Santander, Jaime T; Pinedo, José P; Repetto, Paula L
Physicians should be exposed, during their training to basic concepts in psychology. To describe the current status of the formal teaching of health psychology or medical psychology in Chilean medical schools. We reviewed the programs of the courses including topics of Medical Psychology, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine at 18 medical schools in Chile, using a focused coding method. The contents and the time spent on these courses were considered and analyzed. Eighty three percent of medical schools have a Medical Psychology or related program, 56.3% are carried out during the first year of medical School teaching and the weekly load has an average of 4 hours. The contents are mixed and predominantly concerning general and developmental psychology, but also address specific issues of Medical Psychology in most cases. There is little clarity about the training issues to be addressed in medical psychology for medical students in Chile. It is necessary to define the minimum content that all medical graduates should learn.
Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition...... that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) years were randomized into a group...... were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social...... capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....
Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Ko, Jong Mi; Tecson, Kristen M; Rashida, Vanessa Al; Sodhi, Sandeep; Saef, Josh; Mufti, Mehwish; White, Kamila S; Ludbrook, Philip A; Cedars, Ari M
The factors having the greatest impact on self-reported health status in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) remain incompletely studied. We conducted a single-site, cross-sectional study of ACHD patients followed at the Center for ACHD at Washington University School of Medicine, including retrospectively gathered clinical data and psychometric and health status assessments completed at the time of enrollment. To identify primary drivers of perceived health status, we investigated the impact of the demographic, clinical, and psychological variables on self-reported health status as assessed using the Rand 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Variables with significant associations within each domain were considered jointly in multivariable models constructed via stepwise selection. There was domain-specific heterogeneity in the variables having the greatest effect on self-reported health status. Depression was responsible for the greatest amount of variability in health status in all domains except physical functioning. In the physical functioning domain, depression remained responsible for 5% of total variability, the third most significant variable in the model. In every domain, depression more strongly influenced health status than did any cardiac-specific variable. In conclusion, depression was responsible for a significant amount of heterogeneity in all domains of self-perceived health status. Psychological variables were better predictors of health status than clinical variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vriezekolk, J.; Eijsbouts, A.; Evers, A.W.M.; Stenger, A.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van
PURPOSE: To examine psychological health status among patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (i.e. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis) and osteoarthritis in multidisciplinary rehabilitation, and to describe changes in psychological distress, illness
Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Kyoung-Bok
Several studies suggest that subjective health status is closely related to various behavioral addictions, but there are few studies on smartphone overuse. This study investigated the associations between psychological and subjective health conditions and smartphone overuse in Korean college students. A total of 608 college students participated in this study. We investigated the perceived psychological factors, such as stress, depression symptoms and suicidal ideation. Overall health status was evaluated with self-assessed items, including usual health condition and EuroQol-visual analog scales (EQ-VAS) score. Smartphone overuse was evaluated as the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. Students with psychotic anxiety (i.e. stress, depression and suicidal ideation) showed significant associations with smartphone overuse, indicating an approximately twofold increased risk compared to those without psychological anxiety (all p Students who reported feeling that their usual health is not good were more likely to overuse smartphones than those who are in good health (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.22-3.21). The EQ-VAS score, which indicates current self-assessed health status, also showed a similar result with general health status (OR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.14-4.02). Negative conditions in self-perceived emotional or overall health condition are associated with the increased likelihood of smartphone overuse in Korean college students.
Johan M. Wikman
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76 were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22 or a group playing petanque (n = 17 one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.
Israelsson, Johan; Bremer, Anders; Herlitz, Johan; Axelsson, Åsa B; Cronberg, Tobias; Djärv, Therese; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Larsson, Ing-Marie; Lilja, Gisela; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Wallin, Ewa; Ågren, Susanna; Åkerman, Eva; Årestedt, Kristofer
To describe health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) survivors in relation to gender. This national register study consists of data from follow-up registration of IHCA survivors 3-6 months post cardiac arrest (CA) in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to the survivors, including measurements of health status (EQ-5D-5L) and psychological distress (HADS). Between 2013 and 2015, 594 IHCA survivors were included in the study. The median values for EQ-5D-5L index and EQ VAS among survivors were 0.78 (q1-q3=0.67-0.86) and 70 (q1-q3=50-80) respectively. The values were significantly lower (p<0.001) in women compared to men. In addition, women reported more problems than men in all dimensions of EQ-5D-5L, except self-care. A majority of the respondents reported no problems with anxiety (85.4%) and/or symptoms of depression (87.0%). Women reported significantly more problems with anxiety (p<0.001) and symptoms of depression (p<0.001) compared to men. Gender was significantly associated with poorer health status and more psychological distress. No interaction effects for gender and age were found. Although the majority of survivors reported acceptable health status and no psychological distress, a substantial proportion reported severe problems. Women reported worse health status and more psychological distress compared to men. Therefore, a higher proportion of women may be in need of support. Health care professionals should make efforts to identify health problems among survivors and offer individualised support when needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maricutoiu, Laurentiu P.; Sava, Florin A.
The present paper discusses the status of evidence-based practice in Occupational Health Psychology (OHP). After several searches on large online databases, we have found that OHP papers that discuss interventions are less than 10% of the overall literature. Furthermore, quantitative reviews research that reports interventions on major OHP topics are generally absent. In the last part of the paper, we formulate some reccomendations for increasing the number of papers relevant for evidence-bas...
Maricutoiu, Laurentiu P.
Full Text Available The present paper discusses the status of evidence-based practice in Occupational Health Psychology (OHP. After several searches on large online databases, we have found that OHP papers that discuss interventions are less than 10% of the overall literature. Furthermore, quantitative reviews research that reports interventions on major OHP topics are generally absent. In the last part of the paper, we formulate some reccomendations for increasing the number of papers relevant for evidence-based practice in OHP.
Rabelo, Doris Firmino; Neri, Anita Liberalesso
This study focused on the relations between family configuration (living arrangements, heads of family, and financial contributions to the family's support), age, gender, and physical health (functional capacity, number of diseases and signs and symptoms, and social involvement) and psychological health (depression and anxiety) among the elderly, based on self-reported data. The probabilistic sample included 134 elderly without cognitive deficit, with data collected in home interviews. Cluster analyses were performed using the partitioning method (three groupings). The variables that contributed the most to forming groups were basic activities of daily living (R(2) = 0.732) and instrumental activities of daily living (R(2) = 0.487), number of diseases (R(2) = 0.241), and age (R(2) = 0.225). The predominant family configuration was living with children and/or grandchildren, with the elderly as providers and heads of the family. The study showed associations between family configuration and physical and psychological health status. Women showed a higher financial burden and worse psychological health than men.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study was conducted to assess the psychological health status of dentists in Shiraz city.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects consisted of 106 dentists and 94 general practitioners (comparison group from private and public clinics in Shiraz city. Subjects were requested to complete the standard general health questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographic variables. The data wereanalyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Chi-Square test and independent sample t-test were used to compare demographic and occupational variables of both groups. The questionnaires were scored and the overall score of each individual determined his/her psychological health status. Means of GHQ scores of both groups werecompared using statistical tests.Results: Both groups were similar in all demographic variables, except for age. The mean total score of GHQ-28 for both dentists (17.9 and physicians (16.34 groups were significantly lower than the cut-off point value of 23(P <0.01. The means of scores for somatic problems, depression, anxiety and insomnia as well as unusual social performance scales were significantly different between both groups (P<0.05. A significant positive association was found between GHQ total score and job tenure.Conclusion: Our findings revealed that psychological health status of dentists was poorer than that of physicians.Additionally, dentists’ scores were significantly different from those of their counterparts in all GHQ sub-scales.
Knowles, Simon R; Tribbick, Davina; Connell, William R; Castle, David; Salzberg, Michael; Kamm, Michael A
We employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) of illness perceptions to examine the relative contribution of illness perceptions, stoma self-efficacy, and coping strategies in explaining anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with a fecal ostomy. The CSM suggests that the consequences of illness activity, such as psychological distress, are influenced by an individual's illness perceptions as well as what coping strategies they engage in. Descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. One hundred fifty adults with a stoma (54 males, and 96 females; mean age 44 years) completed an online survey. Several instruments were used to measure study outcomes, including the Health Perceptions Questionnaire, Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, Carver Brief Coping Questionnaire, Stoma Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants were advised of the study through online forums containing a link to the survey. Outcome measures used in the current study are valid and reliable and have been extensively used in medically ill patients. Using structural equation modeling, the final model provided an excellent fit to the data (χ23= 16.53, P = .22, χ/N = 1.27, SRMR 0.97, CFI > 0.99). There was a direct pathway from health status to illness perceptions months since surgery directly influenced health status, illness beliefs, and adaptive emotion-focused coping (β= .81, P coping. Maladaptive coping mediated the relationship between illness perceptions and depression and anxiety, and adaptive emotion-focused coping mediated the relationship between illness perception and depression. The final model provided support for the CSM, in that illness perceptions were directly related to illness status, and that both illness perceptions and coping strategies directly influenced anxiety and depression. More specifically, maladaptive coping style (eg, ignore problems) exacerbated depression and anxiety symptoms, while self-efficacy and emotion
Lindström, Martin; Ali, Sadiq M; Rosvall, Maria
To investigate the association between socioeconomic status, unemployment and self-rated psychological health, taking economic stress and horizontal trust into account. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 55% participation rate. A random sample was invited and 28,198 persons aged 18-80 participated. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic status by occupation (SES), labour market connection and self-rated psychological health (GHQ12). The multiple regression analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress and generalized (horizontal) trust. 13.8% of the men and 18.2% of the women had poor psychological health. Poor psychological health was more common among the young, among those born abroad, among those with lower education, with economic stress, and low horizontal trust. There were no significant differences between the employed and self-employed groups. However, the people who had retired early, the unemployed and those on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health than higher non-manual employees throughout the analyses. There were no differences in psychological health between non-manual employees in higher positions and other employed and self-employed SES groups among men or women. In contrast, the early retired, the unemployed and the category on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health among both men and women throughout the multiple analyses. Both economic stress and trust affected this association (i.e., lowered the odds ratios of poor psychological health), but affected by economic stress to a somewhat higher extent.
O’Neal, Catherine W; Wickrama, K. A. S; Ralston, Penny A; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Harris, Cynthia M; Coccia, Catherine; Young-Clark, Iris; Lemacks, Jennifer
The current study examined the influence of health insurance, psychological processes (i.e. psychological competency and vulnerability), and the interaction of these two constructs on older African Americans’ utilization of five preventive care services (e.g. cholesterol screening and mammogram/prostate examination) using data from 211 older African Americans (median age = 60). In addition to direct effects, the influence of health insurance sometimes varied depending on respondents’ psychological competency and/or vulnerability. Policies and interventions to increase older African Americans’ use of preventive health services should consider structural (e.g. health insurance) and psychological (e.g. psychological competency and vulnerability) factors along with the interaction between these factors. PMID:23456216
Schmitt, M.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van; Wijer, A. de; Genderen, F.R. van; Graaf, Y.D. van; Helders, P.J.
Schmitt MA, van Meeteren NL, de Wijer A, van Genderen FR, van der Graaf Y, Helders PJ: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009;88:231-238. Objectives: To examine the relative
This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.
Wasiak, J; Mahar, P; Lee, S; Paul, E; Spinks, A; Pfitzer, B; Cleland, H; Gabbe, B
To describe the generic health status, health-related quality of life and psychological distress over a 12-month period of burns patients affected by the 2009 Black Saturday Wildfires. Cohort study with retrospective assessment of pre-injury status and prospective assessment of physical and psychosocial functioning in the Black Saturday Wildfires burns patients across time. Generic health status and burn specific quality of life using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Burn Specific Health Scale (BSHS) were collected at three, six and twelve months post-burn injury. In addition, similar time points were used to measure level of psychological distress and the presence of pain using the Kessler-10 questionnaire (K-10) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. At 12 months post-injury, patients reported a mean 16.4 (standard error, SE: 3.2) reduction in physical health and a 5.3 (SE 2.5) reduction in mental health scores of the SF-36 as compared to their pre-injury scores, with significant decreases observed in the "bodily pain", "physical functioning", "role physical" and "vitality" subscales. High levels of psychological distress and persistent pain were experienced, with no significant changes during the study period to the overall burns specific quality of life. Even 12 months post-burn injury, patients affected by the 2009 Victorian Wildfires still experienced a significant reduction in generic health, increased psychological distress and persistent pain. The need for early and ongoing identification of physical and psychosocial impairments during hospital admission and upon discharge could be helpful to establish systematic interdisciplinary goals for long-term rehabilitation after severe burn injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly used for treating myriad health conditions and for maintaining general health. The present article provides an overview of current CAM use with a specific focus on mind-body CAM and its efficacy in treating health conditions. Characteristics of CAM users are presented, and then evidence regarding the efficacy of mind-body treatments (biofeedback, meditation, guided imagery, progressive muscle relaxation, deep breathing, hypnosis, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong) is reviewed. Demographics associated with CAM use are fairly well-established, but less is known about their psychological characteristics. Although the efficacy of mind-body CAM modalities for health conditions is receiving a great deal of research attention, studies have thus far produced a weak base of evidence. Methodological limitations of current research are reviewed. Suggestions are made for future research that will provide more conclusive knowledge regarding efficacy and, ultimately, effectiveness of mind-body CAM. Considerations for clinical applications, including training and competence, ethics, treatment tailoring, prevention efforts, and diversity, conclude the article. Integration of CAM modalities into clinical health psychology can be useful for researchers taking a broader perspective on stress and coping processes, illness behaviors, and culture; for practitioners seeking to incorporate CAM perspectives into their work; and for policy makers in directing healthcare resources wisely. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa
This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Kupper, Nina; Jordaens, Luc
Comorbidity burden has been linked to survival in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), but no study has examined the influence on psychological well-being and health status. We examined the relationship between comorbidity burden and anxiety, depression, and health status...
Олександра Андріївна Ніздрань
Full Text Available The theoretical and methodological foundations and the organization of the empirical research of the connection between social capital and psychological health of persons with low level of economic status were proved. The peculiarities of the state of psychological health and the development of social capital constituents depending on the level of economic well-being of a person were revealed. The model of the influence of social capital as a factor of the psychological health of persons with low level of economic status was given
Wan, Y H; Ma, S S; Xu, S J; Zhang, S C; Hao, J H; Tao, F B
Objective: To explore the relationship between adverse experience in childhood, social support, and physical and psychological sub-health status among middle school students in 3 cities in China. Methods: 15 278 adolescents were selected as subjects from 20 junior and senior middle schools located in 3 cities of China by stratified cluster sampling method. The survey collected the demographic information, ACEs, social support and physical-psychological status. A total of 14 820 valid questionnaires were retained for analysis. We assessed ACE score (count of six categories of childhood adversity), social support (adolescent social support questionnaire), and the prevalence of two outcomes: physiological and psychological sub-health status. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between adverse childhood experiences, social support, and physiological and psychological sub-health status. Results: The prevalence of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 26.4% (3 917/14 820) and 24.1%(3 572/14 820), respectively. A total of 89.4% (13 247/14 820) reported at least 1 adverse childhood experiences. The rates of physiological and psychological sub-health status were higher among girls (28.1%(2 092/7 443), 26.0%(1 932/7 443)) than boys (24.7%(1 825/7 377), 22.2%(1 640/7 377)). Among adolescents without ACEs, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 15.4%(243/1 573) and 10.4%(163/1 573), for those with 5-6 ACEs, the rate were 40.9%(636/1 556) and 43.6%(678/1 556). Among adolescents with higher social support, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 19.9%(724/3 635) and 13.0%(474/3 635) for those with lower social support, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 35.9%(1 403/3 913) and 39.0%(1 528/3 913). The rates of physiological and psychological sub-health status were higher with more ACE exposure or less social support. At each level of ACE exposure
Knowles, S R; Cook, S I; Tribbick, D
Individuals living with IBD and a stoma are at an increased risk of anxiety and depression and it is likely that several factors mediate these relationships, including illness perceptions and coping strategies. Using the Common Sense Model (CSM), this study aimed to characterize the mediators of anxiety and depression in an IBD stoma cohort. Eighty-three adults (23 males) with a stoma (25 ileostomy, 58 colostomy; 26 emergency, 57 planned, 55 permanent, 28 temporary) completed an online survey. Health status was measured with the Health Orientation Scale (HOS), coping styles assessed with the Carver Brief COPE scale, illness perceptions explored with the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (BIPQ), and anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Combining the questionnaire data using structural equation modeling resulted in a final model with an excellent fit (χ(2) (11)=12.86, p=0.30, χ(2)/N=1.17, SRMR0.96, CFI>0.99). Consistent with the CSM, health status directly influenced illness perceptions, which in turn, influenced coping (emotion-focused and maladaptive coping). Interestingly, months since surgery was found to influence illness perceptions and emotion-focused coping directly, but not health status. While depression was influenced by illness perceptions, emotion-focused coping and maladaptive coping, anxiety was only influenced by illness perceptions and maladaptive coping. The preliminary results provide further evidence for the complex interplay between psychological processes. In terms of directions for psychological interventions, a focus on identifying and working with illness perceptions is important. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brouwers, Corline; Caliskan, Kadir; Bos, Sven
BACKGROUND: Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) is a cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular tribeculae and deep intertrabecular recesses. Because of its genetic underpinnings and physical disease burden, noncompaction cardiomyopathy is expected to be associated with a lower health status...... with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and (2) patients with acquired dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS: Patients were recruited from the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Using a case-control design, NCCM patients (N = 45, mean age 46.7 ± 15.1 years, 38 % male) were compared with 43 FH......,84) = 9.58, P = .003; Mental Component Score F(1,84) = 16.65, P diagnosis. However, NCCM patients did not differ...
Hoogwegt, M.T.; Kupper, N.; Jordaens, L.; Pedersen, S.S.; Theuns, D.A.M.J.
Aims Comorbidity burden has been linked to survival in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), but no study has examined the influence on psychological well-being and health status. We examined the relationship between comorbidity burden and anxiety, depression, and health
Kan, Chiemi; Kawakami, Norito; Umeda, Maki
The majority of studies on the role of psychological resources linking childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult health have been conducted in Western countries. Empirical evidence for mediation effects of psychological resources is currently lacking in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of psychological resources (mastery and sense of coherence [SOC]) on the association between childhood SES and current health. Analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data (1,497 men and 1,764 women) from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood Study (J-SHINE) in Tokyo. Psychological resources (mastery and SOC), childhood SES (parents' education and perceived childhood SES), and current health of adults (psychological distress measured by K6 and self-rated health) were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Mastery and SOC significantly and independently mediated the association between childhood SES and current health in the total sample after adjusting for age, gender, and respondent education, regardless of type of SES or health outcome indicators. Similar mediation effects were observed for both men and women. A few gender differences were observed; specifically, SOC significantly mediated the association between parents' education and current health only among women, and it mediated the association between perceived childhood SES and current health only among men. Overall, the findings underscore the importance of the mediating role of psychological resources in the association between childhood SES and current health.
Li, Li-Rong; Lin, Mei-Guang; Liang, Juan; Hu, Qiong-Yan; Chen, Dan; Lan, Meng-Ying; Liang, Wu-Qing; Zeng, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ting; Fu, Gui-Fen
BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the factors affecting the level of hope and psychological health status of patients with cervical cancer (CC) during radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 480 CC patients were recruited. Psychological distress scale, Herth hope index, functional assessment cancer therapy-cervix, and Jolowiec coping scale were used to conduct surveys on psychological distress, level of hope, quality of life (QOL), and coping style to analyze the factors affecting the level of hope and psychological health status of CC patients. RESULTS The morbidity of significant psychological distress in 480 CC patients during radiotherapy was 68%, and the main factors causing psychological distress were emotional problems and physical problems. During radiotherapy, most patients had middle and high levels of hope, and the psychological distress index of patients was negatively correlated with the level of hope. The QOL of CC patients during radiotherapy were at middle and high levels, and the QOL was positively correlated with confrontment, optimism, appeasement, and self-reliance, but it was negatively correlated with predestination and emotional expression. CONCLUSIONS For CC patients during radiotherapy, the morbidity of psychological distress was high, but they were at middle and high levels of hope.
Padela, Aasim I; Heisler, Michele
We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post-September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post-September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived post-September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans.
Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. Methods. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Results. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post–September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post–September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Conclusions. Perceived post–September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans. PMID:20019301
Elham Baghban Baghestan
Full Text Available Background and objectives : This study aimed to compare mental health status between students of two faculties of Alzahra University: physical education vs. educational sciences and psychology. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in physical educations and educational sciences and psychology faculties. A total number of 242 and 265 students were surveyed in these faculties respectively by GHQ-28 general health questionnaire. Data were extracted and analyzed using SPSS-17. Results : Results indicated that among 265 students, 135 participants (55.8% in physical education faculty and 170 participants in educational sciences and psychology faculty (60.3% were suspected to suffer from mental disorders. Results showed that prevalence of mental disorders in physical education faculty and faculty of educational sciences and psychology was 9.4% and 30.2% respectively (p Conclusion : The results demonstrated that students of physical education faculty significantly scored lower than students of educational sciences and psychology faculty in all four scales of mental health. They had fewer problems in terms of anxiety, depression, physical disorders and social function. Generally, they had better mental health status.
Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Kupper, Nina; Jordaens, Luc; Pedersen, Susanne S; Theuns, Dominic A M J
Comorbidity burden has been linked to survival in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), but no study has examined the influence on psychological well-being and health status. We examined the relationship between comorbidity burden and anxiety, depression, and health status in patients with an ICD during the first 12 months post-implantation using a prospective study design. Consecutively, implanted ICD patients (N = 401; 78% men) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36) at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months post-implantation. Data were analysed using general linear mixed modelling repeated measures multivariable analysis of variance. The mean Charlson comorbidity index score was 3.5 (± 2.4). In adjusted analyses, comorbidity burden was significantly associated with depression (P = 0.003) and the physical health status domains of the SF-36 (Physical Functioning: P Physical: P = 0.023; Bodily Pain: P = 0.004; and General Health: P = 0.025) but not with anxiety (P = 0.62) and the mental health status domains of the SF-36 (all P's > 0.05). Chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, and renal failure were the comorbidities with the most impact on depression and physical health status. Comorbidity burden was a significant predictor of poorer psychological well-being and physical health status in ICD patients during the first 12 months post-implantation. In the care and management of ICD patients, it is important to recognize the impact of comorbidity burden on patients' mood and health status, and that adjunctive intervention may be warranted to enhance well-being.
An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...
Em, Serda; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Caglayan, Mehmet; Ceylan Cevik, Figen; Kaya, Cemal; Oktayoglu, Pelin; Nas, Kemal
Stroke does not only affect the physical state of patients but also the emotional state of their relatives, most effectively their caregivers. The study aims to examine the mood of caregivers experienced with care for patients with stroke who are highly dependent on the assistance and also to establish the relationship between the emotional state of caregivers and the severity of disability of the patients. This study contained a total of 76 patients with sufficient cognitive functions and severe physical disabilities with hemiplegia caused by a cerebrovascular accident and their caregivers and 94 controls. The functional state of patients was assessed by the Barthel Index (BI). Furthermore, emotional state of the caregivers was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and their life quality was assessed by the SF36 Health Survey. The mean anxiety (9.73 ± 4.88) and depression rates (9.81 ± 5.05) in the caregivers were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.001, respectively). Significant impairments were observed in both their mental and physical health. Regression analysis also showed a significant negative correlation between the BI scores and the HADS scores. Caregivers had an impaired emotional state and the level of their anxiety was associated with the severity of functional disability of the patients. Therefore, the support provided to the caregiver might be influential on the functional recovery of the patients.
role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan ...
Yu, Mingming; Chair, Sek Ying; Chan, Carmen W H; Choi, Kai Chow
Heart failure is an increasing public health problem globally. Interventions are imperative in managing the disease. To examine the effectiveness of a health education booklet and telephone follow-ups on patients' medication adherence, health-related quality of life, and psychological status. One hundred and sixty heart failure patients were assigned to either the experimental group (health education booklet and telephone follow-ups) or the control group (usual care). An independent t-test and the generalized estimating equation (GEE) model were used to compare the differences in the study outcomes. The statistical tests were two-sided and a p value below 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The patients in the experimental group showed greater improvement throughout the study period compared with those in the control group regarding all the study outcomes. The study provided clues for healthcare professionals to develop interventions while undertaking clinical work with limited resources in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro
Overall health status after a disaster may be associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Little is known about factors associated with overall health status in the aftermath of disasters. We examined self-rated health in relation to disaster characteristics, social resources, and post-disaster outcomes in a sample of adults who experienced the 2004 Florida hurricanes. We interviewed a representative sample of 1,452 adults aged 18 years and older residing in the 33 Florida counties that were in the direct path of at least one of the 2004 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne). Overall health status was assessed using a self-rating format known to be predictive of mortality. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 14.6% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p hurricane (p = 0.03), low social support (p = 0.03), and depression (p = 0.003) since the hurricane. Self-rated health following the Florida hurricanes was strongly associated with two variables (social support and depression) that potentially can be mitigated through targeted interventions after disasters. Future work should evaluate secondary prevention strategies that can address general health-related concerns in the wake of a disaster.
Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Arts, Lindy; Zijlstra, Wobbe; Widdershoven, Jos W; Aarnoudse, Wilbert; Denollet, Johan
Patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD; wall irregularities, stenosis personality between patients with NOCAD and the general population, as well as S&G differences within the NOCAD population. In total, 523 patients with NOCAD (61±9 years, 52% women) were included via coronary angiography and computed tomography as part of the TWIST (Tweesteden Mild Stenosis) study. Generic health status (12-item Short Form physical and mental scales and fatigue), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety and depressive symptoms and Global Mood Scale negative and positive affect), and personality (Type D personality) were compared between patients with NOCAD and an age- and sex-matched group of 1347 people from the general population. Frequency matching was performed to obtain a similar sex distribution in each age-decile group. Both men and women with NOCAD reported impaired health status, more psychological distress, and Type D personality compared with men and women in the reference group. Women reported more psychosocial distress compared with men, but no significant sex-by-group interaction effects were observed. Women with NOCAD reported impaired health status, more anxiety, and less positive affect, but no differences in depressive symptoms, angina, or Type D personality when compared with men with NOCAD. Age, education, employment, partner, and alcohol use explained these S&G differences within the NOCAD group. In both men and women, NOCAD was associated with impaired health status, more psychological distress, and Type D personality when compared with a reference population. Factors reflecting S&G differences explained these S&G findings in patient-reported outcomes. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01788241. © 2016 The Authors.
