducted to estimate the split-half reliability (internal consistency) which was only slightly lower than the test-retest values for scales with a relatively small number of items. Reliability was sufficient also on the level of single items. Low correlation between the TQ and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) indicate a distinct quality of tinnitus-related and general psychological disturbances.

  18. Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schaal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. METHODS: Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. RESULTS: A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD being the most prevalent (6%, followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%. Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women; the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%. Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%, but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%. DISCUSSION: This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

  19. Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valérie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Methods Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. Results A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). Discussion This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders. PMID:21573222

  20. Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valérie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2011-05-04

    Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

  1. Psychology and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)

  2. Actively coping with violation : Exploring upward dissent patterns in functional, dysfunctional, and deserted psychological contract end states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, M.J.D.; De Ruiter, M.; Van Loon, J.; Kuijpers, E.; Van Regenmortel, M.R.F.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of

  3. Psychological and behavioural patterns of stigma among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Asuka; Fujimaki, Yuko; Fujimori, Shin; Isogawa, Akihiro; Onishi, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2017-03-29

    The aim of this study was to test the psychological and behavioural patterns of stigma (self-esteem and social participation) and their relationship to self-stigma, patient activation for engaging in self-care and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional study. 2 tertiary-level hospitals and 2 secondary-level hospitals in Japan. A consecutive sample of 209 outpatients with T2DM. Inclusion criteria were as follows: presence of T2DM, age 20-74 years, no diagnosis of dementia and/or psychosis, and no need for urgent medical procedures. Study measures included a self-administered questionnaire to assess the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the 3 subscales of 36-question Short Form Health Survey (SF-36; Social Function, Role Physical, Role Emotional), Self-Stigma Scale and Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13). Glycated haemoglobin was obtained from same day blood work. In our previous qualitative study, we found that psychological and behavioural patterns of stigma varied according to patients' levels of illness-related self-esteem as well as attitudes towards social participation. For quantitative consistency, we used the SES scale to measure self-esteem and the SF-36 subscales to measure social participation. We then divided participants into 4 groups by exhibited psychological and behavioural patterns: group A (high SES/high SF-36), group B (high SES/low SF-36), group C (low SES/high SF-36) and group D (low SES/low SF-36). Using analysis of covariance after controlling for age and sex, there was a significant difference in self-stigma levels between the four groups (F[3203]=15.70, pstigma levels in group D. Group D also had significantly lower PAM-13 scores than those of groups A (pstigma and poorer patient activation for self-care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Graphic Representation of Organs and Organ Systems: Psychological View and Developmental Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszeck, Amauri Betini; Machado, Danielle Zagonel; Amann-Gainotti, Merete

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study is to characterize by means of drawings if the developmental patterns in the graphic representation of organ and organ systems progresses related to age of participants. Secondly, whether there is an integration of sex organs into the internal body image. The drawings representing the inside of the body in…

  5. Pain-related insomnia versus primary insomnia: a comparison study of sleep pattern, psychological characteristics, and cognitive-behavioral processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nicole K Y; Goodchild, Claire E; Hester, Joan; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2012-06-01

    Recent applications of cognitive-behavior therapy for primary insomnia in the management of pain-related insomnia are based on the implicit assumption that the 2 types of insomnia share the same presentation and maintaining mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to compare the characteristics of patients who have pain-related insomnia with those reporting primary insomnia and to identify psychological factors that predict pain-related insomnia. Chronic pain patients with concomitant insomnia (n=137; Pain-related Insomnia Group) completed a selection of questionnaires that measure sleep patterns, psychological attributes, and cognitive-behavioral processes associated with the persistence of insomnia. Their responses were compared with those of primary insomnia patients (n=33; Primary Insomnia Group), using 3 sets of multivariate analyses of covariance that took account of demographic differences. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of insomnia severity among the chronic pain patients. The Pain-related Insomnia Group did not differ from the Primary Insomnia Group in their pattern and severity of sleep disturbance. The 2 groups were largely comparable in terms of their psychological characteristics, except that the Primary Insomnia Group was distinguishable from the Pain-related Insomnia Group by their greater tendency to worry. Patients in the Pain-related Insomnia Group reported levels of sleep-related anxiety and presleep somatic arousal that matched with those reported by patients in the Primary Insomnia Group. However, relative to patients in the Pain-related Insomnia Group, those in the Primary Insomnia Group reported more dysfunctional sleep beliefs and presleep cognitive arousal. In addition to pain intensity, depression, and presleep cognitive arousal were significant predictors of insomnia severity within the Pain-related Insomnia Group. There are more similarities than differences between the 2 types of insomnia

  6. Pain, psychological distress and motor pattern in women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) - symptom characteristics and therapy suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstad, Gro Killi; Wojniusz, Slawomir; Kirste, Unni Merete; Kirschner, Rolf Steinar; Lilleheie, Ingvild; Haugstad, Tor Sigbjørn

    2018-04-25

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) represent a longstanding pain syndrome that affects large numbers of women worldwide. However, no standardized guidelines for PVD treatment exist. In a cross-sectional pilot study we examined 30 PVD patients on multidimensional parameters including pain, psychological distress and quality of movement, in order to obtain a broader understanding of the somatic and psychological symptoms in PVD, and for the future to develop better interventions. Additionally, we compare the findings to previously published results regarding the same parameters in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Thirty women with PVD recruited from a tertiary care university clinic of gynecology were assessed for demographic data, pain intensity (VAS), psychological distress (GHQ-30 and Tampa scale of Kinesophobia) and quality of movement (standardized Mensendieck test, SMT). Average age of the PVD women was 24.7±3.60 years, 60% of them were in permanent relationships, all were nulliparous, none had been subjected to surgical procedures, 100% were working full or part time and 90% were educated to at least undergraduate level. Mean VAS score was 7.77±1.97 (mean±SD), kinesiophobia 24.4±3.95 and anxiety domain of GHQ-30 9.73±4.06. SMT scores were particularly low for the domains of respiration and gait (less than 50% of optimal scores). PVD women display reduced quality of movement, especially for gait and respiration patterns, increased level of anxiety and high average pain scores. These findings are similar to what we have previously reported in CPP patients. However, in contrast to CPP group, PVD women are on average younger, have higher work participation, higher education level and have not been subjected to surgical procedures. Since PVD women display similar, although somewhat less severe, symptom profile than CPP, we suggest that a multidimensional approach to treatment, such as "somatocognitive therapy" should be investigated in this group as it has

  7. Socio-Psychological Dimensions of Mobile Phone Addiction and Usage Patterns amongst Teenagers in Higher Institutions of Learning in Kwara State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titilope, Afolayan Oluyinka

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phone addiction is now a common phenomenon in the 21st century, especially among teenagers due to the unusual cravings in the use of technological devices. In view of this phenomenon, the study examined the socio-psychological dimensions of mobile phone addiction and usage patterns amongst teenagers in three Higher Institutions of Learning…

  8. Learning in a self-managed management career : the relation between managers' HRD-patterns, psychological career contracts and mobility perpectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankhuijzen, E.S.K.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the significance of managers HRD-activities (learning activities) in modern career contexts. Based on literature study and several pre-studies, a conceptual research model was developed containing three main elements: HRD-pattern, psychological career contract and mobility

  9. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  10. A cross-sectional study identifying the pattern of factors related to psychological intimate partner violence exposure in Slovenian family practice attendees: what hurt them the most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is yet to be fully acknowledged as a public health problem in Slovenia. This study aimed to explore the health and other patient characteristics associated with psychological IPV exposure and gender-related specificity in family clinic attendees. Methods In a multi-centre cross-sectional study, 960 family practice attendees aged 18 years and above were recruited. In 689 interviews with currently- or previously-partnered patients, the short form of A Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire and additional questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to psychological abuse in the past year were given. General practitioners (GPs) reviewed the medical charts of 470 patients who met the IPV exposure criteria. The Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List was used, collecting data on the patients’ lives and physical, sexual and reproductive, and psychological health status, as well as sick leave, hospitalisation, visits to family practices and referrals to other clinical specialists in the past year. In multivariate logistic regression modelling the factors associated with past year psychological IPV exposure were identified, with P < 0.05 set as the level of statistical significance. Results Of the participants (n = 470), 12.1% (n = 57) were exposed to psychological IPV in the previous year (46 women and 11 men). They expressed more complaints regarding sexual and reproductive (p = 0.011), and psychological and behavioural status (p <0.001), in the year prior to the survey. Unemployment or working part-time, a college degree, an intimate relationship of six years or more and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship, increased the odds of psychological IPV exposure in the sample, explaining 41% of the variance. In females, unemployment and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship explained 43% of the variance. Conclusions The prevalence of psychological IPV above 10% during the past year

  11. Clustering eating habits: frequent consumption of different dietary patterns among the Italian general population in the association with obesity, physical activity, sociocultural characteristics and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoth, Francesca; Scalese, Marco; Siciliano, Valeria; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-06-01

    (a) To identify clusters of eating patterns among the Italian population aged 15-64 years, focusing on typical Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) items consumption; (b) to examine the distribution of eating habits, as identified clusters, among age classes and genders; (c) evaluate the impact of: belonging to a specific eating cluster, level of physical activity (PA), sociocultural and psychological factors, as elements determining weight abnormalities. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected using self-reporting questionnaires administered to a sample of 33,127 subjects participating in the Italian population survey on alcohol and other drugs (IPSAD(®)2011). The cluster analysis was performed on a subsample (n = 5278 subjects) which provided information on eating habits, and adapted to identify categories of eating patterns. Stepwise multinomial regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between weight categories and eating clusters, adjusted for the following background variables: PA levels, sociocultural and psychological factors. Three clusters were identified: "Mediterranean-like", "Western-like" and "low fruit/vegetables". Frequent consumption of Med-diet patterns was more common among females and elderly. The relationship between overweight/obesity and male gender, educational level, PA, depression and eating disorders (p obesity. The low consumption of Med-diet patterns among youth, and the frequent association of sociocultural, psychological issues and inappropriate lifestyle with overweight/obesity, highlight the need for an interdisciplinary approach including market policies, to promote a wider awareness of the Mediterranean eating habit benefits in combination with an appropriate lifestyle.

  12. Systems modeling of anti-apoptotic pathways in prostate cancer: psychological stress triggers a synergism pattern switch in drug combination therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Sun

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer patients often have increased levels of psychological stress or anxiety, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between psychological stress and prostate cancer as well as therapy resistance have been rarely studied and remain poorly understood. Recent reports show that stress inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via epinephrine/beta2 adrenergic receptor/PKA/BAD pathway. In this study, we used experimental data on the signaling pathways that control BAD phosphorylation to build a dynamic network model of apoptosis regulation in prostate cancer cells. We then compared the predictive power of two different models with or without the role of Mcl-1, which justified the role of Mcl-1 stabilization in anti-apoptotic effects of emotional stress. Based on the selected model, we examined and quantitatively evaluated the induction of apoptosis by drug combination therapies. We predicted that the combination of PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and inhibition of BAD phosphorylation at S112 would produce the best synergistic effect among 8 interventions examined. Experimental validation confirmed the effectiveness of our predictive model. Moreover, we found that epinephrine signaling changes the synergism pattern and decreases efficacy of combination therapy. The molecular mechanisms responsible for therapeutic resistance and the switch in synergism were explored by analyzing a network model of signaling pathways affected by psychological stress. These results provide insights into the mechanisms of psychological stress signaling in therapy-resistant cancer, and indicate the potential benefit of reducing psychological stress in designing more effective therapies for prostate cancer patients.

  13. An Overview and Analysis of Journal Operations, Journal Publication Patterns, and Journal Impact in School Psychology and Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Cooley, Kathryn M.; Arnett, James E.; Fagan, Thomas K.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hingle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the results of three studies designed to understand better the journal operations, publishing practices, and impact of school psychology journals in recent years. The first study presents the results of a survey focusing on journal operations and peer-review practices that was completed by 61 journal editors of school…

  14. Patterns of Adolescent Friendships, Psychological Adjustment and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Family Stress and Friendship Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciairano, Silvia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Roggero, Antonella; Bonino, Silvia; Beyers, Wim

    2007-01-01

    This study distinguishes different patterns of friendship quality in terms of support from and conflict with friends, and reciprocity. Associations between friendship patterns and adolescents' adjustment (self-perception, expectations for the future, depressive feelings, sense of alienation, lying, disobedience, and aggression) were hypothesized…

  15. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative sample of US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative study. Methods Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS, which comprises four subsamples: (1 a national random digit dialing (RDD sample, (2 oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3 siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4 a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: “none of the time,” “a little of the time,” “some of the time,” “most of the time,” and “all of the time.” The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. Results The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from “a little of the time” to “all of the time” on log-normal scales, while “none of the time” response was not related to this exponential pattern. Discussion The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales.

  16. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  17. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  18. The role of maternal communication patterns about interparental disputes in associations between interparental conflict and child psychological maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomulak-Cavicchio, Beata M; Davies, Patrick T; Cummings, E Mark

    2006-12-01

    The present study examined the role of mothers' communication with children about interparental disputes in associations between interparental conflict and child psychological maladjustment in a sample of 227 children and their parents followed over a one-year span. Most of the time (i.e., 79.8%) mothers reported that they would communicate with their children following interparental disputes, with the vast majority of those communications containing relatively constructive depictions of interparental conflict. Post-conflict communications were not associated with children's adjustment above and beyond the impact of interparental conflict. However, maternal communications underscoring family cohesion and warmth, emphasizing remorse for engaging in the interparental disagreement, and denying the occurrence of the dispute each moderated associations between interparental conflict and child externalizing symptoms in distinct, complex ways. The findings in general suggest that not all positive communications have the beneficial impact on children that parents may have intended.

  19. Relationship of coping and patterns of dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis of biliary and alcoholic etiology in aspect of differentiation of its medical and psychological support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маріанна Владиславівна Маркова

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Choric pancreatitis is an actual medical and psychological problem in Ukraine. The aim of the work was to study the features of coping in patients with chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic and biliary etiology.Methods. For detecting coping-mechanisms the standard method WCQ Р of Lazarus was used. The study of addictive tendencies was carried out with the help of questionnaire AUDIT and UDIT-tests oriented on patterns of dependent behavior.Results. The study of features of coping-mechanisms and an addiction to dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis revealed intergroup and intragroup differences. Confrontation and low levels of self-control, responsibility and positive assessment were intrinsic for respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis. Women demonstrated the high addiction to the search of social support, men – to distancing. As to an addictive behavior there was revealed that the typical common tendencies were the consumption of coffee, alcohol, internet-dependence, the specific ones for women – TV, shopping-dependencies, for men – workaholism in patients with biliary and computer-addiction in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Intergroup differences were demonstrated by an addiction to disorder of food behavior in patients with biliary and consumption of alcohol and smoking in respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis.Conclusions. The revealed differences in coping-strategies of patients with different nosological forms of chronic pancreatitis give important information for detecting the targets of medical and psychological influence and constructing of differentiated program of medical and psychological help to patients of this type

  20. Body composition, metabolism, sleep, psychological and eating patterns of overtraining syndrome: Results of the EROS study (EROS-PROFILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadegiani, Flavio A; Kater, Claudio E

    2018-08-01

    Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is caused by an imbalance between training, nutrition and resting, and leads to decreased performance and fatigue; however, the precise underlying triggers of OTS remain unclear. This study investigated the body composition, metabolism, eating, sleeping patterns and mood states among participants with OTS. Selected participants were divided into OTS-affected athletes (OTS, n = 14), healthy athletes (ATL, n = 25), and healthy non-physically active controls (NCS, n = 12). Compared to ATL, OTS showed decreased sleep quality (p = 0.004); increased duration of work or study (p sleep, and increased cognitive activity are likely OTS triggers. OTS appears to induce dehydration, increase body fat, decrease libido, and worsen mood.

  1. Optimized digital speckle patterns for digital image correlation by consideration of both accuracy and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; Xu, Xiangyang; He, Xiaoyuan

    2018-02-01

    The technique of digital image correlation (DIC), which has been widely used for noncontact deformation measurements in both the scientific and engineering fields, is greatly affected by the quality of speckle patterns in terms of its performance. This study was concerned with the optimization of the digital speckle pattern (DSP) for DIC in consideration of both the accuracy and efficiency. The root-mean-square error of the inverse compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm and the average number of iterations were used as quality metrics. Moreover, the influence of subset sizes and the noise level of images, which are the basic parameters in the quality assessment formulations, were also considered. The simulated binary speckle patterns were first compared with the Gaussian speckle patterns and captured DSPs. Both the single-radius and multi-radius DSPs were optimized. Experimental tests and analyses were conducted to obtain the optimized and recommended DSP. The vector diagram of the optimized speckle pattern was also uploaded as reference.

  2. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  3. What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

  4. A randomised controlled intervention trial evaluating the efficacy of a Mediterranean dietary pattern on cognitive function and psychological wellbeing in healthy older adults: the MedLey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alissa; Bryan, Janet; Wilson, Carlene; Hodgson, Jonathan; Murphy, Karen

    2015-04-28

    The incidence of age-related cognitive decline is rising considerably around the world. There is evidence from a number of recent cross-sectional and prospective studies indicating positive associations between the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) and improved cognitive outcomes among the elderly including, reduced age-related cognitive decline and enhanced age-related cognitive performance. However, to date no study has validated these associations in healthy older adult populations (≥65 years and above) with randomised evidence. The main aim of the present study is to provide justified evidence regarding the efficacy of a MedDiet approach to safely reduce the onset of cognitive decline, and promote optimal cognitive performance among healthy older adults using rigorous, randomised intervention methodology. MedLey is a 6-month, randomised controlled 2-cohort parallel group intervention trial, with initial assessment at baseline and repeated every three months. A sample of 166 healthy Australian men and women aged 65 years and above, with normal cognitive function and proficient in English language were recruited from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia for the study. Participants randomly allocated to the experimental group are required to maintain an intervention dietary pattern based from the traditional Cretan MedDiet (i.e. vegetables, fruits, olive oil, legumes, fish, whole grain cereals, nuts and seeds and low consumption of processed foods, dairy products, red meat and vegetable oils) for six months, while those participants allocated to the control group are asked to maintain their customary lifestyle and diet. The primary outcome of interest is the quantitative difference in age-related cognitive performance, as measured by latent variables (cognitive constructs) sensitive to normal ageing and diet (i.e. speed of processing, memory, attention, executive functions, visual spatial and visuomotor ability). Secondary outcomes include change in

  5. Identifying the Behavior Patterns That Influence on Students' Achievement in Psychological Foundations of Learning and Development: A Case of Mekelle University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, J. Master Arul; Eyasu, Mengesha

    2018-01-01

    Generally, the behavior patterns concerns a social significance of values. This paper highlights the various behavior patterns like planner behavior, solution oriented behavior, and prescriptive behavior patterns. The main objective of the present study is to identify the behavior patterns that influence on students' achievement in psychological…

  6. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  7. The Intrinsic Dynamics of Psychological Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallacher, Robin R.; van Geert, Paul; Nowak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Psychological processes unfold on various timescales in accord with internally generated patterns. The intrinsic dynamism of psychological process is difficult to investigate using traditional methods emphasizing cause–effect relations, however, and therefore is rarely incorporated into social

  8. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  9. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  10. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  12. Psychology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Gretchen; Craig, Michelle L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an exhibition-based activity set that teaches important psychological processes such as attention (Interference), communication (Pattern Talk), and cooperation versus competition (Do Nice Guys Finish Last?). Activities follow the scientific method, and teachers can observe varying levels of skill and cognitive development in students of…

  13. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  14. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  15. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  16. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  17. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  18. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  19. The geography of post-disaster mental health: spatial patterning of psychological vulnerability and resilience factors in New York City after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebner, Oliver; Lowe, Sarah R; Sampson, Laura; Galea, Sandro

    2015-06-10

    Only very few studies have investigated the geographic distribution of psychological resilience and associated mental health outcomes after natural or man made disasters. Such information is crucial for location-based interventions that aim to promote recovery in the aftermath of disasters. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate geographic variability of (1) posttraumatic stress (PTS) and depression in a Hurricane Sandy affected population in NYC and (2) psychological vulnerability and resilience factors among affected areas in NYC boroughs. Cross-sectional telephone survey data were collected 13 to 16 months post-disaster from household residents (N = 418 adults) in NYC communities that were most heavily affected by the hurricane. The Posttraumatic Stress Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) was applied for measuring posttraumatic stress and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used for measuring depression. We applied spatial autocorrelation and spatial regimes regression analyses, to test for spatial clusters of mental health outcomes and to explore whether associations between vulnerability and resilience factors and mental health differed among New York City's five boroughs. Mental health problems clustered predominantly in neighborhoods that are geographically more exposed towards the ocean indicating a spatial variation of risk within and across the boroughs. We further found significant variation in associations between vulnerability and resilience factors and mental health. Race/ethnicity (being Asian or non-Hispanic black) and disaster-related stressors were vulnerability factors for mental health symptoms in Queens, and being employed and married were resilience factors for these symptoms in Manhattan and Staten Island. In addition, parental status was a vulnerability factor in Brooklyn and a resilience factor in the Bronx. We conclude that explanatory characteristics may manifest as psychological vulnerability and resilience

  20. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    and a longitudinal approach, differences and similarities in practices of care are identified. The care patterns are studied with a focus on young adults age 30-35. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods are employed. By utilising in-depth qualitative interview data the paper explores the interplay between...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...