Knowles, Simon; Swan, Lauren; Salzberg, Michael; Castle, David; Langham, Robyn
Using the common sense model of illness adjustment, this study aimed to explore the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on individual illness perceptions, coping styles and psychological well-being. Eighty individuals (50 men and 30 women) with an average age of 62.66 years (standard deviation, 11.98) were included in the study. All participants were under the care of the Renal Unit of a metropolitan tertiary referral hospital. Twenty-nine patients (36%) had CKD stage 3b-4, and 51 (64%) had CKD stage 5 (or end stage kidney disease [ESKD]). Disease severity was evaluated using the health perceptions questionnaire, coping styles assessed with the Carver brief COPE scale, illness perceptions explored with the brief illness perceptions questionnaire and anxiety and depression measured using the hospital anxiety and depression scale. The hospital anxiety and depression scale assessment revealed 13 patients (16.3%) with moderate or severe anxiety and 6 (7.5%) with moderate depression. Consistent with the common sense model, disease activity had a significant direct influence on illness perceptions, while, in turn, illness perceptions had a significant direct influence on depression and anxiety. Adaptive and maladaptive coping were found to mediate the relationship between illness perceptions, and anxiety and depression. The results provide evidence that it is the perception of an illness rather than the actual symptoms themselves that best account for adaption to CKD. These findings suggest that intervention strategies aimed at increasing psychological well-being need to focus on changing illness perceptions rather than improving symptoms of CKD or coping mechanisms.
Fox, Ronald E.; DeLeon, Patrick H.; Newman, Russ; Sammons, Morgan T.; Dunivin, Debra L.; Baker, Deborah C.
The progress of psychology toward the acquisition of prescriptive authority is critically reviewed. Advances made by other nonphysician health care professions toward expanding their scopes of practice to include prescriptive authority are compared with gains made by professional psychology. Societal trends affecting attitudes toward the use of…
Alzoubi, Firas Q; Karasneh, Jumana A; Daamseh, Nidal M
Self-perceived halitosis could be a symptom of a psychosomatic or psychogenic disorder. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to clarify the relationship of self-perceived halitosis with psychological and oral health statuses. One hundred participants with a history of halitosis were enrolled from a teaching hospital. They were divided into the self-perceived and suggested groups if they sensed and did not sense the malodor, respectively. Demographic and socioeconomic information, smoking status, and oral hygiene practices were noted. Complete nasal, oral, and periodontal examinations with organoleptic tests (OLTs) and N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide (BANA) tests were conducted. The participants also completed the validated Arabic version of the 90-item revised symptom checklist (SCL-90R). Data were compared by analysis of variance, chi-square test, Student's t-test, and multivariate logistic regression. The self-perceived group had higher OLT scores (p = 0.005) and were significantly younger (p = 0.001) than the suggested group. A significantly higher number of its participants were smokers (p = 0.004). No significant differences were observed in socioeconomic information, oral hygiene practices, oral conditions, and BANA test results. Further, no significant association was noted between self-perceived halitosis and the nine psychological dimensions of SCL-90R. Halitosis is a multifactorial symptom that requires multidisciplinary management. Self-reporting of the condition is unique entity and trust worthy symptom. It tends to be related to nonoral pathologies and extrinsic causes such as smoking.
Shah, Drishti; Vaidya, Varun; Patel, Amit; Borovicka, Mary; Goodman, Monica-Holiday
Effectiveness of antidepressants is generally comparable between and within classes. However, real-world studies on antidepressant treatment and its consequences on the overall quality of life and mental health of individuals are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of specific class of antidepressants with the health-related quality of life, psychological distress and self-reported mental health of individuals suffering from depression who are on monotherapy. This retrospective, longitudinal study included individuals with depression who were on antidepressant monotherapy, using data from 2008 to 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Changes in health-related quality of life, self-reported mental health and psychological distress over a year's time were observed. A multinomial logistic regression model was built to examine the association between the class of antidepressant medications and the dependent variables. A total of 688 adults met the study inclusion criteria. No significant difference was observed in the change in Physical Component Summary (PCS), self-reported mental health and psychological distress based on the class of antidepressants. However, individuals on serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (OR 0.337, 95 % CI 0.155-0.730) were significantly less likely to show improvement on Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores as compared to those on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The study findings suggest that practitioners should be aware of the differences in the health-related quality of life of those taking SSRIs versus other classes of antidepressants. Further research needs to be done to determine the reason for SSRIs to show greater improvement on mental health as compared to SNRIs.
Ronaldson, Amy; Gazali, Ahmad M; Zalli, Argita; Kaiser, Frank; Thompson, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian; Steptoe, Andrew; Carvalho, Livia
The percentage of regulatory T cells (TRegs)-a subtype of T lymphocyte that suppresses the immune response-appears to be reduced in a number of stress-related diseases. The role of the TReg in stress-disease pathways has not yet been investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between biological responsivity to acute psychosocial stress and the percentage of TRegs in healthy older adults. The secondary purpose was to measure the associations between TReg percentage and psychological and physical well-being in the participants. Salivary cortisol and plasma interleukin (IL)-6 samples were obtained from 121 healthy older men and women from the Whitehall II cohort following acute psychophysiological stress testing. Three years later at a follow-up visit, we measured TReg percentages and psychological and physical well-being were recorded using the Short Form 36 Health Survey and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Blunted cortisol responses (p = 0.004) and elevated IL-6 responses (p = 0.027) to acute psychophysiological stress were associated with greater TReg percentage independently of age, sex, BMI, smoking status, employment grade, time of testing, and baseline measures of cortisol and IL-6, respectively. Percentage of TRegs was associated cross-sectionally with lower physical (p = 0.043) and mental health status (p = 0.008), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (p = 0.002), independently of covariates. Increased levels of TRegs may act as a defence against increased inflammation and may be a pre-indication for chronically stressed individuals on the cusp of clinical illness.
Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.
With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and
Essink-Bot, M L; van Royen, L; Krabbe, P; Bonsel, G J; Rutten, F F
PROBLEMS: What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than
Essink-Bot, M. L.; van Royen, L.; Krabbe, P.; Bonsel, G. J.; Rutten, F. F.
PROBLEMS--What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than
Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G
AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support in the assoc......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...
Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao
.... Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored...
Friedman, Howard S; Silver, Roxane Cohen
... and Effective Treatment 9 Adjustment to Chronic Disease: Progress and Promise in Research Annette L. Stanton and Tracey A. Revenson 203 10 Aging and Health 234 Karen S. Rook, Susan T. Charles, and...
von Mackensen, S; Harrington, C; Tuddenham, E; Littley, A; Will, A; Fareh, M; Hay, C R M; Khair, K
There is increasing recognition that sport is important for individuals with haemophilia; however, there remains a paucity of data of the importance of this in adults, many of whom already have joint pathology related to childhood bleeds and treatment access. This multicentre, cross-sectional study presents the impact of sport on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical performance and clinical outcomes in adults with haemophilia. Fifty adults aged 35.12±14.7 with mild (n = 12), moderate (n = 10), or severe (n = 28) haemophilia A (70%) or B (30%) from four haemophilia centres across the United Kingdom participated in the study. A total of 64% were overweight/obese according to their BMI; median orthopaedic joint scores using the WFH Orthopaedic Joint Score (OJS) were 6 (range 0-48). On a VAS pain scale (range of 0-10), patients reported mean score of 5.66 ± 2.4. 36% of participants reported not doing any sport, mainly due to their physical condition. However, 64% of participants reported undertaking sporting activity including contact sports, mostly twice per week in average 4 h week(-1) . Participating in sport did not have a statistically significant impact on HRQoL; except in the domain 'sport and leisure' of the Haem-A-QoL. Patients doing more sport reported significantly better HRQoL than those doing less sport (P sport for more than 4 h week(-1) had a significantly better physical performance than patients doing less sport (assessed with Hep-Test-Q). Encouraging physical activity and sport in older patients with haemophilia may have a direct impact on their HRQoL; thus, education about sport activity should be incorporated into routine haemophilia care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.
Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…
The multiple regression analysis showed that 76.78 percent of socio-economic status was explained by the valid psychological constructs of heads of farm families. The psychological constructs of socio-economic status of heads of farm families in any locality should be understood by the extension agent so as to foster a ...
Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F
This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.
Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834
Brouwers, Corline; Caliskan, Kadir; de Jonge, Nicolaas
and is therefore an important aspect in the care of LVAD and ICD patients. METHODS: Multi-center prospective observational study with 6 months follow-up of 33 LVAD partners (27% men; mean age = 54 ± 10 years) and 414 ICD partners (22% men; mean age = 60 ± 12 years). RESULTS: LVAD partners reported better physical...... (F = 10.71, p = .001) but poorer mental health status (F = 14.82, p ...OBJECTIVE: To examine if the caregiving for patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is related to a poorer health status and more distress compared to patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). BACKGROUND: Partners distress may influence patient outcomes...
Zhang, Li-Yi; Gao-feng YAO
Objective The present study aims to review the research status and development tendency of military medical psychology in China and abroad and proposes the development of medical psychology research in the Chinese military.Methods A literature search method was adopted to find and review major literature on military medical psychology,from basic studies,discipline construction,professional teaching,to the service force in the last 10 years.Results The last 10 years witnessed much development ...
Wang, Szu-Han; Lin, Ping-Yi; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Huang, Mei-Feng; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Hsieh, Chia-En; Hsu, Ya-Lan; Chen, Yao-Li
Donor safety and preservation of donor health after living liver donation are of paramount importance. In addition, the preoperative mental state of a donor is an important factor in determining the psychological impact of donor hepatectomy. Thus, we aimed to explore the mental health status of living liver donors after hepatectomy. We enrolled 60 donors who were scheduled to undergo living donor hepatectomy during the period January 2014 to March 2015 at a single medical center. Mental health status was measured before and 3 months after surgery using 3 self-report questionnaires, namely the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess depressive symptoms, the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire to measure quality of life, and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) to screen for minor psychiatric disorders. A comparison of the pre- and postdonation CES-D scores revealed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms after surgery (P = .031). There were significant improvements in the physical health domain (P = .031), the psychological health domain (P = .005), the social relationships domain (P = .005), and the environmental health domain (P = .010) of the WHOQOL-BREF. There were no significant changes in CHQ scores after donor hepatectomy (P = .136). All donors reported that they would donate again if required. Approximately one-third (33.3%) of donors experienced more pain than they had anticipated in the immediate postoperative period, and 20.0% of donors had complications after donor hepatectomy. Donor mental health status tended to improve as donors regained physical function during the 1st 3 months of recovery. Long-term monitoring of living donors' mental health is needed to minimize the adverse psychological outcomes of living liver donation.
A. N. Pudov
Full Text Available Objective: to define the specific features of the psychological status of patients with acute mandibular injury, to compare a psychological reaction to injury in different age groups and in persons with signs of alcohol addiction. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 37 patients of both sexes over 15 years of age. The patients were distributed by age and chronic alcohol intoxication. Psychological parameters were determined using personality questionnaires: Spielberg-Hanin, Zung, GHQ-28, and Wein ones. Results. The patients with mandibular injury were found to have higher levels of situational and personality anxiety. A state of depression as a response to acute mandibular injury of reactive genesis was found in 29.8% of cases. Autonomic dysfunction occurred in 62.2% of the patients with mandibular fractures. Occult pathopsychological states were detected in 35.1% of the study group patients. Conclusion. The main found peculiarities of the psychological status of the patients with acute mandibular injury were high anxiety and the considerable incidence of autonomic dysfunction syndrome. There were no great age differences in psychological status and the direction of reactions. The patients with chronic alcohol intoxication more frequently developed a depressive state, but the autonomic dysfunction syndrome was just less often encountered and pathopsychological states were less frequently found. Key words: acute low anxiety depression alcohol abuse, psychological status.
Johnson, Norine G.
Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…
Full Text Available Objective The present study aims to review the research status and development tendency of military medical psychology in China and abroad and proposes the development of medical psychology research in the Chinese military.Methods A literature search method was adopted to find and review major literature on military medical psychology,from basic studies,discipline construction,professional teaching,to the service force in the last 10 years.Results The last 10 years witnessed much development in the medical psychological branches,such as physiological psychology,mental measurement,psychological counseling,and treatment.With these developments,military medical psychology achieved much with regard to the reserve of talented men,the mental measurement for officers and soldiers,mental intervention for military stress,and psychological rehabilitation after stress.Conclusion Thus,future studies on military medical psychology should focus on intensifying the training of medical psychology experts to promote the study on the etiology of military mental diseases and on the prevention and treatment of mental disorders caused by wars.
Yen, Jeffery; Vaccarino, Oriana
In contrast to the institutionalization of health psychology in North America and Europe, much psychological work on health issues in South Africa emerged as part of a critical revitalization of South African psychology as a whole, coinciding with the dismantling of Apartheid and global shifts in health discourse. The field's development reflects attempts to engage with urgent health problems in the context of rapid sociopolitical changes that followed democratic transition in the 1990s, and under new conditions of knowledge production. We provide an account of these issues, as well as reflections on the field's future, as inflected through the experiences of 12 South African psychologists whose careers span the emergence of health-related psychology to the present day.
Sumner, Kenneth E.; Lampmann, Jodi L.
This article describes a project to reinforce learning in an undergraduate health psychology seminar. The project required students to (a) profile the physical and mental health status of at least 15 family members, (b) identify trends or patterns related to health and illness in their families, and (c) develop an action plan for maintaining good…
The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...
Seligman, Martin E.P.; Peterson, Christopher; Diener, Ed; Zack, Matthew M.; Chapman, Daniel; Thompson, William
Positive psychology is the study of what is “right” about people—their positive attributes, psychological assets, and strengths. Its aim is to understand and foster the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to thrive. Cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal research demonstrates that positive emotions are associated with numerous benefits related to health, work, family, and economic status. Growing biomedical research supports the view that positive emotions are not merely the opposite of negative emotions but may be independent dimensions of mental affect. The asset-based paradigms of positive psychology offer new approaches for bolstering psychological resilience and promoting mental health. Ultimately, greater synergy between positive psychology and public health might help promote mental health in innovative ways. PMID:21680918
Elena Villalobos Martínez
Full Text Available Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI and psychological distress in 563 inhabitants of Málaga (South of Spain. Participants were classified in four categories of BMI: Underweight (BMI <18.5 Kg/m2, Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.99 Kg/m2, Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.99 Kg/m2 and Obesity (BMI >30 Kg/m2. Psychological distress was measured with the Spanish version of the Derogatis’ Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R. We observed a symmetric U-shaped relationship between weight status and psychological distress in all SCL-90-R dimensions (p for quadratic trend <0.001 for both men and women. Participants with extreme weight showed the worst psychological status, and participants with normal weight exhibited the best. We found no statistically significant differences between underweight and obese participants in 9 of the 10 SCL-90-R dimensions analyzed among men, and in 8 of the 10 dimensions among women. Underweight and obese participants showed no gender differences in psychological distress levels. Psychological treatment of Mediterranean people with extreme weight, should consider underweight and obese patients at the same level of psychological distress.
Martínez, Elena Villalobos; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mariscal, Alberto; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Navajas, Joaquín Fernández-Crehuet
Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity) should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress in 563 inhabitants of Málaga (South of Spain). Participants were classified in four categories of BMI: Underweight (BMI 30 Kg/m2). Psychological distress was measured with the Spanish version of the Derogatis' Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R). We observed a symmetric U-shaped relationship between weight status and psychological distress in all SCL-90-R dimensions (p for quadratic trend psychological status, and participants with normal weight exhibited the best. We found no statistically significant differences between underweight and obese participants in 9 of the 10 SCL-90-R dimensions analyzed among men, and in 8 of the 10 dimensions among women. Underweight and obese participants showed no gender differences in psychological distress levels. Psychological treatment of Mediterranean people with extreme weight, should consider underweight and obese patients at the same level of psychological distress.
Kristensen, Kasper Andreas
This contribution explores the connection between health and subjectivity. Up until recently a marginally discussed topic in health theories, recent critical research in health psychology introduces notions of subjectivity to theories of health. These notions can be linked to phenomenology....... Hence, I will argue for the concept of conduct of life as an important concept for health psychology. The concept of conduct of life enables an analysis of how people conduct their activities and of their access to life possibilities, within social settings and societal power systems. The concept can...
Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Derks, Daantje
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the emerging concept of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP). We discuss the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs in order to understand the path to health and well-being at work. We describe research findings on several POHP topics, including engagement, psychological capital, and job crafting. Additionally, we review the first positive interventions in this field and conclude by identifying some specific questions for future research.
Study protocol to investigate the effect of a lifestyle intervention on body weight, psychological health status and risk factors associated with disease recurrence in women recovering from breast cancer treatment [ISRCTN08045231
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer survivors often encounter physiological and psychological problems related to their diagnosis and treatment that can influence long-term prognosis. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on body weight and psychological well-being in women recovering from breast cancer treatment, and to determine the relationship between changes in these variables and biomarkers associated with disease recurrence and survival. Methods/design Following ethical approval, a total of 100 patients will be randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention (incorporating dietary energy restriction in conjunction with aerobic exercise training or normal care control group. Patients randomised to the dietary and exercise intervention will be given individualised healthy eating dietary advice and written information and attend moderate intensity aerobic exercise sessions on three to five days per week for a period of 24 weeks. The aim of this strategy is to induce a steady weight loss of up to 0.5 Kg each week. In addition, the overall quality of the diet will be examined with a view to (i reducing the dietary intake of fat to ~25% of the total calories, (ii eating at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, (iii increasing the intake of fibre and reducing refined carbohydrates, and (iv taking moderate amounts of alcohol. Outcome measures will include body weight and body composition, psychological health status (stress and depression, cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. In addition, biomarkers associated with disease recurrence, including stress hormones, estrogen status, inflammatory markers and indices of innate and adaptive immune function will be monitored. Discussion This research will provide valuable information on the effectiveness of a practical, easily implemented lifestyle intervention for evoking positive effects on body weight and psychological well-being, two
Study protocol to investigate the effect of a lifestyle intervention on body weight, psychological health status and risk factors associated with disease recurrence in women recovering from breast cancer treatment [ISRCTN08045231].
Saxton, John M; Daley, Amanda; Woodroofe, Nicola; Coleman, Robert; Powers, Hilary; Mutrie, Nanette; Siddall, Vanessa; Crank, Helen
Breast cancer survivors often encounter physiological and psychological problems related to their diagnosis and treatment that can influence long-term prognosis. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on body weight and psychological well-being in women recovering from breast cancer treatment, and to determine the relationship between changes in these variables and biomarkers associated with disease recurrence and survival. Following ethical approval, a total of 100 patients will be randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention (incorporating dietary energy restriction in conjunction with aerobic exercise training) or normal care control group. Patients randomised to the dietary and exercise intervention will be given individualised healthy eating dietary advice and written information and attend moderate intensity aerobic exercise sessions on three to five days per week for a period of 24 weeks. The aim of this strategy is to induce a steady weight loss of up to 0.5 Kg each week. In addition, the overall quality of the diet will be examined with a view to (i) reducing the dietary intake of fat to approximately 25% of the total calories, (ii) eating at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, (iii) increasing the intake of fibre and reducing refined carbohydrates, and (iv) taking moderate amounts of alcohol. Outcome measures will include body weight and body composition, psychological health status (stress and depression), cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. In addition, biomarkers associated with disease recurrence, including stress hormones, estrogen status, inflammatory markers and indices of innate and adaptive immune function will be monitored. This research will provide valuable information on the effectiveness of a practical, easily implemented lifestyle intervention for evoking positive effects on body weight and psychological well-being, two important factors that can influence long
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients...
Aug 3, 2012 ... patients. The role of behaviour and lifestyle in the causation of cancer and hypertension has been studied extensively and can be used to illustrate how health psychology interventions could be applied to control these diseases. Health psychology interventions could close the widening communication gap.
Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D.; Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.
Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understand...
Kaslow, Nadine J; Graves, Chanda C; Smith, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku
This article begins by contextualizing specialization and board certification of psychologists, with attention paid to relevant definitions and expectations of other health care professionals. A brief history of specialization and board certification in professional psychology is offered. The benefits of board certification through the American Board of Professional Psychology are highlighted. Consideration is then given to the primary reasons for psychologists working in academic health sciences centers to specialize in the current health care climate and to obtain board certification as a mark of such specialization.
There has been substantial empirical research on the health benefits of expressive writing. However, there has been less psychological research on the broader nature of writing and its relationship with health. The aim of this special section is to promote a more extensive engagement between health psychology and writing. It includes three articles on the value of investigating more established forms of writing, the nature of creative writing and the value of an intensive analysis of written accounts of illness. This article introduces this special section.
Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…
The aim of this paper is to outline the contribution of two strands of discursive research, glossed as 'macro' and 'micro,' to the field of health psychology. A further goal is to highlight some contemporary debates in methodology associated with the use of interview data versus more naturalistic data in qualitative health research. Discursive approaches provide a way of analyzing talk as a social practice that considers how descriptions are put together and what actions they achieve. A selection of recent examples of discursive research from one applied area of health psychology, studies of diet and obesity, are drawn upon in order to illustrate the specifics of both strands. 'Macro' discourse work in psychology incorporates a Foucauldian focus on the way that discourses regulate subjectivities, whereas the concept of interpretative repertoires affords more agency to the individual: both are useful for identifying the cultural context of talk. Both 'macro' and 'micro' strands focus on accountability to varying degrees. 'Micro' Discursive Psychology, however, pays closer attention to the sequential organization of constructions and focuses on naturalistic settings that allow for the inclusion of an analysis of the health professional. Diets are typically depicted as an individual responsibility in mainstream health psychology, but discursive research highlights how discourses are collectively produced and bound up with social practices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Jung A Kim, PhD
Conclusions: Both health status and health behaviors had significant impacts on depression, suggesting that development of nursing interventions and educational programs should be targeted towards improving maternal health, healthy lifestyle, and subjective health perception to promote married female immigrants' psychological well-being.
Jun 15, 1991 ... tuberculosis. Health care of a single geographicaVeconomic region is artificially and politically divided.7 An inequitable distribution of services parallels this political divide.8. ,9. Department of Social Anthropology, University of Cape. Town. M. A. RAMPHELE, M.B. CH.B., D.C.H. (S.A.). M. HEAP, M.A. (SOC.
Jun 15, 1991 ... poor availability compared with the rest. Of the sample, 62,2% were born in Cape Town (Table 11) and there was a dispro- portionately low number of children in the 6 - l2-month-old category. TABLE I. CHILDREN OF THE ZONES, BY AGE AND. 'ROAD-TO-HEALTH' CARD AVAILABLE. No. of. Age (mo.).
Full Text Available After the thematic issues devoted to Public Health in Eastern Europe  and in the Americas , in the current issue the Italian Journal of Public Health six articles will face different aspects regarding themes of health status and public health in Asia, giving a description of infection, nutritional and health care organization problems, and linking them to social, demographic and religious features. In each article indeed strictly health topics can be understood considering the peculiar and heterogeneous characteristics of the developing countries.
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients. Consideration of a patient's psychological health is therefore important for all nurses providing holistic care. Awareness of the symptoms of psychological distress, good communication skills and simple screening instruments can be used by nurses to assess patients' mental health. The cognitive and behavioural risk factors associated with depression and anxiety are also explored, as an understanding of these can help nurses to provide appropriate care.
Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A
Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men.
Sools, Anna Maria; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what
Kim, Jung A; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; An, Jisook
This study examined the effects of health status and health behaviors on depression in married female immigrants in South Korea. Sampling 316 immigrant women from the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and other Asian countries, a cross-sectional research design was used with self-report questionnaires that assessed sociodemographic characteristics, health status, health behaviors, and depression. There were significant differences in stillbirth experience, induced abortion, morbidity, perceived health status, meal skipping, and physical activity between depressed and nondepressed immigrant women. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, stillbirth experience, poorer perceived health status, more meal skipping, and less physical activity were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Both health status and health behaviors had significant impacts on depression, suggesting that development of nursing interventions and educational programs should be targeted towards improving maternal health, healthy lifestyle, and subjective health perception to promote married female immigrants' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Padilla-Moledo, C; Ruiz, J R; Castro-Piñero, J
Interest on the impact of socioeconomic differences on youth's health is growing. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of parental educational level with psychological positive health and health complaints in Spanish children and adolescents. Parental educational level, psychological positive health indicators (perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships and academic performance) and health complaint index (headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, feeling dizzy) were self-reported using the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire in 685 (366 boys and 319 girls) children and adolescents. Children reporting parents with non-university studies (father, mother or both) had significantly higher odd ratio of having lower academic performance, lower life satisfaction, perceiving their health status as otherwise (vs. excellent) and having health complaints sometime than their counterparts reporting parents with university studies (father, mother or both). Current results provide evidence that children having parents with a university degree (father, mother or both) are more likely to have higher psychological positive health and lower health complaints than children reporting parents with non-university studies. This is particularly important for the welfare policy that must pay attention for implementing programs for helping population to access to university studies by their impact on youth health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of health psychology it considers how the field is represented in a selection of popular textbooks. It concludes by considering the growth of some critical approaches within health psychology.
Lutgendorf, Susan K; Costanzo, Erin S
The biopsychosocial model describes interactions between psychosocial and biological factors in the etiology and progression of disease. How an individual interprets and responds to the environment determines responses to stress, influences health behaviors, contributes to the neuroendocrine and immune response, and may ultimately affect health outcomes. Health psychology interventions are designed to modulate the stress response and improve health behaviors by teaching individuals more adaptive methods of interpreting life challenges and more effective coping responses. These interactions are discussed in the context of aging.
Rich, Grant Jewell
Presents an interview with Shelley Taylor, a professor of Psychology at the University of California in Los Angles (California). Addresses topics such as how she became interested in psychology, the importance of health psychology in the curriculum, the ideal training for students in health psychology, and her work with "positive illusions." (CMK)
As part of a growing literature on the histories of psychology in the Global South, this article outlines some historical developments in South African psychologists' engagement with the problem of "health." Alongside movements to formalize and professionalize a U.S.-style "health psychology" in the 1990s, there arose a parallel, eclectic, and more or less critical psychology that contested the meaning and determinants of health, transgressed disciplinary boundaries, and opposed the responsibilization of illness implicit in much health psychological theorizing and neoliberal discourse. This disciplinary bifurcation characterized South African work well into the postapartheid era, but ideological distinctions have receded in recent years under a new regime of knowledge production in thrall to the demands of the global market. The article outlines some of the historical-political roots of key trends in psychologists' work on health in South Africa, examining the conditions that have impinged on its directions and priorities. It raises questions about the future trajectories of psychological research on health after 20 years of democracy, and argues that there currently is no "health psychology" in South Africa, and that the discipline is the better for it. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Zeltzer, Lonnie K; Recklitis, Christopher; Buchbinder, David; Zebrack, Bradley; Casillas, Jacqueline; Tsao, Jennie C I; Lu, Qian; Krull, Kevin
Psychological quality of life (QOL), health-related QOL (HRQOL), and life satisfaction outcomes and their associated risk factors are reviewed for the large cohort of survivors and siblings in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). This review includes previously published manuscripts that used CCSS data focused on psychological outcome measures, including the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Cantril Ladder of Life, and other self-report questionnaires. Comparisons and contrasts are made between siblings and survivors, and to normative data when available, in light of demographic/health information and abstracted data from the medical record. These studies demonstrate that a significant proportion of survivors report more symptoms of global distress and poorer physical, but not emotional, domains of HRQOL. Other than brain tumor survivors, most survivors report both good present and expected future life satisfaction. Risk factors for psychological distress and poor HRQOL are female sex, lower educational attainment, unmarried status, annual household income less than $20,000, unemployment, lack of health insurance, presence of a major medical condition, and treatment with cranial radiation and/or surgery. Cranial irradiation impacted neurocognitive outcomes, especially in brain tumor survivors. Psychological distress also predicted poor health behaviors, including smoking, alcohol use, fatigue, and altered sleep. Psychological distress and pain predicted use of complementary and alternative medicine. Overall, most survivors are psychologically healthy and report satisfaction with their lives. However, certain groups of childhood cancer survivors are at high risk for psychological distress, neurocognitive dysfunction, and poor HRQOL, especially in physical domains. These findings suggest targeting interventions for groups at highest risk for adverse outcomes and examining the positive growth that remains
Michelson, Nicole; Riis, Jenna L; Johnson, Sara B
Introduction Perceptions of social standing have increasingly well-documented relationships with health. Higher subjective social status (SSS) is associated with better psychological well-being among women, and mothers of newborns. The relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of young children, however, is largely unknown. SSS may provide insight into aspects of maternal functioning that are relevant to parenting capacity, as well as insight into future health; in addition, SSS is brief, and may be perceived as less intrusive than other measures of socioeconomic status or mental health. We evaluated the relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of 5-year-old children from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods One hundred and sixty-two mothers of 5-year old children, who participated in a study of child self-regulation, completed surveys that assessed sociodemographics, mental health, and perceived social support. The MacArthur Scale of SSS used pictures of ten-rung ladders to assess respondents' social position in relation to the US (SES ladder) and their community (community ladder). Quantile regression models were used to assess the relationship between maternal psychological distress (perceived social support, depressive symptoms, anxiety) and the ladders (individually and together), adjusting for maternal age, race, education, and number of children. To examine whether the SSS-health relationships differed by race, the models were also stratified by race. Results Community ladder ranking was positively associated with social support (β = 1.34, SE = 0.33, p support (β = 1.17, SE = 0.52, p maternal psychological well-being. Community SSS may be particularly influential for Black/African-American mothers' well-being.