  1. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  3. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  4. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  5. SpaceWire Driver Software for Special DSPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas; Lux, James; Nishimoto, Kouji; Lang, Minh

    2003-01-01

    A computer program provides a high-level C-language interface to electronics circuitry that controls a SpaceWire interface in a system based on a space qualified version of the ADSP-21020 digital signal processor (DSP). SpaceWire is a spacecraft-oriented standard for packet-switching data-communication networks that comprise nodes connected through bidirectional digital serial links that utilize low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). The software is tailored to the SMCS-332 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) (also available as the TSS901E), which provides three highspeed (150 Mbps) serial point-to-point links compliant with the proposed Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 1355.2 and equivalent European Space Agency (ESA) Standard ECSS-E-50-12. In the specific application of this software, the SpaceWire ASIC was combined with the DSP processor, memory, and control logic in a Multi-Chip Module DSP (MCM-DSP). The software is a collection of low-level driver routines that provide a simple message-passing application programming interface (API) for software running on the DSP. Routines are provided for interrupt-driven access to the two styles of interface provided by the SMCS: (1) the "word at a time" conventional host interface (HOCI); and (2) a higher performance "dual port memory" style interface (COMI).

  6. Consumer Psychology: Not necessarily a manipulative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølander, Folke

    1990-01-01

    Although definitions and discussion of disciplinary borderlines are tedious and often not that useful, it has to be mentioned that in this paper, a distinction is made between consumer psychology and economic psychology, with the former regarded as a subfield of the latter. Traditionally, economic...... psychology has indeed to a large extent been identified with consumer behavior research (for an account of the historical development of economic psychology, see Wärneryd, 1988). But what most writers seem to agree about today is to regard not only consumer behavior proper, but also the way individuals...... of worker/producer as in the role of consumer. Thus, although such phenomena are undoubtedly relevant topics of economic psychology, it seems appropriate to restict the term consumer psychology, as a subfield of economic psychology, to studies of the determinants and impacts of (a) saving/spending patterns...

  7. Consumer Psychology: Not necessarily a manipulative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølander, Folke

    1990-01-01

    psychology has indeed to a large extent been identified with consumer behavior research (for an account of the historical development of economic psychology, see Wärneryd, 1988). But what most writers seem to agree about today is to regard not only consumer behavior proper, but also the way individuals......Although definitions and discussion of disciplinary borderlines are tedious and often not that useful, it has to be mentioned that in this paper, a distinction is made between consumer psychology and economic psychology, with the former regarded as a subfield of the latter. Traditionally, economic...... of worker/producer as in the role of consumer. Thus, although such phenomena are undoubtedly relevant topics of economic psychology, it seems appropriate to restict the term consumer psychology, as a subfield of economic psychology, to studies of the determinants and impacts of (a) saving/spending patterns...

  8. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  9. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  10. Toward a Developmental Ecological Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Adolph's research on locomotion with regard to the requirements of an ecological psychology, especially the use of control laws; her examination of individual styles and normative patterns as it reflects a dynamic systems perspective; and her use of cognitive processes of decision making in explaining why infants approach or avoid a…

  11. The Psychological Impact of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the psychological impact of rape on adult female victims, and explores typical patterns of recovery, types of symptoms, and variables affecting recovery. Explores moderating and preassault variables, within-assault variables such as acquaintance status and level of violence, and postassault variables such as social…

  12. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  13. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  14. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  15. Using thematic analysis in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, V.; Clarke, V.

    2006-01-01

    Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely-acknowledged, yet widely-used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically-flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different epistemological and ontological positions. We then provide clear guidelines to those w...

  16. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  17. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  18. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334 ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  19. Teachers and Psychological Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    The importance of the written psychological report is explored, and, in particular, its relationship to teachers' needs and requirements is discussed. Additionally, the characteristics of a "good" psychological report are listed, and teachers are advised to use these criteria in evaluating the psychological reports they are receiving. (Author)

  20. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  1. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  2. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  3. Towards a Psychological Construct of Being Moved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Kuehnast, Milena; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state of being moved, though frequently referred to in both classical rhetoric and current language use, is far from established as a well-defined psychological construct. In a series of three studies, we investigated eliciting scenarios, emotional ingredients, appraisal patterns,

  4. Psychological Factors Associated with Paranursing Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine

    The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…

  5. The last traffic jam: psychologic consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Probable psychologic problems resulting from a nuclear explosion are described. The attendant stresses are difficult to predict but the behavior of victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki serve as models. Behavior patterns during evacuation, shelter period and postattack are described

  6. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  7. Psychology and criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  8. Strategic Psychological Operations management

    OpenAIRE

    Sokoloski, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    United States Military Psychological Operations are engaged in a type of mass marketing of ideas. To accomplish this The United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (USACAPOC) employs active and reserve PSYOP units to conduct PSYOP campaigns. However the methodology used to manage these campaigns often hinders the effective employment of timely and effective Psychological Operations. PSYOP has a difficult job to accomplish but PSYOP does not have the proper managemen...

  9. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  10. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  12. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  13. Transpersonal Psychology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan

    The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…

  14. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  15. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  16. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  17. Environmental Psychology: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's

  18. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  19. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  1. Psychology or Psychological Science?: A Survey of Graduate Psychology Faculty Regarding Program Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collisson, Brian; Rusbasan, David

    2018-01-01

    The question of renaming graduate psychology programs to psychological science is a timely and contentious issue. To better understand why some programs, but not others, are changing names, we surveyed chairpersons (Study 1) and faculty (Study 2) within graduate psychology and psychological science programs. Within psychology programs, a name…

  2. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  3. Thinking Psychology Today

    OpenAIRE

    ÁNGELA MARÍA ROBLEDO-GÓMEZ

    2008-01-01

    The inauguration text of the V Congress of Psychology at the Javeriana University, “Thinking the Present: Psychology, Criticism, and Globalization Times”, is presented. This event took place in April, 2008, in Bogotá, Colombia. These thoughts invite to see Psychology in the present, and to ask oneself about the forms of life that we are built of and that go through subjectivities in today’s World, within the framework of the Economical, Cultural, Social and Political conditions of our countri...

  4. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  6. Advancing Positive Psychology in South East Asia: the Importance of Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hashim, Intan Hashimah

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the field of positive psychology has been overwhelming. This can be observed from the number of academic conferences and journals attributed to this field. Similar patterns can be observed in Asia where more and more research are concentrating on investigating constructs deemed as important within the field of positive psychology. However, comparable to other fields within psychology, positive psychology cannot ignore the importance of culture. This is especially true in South Eas...

  7. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  8. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  9. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  11. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  12. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  13. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  14. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  15. Diet and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  16. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  17. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  18. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what......Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...

  19. Moral psychology (ethics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Chrisoula

    2010-07-01

    This article examines a selection of currently lively debates in the quickly evolving, interdisciplinary field of moral psychology. Topics discussed include the possibility of amoralism, the nature of rationality, the (ir)rationality of emotions and intuitions, the psychology of cooperation and of (rational) commitment, weakness of will, free will, and the assignment of moral responsibility. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras , Harold

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  1. Psychological therapies for thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia

    2014-03-06

    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions

  2. International School Psychology: Psychology's Worldwide Portal to Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…

  3. LGBT psychology and feminist psychology: bridging the divide

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, V.; Peel, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we outline some of the similarities and differences between lesbian and gay psychology (more recently known as LGBT psychology) and feminist psychology. Both fields developed in response to the oppressive practices of psychology; however, lesbian and gay psychologists have been far more willing to using the theoretical and methodological tools of mainstream psychology than have feminist psychologists. Feminist psychologists have enthusiastically embraced qualitative and critica...

  4. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  5. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  6. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  7. Cross-cultural patterns of the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety: secondary analysis of the WHO Collaborative Study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Stefanos; Skapinakis, Petros; Rai, Dheeraj; Zitko, Pedro; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Lionis, Christos; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-12-15

    Alcohol consumption is associated with several complications of both physical and mental health. Light or moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on physical or mental health but this effect is still controversial and research in the mental health field is relatively scarce. Our aim was to investigate the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in a large international primary care sample. The sample consisted of 5438 primary care attenders from 14 countries who participated in the WHO Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care. Alcohol use was assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depression and generalized anxiety disorder compared to abstinence while excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a higher prevalence of depression. This non-linear association was not substantially affected after adjustment for a range of possible confounding variables, including the presence of chronic disease and the current physical status of participants and was evident in different drinking cultures. The study confirms that excessive drinking is associated with an increased prevalence of depression, but also raises the possibility that light/moderate drinking may be associated with a reduced prevalence of both depression and anxiety. Any causal interpretation of this association is difficult in the context of this cross-sectional study and further longitudinal studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...... culture and time into investigations; and what cultural psychology can contribute to our understanding of imagination, art, language and self-other relations....

  9. Visualizing Data Patterns with Micromaps

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    After more than 15 years of development drawing on research in cognitive psychology, statistical graphics, computer science, and cartography, micromap designs are becoming part of mainstream statistical visualizations. Bringing together the research of two leaders in this field, "Visualizing Data Patterns with Micromaps" presents the many design variations and applications of micromaps, which link statistical information to an organized set of small maps. This full-color book helps readers simultaneously explore the statistical and geographic patterns in their data. After illustratin

  10. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Vaxman, Amir; Wonka, Peter; Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical

  11. Criminal psychological profiling of serial arson crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W

    2002-12-01

    The practice of criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to serial arson crimes. Despite this claim, there does not appear to be any empirical research that examines serial arson offence behaviors in the context of profiling. This study seeks to develop an empirical model of serial arsonist behaviors that can be systematically associated with probable offender characteristics. Analysis has produced a model of offence behaviors that identify four discrete behavior patterns, all of which share a constellation of common nondiscriminatory behaviors. The inherent behavioral themes of each of these patterns are explored with discussion of their broader implications for our understanding of serial arson and directions for future research.

  12. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  13. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p Students supported resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  14. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouniq, C; Moron, P

    1982-06-01

    genetic reasons have been found to experience shame and guilt. Repeat abortion constitutes about 10-15% of all abortions, and reflects resistence to contraception. 1 study found repeat abortion seekers to have a low educational level, lack of knowledge of sex, image of sexuality as degrading, self-punishing masochistic tendencies, passivity, and other pathology. Routine psychiatric consultations for abortion should be avoided, and primary responsibility should be assumed by the physician for identifying patients at risk of psychological sequelae. Factors placing women at high psychological risk after abortion can be identified in the American literature: severe psychiatric ailment, lack of familial support, abortion for medical reasons, severe ambivalence, and familial or medical pressure. A consultation or brief treatment permitting the woman to elaborate her decision can help prevent postabortal difficulties. The interviewer should help the woman to understand whether her unexpected pregnancy was in reality an accident or the expression of an intense but unconscious desire for pregnancy, and thus to understand the reasons for her indecision. Various patterns of disturbance may be uncovered during treatment.

  15. Narrating psychological distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...

  16. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  17. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  19. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  1. International psychology and scientific psychology: at the crossroads for the future of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...

  2. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  3. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  4. Neuroeconomics and business psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based on a meso......To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based...

  5. Psychology of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hoc, J-M

    1991-01-01

    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.

  6. Psychological lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Up to the time of the disaster, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was regarded as one of the best in the USSR, and the city of Pripyat, housing the plant's staff, was rightly called one of the most comfortable. Also, the psychological climate of the plant provided no causes for worry. This was a worked-in team, composed of seasoned and knowledgeable experts. How can one then explain the events that happened in such an unlikely place. Isn't there a danger that the situation will repeat itself? The author considers the question and other psychological aspects of the Chernobyl incident

  7. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  8. On applying cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  9. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  11. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The journal has a multidisciplinary focus. It is not intended ... Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of Secondary School Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on or fail to adhere to potentially helpful therapy, engage in risky behaviors such as drug use, or do not maintain a healthy lifestyle, resulting in premature death. How can people who have cancer learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients ...

  13. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  14. Rediscovering Differential Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  15. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  16. A Psychology of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

  17. FORENSIC CRIMINOLOGY - FUGITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  18. Family Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F., ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes programs for family counseling which use psychological-educational and skills training methods to remediate individual and family problems or enhance family life. The six articles discuss client-centered skills training, behavioral approaches, cognitive behavioral marital therapy, Adlerian parent education, and couple communication. (JAC)

  19. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  20. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    business it is to carry out applied work in the design of instructional content and delivery. These organizations include specialized divisions of...34learning disabilities" label: An experimental analysis. Comtemporary Educational Psychology, 1977, 2, 292-297. Allington, R. L. Sensitivity to

  1. Is Psychology a Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/11/0059-0066 ...

  2. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical base...

  3. Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Rae Fortunato

    This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in

  4. Core References in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…

  5. Broadening the Boundaries of Psychology through Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for community psychology to be included within the discipline boundaries of psychology. In doing this, it will enable psychology to begin to address some of the large scale social issues affecting people's well-being. It will be necessary, however, to incorporate aspects of other disciplines, make explicit the political…

  6. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  7. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  8. African Journals Online: Psychology & Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... case studies that are community-based and inter/intra-cultural on human behaviour, ... education, health, religion, business, tourism, counselling and psychology.

  9. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  10. Psychological need satisfaction, control, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froreich, Franzisca V; Vartanian, Lenny R; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Grisham, Jessica R; Touyz, Stephen W

    2017-03-01

    Unfulfilled basic psychological needs have been associated with disordered eating behaviours, but the mechanisms underlying that associations are not well understood. This study examined a two-stage path model linking basic psychological need satisfaction to disordered eating behaviours via issues of control. Female university students (N = 323; M age  = 19.61), community participants (N = 371; M age  = 29.75), and women who self-reported having been diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED; N = 41; M age  = 23.88) completed measures of psychological need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and competence), issues of control (i.e., feelings of ineffectiveness and fear of losing self-control [FLC]), and ED pathology. Path analysis revealed that unsatisfied needs of autonomy and competence were indirectly related to disordered eating behaviours through feelings of ineffectiveness and FLC. The results indicate that issues of control might be one of the mechanisms through which lack of psychological need satisfaction is associated with disordered eating. Although the model was constructed using cross-sectional data, these findings suggest potential targets for prevention and treatment efforts aimed at reducing disordered eating in young females. Our results indicate that young women with chronically unfulfilled basic psychological needs might be vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviours. The observed patterns suggest that persistent experience of need frustration may engender an internal sense of ineffectiveness and lack of control, which then compels individuals to engage in disordered eating behaviours in an attempt to regain autonomy and competence. Interventions for eating disorders may be most effective when emphasizing the promotion of people's needs for autonomy and competence. Limitations The model was constructed using cross-sectional data. Future experimental and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the temporal sequence from basic

  11. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfonso Piña López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.

  13. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  14. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Positive psychology has been an influential movement within psychology in the early years of the twenty-first century. It is now timely to assess the value of its contribution to career education and guidance. This paper provides a critique of this perspective. Positive psychology can enrich approaches to career development. It can provide a…

  15. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  16. Oedipal Issues in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes current status of counseling psychology from perspective of Freudian, drive-structure theory. Argues that counseling psychology has committed classical response to oedipal conflict in its treatment of counselor education by identifying with aggressor (psychiatry and clinical psychology). Recommends more unified relationship between…

  17. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  18. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  19. Artificial Psychology: The Psychology of AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Crowder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Having artificially intelligent machines that think, learn, reason, experience, and can function autonomously, without supervision, is one of the most intriguing goals in all of Computer Science. As the types of problems we would like machines to solve get more complex, it is becoming a necessary goal as well. One of the many problems associated with this goal is that what learning and reasoning are have so many possible meanings that the solution can easily get lost in the sea of opinions and options. The goal of this paper is to establish some foundational principles, theory, and concepts that we feel are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. With this fully autonomous, learning, reasoning, artificially intelligent system (an artificial brain, comes the need to possess constructs in its hardware and software that mimic processes and subsystems that exist within the human brain, including intuitive and emotional memory concepts. Presented here is a discussion of the psychological constructs of artificial intelligence and how they might play out in an artificial mind.

  20. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  1. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  2. The psychology of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In May 2016, right around the time that this issue of the Hastings Center Report should be published, The Hastings Center is holding a conference in New York City titled "Bioethics Meets Moral Psychology." The goal of the conference is to consider the lessons that bioethicists should learn from the raft of literature now accumulating on how the mental processes of perception, emotion, and thinking affect things that bioethicists care about, from the education of health care professionals to the conflicts that arise in clinical care, the "culture wars" over bioethical policy issues, the status of different cultures' value systems, and the very understanding of the values that are foundational in moral thinking. The articles in this issue simply provide more evidence that bioethics is meeting moral psychology. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  3. The psychology of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-10-01

    The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identity issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increasing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adolescence, through the mid- to late twenties.

  4. Traversing psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental psychology matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.

  6. Criminal Psychological Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-18

    went through on their way to establishing mental health . These stages are the oral, the anal, and the phallic. In each stage, the developing human will... health professionals. These professionals then provided psychological insights, based on the clinical or the academic point of view. The FBI was now...then ordered her to lie face down on the bed. He then pulled down her lower garments and then fondled and masturbated on her bare buttocks. The

  7. Psychology of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    and logistic support. 160. Kfir, N. (2002). Understanding suicidal terror through humanistic and existential psychology. C. E. Stout (Ed), The...anomie or for an existential vacuum, which may drive other individuals to drifting or to entering the drug culture. - To understand the differences...any group of prisoners is by definition ‘survivalist’, yet that of the Red Brigades has evolved through three phases ‘social’, ‘ existential ’ and

  8. Psychological work characteristics, psychological workload and associated psychological and cognitive requirements of train drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were

  9. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns. PMID:26557846

  10. Regional specialization within the human striatum for diverse psychological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; O'Reilly, Randall C; Yarkoni, Tal; Wager, Tor D

    2016-02-16

    Decades of animal and human neuroimaging research have identified distinct, but overlapping, striatal zones, which are interconnected with separable corticostriatal circuits, and are crucial for the organization of functional systems. Despite continuous efforts to subdivide the human striatum based on anatomical and resting-state functional connectivity, characterizing the different psychological processes related to each zone remains a work in progress. Using an unbiased, data-driven approach, we analyzed large-scale coactivation data from 5,809 human imaging studies. We (i) identified five distinct striatal zones that exhibited discrete patterns of coactivation with cortical brain regions across distinct psychological processes and (ii) identified the different psychological processes associated with each zone. We found that the reported pattern of cortical activation reliably predicted which striatal zone was most strongly activated. Critically, activation in each functional zone could be associated with distinct psychological processes directly, rather than inferred indirectly from psychological functions attributed to associated cortices. Consistent with well-established findings, we found an association of the ventral striatum (VS) with reward processing. Confirming less well-established findings, the VS and adjacent anterior caudate were associated with evaluating the value of rewards and actions, respectively. Furthermore, our results confirmed a sometimes overlooked specialization of the posterior caudate nucleus for executive functions, often considered the exclusive domain of frontoparietal cortical circuits. Our findings provide a precise functional map of regional specialization within the human striatum, both in terms of the differential cortical regions and psychological functions associated with each striatal zone.