Rozensky, Ronald H
This article is based on the opening presentation by the author to the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers' 5th National Conference, "Preparing Psychologists for a Rapidly Changing Healthcare Environment" held in March, 2011. Reviewing the patient protection and affordable care act (ACA), that presentation was designed to set the stage for several days of symposia and discussions anticipating upcoming changes to the healthcare system. This article reviews the ACA; general trends that have impacted healthcare reform; the implications of the Act for psychology's workforce including the growing focus on interprofessional education, training, and practice, challenges to address in order to prepare for psychology's future; and recommendations for advocating for psychology's future as a healthcare profession.
Sools, Anneke M; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben J
In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what are the most important features of the proposed approach and how they are relevant. We illustrate each positioning with the scope and diversity of narrative health psychology brought together in this special issue. Finally, we reflect on where narrative health psychology is now and how it could develop in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gracia, Francisco Javier; Silla, Inmaculada; Peiró, José María; Fortes-Ferreira, Lina
In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.
Horick, Nora K; Manful, Adoma; Lowery, Jan; Domchek, Susan; Moorman, Patricia; Griffin, Constance; Visvanathan, Kala; Isaacs, Claudine; Kinney, Anita Y; Finkelstein, Dianne M
Registries provide a unique tool for tracking quality of life in rare cancer survivors, whose survivorship experience is less known than for common cancers. This paper reports on these outcomes in 321 patients enrolled in the Rare Cancer Genetics Registry diagnosed with rare gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, head/neck, or hematologic cancers. Four outcomes were assessed, reflecting registrants' self-reported physical and mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness. Combining all patients into a single analysis, regression was used to evaluate the association between outcomes and socio-demographic and clinical factors. Median time since diagnosis was 3 years (range 0-9); 69 % were no longer in treatment. Poorer physical health was reported in registrants who were older at diagnosis, unmarried, and still in treatment. Poorer mental status was associated with younger diagnosis age and unmarried status. Psychological distress varied by cancer type and was higher among currently treated and unmarried registrants. Greater loneliness was reported in registrants with gynecological cancers, and those who were less educated or unmarried. The physical and mental health profile of rare cancer survivors is similar to what is reported for common cancers. Unmarried participants reported poorer outcomes on all measures of quality of life. Furthermore, physical and mental health were not significantly different by cancer type after adjustment for diagnosis age, whether currently in treatment and marital status. Thus, the combined analysis performed here is a useful way to analyze outcomes in less common diseases. Our findings could be valuable in guiding evaluation and intervention for issues impacting quality of life. Rare cancer survivors, particularly those without spousal support, should be monitored for challenges to the physical as well as psychological aspects of quality of life.
Egbuonu, L; Starfield
Available evidence regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status and health in childhood has been summarized. Only studies that used income, education, or occupation as measures of socioeconomic status and provided data obtained subsequent to legislation facilitating access to care have been cited. Data are presented on the prevalence and severity of illness (mortality, acute conditions as a group, chronic conditions as a group, and hospitalization), sequelae of prematurity, and specific common health problems and their sequelae. These specific health problems are lead poisoning, vision problems, otitis media and hearing loss, cytomegalic inclusion disease, asthma, psychosocial and psychosomatic problems, and iron deficiency anemia. All of the above (with the possible exception of asthma) are more prevalent among poor children than among nonpoor children. Even more striking is the evidence for consistently greater severity of problems or likelihood of sequelae among poor children. Although causality cannot be inferred from these data, the findings suggest a need for more basic research on the social correlates of disease, on the effect of social progress on disease prevalence and severity, and on the effect of medical care in overcoming the disadvantage associated with low socioeconomic status.
James, L C; Folen, R A; Porter, R I; Kellar, M A
The military patient population, the demanding environment in which medical services are provided, and the rigors of the operational environment create a unique challenge for service members as well as military health care providers. Within the military medical system, the subspecialty of clinical health psychology may provide patient care and consultation interventions necessary to meet the demands of the unique Army medical and military communities. As funding and other resources decrease, military health psychologists can provide high-quality care to difficult-to-manage patients while increasing outcome efficacy and decreasing costs to the hospital. This paper provides a definition of clinical health psychology and a description of its unique interventions and applications and how these unique skills augment medical services. Moreover, we offer a conceptual model for an innovative health psychology program that will assist other military treatment facilities in designing programs to increase outcome efficacy and concurrently reduce costs and utilization of services.
Vinokurov, Andrey; Birman, Dina; Trickett, Edison
Assessed the relationship of work status to acculturation and psychological adaption among refugees from the former Soviet Union, examining life satisfaction, alienation, and work status. Findings underscore the relevance of work status to refugees' life satisfaction and psychological adaptation and suggest the importance of seeking employment in…
Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of he...
Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D; Hooper, Ann E Caldwell
Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of "health," as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory). We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research.
Joshua M. Tybur
Full Text Available Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of “health,” as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory. We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research.
Bassford, T L
Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.
Keshvari, Mahrokh; Yamani, Niko; Adibi, Peyman; Shahnazi, Hossein
Media play crucial role in disseminating health information. Due to the importance of accurate health news reports, and the national need to professionalism in health journalism, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of health journalists, and health reporting status and the challenges involved. Using consensus sampling, this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all health news reporters in Isfahan (34 journalists) in 2015-2016. Data collection was done via a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity of the questionnaire was determined by qualitative method and based on the opinions of six experts. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 98.0. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 and descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for analyzing the responses to two open questions. Among 34 journalists, 56% were women and 44% men; the majority of journalists (65%) had no specialized training on health reporting, 35% of journalists were not able to understand the health issues, and the knowledge of medical terminology in 59% of them was moderate to low. The most important required skill for reporters was the ability to interpret medical research reports (88%), 97% were eager to participate in specialized health education. Our study showed that health journalists lacked knowledge and specialized training for dissemination of health news. This has brought about serious challenges. Thus, development and implementation of training courses in close collaboration with educational department of the Ministry of Health and news programs professionals at Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting is highly recommended.
Sun, Huimin; Zhang, Junjian; Fu, Xuedong
To investigate psychological status, coping, social support, and psychosocial factors associated with people living with HIV/AIDS in a highly HIV-infected area of central China. Cross-sectional descriptive correlation study. Of 200 individuals with HIV/AIDS registered at the "Warm Homestead" health care center (central China), all who met the eligibility criteria (n=103) were recruited; 94 of these completed questionnaires. Four anonymous self-administered questionnaires were used: (a) demographic data questionnaire, (b) Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), (c) Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire, and (d) Perceived Social Support Scale questionnaire. Participants had low education levels and family incomes. The majority (n=87, 92.6%) had become infected due to improper procedures during plasma donations. Participants reported moderately high levels of perceived social support, but their high SCL-90 scores indicated high levels of psychological distress. The most frequently used coping style was confrontation. Both acceptance-resignation and avoidance coping styles were significantly correlated with high distress (high SCL-90 total and subscale scores). Public health personnel and AIDS professionals may consider further interventions to promote psychological health in HIV/AIDS-positive individuals in highly HIV-infected areas of China, as the available social support did not seem to be effective in decreasing psychological pathology or mobilizing their coping strategies.
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz
Background: The workplace environment has a great influence on employees’ health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees’ psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological...
Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao
Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...
Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T
The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Full Text Available Orientation: This study examines the beneficial aspects of the interface between work and family and its relationships with psychological health from a positive psychology perspective.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work-family enrichment helps to predict psychological health, specifically increased subjective well-being and decreased feelings of emotional exhaustion and depression.Motivation for the study: The burgeoning literature on the work-family interface contains little on the potentially positive benefits of maintaining work and family roles.Research approach, design and method: The authors used a descriptive research design. Employees in two national organisations in the financial retail and logistics industries completed a self-administered survey questionnaire. The authors analysed responses from those who reported both family and work responsibilities (N = 160.Main findings: Consistent with previous research, factor analysis revealed two distinct directions of work-family enrichment: from work to family (W2FE and from family to work (F2WE. Multiple regression analysis showed that F2WE explained a significant proportion of the variance in subjective wellbeing, whilst W2FE explained a significant proportion of the variance in depression and emotional exhaustion.Practical/managerial implications: The findings of this study revealed the individual and organisational benefits of fostering work-family enrichment. Contributions/value add: This study presents empirical evidence for the need to focus on the positive aspects of the work-family interface, provides further support for a positive organisational psychology perspective in organisations and hopefully will encourage further research on interventions in organisations and families.
Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don
This study examined associations between AIDS-orphanhood status, poverty indicators, and psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, peer problems, delinquency, conduct problems) among children and adolescents in townships surrounding Cape Town, South Africa. One thousand and twenty-five children and adolescents completed standardized and culturally sensitive cross-sectional surveys. Children orphaned by AIDS had more psychological problems including depression, peer problems, post-traumatic stress, and conduct problems. Specific poverty indicators including food security, access to social welfare grants, employment in the household and access to school were associated with better psychological health. Poverty indicators mediated associations of AIDS-orphanhood with psychological problems. Food security showed the most consistent association with reduced psychological problems. Poverty alleviation measures have the potential to improve psychological health for AIDS-orphaned children in South African townships.
Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo
This article introduces the monographic section on Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP), presenting eight theoretical and empirical papers about diverse topics. Traditionally, research on occupational health has mainly been focused on causes of diseases and on identifying and preventing work factors related to worker's impaired health. However, this biased view may not provide a complete understanding of the mechanisms that lead to employee well-being and performance. We discuss the differences of POHP with similar constructs, and review reasons for its importance in the development of this field. Overall, the studies included in the monographic section show the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs, and present ideas and questions that we hope may help to further our progress in the field of POHP.
Full Text Available The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.
Tian, Jun; Chen, Zhen-chun; Hang, Li-Fang
The aim of this study was to assess the associations between coping mode, nutritional status, and psychological status and performance status of the patients with advanced stomach cancer. An epidemiological survey was conducted among 233 patients with advanced stomach cancer in Fujian, China. In-person interviews were performed for the participants with respect to information of psychological status prior to chemotherapy, nutritional status during chemotherapy, and physical performance status after chemotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the level of hemoglobin (HB), level of daily calorie intake, score of Depression Status Inventory (DSI), and score of confrontation subscale of Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire had a significant influence on performance status (P or =40 versus DSI score confrontation versus high score of confrontation, respectively. Depression, low score of "Confrontation", low levels of HB, and low level of daily calorie intake may be the risk factors of poor performance status of the patients with advanced stomach cancer.
Hakkou, Jinane; Rostom, Samira; Aissaoui, Nawal; Berrada, Kenza Rhzioual; Abouqal, Redouane; Bahiri, Rachid; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia
The evaluation of emotional status is an important parameter in management of rheumatic diseases. There are few studies evaluating the psychological status in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and its relationships with disease parameters and quality of life. In this study, we evaluated the psychological status in Moroccan patients with AS and its relationships with the activity of the disease, the functional status, and the quality of life. One hundred ten patients were included in this cross-sectional study according to the modified New York criteria for AS. Psychological status was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) including the depression and anxiety subscales. The quality of life was evaluated by the Short Form 36. Depression was found in 55.5% and anxiety in 60% among our patients. The HADS depression and anxiety subscales were significantly correlated with clinical parameters and with worsening in all domains of the Short Form 36.Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that role limitations due to emotional problems, vitality, and general health perception were independent risk factors of anxiety. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, vitality, and role limitations due to emotional problems were the independent factors that influenced the risk of depression. This study suggests that depression and anxiety are frequent in AS. Impaired quality of life and functional disability seemed to be independent risk factors of psychological disorders. Therefore, assessment and management of patients with AS should take into account the evaluation and management of their psychological disorders and improvement of their functional disability.
Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.
The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…
Molloy, Gerard John; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Randall, Gemma; Hamer, Mark
The intermediate processes through which the various unmarried states can increase the risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease mortality are incompletely understood. An understanding of these processes and how they may vary by gender is important for understanding why marital status is strongly and robustly associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease. In a prospective study of 13,889 Scottish men and women (mean age 52.3, Standard Deviation: 11.8 yrs, range 35-95, 56.1% female) without a history of clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease, we examined the extent to which health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, physical activity), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-12 item) and metabolic dysregulation (obesity levels, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes) account for the association between marital status and cardiovascular mortality. There were 258 cardiovascular deaths over an average follow up of 7.1 (Standard Deviation=3.3) years. The risk of cardiovascular mortality was greatest in single, never married men and separated/divorced women compared with those that were married in gender stratified models that were adjusted for age and socio-economic group. In models that were separately adjusted, behavioural factors explained up to 33%, psychological distress explained up to 10% and metabolic dysregulation up to 16% of the relative change in the hazard ratios in the observed significant associations between marital status and cardiovascular mortality. Behavioural factors were particularly important in accounting for the relationship between being separated/divorced and cardiovascular mortality in both men and women (33% and 21% of the relative change in the hazard ratios, respectively). The findings suggest that health behaviour, psychological distress and metabolic dysregulation data have varying explanatory power for understanding the observed relationship between cardiovascular disease mortality and unmarried states.
Cybulski, Lukasz; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Grant, Sean
Prospective registration increases the validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In the United States, registration is a legal requirement for drugs and devices regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and many biomedical journals refuse to publish trials that are not registered. Trials in clinical psychology have not been subject to these requirements; it is unknown to what extent they are registered. We searched the 25 highest-impact clinical psychology journals that published at least 1 RCT of a health-related psychological intervention in 2013. For included trials, we evaluated their registration status (prospective, retrospective, not registered) and the completeness of their outcome definitions. We identified 163 articles that reported 165 RCTs; 73 (44%) RCTs were registered, of which only 25 (15%) were registered prospectively. Of registered RCTs, only 42 (58%) indicated their registration status in the publication. Only 2 (1% of all trials) were registered prospectively and defined their primary outcomes completely. For the primary outcome(s), 72 (99%) of all registrations defined the domain, 67 (92%) the time frame, and 48 (66%) the specific measurements. Only 19 (26%) and 5 (7%) defined the specific metric and method of aggregation, respectively, for all primary outcomes. Very few reports of RCTs published in clinical psychology journals were registered prospectively and completely. Clinical psychology journals could improve transparency and reproducibility, as well as reduce bias, by requiring complete prospective trial registration for publication and by including trial registration numbers in all reports of RCTs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bilgiç, Reyhan; Yılmaz, Nilgün
The purpose of this study is to examine the major determinants of psychological health during unemployment. With this in mind, 438 (17% female and 83% male) unemployed individuals were contacted through Turkey's State Employment Office. It was expected that the relationship between duration of unemployment and psychological wellbeing would be nonlinear. Additionally it was hypothesized that perceived social support would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. Further, we suggested that self-esteem would be related to psychological health and moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. The results supported the curvilinearity hypothesis of the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health as measured by General Health Questionnaire. However, social support was not found to moderate the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological distress was not supported, although self-esteem was a strong negative determinant of psychological distress during unemployment. Regression analysis showed that the best predictors of psychological health were self-esteem, perceived social support and perceived adequacy of financial aid received from relatives. Interestingly, perceived adequacy of the financial aid was negatively related to psychological health. This result was contradictory with the previous literature pointing out that financial aid reduces the effects of poverty due to unemployment. The findings of this study are important since the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health was nonlinear, indicating that relevant services should be especially careful to intervene to increase social support and self-esteem during these critical times. The other results and limitations are discussed.
Ikkos, George; Gall, Angela; Smyth, Carol
Spinal cord injury is an uncommon condition, potentially causing a wide range of consequences and requiring specialist rehabilitation to optimize health, activity and participation. Early psychological response to injury and relations with staff, as well as family, may set the foundations for long-term emotional adjustment, healthcare utilization and quality of life. The Stanmore Nursing Assessment of Psychological Status has been developed at the London Spinal Cord Injury Centre to empower nurses to adopt a consistently empathic approach to patient care, as part of a comprehensive range of rehabilitation team skills. Its use in other spinal cord injury centers and a broader range of clinical environments (hospital and community) should therefore be considered.
Hassanein, Kamal Abdel-Aal Mohamed; Musgrove, Brian T; Bradbury, Eileen
Traditionally health-care providers have measured outcome of treatment of disease by focusing on tumour response and disease-free survival. However, it has become increasingly apparent that the behavioural and functional impact of treatment on the patient is important. This study investigates the psychological outcome and its relationship with functional status and coping mechanisms following treatment of oral cancer patients. Sixty-eight patients were evaluated 6 months to 6 years after treatment (from October 1992 to October 1997) for oral cancer. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used for psychological evaluation, the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL) and The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) for evaluating the head and neck specific and general functional status, respectively. Finally, the "Mental Adjustment to Cancer Questionnaire" (MAC-Q) was used for evaluation of coping mechanisms. The incidence of anxiety and/or depression was 25% and the socio-demographic and medical characteristics showed poor correlation with the psychological outcome in this study. The results indicated that there was a strong association between psychological outcome and head and neck specific and general quality-of-life (QOL) domains, and style of coping. The p-value was less than 0.01 for most of the domains and items of functional status and the effective coping style. Deteriorated functional status and ineffective coping strategies are strongly associated with poor psychological outcome in patients with oral cancer.
Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.
Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…
This paper constitutes a comparative and longitudinal investigation of physical exercise and psychological wellness in a sample of health club members in Zululand, South Africa. The research was contextualized within a public health and community psychological model of mental health promotion. Physical exercise was ...
Ehmann, B.; Balázs, L.; Fülöp, É.; Hargitai, R.; Kabai, P.; Péley, B.; Pólya, T.; Vargha, A.; László, J.
This paper is about a pilot application of narrative psychological content analysis in the psychological status monitoring of Crew 71 of a space analog simulation environment, the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). Both the method and its theoretical framework, Scientific Narrative Psychology, are original developments by Hungarian psychologists  (László, 2008). The software was NooJ, a multilingual linguistic development environment  (Silberztein, 2008). Three measures were conceptualized and assessed: emotional status, team spirit and subjective physical comfort. The results showed the patterns of these three measures on a daily basis at group level, and allowed for detecting individual differences as well. The method is adaptable to languages involved in space psychology, e.g. Russian, French and German in addition to English.
von Wagner, Christian; Steptoe, Andrew; Wolf, Michael S.; Wardle, Jane
The association between performance on health literacy measures and health outcomes is well established. The next step is to understand the processes through which health literacy affects health. This review introduces a framework drawing on ideas from health psychology and proposing that associations between health literacy and health outcomes…
Zhang, Lin; Che, Wen-bo; Li, Bing; Zhang, Xu-dong
To explore the main sources causing stress among Chinese college students and its distribution. A clustered random sampling method was conducted to perform the questionnaire on psychological stress among 2007 students selected from 13 universities. The main sources of psychological stress on college students regarding learning task, college environment, job-seeking, interpersonal relationship and emotional disorders. 49.3% of the population experienced mild level of psychological stress, 8.4% belonged to critical groups who experienced higher levels of stress,while 0.3% experienced severe level of stress. Sophomores and juniors were under more stressful situation than freshmen and senior students, while female students felt more stressful on learning and job-seeking than males. Male students felt more stressful caused by their families, health status, love affairs, social adaptation and frustration than females. Students from countryside were under more stress than those coming from urbans. Students from ordinary universities felt more stressed than those from famous universities and students from western areas were under more stress than those from the coastal areas. Stress had become a severe problem influencing the mental health development among college students. The problem needs to be addressed accordingly.
Prazak, Michael; Critelli, Joseph; Martin, Luci; Miranda, Vanessa; Purdum, Michael; Powers, Catherine
This study examined the relationships of mindfulness, a form of focused self-awareness, with physical and psychological health. Mindfulness was measured in terms of four stable forms of awareness: Observe, an awareness of internal and external stimuli; Describe, an ability to verbally express thoughts clearly and easily; Act with Awareness, the tendency to focus on present tasks with undivided attention; and Accept without Judgment, the tendency to take a nonjudgmental attitude toward one's own thoughts and emotions. These aspects of mindfulness were explored in relation to both physical health, which consisted of heart rate variability, a measure of overall cardiovascular health, and psychological health, which consisted of flourishing, existential well-being, negative affect, and social well-being in a sample of 506 undergraduate students. Individuals high in mindfulness showed better cardiovascular health and psychological health. © 2011 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2011 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Luis A. Oblitas
Full Text Available Studies on the scientific background of Health Psychology are discussed, including the conceptual definition, as well as the bio-psycho-social model that characterizes it. The relation between health and behavior is described in order to have a better understanding of health and illness, as well as about the pathogenic and immunology issues related to behavior. The main contributions of Health Psychology to improve life quality and health are described. Moreover, medical psychology, psychosocial coping of illness, as well as intervention strategies, are discussed. Health Psychology becomes a good alternative for the understanding of health and illness mechanisms, as well as for the prevention process and illness treatment related to psychological components.
Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José
We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents.
Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation
Rozensky, Ronald H
This article is based on the invited presentation by the author at the American Psychological Association's Annual Convention, August 4-7, 2011, upon his receipt of the Joseph D. Matarazzo Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in Academic Health Centers presented by the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers. This article relates the history, roles, and responsibilities of psychologists in academic health centers to the ultimate survival and success of professional psychology. It describes implications of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) on the institutional practice of psychology including how psychology's place in academic health centers positions the field well for the future of healthcare reform. The article provides several recommendations to help professional psychology prepare for that future of integrated, interprofessional healthcare.
Virudhagirinathan, Baboo Sankar; Karunanidhi, Subbiah
This paper provides an overview of the social and cultural context for the emergence and development of psychology in India and also more specifically of the development of clinical psychology. It details the range of universities offering psychology programmes and the various bodies involved in supporting the development of the psychology. The paper also describes the development of clinical psychology in India and the variety of roles undertaken by clinical psychologists. Finally, it raises a number of issues facing the development of Indian psychology into the future.
Lazzarino, Antonio Ivan; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Steptoe, Andrew
Psychological distress and low socioeconomic status (SES) are recognized risk factors for mortality. The aim of this study was to test whether lower SES amplifies the effect of psychological distress on all-cause mortality. We selected 66 518 participants from the Health Survey for England who were 35 years or older, free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at baseline, and living in private households in England from 1994 to 2004. Selection used stratified random sampling, and participants were linked prospectively to mortality records from the Office of National Statistics (mean follow-up, 8.2 years). Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and SES was indexed by occupational class. The crude incidence rate of death was 14.49 (95% CI, 14.17-14.81) per 1000 person-years. After adjustment for age and sex, psychological distress and low SES category were associated with increased mortality rates. In a stratified analysis, the association of psychological distress with mortality differed with SES (likelihood ratio test-adjusted P < .001), with the strongest associations being observed in the lowest SES categories. The detrimental effect of psychological distress on mortality is amplified by low SES category. People in higher SES categories have lower mortality rates even when they report high levels of psychological distress.
Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew
Balanced assessment of mental health involves assessing well-being and strengths as well as psychopathology. The character strengths of curiosity, gratitude, hope, optimism and forgiveness are assessed in 214 new undergraduates and their relationships to mental health, subjective well-being and self-esteem explored. Scoring the mental health scale…
Miloseva, Lence; Milosev, Vladimir
The main aim of this paper is to present a new model and approach in Health and Clinical practice – Applied Positive Psychology. Through discussion about the roots of Positive Psychology and interest in what is good about humans and their lives and in optimal human functioning we will try to introduce a new model of Positive Health and Clinical Psychology. From Aristotle’s treatises on eudemonia, through Aquinas’ writings about virtue during the Renaissance, to the inquires of modern psycholo...
Tuba Talo Yildirim
Full Text Available Background Dental anxiety is a widespread problem in many populations. This problem can be a barrier to dental care and may lead to poor oral health. Dental anxiety may be related to psychological status. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of dental anxiety, dental fear, Beck Depression, and state-trait anxiety according to age, gender and education level in patients at the periodontology clinic in the Diyarbakır Mouth and Dental Health Center. Study Design A total of 231 patients (115 males, 116 females filled out dental fear scale (DFS, dental anxiety scale (DAS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, state-trait anxiety inventory-state (STAI-S, and state-trait anxiety inventory–trait (STAI-T questionnaires, and evaluations of DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T were conducted according to age, gender, and education level. Results The mean DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-T, and STAI –S were 45.64, 9.15, 13.16, 38.90, and 40.18, respectively. There was a significant association among DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T (p < 0.05. These surveys scores were significantly higher in females than males (p < 0.05. The results of this study indicated that gender age and education level have important effects on DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T (p < 0.05. Conclusion Dental anxiety and dental fear were found to be related to psychological status (BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T over time. There are some patients with unaddressed psychological distress.
The study examined the traumatic experiences and psychological health of women working in male-dominated professions. Their reported traumatic experiences and psychological health were compared with those of women working in female-dominated professions and men in male dominated processions. Samples of ...
Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…
The literature on suicide among the Chinese indicates that younger individuals from rural areas are at higher risk of suicide than their urban counterparts. While earlier studies have investigated the relationship between psychological health and major demographic variables, the relationship of psychological health as it ...
Background: Satisfied employees tend to be healthier and more productive. There is no known study on the overall job satisfaction and psychological health of bank employees in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological health among bank employees in a southern city of ...
Panjwani, Aliza A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Revenson, Tracey A.