  11. Archetypes as action patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

  12. Psychology Degrees: Employment, Wage, and Career Trajectory Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D W; Borden, Victor M H

    2011-07-01

    Psychology is a very popular undergraduate major. Examining wage data from a range of degree holders reveals much about the expected career trajectories of those with psychology degrees. First, regarding baccalaureates, psychology and other liberal arts graduates-compared with those from certain preprofessional and technical undergraduate programs-generally fall in relatively low tiers of salary levels at both starting and later career points. Salary levels among baccalaureate alumni groups correlate with averaged measures of salary satisfaction, repeated job seeking, and perceptions of underemployment. These patterns seem to stem from the specific occupational categories (job titles) entered by graduates in psychology compared with other graduates, calling into question the employability advantage of so-called generic liberal arts skills. Second, psychology master's degree holders also generally fall in a low tier of salary among their science, engineering, and health counterparts. Third, psychology college faculty (including instructors) fall in low tiers of salary compared with their colleagues from other academic fields. Such broadly based indications of the relative economic disadvantages of psychology degrees have implications for career counseling in the field. © The Author(s) 2011.

  13. Credentialing high school psychology teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kenneth A

    2014-09-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Psychological rehabilitation of patients with endogenous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kryvonis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The rationale for early psychotherapeutic intervention in combination with psychopharmatherapy in patients with endogenous disorders is provided. The mechanisms of psychological defenses to deal with traumatic experience, used by personalities functioning on a psychotic level, are also described here. Characteristic behavior patterns of extended family members in terms of emotional codependence are provided. Individual pathopsychology is considered as a symptom of abnormal functioning of the family. Emphasis is placed on the importance of inclusion of family members in psychotherapeutic interaction in order to correct interpersonal relations.

  15. History of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Globalization and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Yue; Kwan, Letty Yan-Yee

    2016-04-01

    In globalized societies, people often encounter symbols of diverse cultures in the same space at the same time. Simultaneous exposure to diverse cultures draws people's attention to cultural differences and promotes catergorical perceptions of culture. Local cultural identification and presence of cultural threat increase the likelihood of resisting inflow of foreign cultures (exclusionary reactions). When cultures are seen as intellectual resources, foreign cultural exposure affords intercultural learning and enhances individual creativity (integrative reactions). Psychological studies of globalization attest to the utility of treating cultures as evolving, interacting systems, rather than static, independent entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Hanurawan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research  designs  are  grounded  research,  phenomenology  research,  case  study research,  and  ethnography  research.  In  some  situations,  researchers  often  meet questions  that  reach  beyond  the  prescription  of  the  APA  ethical  guidelines concerning  human  participants.  Researchers  of  qualitative  research  in psychology  can  generalize  their  research  findings  to  other  people,  times,  or treatments  to  the  degree  to  which  they  are  similar to  other  people,  times,  or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies  for  expanding  qualitative  research  as  a research  approach  so  the methodology  can  be  accepted  as  one  significant  method  in  understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.

  18. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  19. Narrative psychological content analysis as a tool for psychological status monitoring of crews in isolated, confined and extreme settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, B.; Balázs, L.; Fülöp, É.; Hargitai, R.; Kabai, P.; Péley, B.; Pólya, T.; Vargha, A.; László, J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper is about a pilot application of narrative psychological content analysis in the psychological status monitoring of Crew 71 of a space analog simulation environment, the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). Both the method and its theoretical framework, Scientific Narrative Psychology, are original developments by Hungarian psychologists [5] (László, 2008). The software was NooJ, a multilingual linguistic development environment [11] (Silberztein, 2008). Three measures were conceptualized and assessed: emotional status, team spirit and subjective physical comfort. The results showed the patterns of these three measures on a daily basis at group level, and allowed for detecting individual differences as well. The method is adaptable to languages involved in space psychology, e.g. Russian, French and German in addition to English.

  20. Psychological Maltreatment in the Context of Separation and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, Gunther

    1993-01-01

    This article examines effects of separation and divorce on children in the context of possible psychological maltreatment. Common behavior patterns of children in this situation are discussed in terms of those that are acceptable and those that must be considered harmful. (Author/DB)

  1. Emotional Intelligence Levels and Counselling Skills of Prospective Psychological Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaci, Hatice; Degerli, Fatma Irem; Bolat, Neslihan

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the correlation between emotional intelligence (EI) and counselling skills of Turkish prospective psychological counsellors and to investigate differences in both EI and counselling skills in terms of sex, previous experience of group studies, and class levels. Within a correlational pattern, the sample of the…

  2. The Psychology of Career Theory--A New Perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodd, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    New perspectives on human behavior have invalidated some assumptions of career theories such as personality type, career stages, and life-cycle models. Other theories, such as Driver's Objective Career Patterns, Schein's Temporal Development Model, and Nicholson's Transition Cycle, are compatible with current psychological understanding. (SK)

  3. The nature and psychological content of information psychological impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny G. Baranov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of «information-psychological impact» category. The study aims to determine the role and place of impacts of such kind in the upbringing process, and in education in general. The paper contrasts comparative analysis of existing scientific approaches to understanding the nature and psychological content of the concept of “information” and psychological impact. Based on the data mentioned above, the conclusion is made that the psychological impact is the influence of surrounding elements of the physical and social environment on the people, which change the course of their mental processes, mental state, psychological structure of consciousness and behaviour. In addition, the purposeful psychological impact carried out either by an individual or a collective entity can be direct or indirect (e.g. information psychological. Based on the performed analysis the conclusion is made that depending on their purpose and nature of influence, information and psychological impact can be manipulative (subject-object or developmental (subject-subject. Manipulative impact creates temporary, unstable mental forms, while developing impact creates stable personality forms. Both kinds of information and psychological influences can be observes in the educational process. The teacher selects types of influence based on his/her own pedagogical qualifications and teaching objectives: to develop the personality of the student or to form behavioural stereotypes.

  4. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  5. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations,...... as a Moral Science contains enough controversial ideas to spark great interest among researchers and scholars in psychology and the philosophy of science.......What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  6. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  7. Psychological Perspectives on Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Meissner, Christian A; Fisher, Ronald P; Kassin, Saul M; Morgan, Charles A; Kleinman, Steven M

    2017-11-01

    Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.

  8. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  9. Psychology of anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Benbenaste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.

  10. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2018-02-12

    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Psychology of NPP operation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    The book is devoted to psychologic investigations into different aspects of NPP operative personnel activities. The whole set of conditions on which successful and accident-free personnel operation depends, is analysed. Based on original engineering and socio-psychologic investigations complex psychologic support for NPP personnel and a system of training and upkeep of operative personnel skills are developed. The methods proposed have undergone a practical examination and proved their efficiency. 154 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  12. Historical spaces of social psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kalampalikis , Nikos; Delouvée , Sylvain; Pétard , Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    International audience; An extensive analysis of all social psychology textbooks published, in french, between 1947 and 2001, including a history chapter, provides a rich corpus for the study of the history of social psychology. In this article we choose to study the historical spaces of social psychology, in order to show how the discipline was located in geographical, urban, institutional and collective spaces. We argue that, into this specific corpus, spaces are essentially related to some...

  13. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  14. Teaching psychology to computing students

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching Psychology to Computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where Psychology is relevant to Computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students’ education. The second aim is to consider findings from research investigating the characteristics of Computing and Psychology students. It is proposed that this information could be considered in the de...

  15. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing rec...... in qualitative research offers a promising avenue to advance the field in this direction.......Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  17. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  18. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  19. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  20. A pattern theory of self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eGallagher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available I argue for a pattern theory of self as a useful way to organize an interdisciplinary approach to discussions of what constitutes a self. According to the pattern theory, a self is constituted by a number of characteristic features or aspects that may include minimal embodied, minimal experiential, affective, intersubjective, psychological/cognitive, narrative, extended and situated aspects. A pattern theory of self helps to clarify various interpretations of self as compatible or commensurable instead of thinking them in opposition, and it helps to show how various aspects of self may be related across certain dimensions. I also suggest that a pattern theory of self can help to adjudicate (or at least map the differences between the idea that the self correlates to self-referential processing in the cortical midline structures of the brain and other narrower or wider conceptions of self.

  1. A pattern theory of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a pattern theory of self as a useful way to organize an interdisciplinary approach to discussions of what constitutes a self. According to the pattern theory, a self is constituted by a number of characteristic features or aspects that may include minimal embodied, minimal experiential, affective, intersubjective, psychological/cognitive, narrative, extended, and situated aspects. A pattern theory of self helps to clarify various interpretations of self as compatible or commensurable instead of thinking them in opposition, and it helps to show how various aspects of self may be related across certain dimensions. I also suggest that a pattern theory of self can help to adjudicate (or at least map the differences) between the idea that the self correlates to self-referential processing in the cortical midline structures of the brain and other narrower or wider conceptions of self.

  2. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jared

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…

  3. Military Psychology | Ijide | African Journal for the Psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Jean Piaget (1970), psychology is applicable to all human activities and situations, education and psychotherapy, work and leisure in nearly all sectors of employment particularly in the military (emphasis mine). There are however some individuals who believe that psychology might only be applicable to the ...

  4. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  5. Psychological First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Forbes, David

    2014-01-01

    Psychological first aid (PFA) has become the flagship early intervention for disaster survivors, with recent adaptations for disaster responders, in the post-9/11 era. PFA is broadly endorsed by expert consensus and integrated into guidelines for mental health and psychosocial support in disasters and extreme events. PFA frameworks are proliferating, with increasing numbers of models developed for delivery by a range of providers for use with an expanding array of target populations. Despite popularity and promotion there remains a dearth of evidence for effectiveness and recent independent reviews of PFA have highlighted this important gap. This commentary juxtaposes the current propagation of PFA against the compelling need to produce evidence for effectiveness and suggests a series of actions to prioritize and expedite real-time, real-event field evaluation of PFA. PMID:28228996

  6. [Tinnitus and psychological comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirke, N; Goebel, G; Mazurek, B

    2010-07-01

    Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to the main disorder. Comorbidities negatively influence the development of the main disease. For patients with tinnitus a comorbidity is an additional component complicating the habituation of ear noise and patients with decompensated tinnitus often have psychological comorbidities, e.g. affective, somatoform or anxiety disorders. At the time of first presentation and also during further follow-up, it is essential to pay particular attention to the presence of potential comorbid mental disorders. This is of special importance for patients with decompensated ear noise (severity grades 3 and 4). For ENT specialists it is important that the mental discomfort of patients must be taken seriously and should be identified through a targeted diagnosis. Effective treatment of the co-symptoms using cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in conjunction with medication often reduces the severity of tinnitus perception and discomfort.

  7. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  8. Open source in Experimental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmaijer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Talk on using open-source software in experimental psychology. Presented on 3 March 2015, at the Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development group (http://www.psy.ox.ac.uk/research/attention-brain-and-cognitive-development-group) at the University of Oxford's Department of Experimental Psychology.

  9. Psychological adaptation after peripartum cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wolff, Mie; Ersbøll, Anne Schjødt; Hegaard, Hanne

    2018-01-01

    of regaining psychological balance and wellbeing (i.e. psychological adaptation) after having experienced severe peripartum morbidity. DESIGN: A qualitative exploratory research design was applied to guide the study. Data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured, face-toface telephone and e...

  10. Gestalt Psychology and Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Bob; And Others

    Several concepts detailed in Gestalt psychology/therapy appear to have a close relationship with many concepts being applied in bilingual education. The primary contribution of Gestalt psychology to learning theory in the U.S. is an emphasis on perception and reintegration of relationships within an organized whole. To the teacher this means that…

  11. Psychological constructionism and cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechtman, Lisa A; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y

    2012-06-01

    Lindquist et al. argue that emotional categories do not map onto distinct regions within the brain, but rather, arise from basic psychological processes, including conceptualization, executive attention, and core affect. Here, we use examples from cultural neuroscience to argue that psychological constructionism, not locationism, captures the essential role of emotion in the social and cultural brain.

  12. Educational Psychology: A Future Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R.

    2018-01-01

    In my response to Alexander's (2018) paper marking the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association and the field of educational psychology, I have taken the perspective of a member of our discipline from some time in the future who is contributing to a larger work looking back at the history and development of our field (thus, a…

  13. Interdisciplinarity and Undergraduate Psychology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-Smith, Ian; Pearson, Elissa; Ranzijn, Rob; Campbell, Alan; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    This work identifies the human service sector as an important and growing destination for psychology graduates. It further identifies a number of key themes which flow from that observation and which are important to configuring psychology education in a way which takes account of emerging trends. The major theme identified in the research is the…

  14. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  15. Objective techniques for psychological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortz, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Ross, T.

    1973-01-01

    A literature review and a pilot study are used to develop psychological assessment techniques for determining objectively the major aspects of the psychological state of an astronaut. Relationships between various performance and psychophysiological variables and between those aspects of attention necessary to engage successfully in various functions are considered in developing a paradigm to be used for collecting data in manned isolation chamber experiments.

  16. [Psychological time, definition and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-10-01

    Psychological time comprises different forms of time. Each form of time corresponds to different psychological mechanisms. The human being is subject to distortions of time under the effect of emotions. The effectiveness of social interaction depends on our aptitude to synchronise ourselves with others.

  17. Psychology's dilemma: An institutional neurosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzko, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The term psychology refers both to an institutional discipline and to a subject matter. Henriques, in his article "Psychology Defined" (this issue) , emphasizes the second reference, and its focus can be sharpened by taking into account the first reference. On the one hand, epistemic progress in

  18. Psychological Assessment of the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Donald A.

    The paper examines issues, philosophy and guidelines for psychological assessment of the disabled. Focused on are: (1) adjustments in testing procedures and (2) applicability of standard norms with commonly used psychological test instruments for the assessment of ability, interest, and personality. The importance of accurate assessment for…

  19. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  20. How Old Is Scientific Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, John S.

    Scientific psychology did not begin with Fechner and Wundt in the 19th century; its roots actually stretch back to 18th century Germany. The only detailed account of this period was published by Max Dessoir more than 80 years ago. Dessoir identified some of the crucial figures in early psychology, including Wolff, Bonnet, Kruger, Hissman, and…

  1. Psychologic Outcomes in Implant Prosthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B.; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad W.; Garrett, Neal R.; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J.; Stanford, Clark M.; Wolfaardt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Consensus regarding outcomes of the treatment of tooth loss, especially the psychologic outcomes, is needed to guide discovery of best practices and enable a better understanding of patient management for this chronic condition. This paper presents the findings of the ORONet Psychological Working

  2. Network Analysis in Community Psychology: Looking Back, Looking Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Zachary P; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2017-09-01

    Network analysis holds promise for community psychology given the field's aim to understand the interplay between individuals and their social contexts. Indeed, because network analysis focuses explicitly on patterns of relationships between actors, its theories and methods are inherently extra-individual in nature and particularly well suited to characterizing social contexts. But, to what extent has community psychology taken advantage of this network analysis as a tool for capturing context? To answer these questions, this study provides a review of the use network analysis in articles published in American Journal of Community Psychology. Looking back, we describe and summarize the ways that network analysis has been employed in community psychology research to understand the range of ways community psychologists have found the technique helpful. Looking forward and paying particular attention to analytic issues identified in past applications, we provide some recommendations drawn from the network analysis literature to facilitate future applications of network analysis in community psychology. © 2017 The Authors. American Journal of Community Psychology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Community Research and Action.

  3. BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS AND THE NEED OF PSYCHOLOGY IN ECONOMIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea GRADINARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.

  4. Five currents of organizational psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2017-01-01

    Organizational psychology may be seen as consisting of a number of mutually conflictual currents developed over several decades. This article discusses five currents in organizational psychology that have both been dominant in Scandinavia and have had particular significance in relation...... to the field of organizational development: The social psychological, the socio-technical, the humanistic, the work psychological and the social constructionist currents. Central arguments and works from leading scholars are discussed. It is argued that although treated differently the notions of the small...... group, group dynamics, resistance to change and process consultation constitute pivotal and through going tenets in all the currents. These notions, it is argued, link the discipline of organizational psychology together into a mutually discordant, but anyway relatively consistent research area...

  5. Psychological counselling in problematic diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    -destructive behaviour, but future research should substantiate these preliminary findings. Behaviour family therapy proved beneficial in terms of resolving family conflicts, but did not impact glycaemic control. Conclusions: Evidence to support the effect of psychological treatment in problematic diabetes is still......Background: In past decades clinicians have increasingly recognized the importance of psychological support for people with diabetes and their families, and many have recommended integrating psychological counselling into routine diabetes care. It is therefore important to consider whether...... psychological interventions in diabetes are effective in improving clinical outcomes. Methods: This review was limited to the literature reporting on the treatment of five common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management: depression, eating disorders, anxiety/stress, self...

  6. Psychology between science and profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychology is powerful science, with great knowledge deposited for understanding the individual (his development and pathological outcomes, behavior and predicting behavior in different situations, groups, historical flows and historical characters, cultural and civilisation changes, artistic and other creations. Psychology, as it becomes to the science of soul, has covered all areas of human spirit. Discreprancy between potential and power of psychology and her use (in the work of psychologists author connects for positioning and realisation of psychology in university teachings. Whit the help of psychology we can, not just successes in life but we can also understand life itself. But, how many psychologists can contribute to that? Why is that so?.

  7. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  8. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...

  9. Anthropological aspects of health psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Shuvalov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical study carried out in the framework of the research project «Determinants of psychological health of the modern person». The issue of psychological health is considered in the context of the anthropological crisis that affects public body and causes a decrease in synergetic social life. On the level of specific manifestations, it is associated with damage to the spiritual and moral sphere, distortion of personal way of life and interpersonal relationships, which leads to a general decline in viability. A growing number of people, whose subjective state can be described as mentally fit, but personally sick is identified. Secondary symptoms of such conditions are depression, aggression, dependent behaviour. However, their essential characteristics are not captured by the existing social psychological, psychological pedagogical and medical psychological concepts and also do not fit the typical description of psychological emotional and/or behavioural disorders. The author adheres to the hypothesis that these states have specific spiritual and psychological conditions and symptoms that deserve scientific analysis and philosophical reflection. The leitmotif of the paper is the issue of mental health in its scientific and philosophical sense. Representation of health from the standpoint of modern humanitarian knowledge and traditional spiritual culture are generalized. The theory of general psychological health is developed. The main approaches to the problem of psychological health are presented. Comparative analysis of the humanistic and anthropological models of mental health is shown. Correspondence between the anthropological conditions and criteria of mental health concepts of the modern national educational ideal is presented. Educational activity is described as anthropological practice aimed at acquiring by a child the wide range of values as a person. As such, it is the most conducive to

  10. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  11. Counseling Health Psychology: Assessing Health Psychology Training within Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…

  12. Psychology and Optometry: Interaction and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Bittner, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Because a number of vision conditions have psychological components and some psychological conditions may be complicated by vision difficulties, interdisciplinary cooperation between clinical psychology and optometry should prove fruitful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of health problems. (EVL)

  13. The Psychology of Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Marino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cows (Bos taurus are consumed worldwide as beef and veal, kept as dairy product producers, employed as draft animals in labor, and are used for a long list of other products, including leather and manure. But despite global reliance on cows for thousands of years, most people’s perception of them is as plodding herd animals with little individual personality and very simple social relationships or preferences. Yet, a review of the scientific literature on cow behavior points to more complex cognitive, emotional and social characteristics. Moreover, when cow behavior is addressed, it is almost entirely done within the framework of and applied to their use as food commodities. Therefore, there is relatively little attention to the study of cow intelligence, personality and sociality at a basic comparative level. In this review, we examine the current state of scientific knowledge about cows within an objective comparative framework, describing their cognitive, emotional, and social characteristics. Our aim is to provide a more veridical and objective current summary of cow psychology on its own terms and in ways which will facilitate better-informed comparisons with other animals. Moreover, an understanding of the capabilities and characteristics of domestic cows will, it is hoped, advance our understanding of who they are as individuals.

  14. Psychological stress in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsher, Margaret L

    2012-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic illness associated with emotional and physical consequences which impact on quality of life. Although the impact of fatigue is well understood, emotional impacts of sarcoidosis are less commonly recognized and addressed in routine clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to highlight that sarcoidosis can result in considerable psychological distress. Not only is there a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in sarcoidosis, but clinical depressive and anxiety disorders are more common than seen in the general population. Patients with sarcoidosis have perceptions and beliefs about their disease that may impact on their willingness to engage in recommended therapies. They may also exhibit a disordered perception of their disease and a personality profile of neuroticism. Understanding the minimally important clinical difference in the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and validation of the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ) across different populations supports the use of these tools in routine clinical practice and clinical trials. Understanding the global impact of sarcoidosis is important for patients and clinicians, and use of validated instruments, such as the SHQ and FAS, allows for more comprehensive assessment of the disease and the impact of any interventions.

  15. My relational self psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicholz, Judith Guss

    2009-04-01

    In this article, I suggest recent sources of influence on psychoanalysis and describe a contemporary relational self psychology that is my personal attempt at integration. Even with this integration, I struggle to find the right "therapeutic" balance between my essential but imperfect instrument for empathic listening, on the one hand, and the risks of authentic engagement, on the other. These dialectical tensions in me mirror those in the psychoanalytic community as a whole, poised between a scientifically based practice and a healing "art"--or between a complex but teachable methodology or discipline-and an ordinary (yet extraordinary) human relationship in which spontaneity and even improvisation play a role. Complicating this balancing act, there is new evidence from neuroscientists, attachment theorists, and infant-caregiver researchers that, from birth onward, bidirectional influences on brain and psychic development create contingent and unpredictable outcomes in every intimately related dyad. Thus, the contemporary analyst must expect to be changed by the work and--while taking full responsibility for his or her own contribution--must recognize patient and analyst as co-creators of the psychoanalytic project. At the same time that we now recognize contingency, complexity, and chaos at the heart of human minds and relationships, we also acknowledge the central importance of a sense of continuity and coherence as the individual undertakes the pursuit of goals and relationships in life. What kind of relationship can facilitate these qualities in the sense of self? That is the question that this article undertakes to answer.

  16. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalar O.G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  17. Positive psychological interventions aimed at enhancing psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni; Stemmet, Lehan; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni

    2017-01-01

    Interventions aimed at the enhancement of positive organisational behaviours, within organisational contexts, are imperative for creating and sustaining a high-performance culture, where individual and organisational strengths are optimized and top-talent retained. Psychological ownership, one form

  18. Insights in cognitive patterns: Essays on heuristics and identification

    OpenAIRE

    Rothengatter, Marloes

    2016-01-01

    People are inclined to find patterns in everything they sense, even if there is no pattern to discover. Humans use action-oriented mental patterns as rules of thumb, so called heuristics, in speedy decision-making. At the same time, we see this desire for pattern finding in social orderliness, in cognitive social psychology, when studying identification. Drawing on analyses of three distinct datasets, this dissertation presents four interrelated studies that aim to advance our understanding o...

  19. Martial arts and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J R

    1988-12-01

    The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.

  20. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed. (paper)

  1. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  3. Granular patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, Igor S

    2009-01-01

    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  4. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  5. Department of Psychology, Obafemi Awolo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-05

    Accepted: November 05, 2014. Department of Psychology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria ... place attachment, a strong internal locus of control and strong and accessible ..... Scale for Turkish University students. Journal of ...

  6. Mapping the Development of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Flis, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    An invited presentation I gave at the PSI EGG One-day Conference for Early Career Psychologists in Ireland on my ongoing research of mapping the historical development of psychology through journal text-mining. 

  7. Health psychology and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Delshad Noghabi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Health psychology is the defined as studying of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. It contributes to is concerned with the understanding of how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute role to in physical health and illness. Psychological factors can affect health directly. For example, health is hurt by the chronically occurring environmental stressors which cumulatively affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, cumulatively, can harm health. On the other hand, a person's health is also interwoven with the Behavioral behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. For exampleinstance, certain behaviors behaviors, including smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can, over time, harm (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption health but exercise and diet low in saturated fat or can enhance health (exercise, diet low in saturated fat.

  8. Cognitive Psychology and Mathematical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brian

    1981-01-01

    This review illustrates aspects of cognitive psychology relevant to the understanding of how people think mathematically. Developments in memory research, artificial intelligence, visually mediated processes, and problem-solving research are discussed. (MP)

  9. Acculturation, personality, and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2011-12-01

    Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.

  10. Toward a cogenetic cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way of build......The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way...... to account for developmental processes must emerge from a triadic system, rather than following the procedures of a binary logic, in order to have any correspondence between concept building and phenomenological world in psychology. Then, I sketch an epistemological approach called method of complementary...... negation that could help cultural psychology to build more developmental abstract models of very concrete human phenomena....

  11. Varieties of Fame in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L

    2016-11-01

    Fame in psychology, as in all arenas, is a local phenomenon. Psychologists (and probably academics in all fields) often first become well known for studying a subfield of an area (say, the study of attention in cognitive psychology, or even certain tasks used to study attention). Later, the researcher may become famous within cognitive psychology. In a few cases, researchers break out of a discipline to become famous across psychology and (more rarely still) even outside the confines of academe. The progression is slow and uneven. Fame is also temporally constricted. The most famous psychologists today will be forgotten in less than a century, just as the greats from the era of World War I are rarely read or remembered today. Freud and a few others represent exceptions to the rule, but generally fame is fleeting and each generation seems to dispense with the lessons learned by previous ones to claim their place in the sun. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Psychology students from Leiden University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...... with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time...

  13. Between history and cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Innis’ and Brinkmann’s papers (this issue) tackle two key aspects in cultural psychology: the mediating role played by the different systems of meanings throughout history in making sense of the world, and the normative role of those systems, including psychology itself. This paper offers...... a reflection on these two issues. It begins by highlighting the contribution of psychology and history, as emerging disciplines in the 19th Century, to the creation of a normative framework for the subject of modernity according to the needs of modern nation states. It also alludes to both disciplines’ common...... accounts. Drawing on this assumption, it is discussed how past events are constructed, thus bringing mediation and meaning-making to the fore. Special attention is paid to narratives as symbolic meaning-making tools. We will conclude by discussing usage of the past and the role that cultural psychology can...

  14. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, Finn; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... adjustment for education. For women, there was no evidence of a consistent association. CONCLUSION: The reviewed articles were not supportive of any associations between psychological workload and either general or abdominal obesity. Future epidemiological studies in this field should be prospective......BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...

  15. Bringing Sport Psychology into Physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Caroline; Walker, Natalie; Green, Alison; Rostron, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Whilst the benefits of sport psychology intervention during injury rehabilitation are well documented it appears that it remains underutilised by physiotherapists (Alexanders, Anderson and Henderson, 2015, Physiotherapy, 101, 95-102). A lack of education in this field for physiotherapists has been suggested as a causative factor. Preliminary studies undertaken on North American populations have shown support for sport psychology education interventions but no studies have examined physiothera...

  16. Psychological examinations of radiological personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litver, B.Ya.; Ivanov, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that a comprehensjve hygienic evaluation of the impact of ionizing radiations on man needs to take into account not only the biologic effects of these radiations, but also their psychologic and emotional effects, which may aggravate or lessen the disturbances caused by radiation. Several methods of psychologic examination of persons handling ionizing radiation sources are proposed, and the desirability of applying these methods in the dispensary system is indicated

  17. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  18. Is evolutionary psychology a metatheory for psychology? A discussion of four major issues in psychology from an evolutionary developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheoretical framework for psychology. We argue that evolutionary psychology should be expanded if it is to offer new insights regarding the major issues in psychology. Evolutionary developmental biology can provide valuable new insights into issues

  19. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  20. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A.

    2011-01-01

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  1. Evidence-Based Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts). This article outlines the central elements of evidence-based psychological assessment (EBPA), using the American Psychological Association's tripartite definition of EBPP as integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences. After discussing strategies for conceptualizing and operationalizing evidence-based testing and evidence-based assessment, 6 core skills and 3 meta-skills that underlie proficiency in psychological assessment are described. The integration of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is discussed in terms of the complex interaction of patient and assessor identities and values throughout the assessment process. A preliminary framework for implementing EBPA is offered, and avenues for continued refinement and growth are described.

  2. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  3. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  4. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo E. Iso-Ahola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  5. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1) scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative); (2) non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical) and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3) statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4) psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size) are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance), not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested. PMID:28626435

  6. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; MATSUDAIRA, Ko; DE JONGE, Jan; TOSAKA, Naoya; WATANABE, Kazuhiro; TAKAHASHI, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental he...

  7. Negotiating Gender Norms to Support Men in Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Aisling; Richardson, Noel

    2018-01-01

    Underpinning a general pattern of higher suicide rates in men is the assumption that men do not ask for help or utilize the health-care system during times of psychological distress. There has been a failure to grapple with the dynamic of when, how and from whom men might ask for help during times of psychological distress, and what key barriers or enabling factors are likely to influence potential help-givers' capacity or willingness to offer help to men in psychological distress. The aim of this study was to investigate how masculine norms impact men's help-seeking as well as care givers' behaviors and willingness to support men in need of psychological help or perceived to be at risk of suicide. Focus groups ( n = 13) were used with "high-risk suicide" groups of men and community gatekeepers. The principles of grounded theory were used for data analysis. Three themes emerged: "negotiating ways to ask for, offer and accept help without compromising masculinity"; "making and sustaining contact with men in psychological distress"; and "navigating roles responsibilities and boundaries to support men in psychological distress." Approaches to suicide prevention need to take account of how masculine norms shape men's willingness to ask for and accept help during times of psychological distress as well as care givers willingness to offer help. The findings address a gap in the literature by looking beyond men's help-seeking as a passive, one dimensional construct, to a more dynamic triad of help-seeking/giving/taking behaviors that are embedded in the sociocultural context of men's lives.

  8. The psychological correlates of dependency in the Jamaican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, G; Hickling, F W

    2013-01-01

    To establish the prevalence of psychological dependency in the Jamaican society in order to examine the relationship between the psychological correlates of dependency and socio-political dependency in this post-colonial country. A total of 1506 adult individuals were sampled from 2150 households using a stratified sampling method and assessed using the 17 questions of the Jamaica Personality Disorder Inventory (JPDI) on the phenomenology of dependency that are grouped into the psychological features of physiological dependency, financial dependency, and psychological dependency. The database of responses to the demographic and JPDI questionnaires was created and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. Of the national population sampled, 77.1% denied having any of these phenomenological symptoms of dependence while 22.63% of the population admitted to having some phenomenology of dependency, ranging from mild (5.6%), to moderate (12.1), or severe (4.9%). Substance use (physiological dependency) responders accounted for 21.23%, financial dependency responders for 43.45%, and psychological dependency responders for 15.96%. Significant gender and socio-economic class patterns of dependency were revealed. This substantial swathe of the Jamaican population acknowledged their own dependency and behavioural withdrawal response to physical or emotional loss in their life, and reported having dependency problems in managing their financial and monetary affairs. Three-quarters of the Jamaican responders of this survey ostensibly are free of the phenomenology of dependency while a more vulnerable one-quarter has insight that they are still locked in a struggle for psychological independence. The political and economic relations between psychological dependency and socio-political dependency are discussed.

  9. Psychological Correlates of Civilian Preparedness for Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodas, Moran; Siman-Tov, Maya; Kreitler, Shulamith; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-08-01

    Preparedness for emergencies and disasters is imperative for public resilience. Previous studies have revealed low levels of civilian preparedness for conflicts. Classic behavioral models prove inapt in describing preparedness patterns in victimized populations chronically exposed to this threat. In an effort to expand this perspective, we hypothesized that other psychological constructs are correlated with preparedness. A cross-sectional, Internet-based study was performed in Israel in early 2016. A sociodemographically diverse sample included 385 participants, Jews and Arabs. The tools included a preparedness index, sense of preparedness questionnaire, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Life Orientation Test, Behavioral Inhibition & Activation System scales, and ego defenses. The results suggested that optimistic and rational individuals reported significantly higher levels of preparedness, whereas those who scored highly on the trait anxiety scale and those with a tendency to use denial coping mechanisms reported significantly lower levels of preparedness. The findings suggest that additional constructs, other than classic threat perception components, might play a key role in governing preparedness behavior. In particular, psychological manipulation of dispositional optimism or optimistic thinking might be effective in motivating preparedness behavior. Future research should explore such innovative ways to promoting preparedness. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:451-459).

  10. An Evolutionary Psychology Approach to Consumer Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZURINA BT MOHAIDIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human behaviour can be explained not only through experience and environments but also by incorporating evolutionary explanation. Consumer behaviour could not be understood accurately without infusing Darwinian evolutionary theory which has contributed in the knowledge of human nature. Evolutionary psychology revolves around the human’s evolved mental and the impact on human’s traits and behaviour where the influence of the environment to our genes would determine our individual behaviour and traits, resulting in variation among us. Foraging which is a part of behavioural ecology involves many sequences or repetitions of animals’ activities and decision making which is useful to relate these patterns of activities to the decisions made in human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate the similarities of human consumption and ecological behaviour by employing interpretative and comparative approach. It is hoped that by applying the evolutionary theory in explaining consumer choice, this study is able to contribute to the development of behavioural ecology in human consumption. The analysis of the data is done aggregately for 200 consumers and individually for 20 consumers, who have purchased four product categories over a year. This study concludes that the theories of evolutionary psychology can fit to the consumers’ buying behaviour implicating its usefulness in explaining the consumers’ choice.

  11. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  12. Investigating Creativity in Graphic Design Education from Psychological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Amur Alhajri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of creativity in graphic design education has been a central aspect of graphic design education. The psychological component of creativity and its role in graphic design education has not been given much importance. The present research would attempt to study ‘creativity in graphic design education from psychological perspectives’. A thorough review of literature would be conducted on graphic design education, creativity and its psychological aspects. Creativity is commonly defined as a ‘problem solving’ feature in design education. Students of graphic design have to involve themselves in the identification of cultural and social elements. Instruction in the field of graphic design must be aimed at enhancing the creative abilities of the student. The notion that creativity is a cultural production is strengthened by the problem solving methods employed in all cultures. Most cultures regard creativity as a process which leads to the creation of something new. Based on this idea, a cross-cultural research was conducted to explore the concept of creativity from Arabic and Western perspective. From a psychological viewpoint, the student’s cognition, thinking patterns and habits also have a role in knowledge acquisition. The field of graphic design is not equipped with a decent framework which necessitates certain modes of instruction; appropriate to the discipline. The results of the study revealed that the psychological aspect of creativity needs to be adequately understood in order to enhance creativity in graphic design education.

  13. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  14. Introductory Psychology Texts as a View of Sociobiology/Evolutionary Psychology's Role in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Elisabeth Cornwell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociobiology and its descendant evolutionary psychology (EP have struggled to gain ground within the social sciences over the past 30 years. While some have heralded the Triumph of Sociobiology (Alcock, 2001, others have critiqued it as a poor approach to understanding human behavior and would prefer that a Darwinian perspective remain outside the domain of human social sciences. We attempt to assess just how successful (or not it has been by examining how it has been covered in introductory psychology textbooks over the past 30 years. Our findings indicate that a Darwinian perspective has gained influence and acceptance within the field of psychology over the past three decades. However, we also find that EP as a sub-discipline is often perceived as narrowly defined and limited to research on mating strategies. We address how these perceptions may affect the future of EP, and possible steps needed to increase both the acceptance and importance of evolutionary theory to psychology.

  15. Proof patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics, and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician’s toolkit.

  16. Usefulness of a psychology proficiency test to evaluate psychology education : A study at a small psychology college

    OpenAIRE

    田積, 徹; 石原, 俊一; 嶋原, 栄子; 谷口, 麻起子; 新美, 秀和; 炭谷, 将史; 李, 艶; 高橋, 宗; 高橋, 啓子

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to reveal the association between results on a psychology proficiency test (PPT) and academic performance in psychology courses of students studying psychology at a small local college. This study controlled for factors of metacognition and motivation to achieve that are presumably related to results on the PPT. Two scores served as indicators of performance in psychology courses. These scores were calculated for students taking psychology courses, which included those cours...

  17. Self psychology and the modern dance choreographer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Carol M

    2009-04-01

    Theory and research methodology of self psychology are integrated with the experiences of modern dance choreographers to investigate the importance of creativity, art making, and aesthetics in mental health and our everyday lives. Empathy, as aesthetically based, is explored to understand the capacity of the arts to unite us in our humanity. Connections between aesthetic development, creativity, and infant patterns of learning are drawn. The influence of sensual and exploration/assertion motivational systems upon the contemporary choreographer are highlighted, leading to an understanding of the selfobject function of sensation and movement for the dance artist. Through an examination of the moment to moment ritualized experiences of studio work, the creative process in making dances is discussed. Ultimately understanding creativity and aesthetically based empathy inform our delineation of mental health and the need for aesthetic experience in everyday life.

  18. Pattern classification

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Richard O; Stork, David G

    2001-01-01

    The first edition, published in 1973, has become a classic reference in the field. Now with the second edition, readers will find information on key new topics such as neural networks and statistical pattern recognition, the theory of machine learning, and the theory of invariances. Also included are worked examples, comparisons between different methods, extensive graphics, expanded exercises and computer project topics. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

  19. Clinical psychology of religion. A training model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, M.H.F. van; Pieper, J.Z.T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will show you a part of a course "Clinical Psychology of Religion" that has been developed in the Netherlands for introducing mental health professionals in the field of clinical psychology of religion. Clinical psychology of religion applies insights from general psychology of

  20. Is Vygotsky Relevant? Vygotsky's Marxist Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between Vygotsky's psychology and Marxism, arguing that his was a "Marxist psychology" in its "historical foundation": a specific conception of history. This conception of history is evident in Vygotsky's analysis and diagnosis of the crisis in psychology. The creation of a Marxist, general psychology was the…

  1. Graduate Study in Psychology, 2013 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    APA Books, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Graduate Study in Psychology" is the best source of information related to graduate programs in psychology and provides information related to approximately 600 graduate programs in psychology in the U.S. and Canada. "Graduate Study in Psychology" contains information about: (1) number of applications received by a program;…

  2. From psychology of personality to psychology of persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojnov Dušan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers diverse approaches to human subjectivity conceptualization. On the one hand, a summary is made of an established psychological view of personality as an intrinsic psychological entity responsible for stylistic differences in the behavior of isolated individuals, founded on the traditional Cartesian view. On the other hand more recent views are presented, which take human subjectivity as personhood i.e. responsible action of moral subjects, placed within amongst-people space, and implying allied activity of persons in a social community. In addition, consideration is given to new methodological demands for psychologists who want to research the domain of human personhood as well as to deviations of a "new paradigm" of psychological investigations from scientific tradition in viewing methods that has prevailed in psychology until recently. Clarification of demands for studying personhood is a new trend in psychology, so it should be stressed that such orientation, despite its long-lasting past, virtually has a very short history.

  3. Community psychology practice: expanding the impact of psychology's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom

    2014-11-01

    This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Psychological Assessment Training in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihura, Joni L; Roy, Manali; Graceffo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association's requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.