We conducted an online national survey to examine how undergraduate health psychology is taught, offer information about course design and content, and provide a needs analysis. Health psychology instructors (N = 126) answered questions about course format, teaching tools, importance of covering specific topics, and needed resources. A principal…
Brack, Amy Badura; Kesitilwe, Kutlo; Ware, Mark E.
We conducted a random national survey of 100 doctoral, 100 comprehensive, and 100 baccalaureate institutions to determine the current state of the undergraduate health psychology course. We found clear evidence of a maturing course with much greater commonality in name (health psychology), theoretical foundation (the biopsychosocial model), and…
Provides an announcement from the Commission on Accreditation for the following status changes for accredited doctoral (clinical, counseling, school, or a combination there of and developed practice area), doctoral internship, and postdoctoral residency programs in health service psychology as of April 2, 2017. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
training has not emphasised the psychological and social aspects of health status.3. Effective management of the psycho- logical and social issues may play an important role in the illness trajectory, affecting coping with the illness, compliance with treatment regimens, recovery time and the relationships between the patient ...
Sheeran, Paschal; Bosch, Jos A; Crombez, Geert; Hall, Peter A; Harris, Jennifer L; Papies, Esther K; Wiers, Reinout W
Implicit processes refer to cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that influence health decisions and behavior without the person intending that influence. This special issue aims to increase appreciation of the diverse and promising research on implicit processes in health psychology,
Schui, Gabriel; Fell, Clemens; Krampen, Günter
Positive Psychology (PP) is a relatively new school of thought in Psychology, focusing on human strengths and virtues, and on improving well-being and quality of life. In its aim and scope, it bears special relation to the fields of Behavioral Medicine (BM) and Health Psychology (HP). Building upon a recent bibliometric analysis (Schui & Krampen, 2010), we trace the impact, PP had on these larger fields by evaluating the corresponding literature found in the PsycINFO-database.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…
Silva, John M., III
Sport psychology has made significant advances in organization and research technology while creating an instrumental and influential subdiscipline of physical education. A survey of high school and college coaches was performed to discover specific areas of sport psychology found to be important and how coaches would like to integrate sport…
Kim, Su Hyun
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships of health literacy to chronic medical conditions and the functional health status among community-dwelling Korean older adults. In the literature, limited health literacy has been reported to have adverse effect on health outcomes. However, the link between health literacy to health status among Korean older adults needs to be clarified. A cross-sectional survey. A cross-sectional survey of 103 community-dwelling Korean older adults was conducted from June 2007-September 2007. Health literacy was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy test and functional health status was measured using the subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Individuals with a low health literacy had significantly higher rates of arthritis and hypertension. After adjusting for age, education and income, older individuals with low health literacy had higher limitations in activity and lower subjective health. In a model adjusting for age and income only, older individuals with low health literacy were more likely to report lower levels of physical function and subjective health and higher levels of limitations in activity and pain. Among community-dwelling Korean older adults, limited health literacy is associated independently with higher rates of chronic medical conditions and lower subjective health status. Nurses are key to providing health education to older adults. The understanding of the relationship of health literacy to health status is essential to develop communication and health education efforts for older adults in nursing practice.
Religion encompasses behavioural, attitudinal, public and private activities, all of which potentially involve different antecedent factors and consequences for health outcomes. There is increasing research evidence that religious involvement is associated both cross-sectionally and prospectively with better physical health, ...
Thomas, N.; Hayward, M.; Peters, E; van der Gaag, M.; Bentall, R.P.; Jenner, J.; Strauss, C.; Sommer, I.E.; Johns, L.C.; Varese, F.; Gracia-Montes, J.M.; Waters, F.; Dodgson, G.; McCarthy-Jones, S.
This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions,
Serre-Delcor, Núria; Ascaso, Carlos; Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Collazos-Sanchez, Francisco; Treviño-Maruri, Begoña; Sulleiro, Elena; Pou-Ciruelo, Diana; Bocanegra-Garcia, Cristina; Molina-Romero, Israel
The rising rate of conflicts and the unsafe situation caused by reasons of ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, political opinion, or nationality entail an increase in the number of migratory movements. The goal of this article is to describe the health status of asylum seekers visited in an international health center. We conducted a retrospective study of the asylum seekers visited between July 2013 and June 2016. A total of 303 cases were included. The median age was 28.0 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 21-35), and 203 (67.0%) were men. Of the total, 128 cases (42.2%) were from Asia, 82 (27.1%) from Eastern Europe, 42 (13.9%) from sub-Saharan Africa, 34 (11.2%) from America, and 17 (5.6%) from Maghreb. The majority, 287 (94.7%), were asymptomatic. Seventy of the 303 (23.1%) cases were diagnosed with at least one infection, this being more prevalent in men; migrants from sub-Saharan Africa; and in those who took a land-maritime migratory route. Eight of the 303 (2.6%) cases were referred to the transcultural psychiatric department. Two important challenges of the study were the communication barriers and the legal or social situation that condition the psychological symptoms. In 48 of the 303 (15.8%) cases, there was diagnosed a noncommunicable diseases. The process of care was completed by 82.5%; although 21.9% completed the vaccination for hepatitis B. The asylum seekers in this study were in general healthy young men, although special attention was given to infectious diseases with certain geoepidemiological backgrounds. Unstable living arrangements, linguistic, and cultural barriers could account for the failure of the course of care.
This article reports on the status of school psychology in Ontario. School psychology practice in Ontario has continued to evolve since the previous report was published in 2001. School psychologists have varied roles, and although the most prominent one remains as assessing students for entry into certain special education services, school-based…
College students were administered a series of questionnaires designed to determine the association between psychological health, involvement in a romantic relationship, and the quality of love in a relationship. As predicted, subjects who had been involved in at least one love relationship scored significantly higher on a measure of self-actualization than individuals who had never been in love. In addition, it was found that level of self-actualization directly correlated with the degree of healthy love (Maslow's B-love) among individuals who had been involved in a romantic relationship. Among individuals who had terminated their relationship, those who demonstrated higher levels of self-actualization felt less resentment toward their ex-lover. Furthermore it was discovered that females show a higher level of B-love than males, but contrary to predictions the length of a romantic relationship did not influence B-love. It is concluded that the results of this study are essentially consistent with Maslow's theories about self-actualization, hierarchy of needs, and healthy love.
Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy
Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318
Iannotti, Ronald J; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto
To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and Life Satisfaction were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences.
Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut
Little attention has been given to psychological factors as correlates of health care use, which could be an important key to manage it. We analyzed the association of psychological factors with health care use. Primary data were obtained from three follow-ups (2002, 2008, and 2011) of a large population-based study with participants aged 40+. Using a longitudinal observational study, we analyzed the psychological factors of negative and positive affect (affective well-being), life satisfaction (cognitive well-being), self-efficacy, loneliness, self-esteem, optimism, and flexible goal adjustment using fixed-effects regressions. The participants provided data on health care use (visits to general practitioners [GPs] and specialists as well as hospitalization) and psychological factors via self-administered questionnaires and personal interviews (7,116 observations). The sample was drawn using national probability sampling. Controlling for self-rated health, chronic diseases and sociodemographics, increases in affective well-being, and optimism decreased health care use of GPs, specialists, and hospital treatment. Increases in cognitive well-being decreased health care use of GPs and specialists. Increases in self-efficacy decreased hospitalization. The study underlines the influence of psychological factors on health care use. Thus, whenever possible, future studies of health care use should include psychological factors, and efforts to reduce health care use might focus on such factors. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Rozensky, Ronald H
Implications for the future of professional psychology are discussed and related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, patient-centered health care homes and accountable care organizations, and the growing importance of interprofessional competencies in health care. The need for increased information about the psychology workforce is related to the history of the institutional practice of psychology and how that data must be used to plan for the supply of psychologists required to meet the service demands of the changing health care system. Several challenges to the field of psychology are offered, along with steps that must be taken by the profession to prepare for increased institutionally based health care services in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M
AbstractMoney is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world - improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth.
Mack, Diane E; Meldrum, Lindsay S; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M
The role of psychological need satisfaction in terms of understanding the mechanisms through which leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with psychological health in breast cancer survivors who have recently completed treatment was examined. Adopting a longitudinal two-wave design, female breast cancer survivors (N = 144) completed self-report instruments of LTPA, psychological need satisfaction, and psychological health at two points separated by 3 months. The first test administration period was 6 months following the completion of primary treatment. Change score analyses demonstrated that greater LTPA across the 3-month period was associated with greater perceptions of well-being (rs ranged from .17 to .20) and lower ill-being (rs ranged from -.06 to -.21). Results of multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological need fulfillment underpinned the LTPA-well-being relationship only. Collectively these findings indicate that increased engagement in LTPA represents one factor associated with greater psychological health in breast cancer survivors, with fulfilling the psychological need for relatedness most salient in understanding this relationship. Continued investigation into the mechanisms associated with reductions in ill-being in breast cancer survivors appear justified. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Settersten, Lori; Lauver, Diane Ruth
Critical thinking has been proposed as crucial for processing conflicting information when people make decisions about participation in health behaviors. The critical thinking of individuals about participation in health behaviors may depend on their perceived health status. To examine the relations between critical thinking and participation in three categories of health behaviors, and to determine whether these relations are moderated by perceived health status. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used to study a sample of 112 community-dwelling adults who resided in a large, urban Midwest community. The participants were women and men 18 to 90 years of age (mean, 55 +/- 20.47 years) who completed self-report, written questionnaires including the Test of Everyday Reasoning and the Health Practices Instrument. According to hierarchical multiple regression analyses, the relation between critical thinking and health promotion behaviors and the relation between critical thinking and secondary prevention behaviors were moderated by perceived health status, whereas the relation between critical thinking and health protection behaviors was not. The relation between critical thinking and participation in health behaviors depends on perceived health status and category of health behaviors. Researchers can explore the role of other variables (e.g., functional status and perceived susceptibility to disease) to explain why perceived health status moderates the relations between critical thinking and participation in various types of health behaviors differently.
Wees, P.J. van der; Zaslavsky, A.M.; Ayanian, J.Z.
CONTEXT: Massachusetts enacted health care reform in 2006 to expand insurance coverage and improve access to health care. The objective of our study was to compare trends in health status and the use of ambulatory health services before and after the implementation of health reform in Massachusetts
Terre, Lisa; And Others
Investigated relative influence of background characteristics (age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, family type) and peer status on health-related behaviors (physical activity, eating habits, smoking, alcohol use, stress-related behaviors) in 589 junior high school students. Peer popularity provided no significant increment in prediction of…
Chamberlain, Kerry; Lyons, Antonia C; Stephens, Christine
We examine how critical health psychology developed in New Zealand, taking an historical perspective to document important influences. We discuss how academic appointments created a confluence of critical researchers at Massey University, how interest in health psychology arose and expanded, how the critical turn eventuated and how connections, both local and international, were important in building and sustaining these developments. We discuss the evolution of teaching a critical health psychology training programme, describe the research agendas and professional activities of academic staff involved and how this sustains the critical agenda. We close with some reflections on progress and attainment.
Boggs, Kathleen R.; Douce, Louise A.
Briefly traces the history of psychology internship training to its central role in professional training in counseling psychology. Discusses current issues, including supply and demand, increased applicant costs, timing of internship, and escalation of practicum training hours, and outlines future considerations. Emphasizes training for the full…
This paper focuses on widening participation and accessibility in relation to mental health issues and undergraduate psychology students. Sections 1 and 2 set the context and outline the scope and aims of this paper. Section 3 presents evidence of the student experience from the Improving Provisions for Disabled Psychology Students (IPDPS)…
Upton, Dominic; Mansell, Hayley
Psychology is taught on a range of vocational courses including such training for professions as nurses, medics, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and other health care professionals. However, what is uncertain is what psychology is taught, who it is taught by and how it is taught. This project aims to address these unresolved questions…
Jun 1, 2013 ... mainly due to poor working conditions and poor infrastructural ... The questionnaire contained three sections: 1) respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and work history;. 2) respondents' job satisfaction and. 3) psychological health ..... level and psychological well being of healthcare providers in a ...
Background: Employees should be happy at their work, considering the amount of time they devote to it throughout their working life. There is paucity of data on the job satisfaction and psychological health of medical doctors in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological ...
Lovell, Elyse D'nn; Munn, Nathan
This study explores Introduction to Psychology students' learning preferences and their personal search for meaning while considering their parental status. The findings suggest that parents show preferences for project-based learning and have lower levels of searching for meaning than non-parents. When parental status, age, and finances were…
Jun 15, 1991 ... screen of a range of health criteria in a single survey provides a useful overview of health starus (seldom available) in a relatively short space of time,. Thus, within the limitations of time and funding, the method used to investigate dietary patterns in this srudy overcame the problem of recall. It provided an ...
Tabatabaeian, Mahshid; Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Feizi, Awat; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaeian, Maryam; Naji, Fateme; Adibi, Peyman
Background: Psychological profile of inflammatory bowel disease patients is not well studied in Iran. We investigated the psychological status of Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its relationship with disease activity and quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult UC patients. The Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, and WHOQOL-BREF, were completed by the patients. Results: From 120 studied patients, 35 (29.2%), 48 (40.0%), and 46 (38.3%) had significant anxiety, depression, and psychological distress, respectively. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were strongly correlated with disease activity (r = 0.357 to 0.439, P < 0.01). Disease activity was negatively correlated with all QOL dimensions (r = −0.245 to −0.550, P < 0.01). Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were also negatively correlated with all QOL domains (r = −0.356 to −0.789, P < 0.01). In the regression models, anxiety was independently associated with active disease (β = 4.150, P = 0.049). Furthermore, disease activity was associated with the physical health (β = −0.371, P < 0.001). For almost all of the QOL domains, depression and psychological distress were independent predictors (β = −0.296 to −0.453, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress are highly frequent in UC patients of our society and are strongly associated with disease activity. Depression and psychological distress are important predictors of poor QOL in these patients. Further prospective studies, as well as clinical trials, are warranted in this regard. PMID:26600833
Full Text Available Background: Psychological profile of inflammatory bowel disease patients is not well studied in Iran. We investigated the psychological status of Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and its relationship with disease activity and quality of life (QOL. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult UC patients. The Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, and WHOQOL-BREF, were completed by the patients. Results: From 120 studied patients, 35 (29.2%, 48 (40.0%, and 46 (38.3% had significant anxiety, depression, and psychological distress, respectively. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were strongly correlated with disease activity (r = 0.357 to 0.439, P < 0.01. Disease activity was negatively correlated with all QOL dimensions (r = −0.245 to −0.550, P < 0.01. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were also negatively correlated with all QOL domains (r = −0.356 to −0.789, P < 0.01. In the regression models, anxiety was independently associated with active disease (β = 4.150, P = 0.049. Furthermore, disease activity was associated with the physical health (β = −0.371, P < 0.001. For almost all of the QOL domains, depression and psychological distress were independent predictors (β = −0.296 to −0.453, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress are highly frequent in UC patients of our society and are strongly associated with disease activity. Depression and psychological distress are important predictors of poor QOL in these patients. Further prospective studies, as well as clinical trials, are warranted in this regard.
Derickson, Ryan; Fishman, Jonathan; Osatuke, Katerine; Teclaw, Robert; Ramsel, Dee
In psychologically safe workplaces, employees feel comfortable taking interpersonal risks, such as pointing out errors. Previous research suggested that psychologically safe climate optimizes organizational outcomes. We evaluated psychological safety levels in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals and assessed their relationship to employee willingness of reporting medical errors. We conducted an ANOVA on psychological safety scores from a VHA employees census survey (n = 185,879), assessing variability of means across racial and supervisory levels. We examined organizational climate assessment interviews (n = 374) evaluating how many employees asserted willingness to report errors (or not) and their stated reasons. Finally, based on survey data, we identified 2 (psychologically safe versus unsafe) hospitals and compared their number of employees who would be willing/unwilling to report an error. Psychological safety increased with supervisory level (P report an error; retaliation fear was the most commonly mentioned deterrent. Furthermore, employees at the psychologically unsafe hospital (71% would report, 13% would not) were less willing to report an error than at the psychologically safe hospital (91% would, 0% would not). A substantial minority would not report an error and were willing to admit so in a private interview setting. Their stated reasons as well as higher psychological safety means for supervisory employees both suggest power as an important determinant. Intentions to report were associated with psychological safety, strongly suggesting this climate aspect as instrumental to improving patient safety and reducing costs.
Scheepers, Renée A.
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Patel, Nimisha; Kellezi, Blerina; Williams, Amanda C de C
Torture is widespread, with potentially broad and long-lasting impact across physical, psychological, social and other areas of life. Its complex and diverse effects interact with ethnicity, gender, and refugee experience. Health and welfare agencies offer varied rehabilitation services, from conventional mental health treatment to eclectic or needs-based interventions. This review is needed because relatively little outcome research has been done in this field, and no previous systematic review has been conducted. Resources are scarce, and the challenges of providing services can be considerable. To assess beneficial and adverse effects of psychological, social and welfare interventions for torture survivors, and to compare these effects with those reported by active and inactive controls. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through a search of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS), the Open System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenSIGLE), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and Published International Literature On Traumatic Stress (PILOTS) all years to 11 April 2013; searches of Cochrane resources, international trial registries and the main biomedical databases were updated on 20 June 2014. We also searched the Online Library of Dignity (Danish Institute against Torture), reference lists of reviews and included studies and the most frequently cited journals, up to April 2013 but not repeated for 2014. Investigators were contacted to provide updates or details as necessary. Full publications of RCTs or quasi-RCTs of psychological, social or welfare interventions for survivors of
Full Text Available Mental retardation is one of the most significant problems of human society among children and adolescents. It puts families, especially mothers, under a lot of stress and threatens their mental health. The initial purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stress inoculation training on coping styles and psychological well-being status in women who have children with mental retardation. In this quasi-experimental study, 30 participants were randomly were selected by simple sampling method that were assigned into the experimental and control groups. The statistical population comprised the mothers who have children with mental retardation at the training center. Ryff scales of psychological well-being and coping inventory for stressful situations and psychological well-being scale were implemented before and after the stress inoculation training (presented only for the experimental group in eight sessions. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the training increased the problem-oriented coping style and decreased the avoidant and emotional coping styles. Thus, the results demonstrated that stress inoculation training was effective in stress coping and improving psychological well-being in mothers. According to the obtained finding, psychological well-being scores in the experimental group were remarkably different from those in the control group. Based on these results, it is recommended for the experts in the field to use stress inoculation training to decrease stress and enhance psychological well-being of mothers.
Fajardo, Renato Salviato [UNESP; Zavanelli, Adriana Cristina; Botasim, Eliene Ferreira; Barboza, Glaucia de Souza
To improve mental health services, the World Health Organization proposes an epidemiological approach" based on the constant screening of existing research, and aimed at continuous improvement of psychological treatment rather than strict application of prescribed techniques. This study provides an epidemiological survey conducted at the psychology ward of the municipal Ambulatório de Saúde Mental in Birigui, São Paulo, Brazil. Data from 180 patients in psychotherapeutic care were collected, ...
Jeremy F. Kubik
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient’s sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.
Šimić, Dubravka; Penavić, Jasna Zeljko; Babić, Dragan; Gunarić, Anita
The acne patients are at higher risk of acquiring depresion and anxiety, which can lead to reduced quality of life. Effective treatment of acne can reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression and significantly improve other physiological parameters and quality of life of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the psychological status and quality of life of acne patients before, during and after the treatment with oral isotretinoin. The prospective study included a total of 127 patients suffering from moderate to severe form of acne. To assess the psychological status and quality of life of studied groups the following standard psychometric questionnaires were performed before, during and after the treatment with oral isotretinoin: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Assessments of the Psychological and Social Effects of Acne (APSEA), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Measure of Psychological Stress (MPS) and Dermatology Specific Quality of Life (DSQL). Results of the present study indicate that there is no increase in depressive and anxiety symptoms in the patients treated with oral isotretinoin. The psychological status by gender has shown the existence of differences between the genders in all measures of psychological status. Statistically significantly better quality of life was observed after healing than before treatment. The results of our study showed no higher risk of depression and anxiety within the patients with acne treated with oral isotretinoin. Improvement of quality of life after the treatment of acne with oral isotretinoin was confirmed.
Background: A good school health programme is necessary to optimize the educational opportunities and make appropriate adjustments for optimal development of the school child. This study was done to determine some haematological parameters as a correlate of health status of new entrants in two mission owned ...
Full Text Available Goal: To understand if the health status affects the quality of life of employees and to identify which variables influence the quality of life of the employees of the institution. Methods: A descriptive-correlational study, quantitative. Sociodemographic questionnaire and the Portuguese version of MOS SF-36. Sample of teaching staff and non-teaching staff who agreed to participate in the study. Data processing made through the Software Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Approved by the Commission of Ethics and the Director of the institution; informed consent given by the participants. Results: Statistically significant differences between the quality of life and health status in the Physical Component. As the levels of the Mental Component increase also increase the levels of self-perception of a better health condition. The higher the levels of each component, the higher the self-perception of the health condition of the participants. The variables that can influence the health status and quality of life of the participants are the presence of chronic conditions, academic qualifications and marital status. Conclusions: The importance of health promotion, disease prevention, was highlighted in order to obtain gains in quality of life, health gains, adding not only years to life, but also life to years. This is because health problems are mostly related to bad habits and harmful lifestyles.
Aspari, Ajay Raghunath; Lakshman, K
Often in clinical practice, a spectrum of outcomes from surgery may be observed ranging from a quick and comfortable recovery to a recovery punctuated by persistent pain and decreased quality of life. While there has been a fast pace of advances made in the field of operative surgery, surgeons seldom pay attention to factors such as the psychological profile of a patient that can affect recovery from surgery. To study the effects of pre-operative psychological profile on post-operative recovery in terms of pain, return to work and quality of life. Consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries at Sagar Hospitals, Jayanagar, were recruited. All patients were assessed for psychological status using the screening for illness behaviour questionnaire (SIBQ) and pain catastrophizing scale (PCS). Following surgery, they were followed up for a period of 3 months-on post-operative day 1, post-operative day 7, 1 month and 3 months from the date of surgery. Post-operative pain was measured using the visual analogue scale (Wong-Baker's), return to work was documented in days and quality of life was measured using the Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v2) Health Survey. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to compare variables with continuous data and Chi-square and Fisher's tests were used to test categorical data for significance. In a total of 98 patients recruited, 50 patients had a complete follow-up of 3 months. Significant correlations existed between the pre-operative markers and markers of recovery. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact tests showed significant differences in the scores of pre-operative markers between the groups of patients who developed chronic pain and those who did not. Difference in scores with regard to quality of life was also noted. Psychological status does play a role in post-operative recovery. This result opens up scope for counselling patients towards a healthy and comfortable recovery from surgery.
Full Text Available Historically speaking, psychology and religion have worked separately toward the goal of improving mental health among the people. Can psychology and religion work together and reap better results for the client? How important is religion for the people and how important are religious values for psychologists? What is the relationship between religion and mental health? How today's schools of psychology deal with the religious client? How is religion integrated in psychotherapy? These and other related issues are addressed in this paper. It is concluded that psychologists are obligated to work within the value system of the client and that this approach would achieve a more positive therapeutic outcome.
Shivakumar, Prafulla; Sadanand, Shilpa; Bharath, Srikala; Girish, N; Philip, Mariamma; Varghese, Mathew
Psychological distress in the elderly with various illness conditions often goes unrecognized. Since psychological distress is treatable, it is important to recognize it at the earliest to enhance recovery. This is an interim analysis of screening data of the elderly seeking health care in a hospital in India, with a focus on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), a screening instrument for psychological distress and a rationale for a higher cutoff score in help seeking elderly. A retrospective analysis of screening data of psychological distress using GHQ-12 in the elderly seeking care for neuropsychiatric conditions was carried out. Traditionally, ≥2 is considered positive for distress by GHQ-12. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define new cutoff points for psychological distress. At ≥2, 2443 (50%) of the elderly screened were recognized to be psychologically distressed. Using an ROC and optimum sensitivity and specificity measures, a cutoff score of ≥4 was observed to detect 30% of the elderly who had diagnosable mental health disorders. Female sex, illiteracy, and multiple co-morbidities were the factors that were associated with higher cutoff scores on GHQ-12 proposed here and psychiatric morbidity thereof. There is greater psychological distress among the elderly seeking health care. Hence, it is important to screen them and identify those at higher risk. Using a higher cutoff score with a standardized instrument like GHQ-12 indicated that it was statistically valid to identify those elderly with higher distress in a busy out-patient setting.
Full Text Available Ann C Mertens, Jordan Gilleland Marchak Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorder Center, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Due to the successful treatment of children with cancer, overall 5-year survival rates now exceed 80%. Because of this success in treating childhood cancer, concerns are now focusing on the potential risk of both physical and psychosocial late effects in these cancer survivors. There is limited data available for clinicians and researchers on the mental health of adolescent survivors of childhood cancers. The goal of this review is to provide a concise evaluation of the content and attributes of literature available on this often overlooked, yet vulnerable, population. Overall, studies on psychological outcomes in adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer suggest that the majority are mentally healthy and do not report significant levels of psychological distress. Several factors were recognized as playing an important role in adverse psychosocial outcomes in these adolescent cancer survivors: to include the diagnosis of a tumor in the central nervous system, central nervous system-directed cancer treatment, and physical late effects. To identify the subset of survivors who may benefit from systematic psychological services, systematic psychological screening of all adolescent cancer survivors during follow-up oncology visits is recommended. Further research into this critical area is needed to help identify other potential risk factors and guide the development of evidence-based support for these vulnerable adolescents. Keywords: adolescents, psychological, psychosocial, screening recommendations
M E Sachkova
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of social representations in students about the high status in a society where psychological well-being acts as an integral component. During the analysis of literature it has been revealed that at youthful age, a key factor in determining psychological well-being is a successful self-identity in society, as well as the achievement of a certain status. In addition, during this period there can be observed the formation of social representations in the context of personal and professional self-determination. The object of our research was to study the structure and specificity of the social representations in students about the high status in modern society. We hypothesized that the perceptions of students about the high position in society must include the components of psychological well-being. In the course of the research P. Verges’ method was used to study the structure of social representations. The 594 associations obtained were subjected to a categorical analysis. In the study it was found out that the structural components of psychological well-being (K. Riff are reflected in the characteristics of the social representations of high status. It was concluded that according to the social representations of the modern young people a person of a high status is represented as a psychologically prosperous person, which confirms the hypothesis of the study.
her statistical support; to Nosakela Balfour, Nomchato Mangesi, and Phumzile Simelela, the fieldworkers, for their contribution to this study. REFERENCES. I. World Health Organisation. Nutrition: global surveillance through anthropo- metric measurement. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1987; 62: 37-38. 2. Ramphele MA, Heap M.
Jun 15, 1991 ... It is an interrelationship between a number of criteria. A more practical view of health considers it as the modus vivendi of a social group,3 the way in which people use. Department of Social Anthropology, University of Cape. Town. M. A. RAMPHELE, M.B. CH.B., D.P.H. (SA). M. HEAP, M.A. (SOC. ANTHR.).
Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Mizumoto, Suely; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Strassman, Rick J
Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bales, M; Pambrun, E; Melchior, M; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, N M-C; Charles, M-A; Verdoux, H; Sutter-Dallay, A-L
Pregnant women are vulnerable to the deleterious impact of environmental stressors. The aims were to identify the environmental and pregnancy characteristics independently associated with prenatal psychological distress and access to mental health care. We used data from the French cohort Étude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE), a nationally representative cohort of children followed-up from birth to adulthood. Information about prenatal psychological status and access to mental health care was collected during the maternity stay. Maternal/pregnancy characteristics independently associated with psychological distress and access to mental health care were explored using multivariate analyses. Of the 15,143 mothers included, 12.6% reported prenatal psychological distress. Prenatal distress was more frequent in women with very low economical status, alcohol/tobacco use, unplanned/unwanted pregnancy, late pregnancy declaration, multiparity and complicated pregnancy (high number of prenatal visits, prenatal diagnosis examination, obstetrical complications). Of the women reporting prenatal distress, 25% had a prenatal consultation with a mental health specialist and 11% used psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. Decreased likelihood to consult a mental health specialist was found in young women, with intermediate educational level and born abroad. Causal inferences should be made cautiously as the questionnaire did not collect information on the temporal sequence between psychological distress and associated characteristics. Women with social and obstetrical vulnerabilities are at increased risk of poor mental health during pregnancy. Improving mental health care access during pregnancy is a public health priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Brown, David B.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Roos, Corey R.
There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one’s thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students (N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness. PMID:26504498
Brown, David B; Bravo, Adrian J; Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R
There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one's thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students ( N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness.
Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael; Naim, Lama
A rather large body of literature now exists on the use of telemental health services in the diagnosis and management of various psychiatric conditions. This review aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of telemental health, focusing on four main areas: computerized CBT (cCBT), Internet-based CBT (iCBT), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), and mobile therapy (mTherapy). Four scientific databases were searched and, where possible, larger, better-designed meta-analyses and controlled trials were highlighted. Taken together, published studies support an expanded role for telepsychiatry tools, with advantages that include increased care access, enhanced efficiency, reduced stigma associated with visiting mental health clinics, and the ability to bypass diagnosis-specific obstacles to treatment, such as when social anxiety prevents a patient from leaving the house. Of technology-mediated therapies, cCBT and iCBT possess the most efficacy evidence, with VRET and mTherapy representing promising but less researched options that have grown in parallel with virtual reality and mobile technology advances. Nonetheless, telepsychiatry remains challenging because of the need for specific computer skills, the difficulty in providing patients with a deep understanding or support, concerns about the "therapeutic alliance", privacy fears, and the well documented problem of patient attrition. Future studies should further test the efficacy, advantages and limitations of technology-enabled CBT, as well as explore the online delivery of other psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological modalities. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz
The workplace environment has a great influence on employees' health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees' psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological health and somatic complaints (i.e., sleep disorders, headache, gastro-intestinal and respiratory problems). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women working in the public sector. Data collection was conducted using a series of self-administered questionnaires. The results of this study show that there is a link between job satisfaction and psychological distress as well as four somatic complaints. Satisfaction with the nature of work was the strongest predictor for psychological distress, sleep disorders, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems. From the results of this study, we conclude that there is a link between job satisfaction and the health status of employees. In addition, job satisfaction levels vary across different dimensions and can even differ from an individual's feelings of global job satisfaction. Policies and practices should focus on improving working conditions to enhance the fit of the job and the employee.
Quick, J C
Occupational health psychology (OHP) is a term first coined by Jonathan Raymond in 1990, yet OHP has historical, international roots dating at least to the early decades of the twentieth century. It involves research and practice to create healthy workplaces. This article has 4 sections. The 1st section discusses psychology's long history of concern for occupational health in industrial organizations, beginning with Hugo Münsterberg's study of industrial accidents and human safety in the late 1800s. The 2nd section focuses on OHP's movement from the convergence of public health and preventive medicine with health and clinical psychology in an industrial/organizational context. The 3rd section addresses the central issues of organizational and individual health through the framework of preventive management. The article concludes with OHP case examples drawn from the Chaparral Steel Company, the U.S. Air Force, and Johnson & Johnson.
Ford, Brett Q; Lam, Phoebe; John, Oliver P; Mauss, Iris B
Individuals differ in the degree to which they tend to habitually accept their emotions and thoughts without judging them-a process here referred to as habitual acceptance. Acceptance has been linked with greater psychological health, which we propose may be due to the role acceptance plays in negative emotional responses to stressors: acceptance helps keep individuals from reacting to-and thus exacerbating-their negative mental experiences. Over time, experiencing lower negative emotion should promote psychological health. To test these hypotheses, Study 1 (N = 1,003) verified that habitually accepting mental experiences broadly predicted psychological health (psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and depressive and anxiety symptoms), even when controlling for potentially related constructs (reappraisal, rumination, and other mindfulness facets including observing, describing, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity). Next, in a laboratory study (Study 2, N = 156), habitual acceptance predicted lower negative (but not positive) emotional responses to a standardized stressor. Finally, in a longitudinal design (Study 3, N = 222), acceptance predicted lower negative (but not positive) emotion experienced during daily stressors that, in turn, accounted for the link between acceptance and psychological health 6 months later. This link between acceptance and psychological health was unique to accepting mental experiences and was not observed for accepting situations. Additionally, we ruled out potential confounding effects of gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and life stress severity. Overall, these results suggest that individuals who accept rather than judge their mental experiences may attain better psychological health, in part because acceptance helps them experience less negative emotion in response to stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
A dual-factor mental health model includes measures of positive psychological well-being in addition to traditional indicators of psychopathology to comprehensively determine mental health status. The current study examined the utility of this model in understanding the psychological adjustment and educational functioning of college students. A…
Connop, P J
Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.
Davidsen, Annette Sofie
a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis...... and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice....
Full Text Available The article highlights the new data on the prevalence and structure of the children's disablement in the Russian federation. Among the causes of the children's disablement, the authors mark dominance of the infectious and somatic diseases, neuropathies, mental diseases and congenital growth anomalies, in particular. They show the role of medical and biological, social and hygienic, medical and organizational and economical factors, defining the health formation and conducing to the children's incapacitation. The researchers characterize the health status of the disabled children in respect of the major indices: physical and neuropsychic growth, psychological personality peculiarities, sickness rate and quality of life. The article depicts many issues, arising within the family of an incapacitated child.Key words: disablement, children, prevalence, structure, causes, health indices.
Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Tamizi, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Hatam
Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence that can affect professional performance and job satisfaction of health care workers. Although several studies have been conducted in Iran, but there is no consensus regarding current status of such violence. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological violence among healthcare workers employed at teaching hospitals in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 5874 health professionals were selected using multistage random sampling. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. It was found that 74.7% of the participants were subjected to psychological violence during the past 12 months. Totally, 64.5% of psychological violence was committed by patients' families, but 50.9% of participants had not reported the violence, and 69.9% of them believed that reporting was useless. The results are indicative of high prevalence of psychological violence against healthcare workers. Considering non-reporting of violence in more than half of participants, use of an appropriate reporting system and providing training programs for health professionals in order to prevent and manage workplace violence are essential.
Nilay Pekel Uludagli
Full Text Available In the transition from adolescence to adulthood, individuals are expected to undertake a variety of role transitions. The adult roles and their contents have begun to change for both genders as a part of social, economic and cultural changes in the world. As women began to join to the work force more, mens involvement in family life and childcare increased. Although having multiple roles causes conflict between the roles for both genders nowadays, being married and having children still seem to be related to better psychological health for todays early adults. However, these positive effects of marriage disappear in conflicting and unhappy marriages; and these marriages, on the contrary, damage the health of individuals. In addition to the content, the timing of the roles is also related to the psychological health of individuals. As adults who undertake the roles early have a disadvantaged position in terms of psychological health, marital and family relations, on the other hand, adults who undertake these roles on-time and lately have better psychological health and life conditions. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of undertaking adult roles and its timing on individuals psychological health in todays societies. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 263-283
Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with "Avoidance coping" (β = 0.39, p psychological distress (active: β = -0.25, p psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.
Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the partially indirect effects model and demonstrated the ways in which behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, values acculturation, values enculturation, and acculturation gap family conflict related to mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help directly and indirectly through acculturative stress. We also tested a generational status moderator hypothesis to determine whether differences in model-implied relationships emerged across U.S.- (n = 185) and foreign-born (n = 107) participants. Consistent with this hypothesis, statistically significant differences in structural coefficients emerged across generational status. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed.
Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; James, Sherman A; Chien, Lung-Chang
This study aimed to explore the levels of John Henryism (JH) active coping and its association with acculturation status and psychological health (specifically perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression) in Korean immigrants to the United States. In 102 Korean immigrants, JH active coping was measured by the JH Scale; acculturation by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale; perceived stress by the Perceived Stress Scale; acculturative stress by the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Scale; anxiety by the State Anxiety Subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The levels of JH active coping in this sample of Korean immigrants appear to be lower than the levels reported in other racial groups. Independent of demographic factors, JH active coping was a significant predictor of higher acculturation status and better psychological health as indicated by lower levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.
Oliván Gonzalvo, G
To assess the health and nutritional status of delinquent female adolescents on admission to a juvenile correctional facility. We performed a cross-sectional study over a 6-year period (1995-2000). Health status was assessed through medical history and physical examination according to standard protocols and individualized complementary laboratory examinations. Nutritional status was assessed using the anthropometric method. Height, weight, head and upper arm circumferences, body-mass index and nutritional index were determined and compared with normal national standards of reference (Z-score). Student's single-sample t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences. Thirty-five delinquent female adolescents were admitted during the study period. Mean age was 15 years (0.72 SDU) (range: 14-17 years). The most frequently observed health problems were smoking (n 32), drug/alcohol abuse (n 22), high-risk sexual behavior (n 14), psychopathologic disorders (n 12), odontologic diseases (n 11), infectious diseases associated with intravenous drug use and/or high-risk sexual behavior (n 10) [specific vaginitis (n 3), bacterial vaginitis (n 2), AIDS (n 2), hepatitis C (n 2), hepatitis B (n 1)] and incomplete immunization status (n 6). Less prevalent health problems were iron deficiency anemia (n 3), positive pregnancy test (n 2), and dermatological (n 2), ophthalmological (n 2) and neurosensorial (n 1) disorders. No respiratory, locomotor, otorhinolaryngological, cardiovascular or gastrointestinal disorders were observed. Individual and group analysis of established anthropometric parameters and indices showed no growth or nutritional disorders. In our environment, delinquent female adolescents arrive at correctional facilities with significant physical, psychological and behavioral problems. This population is especially in need of psychiatric, dental, gynecologic, infectious, and immunization services. The time in custody presents a unique opportunity to
Yanchus, Nancy J; Derickson, Ryan; Moore, Scott C; Bologna, Daniele; Osatuke, Katerine
The purpose of this paper is to explore employee perceptions of communication in psychologically safe and unsafe clinical care environments. Clinical providers at the USA Veterans Health Administration were interviewed as part of planning organizational interventions. They discussed strengths, weaknesses, and desired changes in their workplaces. A subset of respondents also discussed workplace psychological safety (i.e. employee perceptions of being able to speak up or report errors without retaliation or ostracism--Edmondson, 1999). Two trained coders analysed the interview data using a grounded theory-based method. They excerpted passages that discussed job-related communication and summarized specific themes. Subsequent analyses compared frequencies of themes across workgroups defined as having psychologically safe vs unsafe climate based upon an independently administered employee survey. Perceptions of work-related communication differed across clinical provider groups with high vs low psychological safety. The differences in frequencies of communication-related themes across the compared groups matched the expected pattern of problem-laden communication characterizing psychologically unsafe workplaces. Previous research implied the existence of a connection between communication and psychological safety whereas this study offers substantive evidence of it. The paper summarized the differences in perceptions of communication in high vs low psychological safety environments drawing from qualitative data that reflected clinical providers' direct experience on the job. The paper also illustrated the conclusions with multiple specific examples. The findings are informative to health care providers seeking to improve communication within care delivery teams.
Full Text Available Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored. Methods A cross-sectional total geriatric population survey consisting of 254 elderly has been carried out at urban field practice area. A standard geriatric depression scale (Short form has been utilized to assess psychological status. Detailed physical examination and investigations with special reference to Diabetes, Hypertension and Visual defects was carried out. Data was analyzed to find out the relationship of various socio-demographic factors, physical morbidities with depression. Results Out of 254 elderly examined, 32 per cent females and 23 per cent males were found to be suffering from depressive disorders. When assessed for individual health status perception, 25 per cent felt to have good health. Out of 190 geriatric subjects perceiving fair to bad health, 110 were found to be suffering from depression (p<0.001. Depression was also found to be associated with history of hospital admission in the previous year (p<0.05, low vision (p<0.05, diabetes (p<0.01 and hypertension (p<0.01. Conclusion Depression among geriatric age group is associated with physical illness and perception of health.
Jiang, De-qin; Yao, Rong-ying; Yuan, Chang-jiang; Hu, Lan
To study the sub-health status in college students in relation to health-related risk behaviors. Using convenient sampling method, 6176 college students (3285 male and 2891 female students) were surveyed with questionnaires for general demographical data, sub-health state and health-risk behaviors. The reported rate of sub-health state was 10.2%. The reported rate of physical sub-health was 11.7%, and the rate was 21.7%, 13.9% and 15.0% for inadequate physical activities, poor physical function and poor immunity, respectively. The reported rate of psychological sub-health was 10.5%, with a rate of 14.7%, 22.6% and 7.3% for emotional problems, behavioral problems and social adaptation difficulties, respectively. The risk factors for college students included insufficient sleeping, inadequate sport activities, missing breakfast, partial dietary, smoking and drinking (Pcollege students.
Oti-Boadi, Mabel; Oppong Asante, Kwaku
Infertility has been shown to have considerable psychological effects on the well-being of couples, especially women. Religion has been found as a resource used by infertile women to cope with their distress. Little research has examined the influence of religious coping on psychological distress among infertile women in Ghana. This study examines the relationship between positive and negative religious coping and psychological health for women with infertility problems in Ghana. One hundred and fifty married women who were receiving assisted reproduction care in two specialized clinics were recruited for this study. Participants were administered with the Brief Symptom Inventory and Brief Religious Coping Scale to assess psychological health associated with infertility and religious coping respectively. A hierarchical regression was performed to examine the relative contribution of the domains of psychological health (i.e. somatization, anxiety and depression) in predicting negative religious coping and positive religious. The results showed that negative religious coping was significant and positively correlated with somatization, depression and anxiety. Furthermore, a positive relationship also existed between positive religious coping and somatization and anxiety but not depression. After controlling for age and duration of infertility, somatization and anxiety predicted positive religious coping whilst all the domains of psychological health (somatization, anxiety and depression) precited negative religious coping. This study expanded on the existing literature by examining positive and negative religious coping with psychological distress associated with infertility for women. These results underscore the need for health professionals providing therapies for women with infertility to acknowledge and consider their religious beliefs as this influences their mental health.
Hinkle, J. Scott
Discusses the effect of aerobic running on psychological functioning and its adjunctive use in mental health counseling. Concludes that mental health counselors can provide more comprehensive services if they expand the psychoeducational model to include physiological parameters such as aerobic running that are associated with optimum mental…
This paper considers teacher resilience from the viewpoint of a discipline concerned with the interactions between work design, management style and employee health and well-being: occupational health psychology. It will be suggested that there are strong parallels between interventions designed to promote resilience and those designed to reduce…
This cross-sectional analytical study was designed to assess the level of and factors affecting job satisfaction and psychological health among long distance drivers in Benin City, Edo, Nigeria. A 21-item Job satisfaction questionnaire and the Golberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) were used for data collection ...
Hopp, Henrik; Troy, Allison S.; Mauss, Iris B.
Because of the central involvement of emotion regulation in psychological health and the role that implicit (largely unconscious) processes appear to play in emotion regulation, implicit emotion-regulatory processes should play a vital role in psychological health. We hypothesised that implicitly valuing emotion regulation translates into better psychological health in individuals who use adaptive emotion-regulation strategies. A community sample of 222 individuals (56% women) who had recently experienced a stressful life event completed an implicit measure of emotion regulation valuing (ER-IAT) and reported on their habitual use of an important adaptive emotion-regulation strategy: cognitive reappraisal. We measured three domains of psychological health: well-being, depressive symptoms, and social adjustment. As hypothesised, individuals who implicitly valued emotion regulation exhibited greater levels of psychological health, but only when they were high in cognitive reappraisal use. These findings suggest that salutary effects of unconscious emotion-regulation processes depend on its interplay with conscious emotion-regulation processes. PMID:21432692
Akiyama, Hiroko; And Others
Investigated impact of pet ownership on the health status of recently widowed urban middle-class women. Findings suggest pet ownership may have a salutary effect on the adjustment of recently widowed women in terms of symptom experiences and proneness to utilization of medication. (Author/KS)
Peppone, Luke J.; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J.; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R.
Objectives. We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. Methods. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Results. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination–smoking association. Conclusions. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment. PMID:22420821
Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Keeho; Park, Hyeong Geun; Kim, Myung-hyun
Health risk appraisal is often utilized to modify individual's health behavior, especially concerning disease prevention, and web-based health risk appraisal services are being provided to the general public in Korea. However, little is known about the psychological effect of the health risk appraisal even though poorly communicated information by the web-based service may result in unintended adverse health outcomes. This study was conducted to explore the psychological effect of health risk appraisal using epidemiological risk factor profile. We conducted a randomized trial comparing risk factor list type health risk appraisal and risk score type health risk appraisal. We studied 60 women aged 30 years and older who had no cancer. Anxiety level was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory YZ. The results of multivariate analysis showed that risk status was the independent predictors of increase of state anxiety after health risk appraisal intervention when age, education, health risk appraisal type, numeracy, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and health risk appraisal type by risk status interaction was adjusted. Women who had higher risk status had an odd of having increased anxiety that was about 5 times greater than women who had lower risk status. Our findings indicate that communicating the risk status by individual health risk appraisal service can induce psychological sequelae, especially in women having higher risk status. Hospitals, institutes, or medical schools that are operating or planning to operate the online health risk appraisal service should take side effects such as psychological sequelae into consideration.
Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya
This study investigated the association between alcohol consumption and health status using cross-sectional national survey data. MEASUREMENTS AND DESIGN: This study relied upon self-report data collected by the 2004 and 2007 Australian National Drug Strategy Household (NDSH) surveys. Households were selected using a multi-stage, stratified-area, random sample design. Both surveys used combinations of the drop-and-collect and computer-assisted telephone interview approaches. Respondents were questioned about their current and past drinking, the presence of formal diagnosis for specific diseases (heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cancer, anxiety, depression) and self-perceived general health status. Associations between drinking status, the presence of diagnoses and self-perceptions of general health status among respondents aged 18+ and 45+ were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Males and females aged 18 years or older and resident in Australia. The sample sizes for the 2004 and 2007 NDSH surveys were 24, 109 and 23, 356, respectively. Respondents with a diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension and anxiety were more likely to have reduced or stopped alcohol consumption in the past 12 months. The likelihood of having reduced or ceased alcohol consumption in the past 12 months increased as perceived general health status declined from excellent to poor. Experience of ill health is associated with subsequent reduction or cessation of alcohol consumption. This may at least partly underlie the observed 'J-shape' function relating alcohol consumption to premature mortality. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Reitzel, Lorraine R; Childress, Sarah D; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Garey, Lorra; Vidrine, Damon J; McNeill, Lorna H; Zvolensky, Michael J
Anxiety sensitivity is the fear of anxiety-related sensations and subjective social status is a self-perception of social standing relative to others: both constructs have been linked to psychological symptomatology. This study investigated the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptomatology expression among 124 black adults. Participants provided sociodemographics and completed self-report questionnaires. The interactive associations between anxiety sensitivity and social status on anxiety symptomatology and depressive symptomatology were examined with hierarchical linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographics and negative affectivity. Significant interactions between anxiety sensitivity and social status were evident only for anxiety symptoms: specifically, the association between anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms was much stronger for individuals with lower (versus higher) subjective social status. Black adults with this higher anxiety sensitivity/lower social status phenotype may be at heightened risk for the expression of anxiety symptomatology, and may benefit from interventions to reduce anxiety sensitivity.
Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.
Krol, B.; Doeglas, D.M; Sanderman, R.; Suurmeyer, Th P B M; de Ruiter, I.J H; van Sonderen, E.; van Rijswijk, M.; van Leeuwen, M.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.
This article presents results from a follow-up study in the Netherlands among 292 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The main focus of this paper is on (changes in) personality characteristics, coping strategies and psychological status between the first and second wave (T1 and T2). On
Krol, B; Sanderman, R; Suurmeijer, T; Doeglas, D; Van Sonderen, E; Van Rijswijk, M; Van Leeuwen, M; Van den Heuvel, W
This article presents results from a follow-up study in the Netherlands among 292 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The main focus of this paper is on (changes in) personality characteristics, coping strategies and psychological status between the first and second wave (T1 and T2). On
Penninx, BWJH; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Ormel, J; Kriegsman, DMW; Boeke, AJP; VanEijk, JTM; Deeg, DJH
Psychological status, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, and mastery, was measured in a community-based sample of 3,076 persons aged 55 to 85 with various chronic diseases. Strong, linear associations were found between the number of chronic diseases and depressive symptoms and anxiety,
Ohira, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Chikako; Imano, Hironori; Okada, Takeo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yuko; Sato, Shinichi; Nakamura, Masakazu; Naito, Yoshihiko; Kurokawa, Michinori; Nakashita, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Masayo; Kamei, Kazuyo; Horii, Yuko; Shimamoto, Takashi
We sought to examine relationships of lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol consumption and smoking, with perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Between 2001 and 2002, 7,947 men and women (mean 52.4 years) took part in examinations at the Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion. Lifestyle factors were determined by structured interview or by self-administered questionnaire. Associations of life style factors with perceived stress and depressive symptoms were tested by stepwise logistic regression analyses. Higher proportions of persons with depressive symptoms tended to be associated with higher proportions of persons with perceived stress. Among both men and women, low physical activity, lack of regular physical exercise, short sleeping time, to skip breakfast frequently, and having dinner within a couple of hours before going to bed were associated with both perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Men reporting between-meal or midnight snacks and having eating until they were full had higher odds ratios for perceived stress, while men conducting regular physical exercise and consuming 3 or more dishes of vegetables per day had lower odds ratios for depressive symptoms. For women, high odds ratios for depressive symptoms and perceived stress were observed among those who tended to have salty foods (or frequent use of soy sauce) and a lower odds ratio for perceived stress was noted among persons who had soy products every day. Lifestyle facets such as skipping breakfast, low physical activity, and short sleeping time, appear to be associated with psychological health status of Japanese men and women.
Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A
This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.
Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Pryor, John B; Brands, Ronald; Liebregts, Maartje; Schaalma, Herman P
HIV-related stigma, psychological distress, self-esteem, and social support were investigated in a sample comprising people who have concealed their HIV status to all but a selected few (limited disclosers), people who could conceal but chose to be open (full disclosers), and people who had visible symptoms that made concealing difficult (visibly stigmatized). The visibly stigmatized and full disclosers reported significantly more stigma experiences than limited disclosers, but only the visibly stigmatized reported more psychological distress, lower self-esteem, and less social support than limited disclosers. This suggests that having a visible stigma is more detrimental than having a concealable stigma. Differences in psychological distress and self-esteem between the visibly stigmatized and full disclosers were mediated by social support while differences between the visibly stigmatized and limited disclosers were mediated by both social support and stigma. These findings suggest that social support buffers psychological distress in people with HIV.
Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mcnamara, Patricia Mannix
Poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors for chronic disease and premature mortality. These behaviours are of concern among higher education students and may be linked to psychological distress which is problematic particularly for students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teaching. Understanding how risk behaviours aggregate and relate to psychological distress and coping among this population is important for health promotion. This research examined, via a comprehensive survey undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students' (n = 1557) lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire), self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). The results showed that health- risk behaviours were common, including alcohol consumption (93.2%), unhealthy diet (26.3%), physical inactivity (26%), tobacco smoking (17%), cannabis use (11.6%) and high levels of stress (41.9%). Students tended to cluster into two groups: those with risk behaviours (n = 733) and those with positive health behaviours (n = 379). The group with risk behaviours had high psychological distress and used mostly passive coping strategies such as escape avoidance. The potential impact on student health and academic achievement is of concern and suggests the need for comprehensive health promotion programmes to tackle multiple behaviours. As these students are the nurses and teachers of the future, their risk behaviours, elevated psychological distress and poor coping also raise concerns regarding their roles as future health educators/promoters. Attention to promotion of health and well-being among this population is essential. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Blomkvist, Klas; Wide Boman, Ulla
Severe dental anxiety (DA) is associated with both oral health and psychosocial consequences in what has been described as a vicious circle of DA. The aim of this study was to investigate self-rated orofacial esthetics in patients with DA and its relationship to psychological and oral health. A consecutive sample of 152 adult patients who were referred or self-referred to a specialized dental anxiety clinic filled out the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) as well as measurements on DA, self-rated oral health and general anxiety and depression. Clinical measures of dental status were also obtained. Compared with the general population, patients with DA had lower ratings of satisfaction on all aspects of their orofacial esthetics, which included the teeth, gingiva, mouth and face, as well as a global orofacial assessment. Furthermore, the perception of the orofacial appearance was related both to dental status and self-rated oral health, as well as to general anxiety and depression. The level of dissatisfaction with the orofacial appearance was similar for both genders, but women reported more regular dental care and better dental status. The results of this study clearly show less satisfaction with dental and facial appearance in patients with DA, and that the self-rating of orofacial esthetics is related to both oral and psychological health. The OES can be used to assess orofacial esthetics in patients with DA.
Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with primary respiratory impairment, disability and handicap, as well as with secondary impairments not necessarily confined to the respiratory system. Because the primary goals of managing patients with COPD include relief of dyspnea and the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL, a direct measurement of HRQL is important. Fourteen disease-specific and nine generic questionnaires (four health profiles and five utility measures most commonly used to measure health status in patients with COPD were reviewed. The measures were classified according to their domain of interest, and their measurement properties - specifications, validity, reliability, responsiveness and interpretability - were described. This review suggests several findings. Currently used health status instruments usually refer to the patients’ perception of performance in three major domains of HRQL - somatic sensation, physical and occupational function, and psychological state. The choice of a questionnaire must be related to its purpose, with a clear distinction being made between its evaluative and discriminative function. In their evaluative function, only a few instruments fulfilled the criteria of responsiveness, and the interpretability of most questionnaires is limited. Generic questionnaires should not be used alone in clinical trials as evaluative instruments because of their inability to detect change over time. Further validation and improved interpretability of existing instruments would be of greater benefit to clinicians and scientists than the development of new questionnaires.