  5. Systems of psychology as epistemology of psychology: technical supplies and conceptual bases for psychology education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriel Fierro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resuming the framework outlined in a previous analysis, the present work describes a proposal for teaching systems of psychology based on parameters of meta-theoretical analysis and specific meta-scientific models, with the aim of relocating psychological systems’ courses in systematology of psychology as a component of the epistemology of psychology. Three central issues for systematology in psychologists’ education are described: the importance of working with primary sources through specific pedagogical resources with the aim of developing scientific competences and attitudes, the need to have one (or several sets of fixed parameters to comparatively analyze theoretical systems, and the problems, criteria and options available when contextualizing such comparative meta-theoretical analysis in comprehensive meta-scientific models which belong to the philosophy of science and of psychology. We conclude on the need to transcend the teaching of systematology as a verbal enunciation of concepts proposed by 'great authors', and on certain risks and limitations regarding the teaching of psychological systems conceived as an epistemological exercise.

  6. Psychological Type of Person-Centered Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mandy; Turley, Joanne

    2016-02-01

    There are various models and approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. Important characteristics of therapists include psychological type. This study aimed to investigate the psychological type profile of person-centered counselors. The psychological type of 85 counselors (63 women, 22 men) was measured with the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTS). Results indicate that the FPTS can reliably measure psychological type among counselors, and the most common psychological type was introvert, intuitive, feeling, and judging (INFJ). The relation of these psychological types with a person-centered approach is further discussed.

  7. Psychological Profiles Of Accountants And Accounting Majors: An Asian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond M. Landry Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation makes it inevitable for accounting professionals with diverse personalities to work under one roof. Such differences in behavioral patterns (Type A or Type B) impact performance in good and bad ways. This paper examines the psychological profile of Asian accounting professionals and accounting students using Type A or Type B behavior classifications. Examination of accounting professionals shows that Type B is the most common behavior among all professionals sampled and contrary...

  8. Psychological Inflexibility and Child Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Verboon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Psychological flexibility is the main outcome of acceptance commitment therapy. Insight into the usefulness of measuring psychological flexibility is an important step to enable studies on the effectiveness of acceptance commitment therapy in middle-aged children (8-10 years). For this purpose, we examined the factor structure, the construct validity and the reliability of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth taps psychological inflexibility (the opposite of psychological flexibility) in children and adolescents. Although the questionnaire has been extensively validated in older children, this is not the case for middle-aged children. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth contains 17 items and is constituted of the subscales cognitive fusion, experiential avoidance and behavioral ineffectiveness. A shortened 8-item version also exists, the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth-8, which does not distinguish between these subscales. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, we assessed the relationship between psychological flexibility and child anxiety. Children, aged 8-10 years, were recruited via regular primary schools. Of the 459 approached children, 267 (58 %) parents signed informed consents for their children (Age: M  = 9.18; SD  = .79; Sex: n boys  = 137, 51 %). Children completed the questionnaires during regular classes. In this sample, the 17-item version of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth was less appropriate for measuring psychological inflexibility than the 8-item version. Furthermore, we found a significant positive relationship between psychological inflexibility and child anxiety. We argue that acceptance commitment therapy would be an interesting candidate for intervening early on in dysfunctional child anxiety, as acceptance commitment therapy's cognitive elements require cognitive skills that children are likely to

  9. Gestalt psychology: the forgotten paradigm in abnormal psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Gestalt views of psychopathology are almost completely ignored in mainstream psychology and psychiatry. However, a review of available evidence indicates a remarkable consistency between these views and current data from experimental psychopathology and cognitive neuroscience. This consistency is especially pronounced in the area of schizophrenia. In addition, there is a convergence of cognitive and neurobiological evidence regarding the validity of early Gestalt views of both normal brain-behavior relationships and disordered ones, as in schizophrenia. This article reviews some contributions of Gestalt psychology regarding schizophrenia and examines these views in light of more recent findings from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychopathology. We conclude that Gestalt theory is a viable theoretical framework from which to understand schizophrenia. Specifically, it appears that a breakdown of Gestalt organizational processes may characterize both the cognitive and the brain processes in schizophrenia.

  10. Psychological harm after PANE: NEPA's requirement to consider psychological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.S. III

    1984-01-01

    In Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE), the Supreme Court held that the National Environmental Policy Act does not require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider the probable impact of its actions on psychological health. The Court's opinion, however, supports the conclusion that NEPA generally requires federal agencies to consider such probable impacts. This article examines the scope of federal responsibility following this decision. It delineates the causal relationship test that the Court adopted in PANE, and discusses possible obstacles to the consideration of psychological impacts under NEPA. It divides federal actions into four categories, then considers the benefits and burdens of the ruling using the NRC's responsibility to consider psychological health effects before licensing new nuclear reactors. 221 references

  11. Should economic psychology care about personality structure?

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter, Hermann

    1993-01-01

    Since economic psychology is primarily interested in (a) how people in general react to the economic aspects of their environment, and (b) how these reactions change the economic components of their environment, as yet individual differences are not an important issue in economic-psychological research. After a brief look at how economic psychology used to deal with individual differences in the past, some suggestions are given, based on literature from social psychology, economic psychology,...

  12. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical bases in which it leans on. One of these transformations arises of its encounter with the positive Psychology, of recent appearance too. The theoretical work in this field is of interest because from a classic perspec- tive, from a biological view, aging is regarded as the decline in physical and psychic strengths and, therefore, the loss of those features and positive qualities that were fundamental during the youthful and mature life. Old age would be marked by a deterioration, fragility and loss of progressive selfregulation of the individual person. This view lead to ignoring clearly positive aspects of old the age such as the gathering experience or the greater availability of free time that would allow elderly people to search for ways of personal realization, among others. Of the journey for the different concepts in those that positive psychology and gerontology go being defined a group of characteristic of what we can call the psychic aging. In the first place a change appears in the perspective about what this process implies. Aging is not seen as a relentless and universal process of decline, but rather besides a great variability, it presents different aspects in those that we see the development of potentialities and resources that were not present in other ages. 

  13. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Teaching the History of Psychology: A Content Analysis of Course Syllabi from Doctor of Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merced, Matthew; Stutman, Zachariah E.; Mann, Sandra T.

    2018-01-01

    Psychology graduate students in the United States are expected to demonstrate competency in the history of psychology. Despite the topic's importance, there are limited guidelines. The present study examined history and systems of psychology (HSP) course syllabi from American Psychological Association accredited Doctor of Psychology programs. Of…

  15. From psychology of adaptation to psychology of social change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    and is influenced by contemporary socio-political contexts, then we need to introduce the science as not only studying how individuals are inclined to adapt, conform, and assimilate to the world as is, but also how and under which conditions individuals are agents for social change. I will discuss challenges......Introducing psychology to first year students comes with its own challenges of presenting it in a clear introductory manner, yet also triggering students to think critically about the theories they are presented with. If we were to think of social psychology as a discipline that mutually influences...

  16. From Cross-Cultural Psychology to Cultural Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Eckensberger, Lutz H.

    1990-01-01

    “… psychology from the very beginning has been struggling for its identity as a human science. Although psychology may seem to have successfuIly come of age, it is still an open question whether or not it can be further developed according to the principles of natural science, or whether it should have some unique features. Human beings, the way they think, feel and act, cannot easily be explained by "natural laws" alone; "cultural rules" have also to be taken into consideration. But these ru...

  17. E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana

    Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.

  18. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special...

  19. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.

  20. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting.

  1. Criminal tendencies and psychological testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobchik L. N.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods of psychological diagnostics closer to the psychology main research areas, which involve measuring the accuracy and statistical reliability. A set of methods that includes questionnaires should be complemented with projective tests in which the stimulus material is verbal in nature. The article presents the results of surveys of different groups of persons in conflict with the law, as well as screening tests contingent of youth groups and adolescents. High performance, spontaneously manifested aggressiveness, traits, emotional immaturity, low self-control and primitive-the requirement of the hierarchy of values at statistically significant level are identified in the data psychodiagnostic study, thus allowing to allocate the risk of wrongful conduct and to develop preventive measures of psycho-pedagogical and social nature. Psychological testing is an effective tool in the study of criminal predisposici and gives the key to a science-based approach in the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing crime.

  2. The internet as psychological laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skitka, Linda J; Sargis, Edward G

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviews studies published in American Psychological Association (APA) journals from 2003-2004 and additional studies (received in response to listserv requests) that used the Internet to collect data (N=121 total studies). Specific examples of three kinds of Web-based research are reviewed: (a) translational (established methods and research questions are adapted to the Web), (b) phenomenological (behavior on the Web is the focus of study), and (c) novel (methodologically innovations unique to Web-based research). Among other findings, our review indicated that 21% of APA journals published at least one article that reported on Web-based research, most Web-based psychological research uses experimental methods, a surprising number use college student samples, and deception in Web-based research is not uncommon. Strengths and weaknesses of Web-based psychological research in general, and our sample of studies in particular, are reviewed with special attention to possible concerns about sampling and the use of deception.

  3. Psychological impact of nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behere, Prakash B.; Chougule, Kaveri N.; Syyed, S.

    2017-01-01

    There are major Nuclear Power plant disasters in world, one was Chernobyl, Ukraine 1986, and other was Fukushima, Japan 2011. There are many studies, which are evidence based to demonstrate short and long terms consequences of nuclear plant disasters. The psychological consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing serious illness like cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and safai workers are the highest risk groups. It is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment

  4. The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen M; Sutton, Robbie M; Cichocka, Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    What psychological factors drive the popularity of conspiracy theories , which explain important events as secret plots by powerful and malevolent groups? What are the psychological consequences of adopting these theories? We review the current research and find that it answers the first of these questions more thoroughly than the second. Belief in conspiracy theories appears to be driven by motives that can be characterized as epistemic (understanding one's environment), existential (being safe and in control of one's environment), and social (maintaining a positive image of the self and the social group). However, little research has investigated the consequences of conspiracy belief, and to date, this research does not indicate that conspiracy belief fulfills people's motivations. Instead, for many people, conspiracy belief may be more appealing than satisfying. Further research is needed to determine for whom, and under what conditions, conspiracy theories may satisfy key psychological motives.

  5. The Council of Psychological Advisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2016-01-01

    Findings in behavioral science, including psychology, have influenced policies and reforms in many nations. Choice architecture can affect outcomes even if material incentives are not involved. In some contexts, default rules, simplification, and social norms have had even larger effects than significant economic incentives. Psychological research is helping to inform initiatives in savings, finance, highway safety, consumer protection, energy, climate change, obesity, education, poverty, development, crime, corruption, health, and the environment. No nation has yet created a council of psychological advisers, but the role of behavioral research in policy domains is likely to grow in the coming years, especially in light of the mounting interest in promoting ease and simplification ("navigability"); in increasing effectiveness, economic growth, and competitiveness; and in providing low-cost, choice-preserving approaches.

  6. How cultural evolutionary theory can inform social psychology and vice versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the theories and findings of mainstream social psychology and of cultural evolutionary theory can be mutually beneficial. Social psychology provides cultural evolution with a set of empirically verified microevolutionary cultural processes, such as conformity, model-based biases, and content biases, that are responsible for specific patterns of cultural change. Cultural evolutionary theory provides social psychology with ultimate explanations for, and an understanding of the population-level consequences of, many social psychological phenomena, such as social learning, conformity, social comparison, and intergroup processes, as well as linking social psychology with other social science disciplines such as cultural anthropology, archaeology, and sociology.

  7. Relationship satisfaction and interpartner agreement about acts of physical and psychological aggression: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, José Luis; Cuenca, María Luisa; Redondo, Natalia

    2017-08-15

    To analyze, in a multilevel context, the impact of individual-level relationship satisfaction on couples' mean reports of aggression and agreement about acts of physical and psychological aggression. We conducted a quota sampling method to recruit a community sample of 2.988 heterosexual adult couples from the Region of Madrid (Spain). The percentages of intimate partner aggression considering the highest report of aggression in the couple were around 60% of psychological aggression and 15% of physical aggression. Couples that used aggressive tactics showed low to moderate levels of agreement about physical and psychological aggression. Multilevel models confirm that women's relationship satisfaction had a significant influence on the level of agreement about acts of psychological aggression, but the same pattern of results was not observed for men. On the other hand, men and women's relationship satisfaction had no significant influence on the level of agreement about physical aggression. Psychological aggression plays a more relevant role in women's relationship satisfaction than physical aggression.

  8. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychological sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans-Clarkson, S E

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women.

  10. The cultural psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    a fragmented and rather static perspective of creativity. Cultural psychology transforms this conception by considering creative persons as Actors, creative processes as forms of Action, creative products as Artefacts and press factors as part of social (Audiences) and material (Affordances) environments......Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present...

  11. The Promise of Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychology has demonstrated its usefulness in studying and contributing to individual well being. The next big challenge for this new field is to help improving the social and cultural conditions in which people live. Three specific goals are discussed: A more complete understanding of human nature; forging a more sustainable and more fair social contract; and a rediscovery of the joys of existence. If Positive Psychology will be able to support these goals, it will become an important contributor to the evolution of human consciousness and the evolution of culture.

  12. Feminist Encounters with Evolutionary Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This Section of Australian Feminist Studies is the product of an event that took place at King’s College London in January 2015, hosted as part of the UK-based ‘Critical Sexology’ seminar series. Participants at this event – feminist scholars working across the fields of lin- guistics, cultural studies, sociology, and psychology – were invited to reflect on their encounters with evolutionary psychology (EP). As the event organiser, I was interested to prompt a discussion about how EP shapes t...

  13. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

  14. Family therapy and clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The results of a survey of 111 clinical psychologists in the Republic of Ireland along with some comparable data from US and UK surveys were used to address a series of questions about the link between family therapy and clinical psychology. Family therapy was not a clearly identifiable sub-specialty within clinical psychology in Ireland. Family therapy theoretical models were used by more than a quarter of the Irish sample to conceptualize their work but by less than a tenth of US and UK res...

  15. Psychological aspects of cosmetic rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, P

    1984-07-01

    This paper summarises some of the major findings of a doctoral research entitled "Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Rhinoplasty" carried out when the author was working in the United Kingdom on a thesis that was accepted for the degree of PhD by the University of London. From the point of view of the clinical psychologist there can be no doubt that cosmetic rhinoplasty does have largely beneficial short- and long-term psychological and behavioural effects on patients who request the operation and several observations and experiments are described to account for the efficacy and therapeutic value of this operation.

  16. Technology Addiction among Treatment Seekers for Psychological Problems: Implication for Screening in Mental Health Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P.; Marimuthu, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornogra...

  17. Advancing the Psychology of Entrepreneurship: A Review of the Psychological Literature and an Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); U. Stephan (Ute)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis article provides a narrative review of psychology of entrepreneurship research published in leading psychology journals, based on which we develop an organising framework for future psychological contributions to this field. Furthermore, we introduce the manuscripts collected in

  18. The Misrepresentation of School Psychology in Introduction to Psychology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paula Sachs

    1981-01-01

    This study indicates that introductory psychology textbooks ignore the role of the psychologist in the schools. Out of 84 textbooks, only 26 described the school psychologist. When 12 students analyzed these available descriptions for five skill types, no coherent images of school psychologists emerged. (AM)

  19. Could psychology be critically transformed from within?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Georgievska, Emilija

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way of thinking and speaking about psychology research and practice ? known as critical psychology and qualitative research methodology?which, as we argue throughout the text, is virtually absent in the context of Macedonian psychology. We delineate the key differences...... of the qualitative stance as they correspond to the fundamental assumptions within the more general field of critical psychology.......This paper introduces a new way of thinking and speaking about psychology research and practice ? known as critical psychology and qualitative research methodology?which, as we argue throughout the text, is virtually absent in the context of Macedonian psychology. We delineate the key differences...... between the two main paradigms of psychology today?traditional and critical psychology?by discussing the basic ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions that define each of the two paradigms. Furthermore, we contrast the two fundamentally different sets of assumptions regarding...

  20. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  1. Urban Public Space Context and Cognitive Psychology Evolution in Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chen; Xu, Hua-wei

    2017-11-01

    The rapid development of information technology has had a great impact on the understanding of urban environment, which brings different spatially psychological experience. Information and image transmission has been full with the streets, both the physical space and virtual space have been unprecedentedly blended together through pictures, images, electronic media and other tools, which also stimulates people’s vision and psychology and gives birth to a more complex form of urban space. Under the dual role of spatial mediumlization and media spatialization, the psychological cognitive pattern of urban public space context is changing.

  2. The psychology of multimedia databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.L.M. van Doorn (Mark); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMultimedia information retrieval in digital libraries is a difficult task for computers in general. Humans on the other hand are experts in perception, concept representation, knowledge organization and memory retrieval. Cognitive psychology and science describe how cognition works in

  3. School Psychology in Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sara; McGonnell, Melissa; Noyes, Amira

    2016-01-01

    Registration as a psychologist in Nova Scotia can be at the master's or doctoral level; however, the Nova Scotia Board of Examiners in Psychology has announced a move to the doctoral degree as the entry-level to practice. Many school psychologists in Nova Scotia practice at the master's level; therefore, this change could affect school psychology…

  4. Therapy for Child Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…

  5. Board Certification in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

  6. Jazzing up the Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2010-01-01

    Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…

  7. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  8. The Psychology of Online Sociability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, I will review current approaches to online sociability and present and exemplify a psychological theory, the Social Reality theory, of online sociability. By analyzing sociability in a virtual world based university course, I will present and analyze examples on how to understand...

  9. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  10. Guidelines for prevention in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  12. Psychology and the Handicapped Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrick, Carl E., Ed.; And Others

    Reviewed in seven author contributed chapters are findings of experimental psychology relevant to the education of handicapped children in the areas of sensory processes, visual perception, memory, cognition and language development, sustained attention and impulse control, and personality and social development. Noted in an introductory chapter…

  13. Teaching Psychology Students Computer Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnip, Gilbert W.

    This paper describes an undergraduate-level course designed to teach the applications of computers that are most relevant in the social sciences, especially psychology. After an introduction to the basic concepts and terminology of computing, separate units were devoted to word processing, data analysis, data acquisition, artificial intelligence,…

  14. The Community Psychology Evaluation Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jeffrey A.; Wolfe, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the American Evaluation Association (AEA) added community psychology (CP) to its roster of topical interests groups (TIG). One of the highlights of the CP TIG program at the 2012 AEA Conference and the genesis of this "American Journal of Evaluation" Forum was a panel of accomplished community psychologists and evaluation…

  15. Entrepreneurship Psychological Characteristics of Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghanzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Kholasehzadeh, Golrasteh; Birjandi, Masoumeh; Antikchi, Ensieh; Sobhan, Mohamad Reza; Neamatzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran in 2013. In this study average of entrepreneurship psychological characteristics of nurses which are higher than standard mark. The majority of the nurses have average entrepreneurship (20.4%). It means that they have some strong entrepreneurship. The result show that average of the need for achievement is 34.5%, the locus of control 33.8%, risk taking propensity 33.2%, ambiguity tolerance 34.2%, and innovation 41.6%. The results indicate that the 4 dimensions of the need for achievement, risk taking, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation were significant. However, the locus of control is not significant at a 0.05 significance level. In terms, entrepreneurially nurses are comparatively more innovative, have risk taking attitudes, need for achievement, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation. Results largely support significant positive relationships between psychological traits and entrepreneurial orientations.

  16. The psychological science of money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Psychological Science of Money brings together classic and current findings on the myriad ways money affects brain, mind, and behavior to satisfy not only our needs for material gain, but also for autonomy and self-worth. Leading experts trace the links between early concepts of value and modern

  17. A psychological perspective on money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    A thriving field of inquiry, the psychological science of money has recently witnessed an upsurge in research attention. In the present volume, we bring together and integrate a number of theoretical perspectives on the question of ‘how does money affect people’s mind, brain, and behavior?’

  18. [The psychological consequences of precarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, André

    2011-05-01

    Psychological suffering does not just effect people in a situation of exclusion and precarity. However, it does assume in these people considerable importance, representing profound suffering and hampering their efforts to reintegrate into society. Re-establishing a sociallink and putting in place support networks are two solutions to implement.

  19. Psychology, Counseling and the Seminarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wister, Robert, Ed.

    These 11 essays address the importance of psychological assessments for prospective seminary students. The articles are primarily for seminary officials who make admission decisions based on testing and the analysis of test results. The chapters also discuss questions and issues that all seminary faculty address on a daily basis: maturity of…

  20. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  1. Psychological characteristics of BDSM practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismeijer, A.A.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It has been generally thought that the practice of bondage-discipline, dominance-submission, sadism-masochism (BDSM) is in some form associated with psychopathology. However, several more recent studies suggest a relative good psychological health of BDSM practitioners. Aim The aim of

  2. Entrepreneurship Psychological Characteristics of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Dehghanzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran in 2013. In this study average of entrepreneurship psychological characteristics of nurses which are higher than standard mark. The majority of the nurses have average entrepreneurship (20.4%. It means that they have some strong entrepreneurship. The result show that average of the need for achievement is 34.5%, the locus of control 33.8%, risk taking propensity 33.2%, ambiguity tolerance 34.2%, and innovation 41.6%. The results indicate that the 4 dimensions of the need for achievement, risk taking, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation were significant. However, the locus of control is not significant at a 0.05 significance level. In terms, entrepreneurially nurses are comparatively more innovative, have risk taking attitudes, need for achievement, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation. Results largely support significant positive relationships between psychological traits and entrepreneurial orientations.

  3. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  4. Psychological Perspectives on Political Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Matthew L.; Seyle, D. Conor

    2007-01-01

    Presents a reply by the authors to comments by Sullivan and Webster. Both of these comments help to place our article on the red states versus blue states metaphor (Seyle & Newman) into a broader context. In particular, both comments make valuable points about the potential for collaboration between psychology, political science, and political…

  5. Teaching Psychology: The Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, John

    2008-01-01

    In this commentary, the author raises two critical aspects not adequately addressed in John Radford's (2008) wide ranging article on the teaching of psychology in higher education. The first aspect is the relevance of boundaries. The second aspect is the political context(s). These two issues, though artificially dissociated for current purposes,…

  6. Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…

  7. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  8. [Psychological stress and sudden death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalberi, Carlo; Ricci, Renato; Santini, Massimo

    2002-10-01

    Recent studies provide relevant evidence that psychological stress significantly influences the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death. Psychological stress expresses a situation of imbalance, derived from a real or perceived disparity between environmental demands and the individual's ability to cope with these demands. A situation of psychological stress may include different components: personality factors and character traits, anxiety and depression, social isolation and acute or chronic adverse life events. In particular, it has been documented that a sudden extremely hard event, such as an earthquake or a war strike, can significantly increase the incidence of sudden death. Nevertheless, each one of these factors, if not present, can balance a partially unfavorable situation; this overview suggests a multifactorial situation where almost all elements are present and in which the relative influence of each one varies according to the individual examined. Sudden death occurs when a transient disruption (such as acute myocardial ischemia, platelet activation or neuroendocrine variations), occurring in a patient with a diseased myocardium (such as one with a post-necrotic scar or hypertrophy), triggers a malignant arrhythmia. Psychological stress acts at both levels: by means of a "chronic" action it contributes to create the myocardial background, while by means of an acute action it can create the transient trigger precipitating sudden death. In the chronic action two possible mechanisms can be detected: the first is a direct interaction, which contributes to cause a hypertension status or to exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis consequent to endothelial dysfunction; the second one acts through adverse health behaviors, such as a poor diet, alcohol consumption or smoking. In case of acute psychological stress, the mechanisms involved are mainly the ability to trigger myocardial ischemia, to promote arrhythmogenesis, to stimulate platelet function, and to increase

  9. The structure of mental health research: networks of influence among psychiatry and clinical psychology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, N; Lusher, D

    2011-12-01

    Psychiatry and clinical psychology are the two dominant disciplines in mental health research, but the structure of scientific influence and information flow within and between them has never been mapped. Citations among 96 of the highest impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals were examined, based on 10 052 articles published in 2008. Network analysis explored patterns of influence between journal clusters. Psychiatry journals tended to have greater influence than clinical psychology journals, and their influence was asymmetrical: clinical psychology journals cited psychiatry journals at a much higher rate than the reverse. Eight journal clusters were found, most dominated by a single discipline. Their citation network revealed an influential central cluster of 'core psychiatry' journals that had close affinities with a 'psychopharmacology' cluster. A group of 'core clinical psychology' journals was linked to a 'behavior therapy' cluster but both were subordinate to psychiatry journals. Clinical psychology journals were less integrated than psychiatry journals, and 'health psychology/behavioral medicine' and 'neuropsychology' clusters were relatively peripheral to the network. Scientific publication in the mental health field is largely organized along disciplinary lines, and is to some degree hierarchical, with clinical psychology journals tending to be structurally subordinate to psychiatry journals.

  10. Comparison between burning mouth syndrome patients with and without psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M-J; Kim, J; Kho, H-S

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and socio-demographic characteristics between burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients with and without psychological problems. Of 644 patients with symptoms of oral burning, 224 with primary BMS were selected on the basis of laboratory testing, medical history, and psychometric tests: 39 with psychological problems (age 62.5±11.5years) and 185 without psychological problems (age 58.4±11.4years). Comprehensive clinical and socio-demographic characteristics, including psychological profiles and salivary flow rates, were compared between the two groups. No significant difference in sex ratio, duration and diurnal pattern of symptoms, unstimulated whole saliva flow rate, or marital status was found between the groups. The patients with psychological problems had a significantly higher mean age, reduced stimulated whole saliva flow rate, and lower level of education than those without psychological problems. The patients with psychological problems also displayed higher rates and greater severity of various types of BMS-related symptom in most parts of the oral mucosa, higher rates of stress-related symptoms, and greater difficulties in daily activities. The severity of taste disturbance was the factor most significantly correlated with the level of psychometry. In conclusion, psychological problems in BMS patients are associated with an aggravation of BMS symptoms. Copyright © 2018 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emotion regulation and psychological problems among Indian college youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T P Lavanya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Study of emotion regulation strategies used by youth becomes necessary in the background of the high prevalence of emotional disorders in this population. This study examined emotion regulation and psychological problems among college youth as well as the relationship between the two. Methodology: Four hundred and nineteen students, who were divided into two groups (older adolescents, aged 16-17 years - group 1, n = 217; young adults aged 18-25 years - group 2, n = 202 participated in this exploratory study. Results: Predominantly positive emotion regulation strategies were used by group 1 (positive refocusing, refocus on planning, and positive reappraisal, respectively. The sample as a whole used more positive strategies (positive refocusing: 82% and 64% and refocus on planning: 93% and 87% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Significant correlations between emotion regulation strategies (CERQ and psychological problems (YSR/YASR were found, thereby indicating that negative emotion regulation strategies were associated with psychological problems and vice versa. Females were found to have more of anxiety problems as opposed to males with more of conduct problems. However with increase in age, increase in the percentage of psychological problems and usage of negative emotion regulation strategies was observed. Conclusion: The findings of the present study contribute to understanding the patterns of emotion regulation in various emotional disorders. Findings could also contribute to developing an intervention program to help students having difficulty in regulation of their emotions.

  12. Time series analysis for psychological research: examining and forecasting change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebb, Andrew T; Tay, Louis; Wang, Wei; Huang, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research has increasingly recognized the importance of integrating temporal dynamics into its theories, and innovations in longitudinal designs and analyses have allowed such theories to be formalized and tested. However, psychological researchers may be relatively unequipped to analyze such data, given its many characteristics and the general complexities involved in longitudinal modeling. The current paper introduces time series analysis to psychological research, an analytic domain that has been essential for understanding and predicting the behavior of variables across many diverse fields. First, the characteristics of time series data are discussed. Second, different time series modeling techniques are surveyed that can address various topics of interest to psychological researchers, including describing the pattern of change in a variable, modeling seasonal effects, assessing the immediate and long-term impact of a salient event, and forecasting future values. To illustrate these methods, an illustrative example based on online job search behavior is used throughout the paper, and a software tutorial in R for these analyses is provided in the Supplementary Materials.

  13. Time series analysis for psychological research: examining and forecasting change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebb, Andrew T.; Tay, Louis; Wang, Wei; Huang, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research has increasingly recognized the importance of integrating temporal dynamics into its theories, and innovations in longitudinal designs and analyses have allowed such theories to be formalized and tested. However, psychological researchers may be relatively unequipped to analyze such data, given its many characteristics and the general complexities involved in longitudinal modeling. The current paper introduces time series analysis to psychological research, an analytic domain that has been essential for understanding and predicting the behavior of variables across many diverse fields. First, the characteristics of time series data are discussed. Second, different time series modeling techniques are surveyed that can address various topics of interest to psychological researchers, including describing the pattern of change in a variable, modeling seasonal effects, assessing the immediate and long-term impact of a salient event, and forecasting future values. To illustrate these methods, an illustrative example based on online job search behavior is used throughout the paper, and a software tutorial in R for these analyses is provided in the Supplementary Materials. PMID:26106341

  14. Neuropsychiatric and psychologic effects of A-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the influences of A-bombing from both psychiatric and psychologic points of view. This chapter deals with the knowledge of neuropsychiatric and psychologic influences of A-bombing. Many A-bomb survivors were exposed not only to radiation but also to rapid environmental alterations, such as death of family members and destruction of living. In addition, they suffered from sequelae and anxiety. Naturally, these were considered to cause psychological disturbance including autonomic imbalance and neurosis. Psychological survey, made immediately after A-bombing, is presented, with special attention to behavioral patterns in 54 A-bomb survivors by dividing them into 5 stimulation groups. Radiation syndrome occurring early after exposure and leukemia or cancer occurring later were referred to as 'Genbaku-sho' (A-bomb disease). A-bomb survivors' physically eventful conditions tended to induce mental anxiety or the contrary. Depression and phobia seemed to have correlated with physical conditions. In addition to 'A-bomb disease', mass media, dealing with 'A-bomb neurosis,' 'marriage in A-bomb survivors,' 'suicide in A-bomb survivors,' 'A-bomb survivors orphan,' and 'lonely old A-bomb survivors,' had a great impact on A-bomb survivors. For in uterus exposed and infantile A-bomb survivors, there was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups, although the incidence of eye tremor and sleeping disorder is found to be higher in the in uterus exposed group than the control group. (N.K.)

  15. Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal signal analysis based on sophisticated sensors, efficient communicationsystems and fast parallel processing methods has a rapidly increasing range of multidisciplinaryapplications. The present paper is devoted to pattern recognition, machine learning, and the analysisof sleep stages in the detection of sleep disorders using polysomnography (PSG data, includingelectroencephalography (EEG, breathing (Flow, and electro-oculogram (EOG signals. The proposedmethod is based on the classification of selected features by a neural network system with sigmoidaland softmax transfer functions using Bayesian methods for the evaluation of the probabilities of theseparate classes. The application is devoted to the analysis of the sleep stages of 184 individualswith different diagnoses, using EEG and further PSG signals. Data analysis points to an averageincrease of the length of the Wake stage by 2.7% per 10 years and a decrease of the length of theRapid Eye Movement (REM stages by 0.8% per 10 years. The mean classification accuracy for givensets of records and single EEG and multimodal features is 88.7% ( standard deviation, STD: 2.1 and89.6% (STD:1.9, respectively. The proposed methods enable the use of adaptive learning processesfor the detection and classification of health disorders based on prior specialist experience andman–machine interaction.

  16. Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology. ... paediatric and ethical aspects of the applied field of clinical and counselling psychology. The journal publishes contributions of research, clinical, counselling and theoretical interest.

  17. Linkage between Psychological Contract and Employee Retention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    strengthened by clearly stating expectations during recruitment and ... Impact of psychological contract in a work environment vis-à-vis employee retention, ..... psychological contract that will incite a faithful, fruitful and fulfilled work team.

  18. Alternative Approaches to the Baccalaureate Psychology Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Roger L.

    1983-01-01

    Undergraduate theses are an excellent method of providing paraprofessional research experience for psychology students. Describes some of the problems (and their remedies) in conducting and advising baccalaureate psychology theses, many of which were published or read at professional meetings. (CS)

  19. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is ... between psychology and religion has revolutionised the field of psychology of religion ..... paranormal or abnormal. In this wise, one is able to ...

  20. Psychological aspects of male fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Alice Toft; Madsen, Svend Aage Lykke; Humaidan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment.......To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment....

  1. Astronautics and psychology: recommendations for the psychological training of astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, G F

    1991-11-01

    The methods presently applied in the psychological training of astronauts are based on the principle of ensuring maximum performance of astronauts during missions. The shortcomings are obvious since those undergoing training provide nothing but the best ability to cope with Earth problem situations and add simply an experience of space problem situations as they are presently conceived. Earth attitudes and Earth behaviour remain and are simply modified. Through the utilization of interdisciplinary space knowledge a much higher degree of problem anticipation could be achieved and the astronaut be psychologically transformed into a space-being. This would at the same time stimulate interdisciplinary space research. The interdisciplinary space knowledge already available suggests that space requires not only physical and mental adjustments, but a profoundly new relationship with life.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, A DISCIPLINE OF PSYCHOLOGY OR AN INTERDISCIPLINARY OBJECT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeu Vidal Moranta

    2015-02-01

    To do this, we start with a brief remark of the study of human-environment interaction in the relationship between disciplines and the presentation of some milestones in the history of Environmental Psychology to show some of its axes of tension, which are focussed into to check the agendas of questions and lines of future research and development and the epistemological approaches and methods that arise, ending with a final reflection before conclusions.

  3. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  4. The Emergence of Contextual Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Thomas F

    2018-07-01

    Social psychology experiences recurring so-called "crises." This article maintains that these episodes actually mark advances in the discipline; these "crises" have enhanced relevance and led to greater methodological and statistical sophistication. New statistical tools have allowed social psychologists to begin to achieve a major goal: placing psychological phenomena in their larger social contexts. This growing trend is illustrated with numerous recent studies; they demonstrate how cultures and social norms moderate basic psychological processes. Contextual social psychology is finally emerging.

  5. Ecological psychology and social psychology: it is Holt, or nothing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2011-03-01

    What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and posit minds as perceivable. For ecological psychology, this entails asserting that minds are the types of things able to structure ambient energy. Contemporary research and theory suggests distinctly ecological ways of attacking this problem, but the problem is not new. Almost 100 years ago, Holt argued for the visibility of minds. Thus when considering these ideas, ecological psychologists face a choice that is at once about their future and their past. Extending ecological psychology's first principles into the social realm, we come to the point where we must either accept or reject Holt's arguments, and the wider context they bring. In doing so, we accept or reject our ability to study the uniquely social.

  6. CONTEMPLATIVE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: INTRODUCING MINDFULNESS INTO POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausiàs Cebolla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mindfulness is included in many positive psychology manuals as a “positive” technique, the implications of its use have scarcely been developed and the relationship between mindfulness and human well-being has barely been researched. Analyzing the main strengths of the two fields, the possibilities for their integration and the potential contradictions between their messages is essential in order to establish connections. Mindfulness is more than a meditation technique. It has implicit within it a set of values and ethical conditions that coincide to a great extent with the proposed assumptions from positive psychology, such as the development of kindness, compassion, and positive emotions. The aim of this paper is to present, on the one hand, the commonalities and similarities, and on the other, the differences between mindfulness and positive psychology. We also present the main studies that have investigated the role of mindfulness and contemplative practices on human well-being. Finally future research will be discussed and intervention suggested in order to bring the two proposals together.

  7. Medical - and – psychological help to cosmetological patients with disharmonic inflated self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Yudin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Classical treatment with medications, procedures, surgery is unable to restore physical health and almost has no effect on the psychological state of a patient. This raises the question of involvement in the treatment process psychological measures, increase knowledge about the psychology of the patient, medical professionals and their interrelation during treatment. The aim: to identify the targets of psychological help for cosmetological patients with disharmonic inflated self-esteem (DISE. Contingent and methods. The study was conducted at the Medical Center "CA Clinic" ( Kyiv during 2014 – 2016. 178 women with cosmetological problems participated in the research, among them 82 had DISE (active treatment group and 93 had harmonic self-esteem (control group. The complex psychodiagnostic study conducted for assessment psychological state. Cosmetological patients emotional condition was studied with SCL-90-R. To study the personality characteristics, Freiburg personality questionnaire (FPI, form B and self-esteem questionnaire by V. V. Stolin and S. G. Pantileyeva were used, behavioral patterns have been investigated with S. Lazarus and Folkman’s method of WCB. Psychosocial sphere was assessed with test for diagnosis of interpersonal relations by T. Leary and social and psychological adaptation by K. Rogers and R. Diamond. Results. DISE patients complete a specific group of patients who seek for cosmetic help. Skin pathology and outwardness changes in this group had negative effects especially in the field of psychosocial functioning. The external view for DISE women is associated with high social status and is a tool of psychological impact on the environment. In DISE women signs of somatization with painful and histrionic displays, tension, nervousness, frustration and distrust for the environment, a sense of loneliness were present in the psycho-emotional sphere. For DISE patients  personality and behavioral patterns such

  8. Games To Explain Aspects of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Raquel; Shapiro, Ronald G.

    This workshop presents a collection of demonstrations of various psychological concepts. It provides a technique to increase people's interest in the field of psychology and to teach some basic principles about psychology for use on a daily basis. The workshop covers sensation; perception; learning; memory; responding; thinking; interference;…

  9. Measuring student teachers' basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Bob Koster; Dr. Jos Castelijns; Dr. Marjan Vermeulen; dr.ir. Quinta Kools

    2012-01-01

    In the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need

  10. Measuring student teachers’ basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Koster, Bob; Kools, Quinta

    2018-01-01

    In the Self–Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need

  11. Facilitating Study Abroad for Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kenneth; Ziegler, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Study abroad in psychology promotes knowledge of other cultures, global-mindedness, the re-evaluation of one's cultural identity, interest in civic engagement, and insight into the universality or non-universality of psychological phenomena. Heightened recognition of these outcomes has led to increasingly larger numbers of psychology students…

  12. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  13. The Development and Maturation of Humanitarian Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerard A.

    2007-01-01

    Humanitarian psychological support as an organized field is relatively young. Pioneers in the field were involved primarily in providing psychological support to refugees and internally displaced persons in conflict and nonconflict situations. This article describes basic principles for the design of psychological support programs and…

  14. Psychological Impact of AIDS on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Myron L.

    There are at least three aspects to the psychological impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on children. First is the psychological response of the child with AIDS; second, the response of the child in a group at high risk for AIDS; and third, the psychological response of children in general to the perceived threat from AIDS.…

  15. Search as learning – a psychological perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammerer, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    In my talk I gave an overview on the topic “search as learning” from a psychological perspective (specifically an educational and applied cognitive psychology perspective). The focus of psychological research in this field is on using the Internet to learn about complex, conflicting scientific or

  16. HIV Disease in the Psychology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Ann R.

    2000-01-01

    Provides ideas for relating HIV topics to psychology content. Suggests three methods of curriculum integration: (1) using traditional course content (research methods, abnormal psychology, health psychology, gender and ethnic studies, drugs and behavior); (2) exploring diversity issues; and (3) challenging students' critical thinking skills. (CMK)

  17. Community Psychology, Evaluation, and Social Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Community psychology blends psychological science, a community-level perspective on social issues, and a social justice orientation. Despite important difference between community psychology and program evaluation, program evaluation is a key component of many community psychologists' practice and holds a central place in my own. In this…

  18. IFE PsychologIA: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is not intended for psychologists alone but for anyone with an interest in the current state of psychology in Africa and what has been accomplished to date in this field. It also addresses the future of psychology in Africa and the world over. ... PsyINFO online database of the American Psychological Association. ISSN: 1117- ...

  19. National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula" attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best…

  20. Measuring psychological ownership : A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; Olckers, C.; van Zyl, L.; van der Vaart, L.