Arvidsdotter, Tina; Marklund, Bertil; Kylén, Sven; Taft, Charles; Ekman, Inger
The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences of persons living with psychological distress who seek help in primary care. Psychological distress is a state of emotional suffering associated with stressors and demands that are difficult to cope with in daily life. The lack of effective care for and difficulty in identifying psychological distress is frustrating for patients and health professionals alike. The aim was therefore to gain more knowledge about the experience of living with psychological distress. Twelve persons (nine women and three men) aged 23-51 years were interviewed. Analyses were based on a phenomenological hermeneutic method and indicated that psychological distress may be seen as an imbalance (incongruence) between the self and the ideal self, which slowly breaks down a person's self-esteem. This imbalance was described in three dimensions: Struggling to cope with everyday life, Feeling inferior to others and Losing one's grip on life. It seems to be associated with a gradual depletion of existential capacities and lead to dissatisfaction, suffering, poor self-esteem and lack of control. As psychological distress may be a forerunner to mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, there is a need to initiate preventive or early interventions to avoid mental, physical and emotional chaos in such patients. Patients' with psychological distress need to be involved in a person-centred salutogenic dialogue with health professionals to become aware of and strengthen their own capacities to regain health and well-being. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic health inequalities in adolescence are not consistently reported. This may be due to the measurement of self-reported general health, which probably fails to fully capture the psychological dimension of health, and the reliance on traditional socio-economic indicators, such as parental education or occupational status. The present study aimed at investigating this issue using simple questions to assess both the physical and psychological dimension of health and a broader set of socioeconomic indicators than previously used. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 5614 adolescents aged 16-18 years-old from 25 senior high schools in Greece. Self-reported general and psychological health were both measured by means of a simple Likert-type question. We assessed the following socio-economic variables: parents' education, parents' employment status, a subjective assessment of the financial difficulties experienced by the family and adolescents' own academic performance as a measure of the personal social position in the school setting. Results One out of ten (10% and one out of three (32% adolescents did not enjoy good general and psychological health respectively. For both health variables robust associations were found in adolescents who reported more financial difficulties in the family and had worse academic performance. The latter was associated with psychological health in a more linear way. Father's unemployment showed a non-significant trend for an association with worse psychological health in girls only. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities exist in this period of life but are more easily demonstrated with more subjective socioeconomic indicators, especially for the psychological dimension of health.
This commentary asks the question of whether positive psychology represents an egoistic pursuit of happiness, which is in conflict with basic values within health promotion. A look at key concepts and research findings within positive psychology reveals common ground with health promotion. Similarities are evident in conceptualization of health, resource focus, value focus and consequences for policy. Some influences of happiness on health and functioning are described.
Suka, Machi; Odajima, Takeshi; Okamoto, Masako; Sumitani, Masahiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Kusama, Makiko; Yamamoto, Michiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Sugimori, Hiroki
To examine the relationship between health literacy (HL), health information access, health behavior, and health status in Japanese people. A questionnaire survey was conducted at six healthcare facilities in Japan. Eligible respondents aged 20-64 years (n=1218) were included. Path analysis with structural equation modeling was performed to test the hypothesis model linking HL to health information access, health behavior, and health status. The acceptable fitting model indicated that the pathways linking HL to health status consisted of two indirect paths; one intermediated by health information access and another intermediated by health behavior. Those with higher HL as measured by the 14-item Health Literacy Scale (HLS-14) were significantly more likely to get sufficient health information from multiple sources, less likely to have risky habits of smoking, regular drinking, and lack of exercise, and in turn, more likely to report good self-rated health. HL was significantly associated with health information access and health behavior in Japanese people. HL may play a key role in health promotion, even in highly educated countries like Japan. In order to enhance the effects of health promotion interventions, health professionals should aim at raising HL levels of their target population groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Timmerman, Lotte; Timman, Reinier; Laging, Mirjam; Zuidema, Willij C; Beck, Denise K; IJzermans, Jan N M; Busschbach, Jan J V; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K
Living donor kidney transplantation offers advantages to the patient, however involves risks to the donor. To optimize donors' mental health after donation, we studied the influence of psychological factors on this outcome. Potential predictors were based on models of Lazarus () and Ursin and Eriksen () that describe predictors of mental health mediated by stress. Prospective design. Living kidney donors (n = 151) were interviewed before donation and completed questionnaires 2.5 months before and 3 and 12 months post-donation. Using multilevel regression models, we examined whether appraisals, expectations, knowledge, social support, coping, life events, and sociodemographic characteristics predicted psychological symptoms and well-being and whether these relationships were mediated by stress. A greater increase in psychological symptoms over time was found among donors without a partner. Younger age, lack of social support, expectations of interpersonal benefit, lower appraisals of manageability, and an avoidant coping style were related to more psychological symptoms at all time points. The latter three were mediated by stress. No religious affiliation, unemployment, history of psychological problems, less social support, expectations of negative health consequences, and less positive appraisals were related to lower well-being at all time points. This study identified indicators of a lower mental health status among living kidney donors. Professionals should examine this profile before donation and the need for extra psychological support in relation to the number and magnitude of the identified indicators. Interventions should be focused on the changeable factors (e.g., expectations), decreasing stress/psychological symptoms, and/or increasing well-being. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Until now, research on psychological outcomes after living kidney donation revealed that mental health remained the same for the majority of
Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Rosen, Carol; Johnson, Nathan L; Redline, Susan
Insufficient sleep may be a significant contributing factor to the increase in pediatric obesity and thus may also contribute to adult obesity and chronic illness. Previous research has been based on large survey studies with consideration of demographics and lifestyle factors (e.g., snacking and TV watching) but not of child psychological/behavioral functioning and parenting factors. This study investigated the relationship of sleep duration to obesity status in 819 children ages 8 to 11 years old, with consideration of demographics, clinical elevations in child psychological/behavioral functioning, and parenting stress. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, parent-reported child sleep duration was significantly associated with the odds of obesity with an increase of 41% for each 1-hour reduction in sleep duration. In addition to sleep duration, only median neighborhood income was significantly related to obesity status. Indices of child psychological/behavioral functioning and parenting stress were associated with sleep duration but not with obesity, and adjusting for these behavioral and parenting characteristics did not appreciably alter the relationship between sleep duration and obesity status. Exploratory gender-specific analyses found that mean sleep duration was significantly associated with the odds of obesity for boys but not for girls. These results show that the relationship of shorter sleep duration to a greater likelihood of being obese persists even after adjusting for potential confounders of child psychological/behavioral functioning and parenting stress. Gender-specific associations are similar to findings reported in samples that include adolescents.
The aim of this study was to record experiences of three meditation conditions: Ratio Breathing, Transcendental Meditation and Zazen, with special reference to sport, health, neuro-physiology and sense of coherence. The participants (N=9), seven males and two females were all British, actively competing across a range of ...
The study investigated stress events, perceived stress and social support in relation to various common health behaviours among black South African students. The sample included 624 students: 314 Grade 12 Secondary school students and 310 third year social science university students in South Africa. The study found ...
Chung, He Len; Docherty, Meagan
Objective: To examine relations between neighborhood characteristics and psychological health, specifically whether neighborhood trust and cooperation buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on depression and aggressive behavior. Methods: The sample was composed of 127 urban, African American young adults from Trenton, NJ. Results: The…
Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.
This article introduces the Major Contribution on integrating health and vocational psychology, using persons with HIV who have work-related concerns as an example. The authors describe the demographics associated with HIV disease and new treatments that have allowed people with HIV to remain healthy and continue working, or consider returning to…
Upton, Dominic; Cooper, Carol
On-line teaching material in health psychology was developed which ensured a range of students could access appropriate material for their course and level of study. This material has been developed around the concept of smaller "content chunks" which can be combined into whole units of learning (topics), and ultimately, a module. On the…
Jun 1, 2013 ... Request for reprints to: S . Bello, Department of Community Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, P.O.Box. 1750 .... between job satisfaction and psychological health was calculated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS. A total of 215 questionnaires were distributed and.
Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Gagliardi, Cristina; Dedoussis, George; Herbein, George; Fulop, Tamas; Monti, Daniela; Rink, Lothar; Jajte, Jolanta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio
The paper shows the results on the relationship between zinc status, psychological dimensions (cognitive functions, mood, perceived stress) and nutritional aspects in European healthy old subjects recruited for ZINCAGE Project (supported by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme). The old healthy subjects were recruited in Italy, Greece, Germany, France, Poland taking into account the different dietary habits between Northern and Southern European Countries and the pivotal role played by zinc for psychological functions. Measures of the cognitive status, mood and perceived stress level were obtained at baseline, using the "Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)"; the "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS - 15 items)" and the "Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)", respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using "Frequency Food Questionnaire". The sample included 853 old subjects, classified in 4 groups of age: 60-69-years-old (n = 359); 70-74-years-old (n = 225); 75-79-years-old (n = 153); 80-84-years-old (n = 116). Subjects were studied on the basis of plasma zinc, in which zinc cognitive decline, whereas 76% presented a low GDS value indicating no depression. However, all psychological variables were related to plasma zinc values and nutritional assessment. In particular, a relationship between marginal zinc deficiency and impaired psychological dimensions occurred in Greece than in other European countries due to low intake and less variety of foods rich of zinc. This phenomenon was independent by the age, suggesting that a correct zinc intake from a wide range of foods may be useful to maintain a satisfactory plasma zinc levels as well as psychological status in elderly with subsequent achievement of healthy ageing.
Spink, Mary-Jane P; Brigagão, Jacqueline M; Menegon, Vera M; Vicentin, Maria-Cristina G
Considering the diversity of theoretical approaches and settings for psychological practice, this editorial provides a background for the articles that have been included in this special issue concerning health psychology in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude). We addressed issues concerning the national curricular outline for undergraduate training in psychology and historical data on the social movements that led to the creation of the Sistema Unico de Saude and the Psychiatric Reform which created an important area for psychological work absorbing a considerable number of psychologists. © The Author(s) 2016.
P, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Kote, Sunder; Singh, Shilpi; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo; Vashishtha, Vaibhav
Introduction: Violence against women is one of the major public health and human rights problem in the world today. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim to assess the effect of domestic violence on oral health behavior and oral health status of females attending community outreach programmes in and around Modinagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through the community outreach programmes organized in Modinagar. A structured questionnaire was used to illicit information regarding socio demographic characteristics, oral health behavior and domestic violence. The dental health examination was done to record dental health status, intraoral and extraoral soft tissue injury, tooth fracture and tooth avulsion due to the injury. Results: Out of the total 304 women, 204(67.1%) reported positive domestic violence. Psychological violence was found to be severe whereas sexual violence was found to be mild in most of the cases. Significant difference was found between oral hygiene aids used , frequency of tooth brushing, periodontal status, missing teeth, intraoral soft tissue injuries and fractures between both the groups (pdental professionals also should make an attempt to help victims gain access to support and referral services and to provide adequate treatment to them so as to make a positive difference in their lives. PMID:25584297
.... Therefore, health status is an increasingly important concept in the management of HF. In fact, most symptomatic patients are more concerned about their everyday health status than the length of their life...
Van Der Wees, Philip J; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ayanian, John Z
Massachusetts enacted health care reform in 2006 to expand insurance coverage and improve access to health care. The objective of our study was to compare trends in health status and the use of ambulatory health services before and after the implementation of health reform in Massachusetts relative to that in other New England states. We used a quasi-experimental design with data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 2001 to 2011 to compare trends associated with health reform in Massachusetts relative to that in other New England states. We compared self-reported health and the use of preventive services using multivariate logistic regression with difference-in-differences analysis to account for temporal trends. We estimated predicted probabilities and changes in these probabilities to gauge the differential effects between Massachusetts and other New England states. Finally, we conducted subgroup analysis to assess the differential changes by income and race/ethnicity. The sample included 345,211 adults aged eighteen to sixty-four. In comparing the periods before and after health care reform relative to those in other New England states, we found that Massachusetts residents reported greater improvements in general health (1.7%), physical health (1.3%), and mental health (1.5%). Massachusetts residents also reported significant relative increases in rates of Pap screening (2.3%), colonoscopy (5.5%), and cholesterol testing (1.4%). Adults in Massachusetts households that earned up to 300% of the federal poverty level gained more in health status than did those above that level, with differential changes ranging from 0.2% to 1.3%. Relative gains in health status were comparable among white, black, and Hispanic residents in Massachusetts. Health care reform in Massachusetts was associated with improved health status and the greater use of some preventive services relative to those in other New England states, particularly among low
Pond, Emily; Fowler, Ken; Hesson, Jacqueline
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in individuals self-reporting a diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD)/ADHD. This correlational study encompasses cross-sectional data from 488 male and female adults (20-64 years) who reported that they have been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Adults with ADD/ADHD and high incomes have significantly lower K10 scores than Canadians with ADD/ADHD and low incomes. Income, but not education, was significant in predicting psychological distress among the sample. Canadian adults with ADD/ADHD have an increased risk for developing psychological distress and comorbid psychiatric disorders. The findings suggest that negative outcomes associated with ADD/ADHD are not necessarily pervasive. High income may serve as a protective factor for psychological distress among adults with ADD/ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Devlin, Courtenay A; Huberty, Jennifer; Downs, Danielle Symons
women who have experienced miscarriage may be at increased risk for elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms in subsequent pregnancies. Exercise may be a useful strategy for coping with these symptoms. Little is known about how miscarriage influences prenatal exercise behavior. The study purpose was to examine the influences of miscarriage history and prepregnancy weight status on pregnant women's psychological health, exercise motivation, and behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Pregnant women (N=203; 41 with prior miscarriage; 72 overweight/obese; BMI > 25.0) in the northeast United States. Women prospectively reported their depressive/anxiety symptoms and exercise motivation/behavior in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters via mailed surveys. Group differences in depressive/anxiety symptoms, exercise behavior, and its motivational determinants were examined using Chi Square analyses and Univariate and Multivariate Analyses of Covariance. Women with a history of miscarriage had higher 1st and 2nd trimester depressive/anxiety symptoms and lower 1st trimester attitudes about exercise and 1st and 2nd trimester perceived behavior control than women without a history of miscarriage. Overweight/obese women had higher 1st and 2nd trimester pregnancy depressive/anxiety symptoms, engaged in less prepregnancy exercise, and had lower levels of exercise intention, attitude, and perceived behavior control throughout pregnancy than normal weight women. Women with a history of miscarriage and overweight/obese women have poorer psychological health and lower motivation to exercise during pregnancy than women without a history of miscarriage and normal weight women. Interventions and healthcare provider communications aimed at promoting perinatal exercise behavior and psychological health should take into account pre-pregnancy weight status and pregnancy history to identify strategies to help women, particularly overweight/obese women with a history of miscarriage, to
Kumar, V; Acanfora, M; Hennessy, C H; Kalache, A
An enormous proportion of the worlds elderly live in rural areas and show wide variations in health status. Many, particularly those in the developing countries, are vulnerable to greater socioeconomic and health marginalization mainly due to inadequate provision of services and economic deprivation. As with the urban elderly, locomotor, visual and hearing disabilities, as well as life-threatening conditions of coronary heart disease, diabetes and hypertension are common among rural elders also. Infections continue to take a heavy toll in many parts of the world. Higher prevalence of health and functioning impairments and of risk factors like sedentarism and current smoking have been reported for the rural elderly in developed countries like the United States, where less frequent use of certain preventive services also has been observed among the rural elderly. The positive association of well-being and health with variables such as living with family, having children, and community involvement, which has been reported from developing countries like Ghana and India, supports the usefulness of the time-honored value of joint family systems and lifelong social and physical activity--all known to foster healthy aging. Such traditional virtues therefore need to be preserved and strengthened. Effective geriatric health care services need to stress a community approach to primary health care, with provision of support and training for both family caregivers and professionals. In addition, emphasis on health promotion, cost-effective indigenous systems of medicine and gender-sensitive programs is needed.
Rojas Ochoa, F; López Pardo, C M
An economic contraction occurred in Cuba at the beginning of the 1990s, of a magnitude greater than in any developed country in the last half century. This resulted primarily from the disappearance of the European socialist bloc and simultaneous tightening of the U.S. government's blockade at a time when Cuba was engaged in correcting its main economic problems. The economic crisis affected a number of areas of Cuban society. The state adopted a series of measures to cope with the socioeconomic situation, which have yielded positive results in the social and economic fields, as well as some undesirable results. In the health sector, the economic crisis has mainly reduced the availability of resources and has adversely affected some health determinants and some aspects of the population's health status. Despite the prevailing economic difficulties, the government is determined to preserve the country's achievements in health, and to develop them still further. The solution is not privatization or the introduction of health insurance systems or similar measures. Rather, Cuba will seek greater rationality and economic efficiency in the health sector. It has ratified the principles that the state should continue to finance the health system and maintain universal coverage and accessibility through free services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.
Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep
The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.
Akram, Bushra; Ilyas, Mubeen
To understand suicidal behaviour among people who inject drugs. This correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in two Pakistani cities of Gujrat and Jhelum from October 2015 to March 2016, and comprised male injecting-drug users aged18-60 years. Multistage systematic random sampling method was used. Urdu-translated versions of the brief cope inventory, mental health status scale and suicidal behaviour questionnaire (revised) were administered. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Of the 200 participants, 83(41.5%) were aged 26-32 years. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus was in 94(47%) cases. Suicidal behaviour was positively associated with psychological distress and human immunodeficiency virus status (p<0.05), whereas it was negatively associated with mental health, psychological well-being and coping strategies (p<0.05). Regression analysis showed mental health index and psychological well-being were negative predictors, whereas psychological distress and human immunodeficiency virus status were positive predictors of suicidal behaviour among the participants (p<0.05). The level of stress led people who inject drugs towards suicidal behaviour. However, the level of stress varied according to the severity of human immunodeficiency virus and poor mental health.
Muzzatti, Barbara; Giovannini, Lorena; Romito, Francesca; Cormio, Claudia; Barberio, Daniela; Abate, Valentina; De Falco, Francesco; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta
Since long-term survivorship is now a reality for an increasingly number of people with a history of cancer, understanding their psychological health can inform health care policy as well as help supporting individual patients. This study was aimed to describe depression and anxiety (i.e. two of the most common psychological symptoms reported in oncology) in a sample of Italian long-term cancer survivors (LTCSs) defined as people who have been free from cancer and cancer treatments for at least five years. Four hundred and four Italian adult LTCSs completed a battery of questionnaires including the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale and the State Anxiety sub-scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory respectively for depression and anxiety assessment. 16.5% of the sample displayed mild depression, 11.1% moderate depression, and 7.1% severe depression. depression was negatively associated with education (p = .017), perceived social support as provided by the family (p = .028), and perceived social support provided by friends (p = .008), and it was positively associated with occupational status (p = .023), presence of health issues (p = .010), and anxiety (p anxiety. Anxiety was negatively associated with occupational status (p = .038) and it was positively associated with depression (p anxiety in LTCSs, and stimulate the development and testing of psychological interventions for such individuals. In addition, they encourage further study on the psychological health of this specific population.
van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Wentzel, M.J.; Sieverink, Floor; Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Kelders, Saskia Marion
Introduction: eHealth is gaining more and more ground in health psychology and behavioural medicine to support wellbeing, a healthier lifestyle or adherence to medications. Despite the large number of eHealth projects to date, the actual use of eHealth interventions is lower than expected. Many
Hongsheng Chen PhD
Full Text Available This study analyzed the health of migrants in 4 types of neighborhood in the city of Guangzhou in China. The research shows that the health of internal migrants in urban villages and private housing neighborhoods is much better than those living in older inner city neighborhoods (which are known as jiefang shequ and unit neighborhoods (which are known as danwei. The reasons behind this are the facts that the migrants in urban villages tend to be relatively young and there tend to be better social and economic conditions in the private housing neighborhood. Moreover, among the 4 kinds of neighborhood, the gap between psychological health and physical health is the largest in urban villages. In addition, migrants who are younger, have better working conditions, and have higher levels of education have better health scores, and they tend to have more friends in the city, larger houses, better insurance, and more satisfaction with their neighborhood relationships, and they tend to be better adapted to urban life. As for the determinants of health, individual characteristics, community factors, and insurance are the most important factors. Specifically, individual age and age of housing have negative influences on physical health while insurance has a positive effect. This study shows that the type of neighborhood that migrants live in has a great impact on their psychological health, which can be improved by promoting neighborhood environments. Last, we propose that it is necessary to implement different strategies in different communities.
Al Senany, Samira; Al Saif, Amer
[Purpose] This study investigated physical health status and quality of life among older Saudi adults. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included older adults (N = 55) aged 60?90?years (mean = 67.9? 7.71) from a major hospital in Jeddah. Subjects completed surveys and evaluations including assessments of personal and socio-demographic characteristics, caregiver presence, personal habits, perceived health, primary physical and psychological complaints, physician-diagnosed chronic diseases, a...
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychological status of adolescents with respiratory allergies and their caregivers. Materials and Methods: Child and adolescent psychiatrists evaluated the adolescents’ psychological status using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED. Psychiatrist evaluated the psychological status of their caregivers using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A. Results: Anxiety symptoms were found in 21 of 63 patients. CDI scores were higher in controls than in patients (p=0.03. HAM-D scores were higher in the caregivers of adolescents with allergic rhinitis and comorbid asthma than in those of controls (p=0.025. None of the scores were affected by the severity of asthma and allergic rhinitis, asthma control levels, presence of an asthma attack in the preceding year as well as by pulmonary function tests (p>0.05. Moderate and strong positive correlations were found between SCARED and CDI (r=0.644, p<0.001 and HAM-A and HAM-D scores (r=0.860, p<0.001. Conclusion: Anxiety symptoms were found in one-third of the patients. HAM-D scores were higher in the caregivers of adolescents with allergic rhinitis and comorbid asthma than in those of controls.
Podrigalo L. V.
Full Text Available Purpose: researching and analysis of psychological status dynamic of different qualification arm-wrestlers in competitions’ condition. Material: in the research 21 students-sportsmen of 17-24 years’ age participated. Results: before the beginning of competition experienced sportsmen are characterized by higher workability in comparison with beginners - (56.61±8.31 % against (23.23±11.93 %. After competitions among experienced sportsmen 57.14% had reduced anxiety; 71.43% - reduced activity and self-feeling; 50% - had worse mood. After competitions among sportsmen-beginners 73.73% demonstrated reduction of workability; 54.54% had weakened activity, mood and self-feeling. We established significant prevalence of statistically confident correlations among experienced sportsmen: 65.15% against 46.97%. Contribution of psychological components in system of sportsmen-beginners is significantly lower than of experienced sportsmen. Conclusions: we determined certain changes of psychological status of arm-wrestlers of different qualification under influence of competitions. For experienced sportsmen we confirmed more optimal status and favorable dynamic, illustrating high reliability of functioning.
Takatsuji, H; Kobayashi, T; Kojima, T; Hasebe, D; Izumi, N; Saito, I; Saito, C
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of orthognathic surgery on psychological status. The subjects were 119 patients (38 males and 81 females, mean age 25.5±9.4 years) who underwent orthognathic surgery. They were divided into class III (84 patients), class II (20 patients), and class I (15 patients) groups according to the anteroposterior skeletal pattern, and they were also divided into an asymmetry group (51 patients) and a symmetry group (68 patients). We assessed psychological status using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) before surgery and at more than 6 months after surgery. The MMPI scores for the depression, hysteria, psychasthenia, and social introversion scales were significantly higher than standard values before surgery, and the hypomania scale significantly lower. The cannot say scale, depression scale, and hysteria scale decreased significantly after surgery. A comparison of MMPI scores among the groups showed the depression scale in the class III group to be higher than those in the class I and II groups; there was no significant difference between the asymmetry and symmetry groups. In conclusion, orthognathic surgery has a positive influence on the psychological status of patients with jaw deformities, especially patients with skeletal class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levine, Cynthia S
Beliefs, emotions, and other psychological resources can protect physical health. Notably, however, the particular ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that are associated with better health can vary with one's socioeconomic status (SES). Those that are most protective reflect what is afforded in and valued by the context. Specifically, in higher SES environments, where people often have the resources to be independent and influence their own destinies, beliefs that reflect independence and a focus on the individual predict better health. In contrast, in lower SES environments, where people often encounter more constraints, beliefs and coping strategies that reflect connection to others, and adjustment to the environment predict better health. Understanding these differences will help to address health disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caldwell, Barbara A; Redeker, Nancy S
Minority women living in inner city environments may be at more risk for psychological distress. Maternal stress, anxiety, depression, and psychological trauma can influence the preschool child's behavior and may have a negative impact on the preschool child's sleep patterns. The purpose of the study was to: (a) examine objective and subjective preschool children sleep patterns and (b) explore the relationship between objective and subjective sleep patterns in preschool children and maternal psychological status. A cross-sectional observational design was used. Descriptive analyses and correlations were conducted to examine the data. Twenty-one minority women were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Program. Preschool children wore wrist actigraphs, and their sleep efficiency, time in bed, and sleep periods were analyzed. Mothers completed measures on depression, anxiety, stress, and psychological trauma. Mothers' self-report of their children's sleep habits indicated at risk scores for sleep problems. Life stress in the mothers was statistically significant and negatively related to preschool child's sleep duration. Mild to severe symptoms of depression and mild anxiety were reported and criteria for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder were found in 12 of the 21 mothers. The results of the study indicate that parent education on sleep and the minority preschool child should be part of community interventions and screening preschool parents for psychological distress should be considered with referrals for support services. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
M. Yu. Arkhipova
Full Text Available The health status was analyzed in extremely preterm infants at a postconceptual age of 38–40 weeks and in the first year of life. All the infants in the analyzed group were shown to have respiratory disorders, severe perinatal CNS lesions, and the high incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and infectious and inflammatory diseases. In the first year of life, these children belonged to a group of the frequently ill. Dysfunction of the digestive system and intestinal microflora and residual signs of rickets were detected in the majority of the patients; the manifestations of bronchopulmonary dysplasia persisted in 50%. 40% of the infants had disabling complications.
Zhang, Yuqiu; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Alice; Zhao, Naiqing; Gong, Lan
Sjogren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE) mainly affects middle-aged women and can negatively affect women's psychological and social functioning. However, little is known about the correlation between vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) and psychological status for women with SSDE. We therefore examined VR-QoL and psychological status in two groups of Chinese women: an SSDE group and a non-SSDE group. We also explored the associations between VR-QoL scores, sociodemographic measures, ophthalmologic parameters, and psychological status in women with SSDE. The case-control study recruited 30 female outpatients with SSDE and 30 without SSDE from the Eye and Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Hospital of Fudan University. Demographic and ophthalmologic data were collected from all participants. Ophthalmologic examinations included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test. Data collected using the National Eye Institute's Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) survey instruments were analyzed to identify potential differences in VR-QoL between the SSDE group and the non-SSDE group. We also used the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Self-Rating Depression Scales (SAS and SDS) to determine psychological status in both groups. The SSDE group scored significantly lower than the non-SSDE group on the NEI-VFQ subscales of general health, general vision, and long-distance vision activities (all p vision and peripheral vision. The composite OSDI score and its three subscale scores for the women in the SSDE group were all positively correlated with overall SAS/SDS scores (all p values were <0.05). Both VR-QoL and psychological status were significantly worse in SSDE group than in the non-SSDE group. The VR-QoL of women with SSDE had a negative correlation with their anxiety and depression levels.