    2017-01-01

    In the fields of psychology and management, psychological ownership has been identified as an important positive psychological predictor of workplace motives, attitudes and behaviours. Given its importance, the highly respected authors Avey, Avolio, Crossley, and Luthans (J Organ Behav 30:173-191,

  1. The Memorability of Introductory Psychology Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, R. Eric; Gurung, Regan A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Almost 2 million students enroll in introductory psychology each year in the United States, making it the second most popular undergraduate course in the nation. Introductory psychology not only serves as a prerequisite for other courses in the discipline but for some students this course provides their only exposure to psychological science.…

  2. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  3. Student Representations of Psychology in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Philip; Duffy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Psychology is a popular choice for UK students in their secondary school curriculum. Policy makers and elite universities, however, express concern about the subject. The British Psychological Society (2013) commissioned a detailed study of the provision of school curricula in psychology and as part of this work a survey of students was conducted.…

  4. Teaching Psychological Report Writing: Content and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Costaris, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of teaching graduate students in school psychology to write psychological reports that teachers and parents find readable and that guide intervention. The consensus from studies across four decades of research is that effective psychological reports connect to the client's context; have clear…

  5. Environmental psychology: history, scope and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to give an introduction in environmental psychology. We defi ne environmental psychology as the discipline that studies the interplay between individuals and their built and natural environment. This means that environmental psychology examines the infl uence of the environment on

  6. The Magic of Psychology in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Educational psychology is a curricular requirement for most teacher preparation programs in the world. Knowledge of educational psychology is assessed on examinations for teacher licensure in most jurisdictions, and understanding of psychology is assumed to be indispensible for effective teaching at all levels. Traditional university-based…

  7. Compulsory Schooling, Child Study, Clinical Psychology, and Special Education: Origins of School Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history of school psychology, emphasizing the work of L. Witmer (1897, 1907, 1910, 1922) and G. S. Hall (1911, 1923). Providing psychological services in the schools is among the earliest instances of applied psychology. School psychology was one of many child-saving services originating from 1890 to 1920. (SLD)

  8. The Asian American Psychological Association: Parallels and Intersections with Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…

  9. Giving Psychology Away: How George Miller's Vision Is Being Realised by Psychological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Philip; Hulme, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    In George Miller's famous address to the American Psychological Association in 1969 he explored the aims and future direction of psychology. Psychology could develop as a professional elite that develops specialised knowledge that experts can hold on to or it could aim to "give psychology away" and to allow the general public access to…

  10. College Student Perceptions of Psychology as a Science as a Function of Psychology Course Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Brenneman, Miranda M.; Glass, Jamie N.; Brito, Gabriela R.; Terranova, Andrew M.; Kim, JongHan; Meyersburg, C. A.; Piroch, Joan

    2015-01-01

    College students (N = 297) completed a perceptions of psychology as a science survey before and after completion of psychology courses. Psychology as a science scores increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the research methods courses, but scores in introductory psychology courses did not change and scores for students in…

  11. Popular Psychological Myths: A Comparison of Students' Beliefs across the Psychology Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the frequency and confidence with which college students endorse popular psychological myths, contrasting introductory psychology students (at the beginning and end of the course) with upper-level psychology majors and students who have never taken Introduction to Psychology. This study builds on the existing…

  12. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  13. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  14. A cross-over from Sport Psychology to the Psychology of Music: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this research was to evaluate whether the cross-over from Sport Psychology to the Psychology of Music in terms of the knowledge base, intervention Psychological Skills Training (PST) protocols and psychometric measurements was meaningful. A second aim was to ascertain whether the psychological ...

  15. Psychological aspects of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Cardoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is accompanied by important psychological distress experienced by both patient and family. From the moment of the diagnosis on, the patient has to develop a great number of mechanisms and tasks of adjustment to the illness and its circumstances. The high prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders during the course of cancer increases in the end stage disea‐ se. Therefore, a global plan of intervention integrating somatic and psychological/ psychiatric care throughout all the phases of the illness is crucial in the treatment of these patients. Health professionals working on this field can also experience emotional reactions to their patients’ suffering. They should be aware of the emotional aspects involved and develop training to help them intervene adequately with the patient and the family. The articulation between oncologists, palliative care professionals, and mental health care teams can be of great help in providing good quality of care to cancer patients.

  16. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  17. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology......This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... is meant to assist in integrating theoretical perspectives and research interests that are often thought of as incompatible, among them neuroscience, phenomenology of the body, social practice theory and technology studies. A main point of the article is that these perspectives each are necessary...

  18. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  19. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartsev, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  20. [Psychological approaches in hypertension management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall-Barbry, Gaëlle; Consoli, Silla M

    2006-06-01

    Stress factors, especially high levels of occupational stress, are associated with hypertension. Several so-called psychological techniques have been applied to hypertension: biofeedback, relaxation techniques (Schultz' autogenic training, Jacobson's progressive relaxation), transcendental meditation, and cognitive behavioral techniques for stress management. Randomized studies show that the best results come from cognitive behavioral methods, whether or not they include relaxation techniques. Other forms of psychotherapy (such as psychoanalysis) may be useful, although their benefits for blood pressure have not been tested in controlled trials. Patients should be informed about the personal benefits they may obtain from psychological treatment. Indications are hyperreactivity to stress, high levels of occupational stress, and difficulty in tolerating or complying with antihypertensive drugs.

  1. [Perspectives of psychological aging research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, H-W; Diegelmann, M

    2015-12-01

    Psychological aging research (PAF) focuses on age-related changes and behavioral stability (e.g. structure of social relations), performance and competences (e.g. cognitive functioning) as well as experiences (e.g. well-being) in advanced age. Knowledge is based in particular on currently available longitudinal studies, which historically for the first time allow very long observational periods (nearly across the complete life span). Additionally, innovative statistical analytical methods co-developed in the PAF nowadays allow a better understanding of the dynamics of change than ever before. This results in a new picture of psychological aging that confirms the multifaceted strengths of human aging but also reveals new risks of the current "prolonged aging".

  2. Psychological stress and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from the gene......OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...... the general population were investigated from 2008 to 2012. INTERVENTION(S): Participants completed a questionnaire on health and lifestyle, including a four-item questionnaire about self-rated stress, had a physical examination performed, delivered a semen sample, and had a blood sample drawn. MAIN OUTCOME...

  3. FEATURES OF STUDENT PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorina PASCA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Student psychological counseling is one of the means to acknowledge student identity by employing counseling tools that allow the psychologist to make use of a set of skills essential in achieving envisaged outcomes. To act as counseling psychologist for students is to guide actions by the five wh- questions: who (the client is, why (the counselor is approached, who (the counselor talks to, what (problem the student has to tackle, how (the problem can be solved. Some of the most important features that contribute to solving student problems are the counselor’s deontology, trustworthiness and attitude that are to be relied on without impeding the client’s personality traits. Thus, developing awareness of the features underlying student psychological counseling and acting accordingly is the real test for any professional in the field. Therefore, the real challenge is not being in the lion’s den, but living with it.

  4. Psychological aspects of diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Frank J.; Skinner, T. Chas

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes is a largely self-managed disease. Consequently, if the patient is unwilling or unable to self-manage his or her diabetes on a day-to-day basis, outcomes will be poor, regardless of how advanced the treatment technology is. Cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social factors have a vital...... role in diabetes management. More so, as co-morbid depression and other psychological problems are prevalent and negatively impact on well-being and metabolic outcomes. There is more to diabetes than glucose control; it requires a biopsychosocial approach. Motivational counselling and behaviour change...... and 'diabetes burnout'. Integrating psychology in diabetes management can help to effectively tailor care to the patient's individual needs and improve outcomes....

  5. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  6. The psychology behind the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia PANDELICA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extensive analysis of bought international business press andacademic literature in the field about crisis management and related fields. The paperis grounded on the premise that the psychology of the crisis is an important componentof the present international context and psychological factors play an important part inthe alteration of consumer’s behavior. The question that generated our researchapproach in such conditions was at what extent peoples’ behavior is determined byindividual rational choices. The central message of this paper is that in the presenteconomic crisis conditions the factors that are playing an important role in shapingpeople’s behaviour are: risk perception and risk attitude. We consider that at presentmanagers should understand how their clients react in crisis conditions and how theirbehavior changes in order to handle successfully the present situation.

  7. The psychology of computer programming

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Gerald Marvin

    1998-01-01

    This landmark 1971 classic is reprinted with a new preface, chapter-by-chapter commentary, and straight-from-the-heart observations on topics that affect the professional life of programmers. Long regarded as one of the first books to pioneer a people-oriented approach to computing, The Psychology of Computer Programming endures as a penetrating analysis of the intelligence, skill, teamwork, and problem-solving power of the computer programmer. Finding the chapters strikingly relevant to today's issues in programming, Gerald M. Weinberg adds new insights and highlights the similarities and differences between now and then. Using a conversational style that invites the reader to join him, Weinberg reunites with some of his most insightful writings on the human side of software engineering. Topics include egoless programming, intelligence, psychological measurement, personality factors, motivation, training, social problems on large projects, problem-solving ability, programming language design, team formati...

  8. Is Psychoanalysis a Folk Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these “extensionists,” asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett’s theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues. PMID:23525879

  9. Psychological factors in childhood headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kathleen; Dunn, David; Scott, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Recurrent headaches in children are most often migraines and are based in a genetic predisposition with a low headache threshold. As with any pain experience, there is a large emotional component associated with an attack of migraines that grows in amplitude as the headaches become more frequent and resistant to medicine, sleep, or other agents that used to work. Childhood headaches are especially complicated for 3 reasons: (1) the parents' fear (communicated to the child that serious medical pathology underlies the head pain), (2) the lack of evidence-based pharmacologic treatment, and (3) the belief that these headaches are largely psychological. This article addresses the mystery surrounding childhood headaches by delving into the influence of school, friends, and family; the impact of divorce; the coping skills required for a child to manage a migrainous nervous system; the potential secondary gain from headaches; psychiatric comorbidities and how to treat them; and the role of psychological intervention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [The state of the psychological contract and its relation with employees' psychological health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Francisco Javier; Silla, Inmaculada; Peiró, José María; Fortes-Ferreira, Lina

    2006-05-01

    In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.

  11. Gender Trouble in Psychology Theorizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Azerêdo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to understand the ‘trouble’ that theorizing gender implies given the complexity of this concept, which necessarily means to meet with difference and the need to position oneself in this encounter, and, before that, the tendency of the Academy and Psychology to domesticate and discipline the concept. The literary narrative is proposed as one possible “therapy” for this situation.

  12. Theoretical value of psychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David

    2012-01-01

    Apart from their diagnostic value, psychological tests, especially the Rorschach test, have an important theoretical value for understanding psychopathology. They present a picture of a living person, in contrast to a picture of forces and agencies within the person. This rests on 2 advantages of tests over the usual psychiatric and psychoanalytic interviews: Tests are ahistorical and they present information primarily of a formal kind.

  13. Psychology of the nuclear balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonntag, P

    1981-10-01

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament.

  14. The argument from moral psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Milevski, Voin

    2015-01-01

    The argument from moral psychology is one of the strongest arguments that non-cognitivists use against cognitivism-the metaethical position according to which our moral judgements express beliefs. According to this argument, once we put together the Humean theory of motivation and motivational internalism, we yield the conclusion that cognitivism cannot represent the correct view about the semantic function of moral discourse. I will first attempt to show that a neurological syndrome, called ...

  15. Some psychological aspects of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    1999-06-01

    Tinnitus rarely can be cured. The patient, however, needs help to avoid countless ineffective treatments and considerable cost. The clinical examination of patients with severe and chronic tinnitus must include associated psychological disturbances. After all medical and audiological treatments have failed, tinnitus patients often are advised to "learn to live with it." The aim of psychosocial treatment is assisting patients in the identification of aggravating factors in tinnitus and teaching them various coping skills.

  16. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  17. Excess Success for Psychology Articles in the Journal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Tanzman, Jay; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a systematic analysis of the relationship between empirical data and theoretical conclusions for a set of experimental psychology articles published in the journal Science between 2005–2012. When the success rate of a set of empirical studies is much higher than would be expected relative to the experiments' reported effects and sample sizes, it suggests that null findings have been suppressed, that the experiments or analyses were inappropriate, or that the theory does not properly follow from the data. The analyses herein indicate such excess success for 83% (15 out of 18) of the articles in Science that report four or more studies and contain sufficient information for the analysis. This result suggests a systematic pattern of excess success among psychology articles in the journal Science. PMID:25474317

  18. Backlash against American psychology: an indigenous reconstruction of the history of German critical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research.

  19. Intersectionality research in counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, Patrick R; Santos, Carlos E; Moradi, Bonnie

    2017-10-01

    This article introduces the special section on intersectionality research in counseling psychology. Across the 4 manuscripts that constitute this special section, a clear theme emerges: a need to return to the roots and politics of intersectionality. Importantly, the 2 empirical articles in this special section (Jerald, Cole, Ward, & Avery, 2017; Lewis, Williams, Peppers, & Gadson, 2017) are studies of Black women's experiences: a return, so to speak, to the subject positions and social locations from which intersectionality emanates. Shin et al. (2017) explore why this focus on Black feminist thought and social justice is so important by highlighting the persistent weaknesses in how much research published in leading counseling psychology journals has tended to use intersectionality as a way to talk about multiple identities, rather than as a framework for critiquing systemic, intersecting forms of oppression and privilege. Shin and colleagues also point to the possibilities intersectionality affords us when scholars realize the transformative potential of this critical framework. Answers to this call for transformative practices are foregrounded in Moradi and Grzanka's (2017) contribution, which surveys the interdisciplinary literature on intersectionality and presents a series of guidelines for using intersectionality responsibly. We close with a discussion of issues concerning the applications of intersectionality to counseling psychology research that spans beyond the contributions of each manuscript in this special section. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anida Fazlagić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, postpartum depression may include any nonpsychotic depressive disorder during the first four weeks of postpartum, according to research criteria during the first year after birth. The exact cause of postpartum depression is not yet known, and most researchers believe that postpartum depression is a bio-psycho-social problem. So far, the biological aspect of the disease is explained by changing the levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, and by decrease of hormone levels after birth. Psychological correlates are often associated with low selfesteem, pessimism as a personality trait, bad strategies of coping with stress, mood swings and emotional reactions. The social aspect of the disease is associated with the existential conditions of pregnant woman, support of partners and education level. This paper will include issues like hereditary causes and possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention. Nowadays, it is estimated that on average 15% of women, regardless of the pregnancy outcome, are suffering from postpartum depression. However, this information includes only those women who were diagnosed with postpartum depression and who themselves reported about it. Almost every woman receives basic care during pregnancy to prevent complications in the physiological level. This paper has shown possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention, the impact of optimism, self-esteem and coping skills.

  1. Incorporating Development Into Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Bjorklund

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental thinking is gradually becoming integrated within mainstream evolutionary psychology. This is most apparent with respect to the role of parenting, with proponents of life history theory arguing that cognitive and behavioral plasticity early in life permits children to select different life history strategies, with such strategies being adaptive solutions to different fitness trade-offs. I argue that adaptations develop and are based on the highly plastic nature of infants’ and children’s behavior/cognition/brains. The concept of evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms is introduced, defined as information processing mechanisms evolved to solve recurrent problems faced by ancestral populations that are expressed in a probabilistic fashion in each individual in a generation and are based on the continuous and bidirectional interaction over time at all levels of organization, from the genetic through the cultural. Early perceptual/cognitive biases result in behavior that, when occurring in a species-typical environment, produce continuous adaptive changes in behavior (and cognition, yielding adaptive outcomes. Examples from social learning and tool use are provided, illustrating the development of adaptations via evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms. The integration of developmental concepts into mainstream evolutionary psychology (and evolutionary concepts into mainstream developmental psychology will provide a clearer picture of what it means to be human.

  2. Psychological functioning in headache sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, F; Blanchard, E B; Arena, J G; Teders, S J; Teevan, R C; Rodichok, L D

    1982-05-01

    The present study examined the psychological test responses of 99 headache sufferers and 30 matched nonheadache controls. Headache subjects were of four types: migraine (n = 26), muscle contraction (n = 39), combined migraine-muscle contract ion (n = 22), and cluster (n = 12). Measures consisted of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, a modified hostility scale derived from the MMPI, Back Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Autonomic Perception Questionnaire, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist, Schalling-Sifneos Scale, Need for Achievement, and Hostile Press. Significant differences were found on five clinical scales of the MMPI--1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. Of the non-MMPI scales, only the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and Trait Anxiety Inventory were significant. Control subjects revealed no significant findings on any tests. The headache groups fell along a continuum, beginning with cluster subjects, who showed only minimal distress, continuing through migraine and combined migraine-muscle contraction, and ending with muscle contraction subjects, who revealed the greatest degree of psychological disturbance. However, none of the headache groups could be characterized by marked elevations on any of the psychological tests, which contrasts with past research findings. It is suggested that the present results may be more representative of the "typical" headache sufferer.

  3. Psychological profile of laryngectomized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Popescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Larynx cancer is one of the most susceptible form of cancer susceptible to induce alteration of the patient’s psychological profile due to the social role that the larynx has in communication. Oral communication is severely impaired even after voice rehabilitation of the laryngectomized patients, so that the social rehabilitation is somewhat not only a medical but also a social problem. The psychological profile of these patients is altered in a way that dealing with the disease is sometimes neglected and the interaction with the outside world in terms of oral communication is totally abandoned. The starting point for depression in these cases is the acknowledgement of the disease and is, in some cases, the entire medical environment. Facial scarring, the inability to verbally interact with other human, as well as the presence of the tracheostoma, are all deciding factors in the presence of a low self-esteem for these particular patients. Psychological counseling is a mandatory approach for laryngectomized patients, in order to improve their ability to cope with cancer and providing better recovery chances.

  4. Problems of psychological monitoring in astronaut training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgun, V V

    1997-10-01

    Monitoring of the goal-oriented psychological changes of a man during professional training is necessary. The level development of the astronaut psychic features is checked by means of psychological testing with the final aim to evaluate each professionally important psychological qualities and to evaluate in general. The list of psychological features needed for evaluation is determined and empirically selected weight factors based on wide statistical sampling is introduced. Accumulation of psychological test results can predict an astronaut's ability of solving complicated problems in a flight mission. It can help to correct the training process and reveal weakness.

  5. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  6. Women's Involvement in Educational Psychology Journals from 1976 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…

  7. Psychology at Chinese universities and in Chinese society: with special reference to clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Guoan; Perrez, Meinrad; Han, Xiulan

    2011-01-01

    The following contribution gives a short introduction to Chinese psychology, history, psychological research and teaching institutions and student selection for universities. After a brief overview of the theoretical traditions and contemporary trends in general and experimental psychology it focuses in more detail on the recent developments in clinical and medical psychology. Research domains, academic training in clinical psychology and its applications in modern China are discussed with sp...

  8. Guidelines for postdoctoral training in rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, William; Hanson, Stephanie; Turner, Aaron P; Stucky, Kirk; Barisa, Mark; Brownsberger, Mary; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Ashman, Teresa; Kuemmel, Angela

    2012-11-01

    This article describes the methods and results of a national conference that was held to (1) develop consensus guidelines about the structure and process of rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training programs and (2) create a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs to promote training programs' abilities to implement the guidelines and to formally recognize programs in compliance with the guidelines. Forty-six conference participants were chosen to include important stakeholders in rehabilitation psychology, representatives of rehabilitation psychology training and practice communities, representatives of psychology accreditation and certification bodies, and persons involved in medical education practice and research. Consensus guidelines were developed for rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training program structure and process and for establishing the Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs. The Conference developed aspirational guidelines for postdoctoral education and training programs in applied rehabilitation psychology and established a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs as a means of promoting their adoption by training programs. These efforts are designed to promote quality, consistency, and excellence in the education and training of rehabilitation psychology practitioners and to promote competence in their practice. It is hoped that these efforts will stimulate discussion, assist in the development of improved teaching and evaluation methods, lead to interesting research questions, and generally facilitate the continued systematic development of the profession of rehabilitation psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  9. National standards for high school psychology curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best of teachers to present all of psychology in a single course for students who begin with virtually no formal knowledge of psychology. The standards presented here constitute the first of two reports in this issue of the American Psychologist (January 2013) representing recent American Psychological Association (APA) policies that support high-quality instruction in the teaching of high school psychology. These standards provide curricular benchmarks for student learning in the high school course.