Full Text Available Background and aims: The relationship between physical-mental health and Migraine headaches and stress, especially job stress, is known. Many factors can construct job stress in work settings. The factor that has gained much attention recently is inequality (imbalance of employees’ effort versus the reward they gain. The aim of the current attempt was to investigate the validity of effort-reward imbalance model and indicate the relation of this model with migraine headaches and psychological well-being among subjects in balance and imbalance groups. Methods: Participants were 180 personnel of Oil distribution company located in Isfahan city, and instruments used were General health questionnaire (Goldberg & Hilier, Social Re-adjustment Rating Scale (Holmes & Rahe, Ahvaz Migraine Questionnaire (Najariyan and Effort-reward imbalance scale (Van Vegchel & et al. Results: The result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis for investigating the Construct validity of the effort-reward imbalance model showed that in both analyses, the two factor model was confirmed. Moreover, findings indicate that balance group was in better psychological (p<0/01 and physical (migraine (p<0/05 status comparing to the imbalance group. These findings indicate the significance of justice to present appropriate reward relative to personnel performance on their health. Conclusion: Implication of these findings can improve Iranian industrial personnel health from both physical and psychological aspects.
E. M. Manoshkina
Full Text Available Aim. To study psychological status and influence of antihypertensive therapy (AHT on it in Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP accident consequences liquidators, who suffer arterial hyper-tension (AH, with controlled treatment compared to the standard treatment in out-patient clinic. Material and methods. 81 liquidators with AH (all men were included into open compara-tive randomized study. Study duration was 12 months. Patients were randomized into main group (MG and control group (CG. Patients of MG received strictly regulated stepped AHT based on ACE inhibitor spirapril 6 mg daily (Quadropril®, Pliva-AVD, hypothiazide was added if necessary (12.5-25 mg daily and afterwards – atenolol (12.5-100 mg daily. In CG AHT and its correction was set by physician in polyclinic. Brief multifactor questionnaire for personality analysis was used to study psychological status. Results. 57 patients completed the study, 28 in MG and 29 in CG. In MG target blood pres-sure (BP levels were reached in 22 (78.6% patients, in CG – in 11 (38% patients (p<0.01. The main feature of psychological status of liquidators with AH was hypochondriac, depressive and anxious disorders. Controlled AHT made it possible to reach improvement in psychological status, i.e. growth of optimism and activity of patients, more often, than standard treatment in out-patient clinics. Increase in number of patients with pronounced anxious changes was observed in CG. Effi-ciency of AHT in liquidators with AH is connected with severity of depressive disturbances: in subgroups with inefficient treatment patients had the highest level of depression. In liquidators with AH, possessing neurotic disturbances, spirapril was efficient both as monotherapy, and in combina-tion with diuretic hydrochlorothiazide and beta-blocker atenolol. Conclusion. Controlled AHT in liquidators with AH has advantages over standard treatment in out-patient clinic and results in more frequent target BP level
Full Text Available Knowledge about potential protective factors against mental health problems is highly needed. Regular physical activity (PA in an outdoor environment, like mountain exercising, might reduce psychological distress. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of mental health problems in mountain exercisers and to detect factors associated with psychological distress. In a cross-sectional design, we collected self-reported data of 1,536 Austrian mountain exercisers. The prevalence of mental health problems and psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, the level of PA International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and affective valence during PA (Feeling Scale were obtained. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to assess factors influencing psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems in Austrian mountain exercisers was 14%. Health-enhancing PA level and higher affective valence during PA were significantly associated with lower psychological distress. Minimal PA level was not significantly associated with lower psychological distress compared to inactive PA level. Marital status, education, alpine association membership, and body mass index did not show a significant influence on psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems seems to be lower in Austrian mountain exercisers compared to the European population. A health-enhancing PA level and affective valence increasing forms of PA were shown to be associated with lower psychological distress. Results might lead to interventional studies focusing on the potential of outdoor PA, e.g., mountain exercise, as an adjunct treatment in people at risk or with mental health problems.
Davison, Karen M; Kaplan, Bonnie J
Because little is known about food insecurity in people with mental health conditions, we investigated relationships among food insecurity, nutrient intakes, and psychological functioning in adults with mood disorders. Data from a study of adults randomly selected from the membership list of the Mood Disorder Association of British Columbia (n = 97), Canada, were analyzed. Food insecurity status was based on validated screening questions asking if in the past 12 months did the participant, due to a lack of money, worry about or not have enough food to eat. Nutrient intakes were derived from 3-day food records and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Psychological functioning measures included Global Assessment of Functioning, Hamilton Depression scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale. Using binomial tests of two proportions, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Poisson regression we examined: (1) food insecurity prevalence between the study respondents and a general population sample from the British Columbia Nutrition Survey (BCNS; n = 1,823); (2) differences in nutrient intakes based on food insecurity status; and (3) associations of food insecurity and psychological functioning using bivariate and Poisson regression statistics. In comparison to the general population (BCNS), food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in the adults with mood disorders (7.3% in BCNS vs 36.1%; p food-insecure had lower median intakes of carbohydrates and vitamin C (p food insecurity had protein, folate, and zinc intakes below the DRI benchmark of potential inadequacy (p food insecurity and mania symptoms (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.37, 95% CI 1.49-3.75, p Food insecurity is associated with both nutritional and psychological health in adults with mood disorders. Investigation of interventions aimed at food security and income can help establish its role in enhancing mental health.
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Marmash, Lily R
Assessment of individuals' psychological well-being and mental health is an important aspect of health promotion. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of psychological well-being and general health report among Jordanian university students. A total of 1108 students from six universities in Jordan were surveyed regarding psychological well-being and general health. The results showed that students perceived their psychological well-being as moderate. Psychological wellbeing subscales were negatively correlated with reports of physical pain, chronic infections, and previous or current treatment of a psychiatric illness. Male and female university students were similar in their perceptions of psychological well-being; however, they differed in their general health report. Perception of psychological well-being is an important component of university students' health. The importance of psychological well-being is highlighted, and implications for mental health nurses are presented.
Facchin, F; Barbara, G; Dridi, D; Alberico, D; Buggio, L; Somigliana, E; Saita, E; Vercellini, P
What factors affect the mental health of women with endometriosis? Not only pelvic pain, but also individual characteristics (i.e. self-esteem, body esteem and emotional self-efficacy), time from diagnosis and intimate relationship status influence the psychological health of endometriosis patients. The negative impact of endometriosis on mental health has been widely demonstrated by the research literature, along with the fact that presence and severity of pelvic pain are associated with anxiety and depression. However, endometriosis is a complex multidimensional disease and factors other than pelvic pain, including individual differences, may contribute to explain the variability in women's mental health. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2015 and 2017 at an Italian academic department of obstetrics and gynaecology. A total of 210 consecutive endometriosis patients (age: 36.7 ± 7.0 years) were included. Demographic and endometriosis-related information was collected. Individual differences were assessed using validated measures evaluating self-esteem, body esteem and emotional self-efficacy. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) were used to evaluate mental health. Based on the extant literature, we identified three categories of putative predictors (demographic variables, endometriosis-related factors and individual differences i.e. 'self'), whose psychological impact was examined using a hierarchical multiple regression approach. Being in a stable relationship (coded 1 ['yes'] or 0 ['no']) was associated with decreased rumination (RRS: β = -0.187; P = 0.002). A shorter time from diagnosis was associated with greater anxiety (HADS-A: β = -0.177; P = 0.015). Pelvic pain severity and 'self' were associated with all mental health variables (Ps self-esteem, body esteem, and emotional self-efficacy were correlated with better psychological outcomes (Ps women with endometriosis. In our regression
Samara, Muthanna; Burbidge, Vicky; El Asam, Aiman; Foody, Mairéad; Smith, Peter K.; Morsi, Hisham
Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK). Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour. PMID:29186780
Full Text Available Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour.
Samara, Muthanna; Burbidge, Vicky; El Asam, Aiman; Foody, Mairéad; Smith, Peter K; Morsi, Hisham
Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK). Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour.
Studnicki, James; Berndt, Donald J; Luther, Stephen L; Fisher, John W; van Caulil, Karen; Brennan, Margaret J; Martinez, Yolanda G; Clarke, Pete
To assess the health status of the Hispanic population of Orange County, Florida. The methodology utilized secondary data for 66 ethnically identified indicators in a comparative framework applied for a 5-year period (1997-2001). Orange County Hispanics are younger with lower per capita income than their Florida peers, less likely to be White, and much more likely to be of Puerto Rican origin. Relative to the Hispanic populations in the selected peer counties and statewide, Orange County Hispanics have higher age-adjusted death rates for a majority of disease categories and conditions, such as breast, lung, and prostate cancers; chronic liver disease and cirrhosis; diabetes mellitus; pneumonia and influenza; stroke; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; motor vehicle accidents; and infant, neonatal, and child mortality. Orange County Hispanics did better in comparison to Orange non-Hispanics, with lower age-adjusted death rates for major causes of death such as heart disease, cancer, and stroke. However, for many indicators, the 5-year trends for Orange County Hispanics are moving in an unfavorable direction in contrast to the trends for non-Hispanics, which are either stable or improving. Comparative assessments of Hispanic populations using secondary data enable the development of a comprehensive health status profile. However, this approach is currently constrained by the limited number of ethnically identified indicators and, especially for Hispanics, problems in the accuracy and consistency of the assignment to racial categories and subsequent reporting.
Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Keating, Xiaofen D; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José
Psychological positive health and health complaints have long been ignored scientifically. Sleep plays a critical role in children and adolescents development. We aimed at studying the association of sleep duration and quality with psychological positive health and health complaints in children and adolescents from southern Spain. A randomly selected two-phase sample of 380 healthy Caucasian children (6-11.9 years) and 304 adolescents (12-17.9 years) participated in the study. Sleep duration (total sleep time), perceived sleep quality (morning tiredness and sleep latency), psychological positive health and health complaints were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children questionnaire. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) reported sleep time for children and adolescents was 9.6 (0.6) and 8.8 (0.6) h/day, respectively. Sleep time ≥10 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of reporting no health complaints (OR 2.3; P = 0.005) in children, whereas sleep time ≥9 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of overall psychological positive health and no health complaints indicators (OR ~ 2; all P adolescents. Reporting better sleep quality was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting excellent psychological positive health (ORs between 1.5 and 2.6; all P adolescents with no difficulty falling asleep were more likely to report no health complaints (OR ~ 3.5; all P sleep duration and poor perceived quality of sleep might directly impact quality of life in children, decreasing general levels of psychological positive health and increasing the frequency of having health complaints.
Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura
To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with “Avoidance coping” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001, and was negatively associated with “Active coping” (β = −0.30, p < 0.001, “exercise habit” (β = −0.25, p = 0.001, and “sleeping” (β = −0.24, p = 0.002. In the path model, “Active coping” and “Avoidance coping” had significant or marginally significant associations with “exercise habits” (active: β = 0.19, p = 0.008, avoidance: β = −0.12, p = 0.088, and psychological distress (active: β = −0.25, p < 0.001, avoidance: β = 0.363, p < 0.001. However, these coping style variables did not have a significant association with “sleep”. In general, the size of the correlations was below 0.4. Conclusions: Exercise habits mediated the relationship between coping styles and psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.
Gelbier, S; Packham, J; Simmons, S; Hopes, I
A new information system was used routinely to monitor clinical dental services. Data on 20,729 courses of treatment support the validity and usefulness of continuously collected information about dental health status. Patients who had not attended a community clinic within the year before examination did not need courses of treatment that differed appreciably from those for patients who had attended within the previous year. Patients who attended without scheduled appointments had a lower pr...
Easpaig, Bróna R Nic Giolla; Fryer, David M; Linn, Seònaid E; Humphrey, Rhianna H
Queer-theoretical resources offer ways of productively rethinking how central concepts such as 'person-context', 'identity' and 'difference' may be understood for community health psychologists. This would require going beyond consideration of the problems with which queer theory is popularly associated to cautiously engage with the aspects of this work relevant to the promotion of collective practice and engaging with processes of marginalisation. In this article, we will draw upon and illustrate the queer-theoretical concepts of 'performativity' and 'cultural intelligibility' before moving towards a preliminary mapping of what a queer-informed approach to community health psychology might involve.
Full Text Available In 90-ies years of last century in our country happened the crash of the system of values with transition to the standards of capitalistic society, and it lead to the formation of chronicle psychosocial stress of high and medium levels. Medics of all directions started to face functional psychosomatic diseases. Raised the necessity in grounding of health manpower in discipline of clinical psychology, with the learning of psychophisiological bases of diseases and possibilities if their correction. This direction of development of soviet medical education and health service in general seems progressive and prospective.
Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora
This special issue celebrates and maps out the 'coming of age' of community health psychology, demonstrating its confident and productive expansion beyond its roots in the theory and practice of small-scale collective action in local settings. Articles demonstrate the field's engagement with the growing complexity of local and global inequalities, contemporary forms of collective social protest and developments in critical social science. These open up novel problem spaces for the application and extension of its theories and methods, deepening our understandings of power, identity, community, knowledge and social change - in the context of evolving understandings of the spatial, embodied, relational, collaborative and historical dimensions of health.
Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
BACKGROUND: Improvement of mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important success criterion for bariatric surgery. In general, mental health and HRQOL improve after surgery, but some patients experience negative psychological reactions postoperatively and the influence...... investigating psychological predictors of either mental health or HRQOL after bariatric surgery. Original prospective studies published between 2003 and 2012 with a sample size >30 and a minimum of 1 year follow-up were included. RESULTS: Only 10 eligible studies were identified. The findings suggest......, psychiatric symptoms that persist after surgery and inappropriate eating behaviour postoperatively are likely to contribute to poor health-related quality of life outcome. CONCLUSION: Certain psychological factors appear to be important for mental health and HRQOL after bariatric surgery. However...
Mojtabai, Ramin; Jorm, Anthony F
There has been an increase in the use of mental health services in a number of industrialized countries over the past two decades with little impact on mental health status of the populations. Few studies, however, have examined recent trends in mental health status in the US. Using data from three large general annual population surveys in the US-the National Health Interview Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and National Survey on Drug Use and Health-we examined temporal trends in non-specific psychological distress, depressive episodes and mental health treatment seeking over the 2001-2012 period. Prevalence of past-month significant psychological distress and past-year depressive symptoms changed little over time. However, a larger percentage of participants reported poor mental health for ≥15 days or 30 days in the past month in 2011-2012 (8.7% and 5.7%, respectively) than in 2001-2002 (6.6% and 4.6%). A larger percentage of participants in the later period also reported receiving mental health treatments. Possible changes in mental health status may have been missed due to the limited scope of assessments or the small magnitude of changes. Potential reciprocal influences between service use and mental health status could not be investigated because of cross-sectional data. Despite increasing use of mental health treatments in the US in the first decade of this century, there is no evidence of decrease in prevalence of psychological distress or depression. Poor match between need for treatment and actual treatments received in usual care settings may partly explain the findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Penner, Louis A; Blair, Irene V; Albrecht, Terrance L; Dovidio, John F
Large health disparities persist between Black and White Americans. The social psychology of intergroup relations suggests some solutions to health care disparities due to racial bias. Three paths can lead from racial bias to poorer health among Black Americans. First is the already well-documented physical and psychological toll of being a target of persistent discrimination. Second, implicit bias can affect physicians' perceptions and decisions, creating racial disparities in medical treatments, although evidence is mixed. The third path describes a less direct route: Physicians' implicit racial bias negatively affects communication and the patient-provider relationship, resulting in racial disparities in the outcomes of medical interactions. Strong evidence shows that physician implicit bias negatively affects Black patients' reactions to medical interactions, and there is good circumstantial evidence that these reactions affect health outcomes of the interactions. Solutions focused on the physician, the patient, and the health care delivery system; all agree that trying to ignore patients' race or to change physicians' implicit racial attitudes will not be effective and may actually be counterproductive. Instead, solutions can minimize the impact of racial bias on medical decisions and on patient-provider relationships.
Hanoch, Yaniv; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew
Introduces the special issue of Health Psychology, entitled Health Psychology Meets Behavioral Economics. Psychologists have long been interested in understanding the processes that underlie health behaviors and, based on health behavior models that they have developed, have devised a spectrum of effective prevention and treatment programs. More recently, behavioral economists have also provided evidence of effective behavior change strategies through nonprice mechanisms in a variety of contexts, including smoking cessation, weight loss, and illicit drug use. Yet, although all are addressing similar issues, surprisingly little cross-fertilization has taken place between traditional economists, behavioral economists, and psychologists. This special issue is rooted in the assumption that collaboration between economists and psychologists can promote the development of new methodologies and encourage exploration of novel solutions to enduring health problems. The hope is that readers will be intrigued and inspired by the methodologies used in the different articles and will explore whether they might be applicable to the problems they are addressing. Collaborative efforts, although challenging and at times risky, are a promising way to produce more innovative studies, results, and interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth
I examined how sexual minority status, as indicated by sex of sexual partners, is associated with self-rated health and how socioeconomic status suppresses and age and sex moderate this association...
Koski, Jessica E; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R
Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review, we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are sociocultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests that there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents.
Koski, Jessica; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R.
Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are socio-cultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents. PMID:25697184
Pontes, Halley M
Background and aims Previous studies focused on examining the interrelationships between social networking site (SNS) addiction and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in isolation. Moreover, little is known about the potential simultaneous differential effects of SNS addiction and IGD on psychological health. This study investigated the interplay between these two technological addictions and ascertained how they can uniquely and distinctively contribute to increasing psychiatric distress when accounting for potential effects stemming from sociodemographic and technology-related variables. Methods A sample of 509 adolescents (53.5% males) aged 10-18 years (mean = 13.02, SD = 1.64) were recruited. Results It was found that key demographic variables can play a distinct role in explaining SNS addiction and IGD. Furthermore, it was found that SNS addiction and IGD can augment the symptoms of each other, and simultaneously contribute to deterioration of overall psychological health in a similar fashion, further highlighting potentially common etiological and clinical course between these two phenomena. Finally, the detrimental effects of IGD on psychological health were found to be slightly more pronounced than those produced by SNS addiction, a finding that warrants additional scientific scrutiny. Discussion and conclusion The implications of these results are further discussed in light of the existing evidence and debates regarding the status of technological addictions as primary and secondary disorders.
Praeg, Patrick; Mills, Melinda C.; Wittek, Rafael
Research has established a robust association between subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes, which holds over and above the associations between objective markers of SES and health. Furthermore, comparative research on health inequalities has shown considerable variation in the
Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina
According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)-hypothesis, conditions early in life may have life-long consequences. In a series of epidemiological birth cohort and clinical studies and natural experiments, we have had the chance to test the extent to which this hypothesis is useful in understanding individual differences in psychological development and mental health. Our findings have provided evidence that individual differences in cognitive, social and emotional development and in mental health may lie in early life circumstances, and add significantly to the literature by pointing out which periods of early growth are the most critical. These findings are also important in translating pre-clinical evidence to humans. What remains less clear, however, is what the mechanisms of programming are. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms before information on the early life origins of health and disease can be used in designing prevention and intervention programs.
Maria de las Mercedes Pretel Olite
Full Text Available Alcoholism is a complex biopsychosocial disorder that requires a specialised and multidisciplinary approach focusing on both the patient and the family. Alcohol consumption is the most important addiction worldwide due to its prevalence and impact. Therefore, the main objective of a primary care physician should be to facilitate the referral of patients and their families to a structured treatment, support and guidance program during the whole detoxification process. In every health area in Cienfuegos, there are community mental health centers with a staff trained to deal with these disorders in addicts and their family. A literature review was conducted to establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and its harmful effects on health, family and society, using an approach based on Health Psychology.
Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R
The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.
This document outlines guidelines for supervision of students in health service psychology education and training programs. The goal was to capture optimal performance expectations for psychologists who supervise. It is based on the premises that supervisors (a) strive to achieve competence in the provision of supervision and (b) employ a competency-based, meta-theoretical approach to the supervision process. The Guidelines on Supervision were developed as a resource to inform education and training regarding the implementation of competency-based supervision. The Guidelines on Supervision build on the robust literatures on competency-based education and clinical supervision. They are organized around seven domains: supervisor competence; diversity; relationships; professionalism; assessment/evaluation/feedback; problems of professional competence, and ethical, legal, and regulatory considerations. The Guidelines on Supervision represent the collective effort of a task force convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The magnitude and impact of mental disorders does not correspond to the resources devoted to research and attention. Although we have made significant progress in their understanding and the efficacy of the psychological treatments, we are still far from an optimal situation. This paper focuses on one of the major issues which we consider fundamental challenges and needs in this area, the increase in research focusing on psychopathology, especially on the mechanisms and processes that explain and maintain mental disorders, as a key point for the design and development of new psychological interventions for the prevention, treatment, and promotion of mental health. The aim is to promote discussion among all stakeholders and debate on those lines we think as a priority.
Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs.
Lolokote, Sainyugu; Hidru, Tesfaldet Habtemariam; Li, Xiaofeng
An unhealthy lifestyle of college students is an important public health concern, but few studies have been undertaken to examine the role of socio-cultural differences. For this cross-sectional comparative study, data on college students' health-promoting lifestyles (HPL), as measured using the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) scale, and self-rated health status (SRH) as measured by Sub-Optimal Health Measurement Scale (SHMS V1.0) were collected from 829 college students. The sample of 829 college students included 504 (60.8%) Chinese and 325 (39.2%) international students. Chinese students had higher scores in overall health-promoting lifestyle (HPL) (P student's major, age and level of education in the international group. Body mass index (BMI) and financial status emerged as predictors of the three subscales of SHMS V1.0 in the Chinese group and also of physiological and psychological subscales in the international group. Gender was associated with psychological health in both groups. Smoking status was a predictor of psychological health in both groups and also of social health in the international group. The level of education emerged as a predictor of social health in the international group. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between health status and healthy lifestyle (P college students.
Background: Health care workers (HCWs) from an important component of the health care system of any nation. Adequate knowledge regarding oral health is also mandatory as it is directly related to general health. Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess oral health status and treatment needs of the health ...
The literature review and focus group findings that compose the Major Contribution illustrate how counseling psychologists can integrate expertise from various subdisciplines (vocational psychology, health psychology, multicultural psychology) to effectively address the needs of those living with HIV. Given changes in the nature of health problems…
Hamilton, Hayley A; Noh, Samuel; Adlaf, Edward M
This study examines the relationship between adolescent perception of family financial status and diverse aspects of health and maladjustment. Data were derived from the 2005 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey of 7th-12th grade students in ontario, Canada. This biennial survey monitors mental and physical health, substance use, and delinquent behavior in adolescent students. Results indicate that the significance of perceived financial status varies across adolescent outcomes. Greater emotional distress and lower self-rated health are associated with a perception of below average financial status. The associations of illicit drug use and hazardous and harmful drinking with perceived financial status vary for younger and older adolescents. Adjustments for parental education highlight differences in the influences of perceived financial status and parental education on health and behavior. Results highlight the utility of perceived family financial status in examinations of adolescent health and behavior, and the importance of examining diverse aspects of health and maladjustment.
Orbell, Sheina; Szczepura, Ala; Weller, David; Gumber, Anil; Hagger, Martin S
Although ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) correlate with health inequality, efforts to explain variance in health behavior attributable to these factors are limited by difficulties in population sampling. We used ethnicity identification software to test effects of psychological beliefs about screening as mediators of ethnicity and SES on faecal occult blood colorectal screening behavior in a no-cost health care context. Adults aged 50-67 years (N = 1,678), of whom 28% were from minority South Asian religiolinguistic ethnic groups (Hindu-Gujarati/Hindi, Muslim-Urdu and Sikh-Punjabi), participated in a prospective survey study. Subsequent screening participation was determined from medical records. Screening nonparticipation in the most deprived SES quintile was 1.6 times that of the least deprived quintile. Nonparticipation was 1.6 times higher in South Asians compared with non-Asians. A process model in which psychological variables mediated effects of ethnicity and SES on uptake was tested using structural equation modeling. Self-efficacy and perceived psychological costs of screening were, respectively, positive and negative direct predictors of uptake. Paths from Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh ethnicity, and SES on uptake were fully mediated by lower self-efficacy and higher perceived psychological costs. Paths from South Asian ethnicity to participation via self-efficacy and psychological costs were direct, and indirect via SES. SES is implicated, but does not fully account for low colorectal screening uptake among South Asians. Targeting increased self-efficacy and reduced perceived psychological costs may minimize health inequality effects. Future research should test independent effects of SES and ethnicity on lower self-efficacy and higher psychological costs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Background Public health services implement individual, community and population level interventions to change health behaviours, improve healthy life expectancy and reduce health inequalities. Understanding and changing health behaviour is complex. Integrating behaviour change theory and evidence into interventions has the potential to improve services. Methods Health Psychologists apply evidence and theories aimed at understanding and changing health behaviour. A Scottish programme is piloting the training of Health Psychologists within NHS contexts to address prominent public health challenges. Results This article outlines the details of this novel programme. Two projects are examined to illustrate the potential of partnership working between public health and health psychology. Conclusion In order to develop and improve behaviour change interventions and services, public health planners may want to consider developing and using the knowledge and skills of Health Psychologists. Supporting such training within public health contexts is a promising avenue to build critical NHS internal mass to tackle the major public health challenges ahead. PMID:21070643
Ye, Jiali; Shim, Ruth; Rust, George
Using data of 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, we investigated the association between individuals' psychological distress and their reported avoidance of medical care and assessed whether people with serious psychological distress (SPD) were more likely to report psychosocial barriers to care. After controlling for demographic and health characteristics, individuals with SPD were more likely than those without SPD to report having avoided visiting a doctor even when they suspected they should (OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.08-2.48). The distressed individuals were also more likely to agree that they avoided a doctor because of fear of having a serious illness (OR=1.99, 95% CI=1.15-3.44) or thinking about dying (OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.12-4.11). Further understanding of the mechanism under which an individuals' mental health status may influence their perceived need for health and their use of medical services would improve the interface between mental health and primary care services.
Peters, G.-J.Y; Dima, A.; Plass, A.M.; Crutzen, R.; Gibbons, C.; Doyle, F.
A recent debate in Health Psychology Review demonstrated the importance of careful attention to measurement and operationalisation of health psychology constructs (Beauchamp, 2016; Brewer, 2016; de Vries, 2016; Schwarzer & McAuley, 2016; Williams & Rhodes, 2016a, 2016b). This need is met by rapid
Reimann, Mareike; Guzy, Jakob
This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB) on employee mental and physical health (SF-12) using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of ...
Bertini, M; Conti, C M; Fulcheri, M
A common clinical observation is the adverse relationship between stress and human diseases. The attention of scientific research on health has been disproportionately focused on risk factors that predict the onset of certain health outcomes, in particular there has been an increasing interest in the role of inflammation as a common mechanism of disease in a number of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the importance of such research being undisputed, it is necessary to emphasize what the protective factors are that promote psychosocial recovery processes and increased survival rates in a biopsychosocial perspective. This article aims to understand the relationship between psychosocial factors and immune system in the interests of health psychology, highlighting the protective factors that promote recovery, resiliency and resistance to disease.