  10. Contributions of Literature to Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasio Ovejero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two main kind of psychology: a intuitive psychology, and an academic and professional psychology. These two psychologies are different, but they can make important reciprocals contributions. And the best of the intuitive psychology, that in my opinion is in the literature and overall in the romance, can be very useful for professional psychologists. The main end of this paper is to show how the social psychologists can learn from the intuitive psychology of the great romances. This contribution of the romance to the social psychology is, at least, at these two levels. At the level of construction of the subjectivity and the modern subject and the, therefore, of the psychology’s arise, and at the level of some concrete subjects studied by the psychologists (romantic love, jealousy, infidelity, compunction, emotions, vengeance, human relations…

  11. Collective Psychological Ownership and Intergroup Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2017-11-01

    Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity ("we"), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership ("ours") for intergroup relations. We make a case for considering collective psychological ownership as an important source of intergroup tensions. We do so by integrating theory and research from various social sciences, and we draw out implications for future social psychological research on intergroup relations. We discuss collective psychological ownership in relation to the psychology of possessions, marking behavior, intergroup threats, outgroup exclusion, and in-group responsibility. We suggest that the social psychological processes discussed apply to a range of ownership objects (territory, buildings, cultural artifacts) and various intergroup settings, including international, national, and local contexts, and in organizations and communities. We conclude by providing directions for future research in different intergroup contexts.

  12. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015. Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are being destroyed. In fact, being HIV-infected is an example of an acute event (V.V. Pokrovsky, 1993. The ability to overcome the life crisis and effectiveness of using adaptation and compensatory mechanisms to fight the disease depend on the level of adaptation to the fact of being infected and resistance to stress. The aim of the current study was to determine social and psychological features of HIV-infected individuals and assess their influence on the stress resistance and adaptation abilities of HIV+ patients. We observed men and women aged 21-30 who had been HIV+ for 1-5 years. Investigation methods included the following diagnostic tools: The Cattel Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form C, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (conducted by Spielberger, adapted for use in Russia by Hanin, The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (The Holmes-Rahe Stress Inventory, The Social and Psychological Adaptation Questionnaire (by C. Rogers and R. Diamond, methods of mathematical statistics. As a result of the study, we have developed comparative factor profiles of individual psychological features of HIV-infected individuals that show their dependence on the social environment and form certain behavioral patterns. We have revealed significant difference in state and trait anxiety between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals. Self-blame, inadequate self-esteem and level of aspiration indicate low cognitive assessment of the condition by the patients

  13. Psychological Vulnerability and Earthquake Risk Perception in Bucharest/Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Cretu, Zeno; Armas, Iuliana; Stanciugelu, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The importance of studying the relationship with the natural hazard events from a psycho-social perspective is fundamental by the experience with past disasters as much as by the research in the field that proved that the people's psychologic structures may constitute a starting point for risk reduction. People's psycho-behavioural patterns contain conscious or unconscious references to the environmental risk, thus creating certain adjustment strategies and mechanisms, with a certain degree of psychological vulnerability. In modern man's case, the high level of awareness in front of natural dangers, doubled by the perception of the environment's unsafety, experienced as a lack of control, brings to attention nowadays the problematic of the analysis of natural risk perception, as a main factor in the adjustment of human communities' capacity of adapting to the natural environment's dynamics. The major objective of this present work is, based on the development of an efficient evaluation methodology, to identify specific relational patterns to seismic risk in Bucharest, function the characteristics of the urban environment, the social, economical and psychological vulnerability, with results that can be applied for disaster management. For explaining human reactions and the way in which they perceive and evaluate the psychological resources, on a daily basis, but also in risk situations (earthquakes), a multi-modal questionnaire was conceived through qualitative methods (a focus group, along with experts from the Public and Administrative Sciences National School, Risk Communication Center). The questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence, in which were included different type of questions (with single or multiple answers, open questions etc), and also questions using different scaling methods. The items caught cognitive elements (expectations, anticipations and negative or positive judgments regarding risk element), affective (feelings) and behavioral

  14. Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-01-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions — for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people’s environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change....

  15. Are personality patterns and clinical syndromes associated with patients' motives and perceived outcome of orthognathic surgery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper Øland; Jensen, John; Melsen, Birte

    2010-01-01

    A study of surgical-orthodontic patients was performed to assess whether signs of personality patterns and psychologically defined clinical syndromes influenced patients' motives for treatment, perceived oral function, self-concept, social interaction, and overall satisfaction with treatment....

  16. Corrigendum: Information Search in Decisions From Experience: Do Our Patterns of Sampling Foreshadow Our Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Original article: Hills, T. T., & Hertwig, R. (2010). Information search in decisions from experience: Do our patterns of sampling foreshadow our decisions? Psychological Science, 21, 1787-1792. doi:10.1177/0956797610387443.

  17. Prescription patterns for psychotropic drugs in cancer patients; a large population study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, N.C.; Boks, M.P.; Smeets, H.M.; Zainal, N.Z.; Wit, N.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychotropic drugs are commonly prescribed for various psychological complaints in cancer patients. We aim to examine the prescription pattern in cancer patients of three common psychotropic drugs: benzodiazepine, antidepressant and antipsychotic. Methods: This is a retrospective

  18. Family psychology and the psychology of men and masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F

    2017-02-01

    This article was invited to mark the 30th anniversary of the Journal of Family Psychology, which is also the 125th anniversary of APA publications. I served as the second Editor of the journal, from 1992 to 1997. I reflect on some of the similarities and differences between the journal's mission statements from 1992 and 2016, and then discuss my intellectual evolution from family psychologist to psychologist of men and masculinities, pointing out opportunities for collaboration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  20. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Matsudaira, Ko; Jonge, Jan DE; Tosaka, Naoya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2016-06-10

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement.

  1. Children after adoption: Exploring their psychological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Margaret; Hodges, Jill; Malik, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Children adopted from care are known to be at increased risk for mental health difficulties although relatively little research has been carried out to explore this question. This study assessed the mental health and psychological development of children placed for adoption by one UK Local Authority. We compared the pattern and prevalence of difficulties to existing data including that on Looked-After Children (LAC) children. Totally, 106 families were initially approached and parent interviews and at least partial questionnaire data were gathered on 47 children, 72.3% of whom were known to have been maltreated prior to adoption. Of the 34 children with a complete data set including Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), 76.4% met full criteria for at least one neurodevelopmental or mental health diagnosis, a markedly higher rate than comparison data on LAC or community samples. Less than half of those identified with a mental health diagnosis had received any prior diagnosis, and only a minority had received appropriate services. Despite the children's difficulties, the great majority of parents reported high enjoyment of bringing up their child. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Work routines moderate the association between eveningness and poor psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Felipe Gutiérrez; de Souza, Camila Morelatto; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza

    2018-01-01

    Well-being is a useful screening method for the detection of mood disorders. Evidence associating psychological well-being with sleep-wake patterns exists, as well as associations with sleep-wake patterns, work-related parameters, and perceived self-efficacy. Despite the growing research regarding the relationship between these factors and mental health, there are few studies that analyze them together. To investigate if the association between sleep-wake patterns and psychological well-being is mediated or moderated by perceived self-efficacy, work flexibility and work routines. This cohort study was performed in southern Brazil. A sample of 987 individuals was analyzed (66.9% women; mean age = 43.9 years). Work routines parameters and work schedule flexibility were evaluated, most participants were farmers (46%) and most worked 7 days a week (69.1%). Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) was administered for evaluation of sleep-wake patterns, General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) for assessment the participants' beliefs about how they coped with daily hassles, and World Health Organization Five-item Well-being Index (WHO-5) for evaluation of psychological well-being levels. Moderation and mediation models were tested. The moderation model showed influences of work end time on the relationship between sleep onset time and psychological well-being (R2 = 0.147; F = 24.16; ppsychological well-being with sex (Beta = -0.086; p = 0.004), sleep onset time (Beta = -0.086; p = 0.006), and self-efficacy (Beta = 0.316; ppsychological well-being with sleep-wake patterns and self-efficacy, and show an interaction between work routines and sleep-wake patterns. Our results draw attention to the importance of the interplay between individual and social rhythms in relation to psychological well-being.

  3. Parental Psychological Control and Autonomy Granting: Distinctions and Associations with Child and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study utilized an observational coding scheme to identify parenting behavior reflecting psychological control and autonomy granting and examined relations between these parenting dimensions and indices of child and family functioning. Design A community sample of 90 preadolescents (aged 10.5 to 12 years) and both of their parents engaged in a triadic interaction that was coded for parental psychological control and autonomy granting. Participants also completed measures of child adjustment, interparental conflict, and triangulation. Results Factor analyses indicated that a two-factor model better fit the data than a one-factor model, suggesting that psychological control and autonomy granting are best conceptualized as independent but related constructs. Parental psychological control and autonomy granting exhibited some shared and some unique correlates with indices of child and family functioning. Hierarchical regressions revealed significant interactions between these dimensions, suggesting that the strength of some associations between parents’ use of psychological control and youth adjustment problems depends on the level of autonomy granting exhibited by the parent. Conclusions By examining psychological control and autonomy granting simultaneously as unique constructs, this study identifies patterns of psychological control and autonomy granting that undermine youth adjustment. Findings inform targeted intervention efforts for families of preadolescent youth. PMID:23418403

  4. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  5. Cultivating the field of psychology. Psychological journals at the turn of the century and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D F

    2000-10-01

    Prominent psychologists, including G. Stanley Hall, James Mark Baldwin, and James McKeen Cattell, cultivated the field of psychological publishing with privately owned and managed journals. Hall's journals, including the American Journal of Psychology and Pedagogical Seminary, reflected his view of psychology as the empirical study of human nature and his support for applied psychology. Baldwin and Cattell's periodicals, including Psychological Review and Psychological Monographs, reflected a narrower scientific and academic view of psychology. Baldwin and Cattell were more successful editors than Hall and strategically linked their journals to the American Psychological Association (APA). The Psychological Review journals were purchased by APA in 1925. The narrower vision represented in these journals may have contributed to applied psychologists' dissatisfaction with APA during the late 1920s and early 1930s.

  6. The folk psychology of souls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Jesse M

    2006-10-01

    The present article examines how people's belief in an afterlife, as well as closely related supernatural beliefs, may open an empirical backdoor to our understanding of the evolution of human social cognition. Recent findings and logic from the cognitive sciences contribute to a novel theory of existential psychology, one that is grounded in the tenets of Darwinian natural selection. Many of the predominant questions of existential psychology strike at the heart of cognitive science. They involve: causal attribution (why is mortal behavior represented as being causally related to one's afterlife? how are dead agents envisaged as communicating messages to the living?), moral judgment (why are certain social behaviors, i.e., transgressions, believed to have ultimate repercussions after death or to reap the punishment of disgruntled ancestors?), theory of mind (how can we know what it is "like" to be dead? what social-cognitive strategies do people use to reason about the minds of the dead?), concept acquisition (how does a common-sense dualism interact with a formalized socio-religious indoctrination in childhood? how are supernatural properties of the dead conceptualized by young minds?), and teleological reasoning (why do people so often see their lives as being designed for a purpose that must be accomplished before they perish? how do various life events affect people's interpretation of this purpose?), among others. The central thesis of the present article is that an organized cognitive "system" dedicated to forming illusory representations of (1) psychological immortality, (2) the intelligent design of the self, and (3) the symbolic meaning of natural events evolved in response to the unique selective pressures of the human social environment.

  7. System Anthropological Psychology: Methodological Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Y. Klochko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers methodological foundations of the system anthropologicalpsychology (SAP as a scientific branch developed by a well-represented groupof Siberian scientists. SAP is a theory based on axiomatics of cultural-historicalpsychology of L.S. Vygotsky and transspective analysis as a specially developedmeans to define the tendencies of science developing as a self-organizing system.Transspective analysis has revealed regularities in a constantly growing complexityof professional-psychological thinking along the course of emergence ofscientific cognition. It has proved that the field of modern psychology is shapedby theories constructed with ideation of different grades of complexity. The concept“dynamics of the paradigm of science” is introduced; it allows transitions tobe acknowledged from ordinary-binary logic characteristics of the classical scienceto a binary-ternary logic, adequate to non-classical science and then to aternary-multidimensional logic, which is now at the stage of emergence. The latteris employed in SAP construction. It involves the following basic methodologicalprinciples: the principle of directed (selective interaction and the principle ofgenerative effect of selective interaction. The concept of “complimentary interaction”applied in natural as well as humanitarian sciences is reconsidered in thecontext of psychology. The conclusion is made that the principle of selectivity anddirectedness of interaction is relevant to the whole Universe embracing all kindsof systems including the living ones. Different levels of matter organization representingsemantic structures of various complexity use one and the same principleof meaning making through which the Universe ensures its sustainability asa self-developing phenomenon. This methodology provides an explanation fornature and stages of emergence of multidimensional life space of an individual,which comes as a foundation for generation of such features of

  8. Undisciplined beginnings, academic success, and discursive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Michael

    2012-09-01

    This paper reflects on the conditions under which Discourse and social psychology, Common knowledge, and the author's Arguing and thinking were written. These books, which were independently conceived, were not specifically written as contributions to 'discursive psychology', for discursive psychology did not exist at that time. Their authors were rejecting conventional approaches to doing psychological research. The paper discusses what it takes for a new academic movement, such as discursive psychology, to be successfully established in the current climate of 'academic capitalism'. Two requirements are particularly mentioned: the necessity for a label and the necessity for adherents to be recruited. Of the three books, only Discourse and social psychology was outwardly recruiting its readers to a new way of doing social psychology. Arguing and thinking, with its celebration of ancient rhetoric, was much more ambiguous in its aims. It was turning away from present usefulness towards the past. By claiming to be 'an antiquarian psychologist' the author was rejecting disciplinary thinking. The paper also considers the intellectual costs of establishing a new specialism or sub-discipline. The 'first generation' may have freedom, but success can bring about a narrowing of perspectives and the development of orthodoxies for subsequent academic generations. This applies as much to the development of experimental social psychology as to discursive psychology. These processes are particular enhanced in the present socio-economic situation of contemporary universities, which make it more difficult for young academics to become, in the words of William James, 'undisciplinables'. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Workplace diversity and public policy: challenges and opportunities for psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An overview of employment participation patterns for these groups is presented, workplace barriers arising from marginalized status are highlighted, and the article concludes with a discussion of work-related legislative and public policy fronts that can be informed and influenced by the contributions of psychologists. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. The Psychology of Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Gregory J.

    2006-12-01

    Who becomes a physical scientist is not completely a coincidence. People with spatial talent and who are thing-oriented are most likely to be attracted to physical science, including astronomy. Additional lessons from the psychology of science suggest that compared with non-scientists and social scientists, physical scientists are most likely to be introverted, independent, self-confident, and yet somewhat arrogant. Understanding the physical and inanimate world is part of what physical scientists do, and understanding those who understand the physical world is part of what psychologists of science do.

  11. Learned Helplessness and Psychological Adjustment: Effects of Age, Gender and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valas, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Studied the relationships among academic achievement, learned helplessness, and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depression), controlled for gender and age, for 1,580 students with data collected in grades 3 and 4, 6 and 7, and 8 and 9. Results show that academic achievement is directly and indirectly related to the pattern of…

  12. The psychological challenges of identity reconstruction following an acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Chalotte; Krogh, Lærke

    2015-01-01

    interviewed (semi- structured interviews) twice: while hospitalized and one year post-injury. Discourse analysis, drawing on the concepts of positioning and agency, was applied in order to investigate developmental processes in self-narratives over time. The analysis reveals that one of the key patterns...... in identity construction in this cohort is that the psychological changes and identity transitions emerge over time....

  13. Psychological Barriers to Behavior Change: How to indentify the barriers that inhibit change

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Adopting a healthy lifestyle often requires changing patterns of behavior. This article describes three categories of psychological barriers to behavior change: those that prevent the admission of a problem, those that interfere with initial attempts to change behavior, and those that make long-term change difficult. Strategies are identified that family physicians can use to overcome the barriers.

  14. Current status of psychology and clinical psychology in India - an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudhagirinathan, Baboo Sankar; Karunanidhi, Subbiah

    2014-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of the social and cultural context for the emergence and development of psychology in India and also more specifically of the development of clinical psychology. It details the range of universities offering psychology programmes and the various bodies involved in supporting the development of the psychology. The paper also describes the development of clinical psychology in India and the variety of roles undertaken by clinical psychologists. Finally, it raises a number of issues facing the development of Indian psychology into the future.

  15. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  16. Resistance and Renewal in Theoretical Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    psychology, resistance and renewal, form the overall theme for a selection of theoretical papers that is framed — in this iteration of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology's (ISTP) proceedings — by reflections on the 30 year history of the ISTP as well as by considerations of the future....... The diversity and creativity of the work undertaken within theoretical psychology is further exemplified by papers on the history of the ISTP and theoretical psychology, a new paradigm for functional disorders, experimental introspection and techniques of self, the performativity of psychological science......Theoretical psychologists continue to challenge psychology, related disciplines and the work of other theoretical psychologists through a wide variety of activities that include conceptual clarification and creative theorizing. In many cases, these activities are experienced by the relevant...

  17. Psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyankov, I.

    2009-01-01

    The psychological consequences caused by eventual nuclear terrorist act are believed to be some of the most: serious. in this article are presented the issues concerning psychological effects as psychological suffering, alteration of risk estimation, changes of individual and social behavior, etc. The most common psychological consequences as a result of the most popular large-scale nuclear accidents in Chernobyl, TMI (USA), Goiania (Brazil) are described. Some of the main factors, such as sex, age, health status, social status and etc, are analyzed. These factors determine the expression of psychological reactions provoked by nuclear accidents or eventual act of nuclear terrorism. In addition, the main precautions to cope with psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism are listed

  18. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swanepoel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  19. Cognitive frames in psychology: demarcations and ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurevich, Andrey V

    2009-06-01

    As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental "ruptures" are identified: the "horizontal" rupture between various schools and trends, the "vertical" rupture between natural science and humanitarian psychology, and the "diagonal" rupture between academic research and applied practice of psychology. These manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations. This situation is described in terms of the cognitive systems in psychology which include meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms and metadigms.

  20. Tennis elbow: associated psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aben, Aurelie; De Wilde, Lieven; Hollevoet, Nadine; Henriquez, Carlos; Vandeweerdt, Marc; Ponnet, Koen; Van Tongel, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The etiology of tennis elbow is multifactorial. Overuse of the wrist extensors along with anatomic factors, such as flexibility problems, aging, and poor blood circulation, may play a role. This study investigated whether patients with tennis elbow have a different psychological profile compared with healthy controls. Patients with clinical signs of tennis elbow, consulting at the Ghent University Hospital between September 2015 and January 2017, were offered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire about Big Five personality traits, perfectionism, anxiety, depression, work satisfaction, and working conditions. Healthy controls in the same risk group were offered the same questionnaires. We recruited 69 patients (35 men, 34 women) and 100 controls (44 men, 56 women). Tennis elbow patients scored significantly lower on the personality traits extraversion and agreeableness. Men, in particular, scored significantly higher on perfectionism and were more likely to develop an anxiety disorder or a depression. Concerning work, patients indicated a significantly higher workload (especially men) and a significantly lower autonomy (especially women). Female patients also indicated less contact with colleagues. However, work satisfaction was relatively high in both groups. The results suggest that there is a relationship between complaints related to tennis elbow and psychological characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.