Background Unemployment is associated with adverse effects on health. Social capital has been suggested as a promoter of health via several causal pathways that are associated with the known health risk factors of being unemployed. This cross-sectional study investigated possible additive- and interaction effects of unemployment and five different measures of social capital in relation to psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being. Methods A random population sample of 20,538 individuals aged 18–85 years from five counties in Sweden completed a postal survey questionnaire including questions of employment status, psychosomatic symptoms, psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12) and social capital. Results Psychosomatic symptoms and reduced psychological well-being were more frequent among unemployed individuals compared with individuals who were employed. Moreover, low social capital and unemployment had additive effects on ill-health. Unemployed individuals with low social capital—specifically with low tangible social support—had increased ill-health compared with unemployed individuals with high social capital. Moreover, to have low social capital within several different areas magnified the negative effects on health. However, no significant interaction effects were found suggesting no moderating effect of social capital in this regard. Conclusions Elements of social capital, particularly social support, might be important health-protective factors among individuals who are unemployed. PMID:24593256
Jessica J. Vandeleest
Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also
Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve
Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.
Subjective memory complaints (SMC) is a possible symptom of mild cognitive impairment which may progress to dementia. The present study examines the relationship of physical activity (PA), cognitive activity (CA), social activity (SA), and perceived health status (HS) with SMC for middle age and older adults. Participants were from the MIDUS II study (Midlife in the United States) recruited in 2004-2006 (Mean age = 55.99; N = 3030). Hierarchical multiple regression was performed with SMC as the dependent variable, along with PA, CA, SA, and HS as the independent variables. The study revealed that SMC was strongly related to PA, CA, and HS, while controlling covariates. Further, HS had the strongest link with SMC among these predictors while interaction effects (PA × HS, CA × HS, and SA × HS) were insignificant. In addition, different results were achieved in younger versus older groups. Participants with more CA, PA and perception of better health had lower frequency of memory complaints. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen
Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Depaoli, Sarah; Rus, Holly M; Clifton, James P; van de Schoot, Rens; Tiemensma, Jitske
The aim of the current article is to provide a brief introduction to Bayesian statistics within the field of health psychology. Bayesian methods are increasing in prevalence in applied fields, and they have been shown in simulation research to improve the estimation accuracy of structural equation models, latent growth curve (and mixture) models, and hierarchical linear models. Likewise, Bayesian methods can be used with small sample sizes since they do not rely on large sample theory. In this article, we discuss several important components of Bayesian statistics as they relate to health-based inquiries. We discuss the incorporation and impact of prior knowledge into the estimation process and the different components of the analysis that should be reported in an article. We present an example implementing Bayesian estimation in the context of blood pressure changes after participants experienced an acute stressor. We conclude with final thoughts on the implementation of Bayesian statistics in health psychology, including suggestions for reviewing Bayesian manuscripts and grant proposals. We have also included an extensive amount of online supplementary material to complement the content presented here, including Bayesian examples using many different software programmes and an extensive sensitivity analysis examining the impact of priors.
Ojike, Nwakile; Sowers, James R; Seixas, Azizi; Ravenell, Joseph; Rodriguez-Figueroa, G; Awadallah, M; Zizi, F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I
.... We used data from the National Health Interview Survey for 2004-2013. Hypertension was self-reported and the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess psychological distress (a score...
Full Text Available The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of health status and factors of psycho-physical development of children of middle and senior school age. A comparative analysis of the state of children with high and low performance has been carried out. The problems of dependence of performance level of children on the factors of medical, psychological and pedagogical influence on their development in the school are considered.
In responding to Upton's discourse arguing for reform of undergraduate health profession curricula to maximise the inclusion of health psychology, it is first important to concede the enormity of the task. After all, psychologists are inherently biased towards their subject, quite simply due to their immersion within it which convinces them of its…
Elisardo Becoña Iglesias
Full Text Available The addiction subject is nowadays a valid one, as well as in the past century. Not only because of the increase of people that are addict, but also because of the important effects that cause on people and their environments. There are many theoretical perspectives to approach the addiction problem, but the most convenient because of its therapeutic results is the one that issupported by the psychology of health. lt is based on the integral approach to the person. This paper describes a general therapeutic scheme to work with addicts from the cognitive behaviora lperspective.
Sheeran, Paschal; Bosch, Jos A; Crombez, Geert; Hall, Peter A; Harris, Jennifer L; Papies, Esther K; Wiers, Reinout W
Implicit processes refer to cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that influence health decisions and behavior without the person intending that influence. This special issue aims to increase appreciation of the diverse and promising research on implicit processes in health psychology, and to promote discussion about how this research improves understanding of health behavior change and can be harnessed to meet public health mandates. The articles included in the special issue showcase this diversity and promise, and present not only new findings, but also new theories, new measures, and state-of-the- art summaries of progress. The research demonstrates the added value of considering implicit processes for understanding health behaviors, their interactions with explicit processes and neural mechanisms, as well as the benefits of targeting implicit processes in health behavior interventions. At the same time, however, the papers in this special issue also point to potential boundary conditions, the importance of good measures and appropriate tests of implicit processes, and the challenges involved in assessing implicit processes' causal role in determining health behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Whitley, Rob; Wang, JiaWei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Liu, Aihua; Caron, Jean
To examine variations between immigrants and nonimmigrants in 1) prevalence of common mental disorders and other mental health variables; 2) health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions, and 3) health service satisfaction. This article is based on a longitudinal cohort study conducted from May 2007 to the present: the Epidemiological Catchment Area Study of Montreal South-West (ZEPSOM). Participants were followed up at 4 time points (T1, n = 2433; T4, n = 1095). Core exposure variables include immigrant status (immigrant vs. nonimmigrant), duration of residence, and region of origin. Key outcome variables included mental health status, health service utilisation, and health service satisfaction. Data were analysed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Immigrants had been in Canada for 20 years on average. Immigrants had significantly lower rates of high psychological distress (32.6% vs. 39.1%, P = 0.016), alcohol dependence (1.4% vs. 3.9%, P =0.010), depression (5.2% vs. 9.2%, P = 0.008), and various other mental disorders. They had significantly higher scores of mental well-being (48.9 vs. 47.1 score, P = 0.014) and satisfaction with social (34.0 vs. 33.4 score, P = 0.021) and personal relationships (16.7 vs. 15.6 score, P mental disorders, and addictions and significantly higher rates of health service satisfaction at all time points. Asian and African immigrants had particularly low rates of utilisation and high rates of satisfaction. Immigrants had better overall mental health than nonimmigrants.
Kim, Jihyoung; Wickrama, K A S
Using survey data collected from 12,278 adolescents and their mothers over 13 years in a nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined how maternal social status influenced young adults' economic attainment over the early life course. We found that weight at birth and height at adolescence as early health capital mediated the influence of maternal social status on young adults' economic attainment. Also, adolescents' educational attainment and psychological vulnerabilities mediated the relation between early health capital and young adults' economic attainment. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention to prevent the persistent influence of adverse maternal social status on youths' developmental outcomes. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and
Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luck-Sikorski, Claudia; Pabst, Alexander; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The current study investigates potential pathways from socio-economic status (SES) to BMI in the adult population, considering psychological domains of eating behaviour (restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating) as potential mediators stratified for sex. Data were derived from the population-based cross-sectional LIFE-Adult-Study. Parallel-mediation models were conducted to obtain the total, direct and indirect effects of psychological eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI for men and for women. Leipzig, Germany. We studied 5935 participants aged 18 to 79 years. Uncontrolled eating mediated the association between SES and BMI in men only and restrained eating in both men and women. Emotional eating did not act as mediator in this relationship. The total effect of eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI was estimated as β=-0·03 (se 0·02; 95 % CI -0·062, -0·003) in men and β=-0·18 (se 0·02; 95 % CI -0·217, -0·138) in women. Our findings do not indicate a strong overall mediation effect of the eating behaviour domains restrained eating, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating on the association between SES and BMI. Further research on other pathways of this association is strongly recommended. Importantly, our findings indicate that, independent from one's social position, focusing on psychological aspects in weight reduction might be a promising approach.
Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E; Johns, Louise C; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon
This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.
Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E; Leheney, Emma K; Ballman, Alesha D; Scarpa, Angela
Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants. The participants completed measures of sexual assault experiences, ambivalent sexism, and depression and PTSD symptoms. The results supported a significant interaction between acknowledgement status and benevolent sexism in relation to both depression and PTSD symptoms. Conversely, the present study failed to find support for an interaction between acknowledgment status and hostile sexism. The clinical implications suggest that rather than seeing acknowledging rape as essential to the recovery process, clinicians should assess for and take into account other factors that may contribute to psychological functioning. Additionally, the findings support that more complex models of trauma recovery should be investigated with the goal of working toward a more comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal process of rape acknowledgment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chuang, Shu Ping; Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Wang, Chien Shu; Pan, Li Hsiang
We investigated the associations among health-promoting behaviors, psychological distress, and well-being among community residents. Well-being measurement was examined through health-promoting behaviors and psychological distress. From March 1 to October 31, 2016, a total of 383 community residents were assessed in their health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), psychological distress (K10) and wellbeing (SWLS and PWB). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that interpersonal relations, physical activity, and psychological distress accounted for 21% of the variance in life satisfaction (SWLS). Interpersonal relations, nutrition, stress management, spiritual growth and psychological distress accounted for 53% of the variance in psychological well-being (PWB). Findings may assist mental health professionals in enhancing health-promoting behaviors and reduce the psychological distress of community residents to improve well-being.
Park, Crystal L
Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.
Background: A good health program is necessary to optimize health care opportunities so as to make appropriate adjustments for optimal service delivery by our health workers in all health sectors. Aim: To determine some hepatic function parameters as a correlate of health status amongst staff of Niger Delta University ...
Full Text Available Research suggesting the beneficial effects of yoga on myriad aspects of psychological health has proliferated in recent years, yet there is currently no overarching framework by which to understand yoga's potential beneficial effects. Here we provide a theoretical framework and systems-based network model of yoga that focuses on integration of top-down and bottom-up forms of self-regulation. We begin by contextualizing yoga in historical and contemporary settings, and then detail how specific components of yoga practice may affect cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and autonomic output under stress through an emphasis on interoception and bottom-up input, resulting in physical and psychological health. The model describes yoga practice as a comprehensive skillset of synergistic process tools that facilitate bidirectional feedback and integration between high- and low-level brain networks, and afferent and re-afferent input from interoceptive processes (somatosensory, viscerosensory, chemosensory. From a predictive coding perspective we propose a shift to perceptual inference for stress modulation and optimal self-regulation. We describe how the processes that sub-serve self-regulation become more automatized and efficient over time and practice, requiring less effort to initiate when necessary and terminate more rapidly when no longer needed. To support our proposed model, we present the available evidence for yoga affecting self-regulatory pathways, integrating existing constructs from behavior theory and cognitive neuroscience with emerging yoga and meditation research. This paper is intended to guide future basic and clinical research, specifically targeting areas of development in the treatment of stress-mediated psychological disorders.
Ring, David; Kadzielski, John; Fabian, Lauren; Zurakowski, David; Malhotra, Leah R; Jupiter, Jesse B
The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is the most widely used upper extremity-specific health-status measure. The DASH score often demonstrates greater variability than would be expected on the basis of objective pathology. This variability may be related to psychosocial factors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the DASH score and psychological factors for specific diagnoses with relatively limited variation in objective pathology. Two hundred and thirty-five patients with a single, common, discrete hand problem known to have limited variations in objective pathology completed the DASH questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) to assess neuroticism, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale to quantify depressive symptoms, and the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS). Forty-five patients had carpal tunnel syndrome, forty-four had de Quervain tenosynovitis, forty-eight had lateral elbow pain, and seventy-one had a single trigger finger. In addition, twenty-seven patients were evaluated six weeks after a nonoperatively treated fracture of the distal part of the radius. Relationships between psychosocial factors and the DASH score were determined. A significant positive correlation between the DASH score and depression was noted for all diagnoses (r = 0.38 to 0.52; p Quervain tendinitis, r = 0.46; lateral elbow pain, r = 0.42; and trigger finger, r = 0.24) (p < 0.05 for all). The DASH score was not correlated with neuroticism for any diagnosis. There was a highly significant effect of depression (as measured with the CES-D score) on the DASH score for all diagnoses. Both the CES-D score (F = 62.68, p < 0.0001) and gender (F = 11.36, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of the DASH score. Self-reported upper extremity-specific health status as measured with the DASH score correlates with depression and pain anxiety but not neuroticism. These data
Flint, Kelsey M; Schmiege, Sarah J; Allen, Larry A; Fendler, Timothy J; Rumsfeld, John; Bekelman, David
Health status (i.e., symptoms, function, and quality of life) is an important palliative care outcome in patients with heart failure; however, patterns of health status over time (i.e., trajectories) are not well described. The objective of this study was to identify health status trajectories in outpatients with heart failure and assess whether depression, symptom burden, or sense of peace predict health status trajectory. This is an observational study utilizing data from the Patient-Centered Disease Management for Heart Failure trial. Participants completed Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaires at baseline, three, six, and 12 months. Latent class growth analysis identified health status trajectories; multinomial logistic regression models identified predictors of trajectory membership. Patients (n = 384) were primarily men (97%) and older (mean age 67.6 ± 10.1). Three health status trajectories were identified. All three trajectories improved at three months; however, the marked improvement health status trajectory (n = 19) showed progressive improvement over one year, whereas the poor (n = 119) and moderate (n = 246) health status trajectories had little change after three months. In adjusted analyses, worse baseline depression (odds ratio 1.10; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.20), symptom burden (1.45; 1.15-1.83), and sense of peace (0.41; 0.22-0.75) predicted membership in the poor vs. moderate health status trajectory. We identified three one-year health status trajectories in patients with heart failure, with the two most common trajectories characterized by early improvement followed by limited change. Future research should assess these findings in nonveterans and women and explore whether treatment of depression, high symptom burden, and low sense of peace leads to improved long-term heart failure health status trajectory. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Wehmeyer, Meggan M. H.; Corwin, Caleb L.; Guthmiller, Janet M.; Lee, Jessica Y.
Objective The objective of this study was to describe oral health literacy (OHL) among periodontal patients and to examine its association with periodontal health status. Methods This cross-sectional study included new and referred patients presenting to the University of North Carolina Graduate Periodontology Clinic. Sociodemographic and dental history information were collected. OHL was measured using a dental word recognition instrument, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy-30 (REALD-30). Clinical periodontal examinations were completed. Results One hundred and twenty-eight participants enrolled and 121 completed all study examinations and instruments. Despite a high level of education among participants in our study, low levels of OHL were found in one-third (33 percent) of the study population. Thirty-one percent had moderate OHL (score of 22–25), 37 percent had high OHL (score ≥ 26). The mean REALD-30 score was 23. Fifty-three percent of participants had severe periodontitis, 29 percent had moderate periodontitis, and 18 percent had mild or no periodontitis. Bivariate analysis showed a significant association between OHL and periodontal status (P Periodontology Clinics. PMID:23121152
Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB on employee mental and physical health (SF-12 using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of PCB on physical health. Also, the findings of this study show that the relative importance of obligations not met by employers differs according to the specific contents of the psychological contract. In conclusion, the results of this study support the idea that PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that represents a crucial risk to employee health.
Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne
Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.
"Health psychology" is a newer sub-discipline whose research methodologies, theories, and practices were borrowed from diverse areas of psychology. It appeared later in France than in the United States or United Kingdom., In 1966, I adopted a perspective between anthropology and psycho-sociology of medicine. I never have self-identified as a "Health Psychologist", continuing to work outside of disciplinary boundary constraints, but studied health questions moving first from psychology (and anthropology), through social psychology to sociology. By the 1980s, I adopted an even broader multi-disciplinary approach to health, as the HIV/AIDS epidemic urgently challenedg health researchers/practitioners, in France and worldwide.
Bourne, Paul A; McGrowder, Donovan A
. The other factors that are predictors of health status of rural residents included age, secondary level education, gender of respondents, and negative and positive affective psychological conditions. Within the context of high poverty and the role of health seeking behaviour of rural residents on health status, there is a need to use an inter-sectoral approach to accomplish better quality of life through improved health status.
Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda
Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…
Alamilla, Saul G.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Lam, N. Alexandra
The purpose of this study was to examine the possible relations between perceived racism and minority status stressors as experienced by Latino/ as and their mental health functioning, as operationalized in terms of somatization, anxiety, and hostility. In addition, the potentially protective moderating role of enculturation and potentially…
Occupational hazards exist wherever health care is practised. However, there is dearth of information on the status of occupational safety among hospital workers in Tanzania. This study was therefore carried to assess the current status of occupational health and safety (OHS) in Tanzanian hospitals and identify key areas ...
Groenewold, W.G.F.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.
Objectives: To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health
van Stel, Henk F.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Buskens, Erik
Objectives: Estimates regarding the impact of secondary cardiovascular events on health status in patients treated for cardiovascular disease are scarce and of limited accuracy. Methods: We obtained individual patient data on health status (EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire) and secondary
Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Spertus, John A
Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence on the influ...
Donners, A.; Bury, D.; Fernstrand, A.; Garssen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369962; Roth, T.; Verster, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702
Introduction: Impaired sleep can have a significant impact on perceived health status. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between perceived health status and sleep quality, total sleep time, and insomnia. Materials and methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch university
Cress, Eileen McKenna
Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The birth of a hearing-impaired child and raising him/her often brings special psychological feelings for parents, especially mothers who spend more time with the child. This study aimed to compare the general health status in mothers of hearing-impaired and hearing children. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. General Health Questionnaire was used to identify general health status; and data were analyzed with independent-t test. Results: The general health level of mothers of hearing-impaired children was lower than mothers of normal hearing children (p=0.01 . The average scores of anxiety (p=0.01, depression (p= 0.01 and physical (p=0.02 symptoms and social function (p=0.01 of mothers of hearing-impaired children was higher than mothers of normal hearing ones (p=0.01. Conclusion: Having a child with hearing impairment affects mothers’ general health status. Our findings show that it’s necessary to provide psychological and social support for mothers of hearing-impaired children.
Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline
Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika; Amazue, Lawrence O; Ekeh, Okechukwu Hope
Although research evidence indicates that loneliness is detrimental to mental health in diverse populations, impact of loneliness on psychological distress of orthopaedic patients' caregivers has been given little research attention. The present study examined the association of loneliness with psychological health, and explored gender differences in the loneliness and psychological health association among orthopaedic patients' caregivers. Participants were 250 patients' caregivers drawn from a national orthopaedic hospital in eastern Nigeria. Data was collected by means of self-report measures translated into the local dialect of the caregivers. Multiple regression results showed that loneliness positively predicted psychological distress in the total sample. Loneliness did not predict psychological distress of male caregivers, but it positively predicted psychological distress of female caregivers. In order to promote orthopaedic patients caregivers' mental health, gender-based differentials in the link between loneliness and psychological distress should be addressed by researchers and healthcare practitioners.
Mohammad Taghi Savadpour
Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Health is one of the basic needs of human. There is a close relationship between physical and mental health. Human psyche is directly affected by his physical condition, and mutually his body and actions of human systems are influenced by psychological and mental space. Students because of their particular circumstances are vulnerable to mental health problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the general health status of students of Islamic Azad University. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytical research was conducted on 478 students of Khalkhal Islamic Azad University. Simple random sampling method was used. General health questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used as research tool. Following data collection, data were analyzed using SPSS Software 13. Results: The results show that mean score of general health of the subjects is higher than cutoff. In this study, 21.3 percent of students were suspected of impaired health. Also, status of general health of female students was worse than male students and significant statistical relationship was observed between general health status and all its sub-scales except depression and gender (P < 0.5. Conclusions: G eneral health of students especially female students is impaired which may considerably affect their learning and performance and academic achievement.
Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J
Economic stress and uncertainty is argued to increase older adults' vulnerability to physical health decline and mental distress. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between a large historical economic event, such as the recent global financial crisis (GFC), and health outcomes for older adults. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare self-reported health status and psychological functioning (number of depression and anxiety symptoms) in 1973 older Australian adults (mean age of 66.58 years (SD = 1.5)) prior to the GFC (2005-2006), with their status four years later during the GFC period (2009-2010). Latent difference score models revealed a significant difference in depression and anxiety symptoms over the two measurement occasions, indicating poorer psychological functioning for those who reported an impact as a result of the economic slowdown. These effects were not explained by demographic or socio-economic factors. Interaction effects showed that those participants who were surveyed within the acute salience period of the GFC (April to September 2009) were significantly less likely to report poorer psychological health over time compared to those who were surveyed after September 2009. This interesting timing effect is discussed in terms of potential time-lags in the negative effects of economic stress on health outcomes, as well as the possible protective effects of social norms that may be created by a large scale economic crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eskelinen, L; Kohvakka, A; Merisalo, T; Hurri, H; Wägar, G
Clinical assessments of health status and work ability were compared with subjective assessments reported on a questionnaire. The clinical examinations included cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and psychological measurements. The subjective work ability comprised an index based on estimations of work ability in relation to diseases, job demands, and psychological resources. For the clinical examinations 89 male and 85 female workers aged 44-58 years were selected according to health and subjective work ability as reported on the questionnaire. Half of the group was healthy and half suffered from either coronary artery disease (men) or low-back pain (women), and the subjective estimations of work ability varied from good to poor. The results indicated that the questionnaire responses on health and work ability related well with the clinically assessed factors at the group level. Some divergence was detected at the individual level, but it could usually be explained on the basis of the available data.
Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.
Objective: This study examined associations between profiles of physical and psychological violence in childhood from parents and two dimensions of mental health in adulthood (negative affect and psychological well-being). Profiles were distinguished by the types of violence retrospectively self-reported (only physical, only psychological, or both…
Psychological maltreatment is an important social and public health problem and associated with a wide range of short and long-term outcomes in childhood to adulthood. Given the importance of investigating mitigating factors on its effect, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health- internalizing and externalizing- problems in adolescents. Participants of the study consisted of 783 adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M=15.57, SD=0.88), with 52.9% female and 47.1% male. Several structural equation models were conducted to investigate the mediating role of coping strategies on the effect of psychological maltreatment on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Findings from mediation analyses demonstrated the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health problems. The outcomes support adolescents use more avoidant coping strategies and fewer active coping strategies in the face of psychological maltreatment experiences, and this affects their mental health. Taken together, these results should contribute to the design of prevention and intervention services in order to promote mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bauger, Lars; Bongaardt, Rob
In response to the ever-increasing longevity in Western societies, old age has been divided into two different periods, labelled the third and fourth age. Where the third age, with its onset at retirement, mostly involves positive aspects of growing old, the fourth age involves functional decline and increased morbidity. This article focuses on the entry to the third age and its potential for health promotion initiatives. Well-being is an important factor to emphasize in such health promotion, and this article views the lifestyle of third agers as essential for their well-being. The structural developmental theory of Robert Kegan delineates how a person's way of knowing develops throughout the life course. This theory is an untapped and salient perspective for health promotion initiatives in the third age. This article outlines Kegan's approach as a tool for developing psychologically spacious health promotion, and suggests future directions for research on the topic. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Nojopranoto, Widyasita
Marital separation and divorce are associated with increased risk for early death, and the magnitude of this association rivals that of many well-established public health factors. In the case of divorce, however, the mechanisms explaining precisely why and how some people are at risk for early death remain unclear. This paper reviews what is known about the association between divorce and risk for all-cause mortality, then discusses four emerging themes in this area of research: the biological intermediaries linking divorce to pathophysiology and disease onset, moving beyond the statistical mean, focusing research on the diathesis-stress model, and studying how opportunity foreclosures may place people on a trajectory toward poor distal health outcomes. These ideas are grounded in a set of public lay commentaries about the association between divorce and death; in this way, the paper seeks to integrate current research ideas with how the general public thinks about divorce and its correlates. Although this paper focuses on divorce, many of the emerging themes are applicable to the study of psychosocial stress and health more generally. Therefore, the study of divorce and death provides a good case study for health psychology and considers new questions that can be pursued in a variety of research areas. PMID:23284588
Studnicki, J; Hevner, A R; Berndt, D J; Luther, S L
Although the existence of small-area variation in health care utilization and quality had been acknowledged decades ago, and the public release of data about the performance of hospitals and physicians is no longer controversial, the wide range of variability in the health status of U.S. communities has received relatively little attention. The authors demonstrate (using Florida data) an empirically derived national system for rating the health status of communities, presented in a simplified consumer-type format, using a symbol-graded report card. This system is intended to keep the symbols of poor health status prominently in the minds and on the political agendas of community leaders.
A national oral health survey is a collection of standardized information on oral health from a specific national population or some sample. Basic oral health surveys are used to collect information about the oral health status and treatment needs of a population and subsequently to monitor changes in levels and patterns of ...
Mar 15, 2010 ... health and the likelihood of seeking oral care to achieve optimal oral health status. Oral health problems can impact quality of life in several ways. Poor oral health may prevent children from expressing positive emotions, which can impact their social interactions and the way they feel about themselves. (7).
Bello, Aminu K; Levin, Adeera; Tonelli, Marcello; Okpechi, Ikechi G; Feehally, John; Harris, David; Jindal, Kailash; Salako, Babatunde L; Rateb, Ahmed; Osman, Mohamed A; Qarni, Bilal; Saad, Syed; Lunney, Meaghan; Wiebe, Natasha; Ye, Feng; Johnson, David W
Asia (OSEA) regions. Health information system (renal registry) availability was limited, particularly for acute kidney injury (8 countries [7%]) and nondialysis CKD (9 countries [8%]). International acute kidney injury and CKD guidelines were reportedly accessible in 52 (45%) and 62 (52%) countries, respectively. There was relatively low capacity for clinical studies in developing nations. This survey demonstrated significant interregional and intraregional variability in the current capacity for kidney care across the world, including important gaps in services and workforce. Assuming the responses accurately reflect the status of kidney care in the respondent countries, the findings may be useful to inform efforts to improve the quality of kidney care worldwide.
Perera, Bilesha; Torabi, Mohammad; Kay, Noy S
This study examined the prevalence of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, psychological distress, anxiety and depression mood and the relationship between these variables in a sample of 534 college students in the USA. In college men, 91% were current alcohol users (those who use alcohol at least once a month) and in college women 80% were current alcohol users (p alcohol use. Beer was more popular among moderate users than heavy users in both sexes. Over 90% of both moderate and heavy users in both men and women had used hard liquor in the 30-day period preceding the survey. College men had more alcohol-related problems than did college women. Blackouts, getting into fights and not being able to meet school responsibilities were the common alcohol-related adverse outcomes reported by the participants. No associations were found between alcohol use and distress and between alcohol use and depressive mood. Mean values of the anxiety scores, however, were higher in moderate users in the male sample compared to that of the female sample. The findings have implications for theories of alcohol-related psychological health in college students.
Conard, Mark W
Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Yet, little is known about smoking\\'s effects on the health status of established HF patients. HF patients were recruited from outpatient clinics across North America. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) was used to assess disease-specific health status. Smoking behaviors were classified as never having smoked, prior smoker, and as having smoked within the past 30 days. Risk-adjusted multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association of smoking status with baseline and 1-year KCCQ overall summary scores. Smoking was not associated with baseline health status. However, a significant effect was observed on 1-year health status among outpatients with HF with current smokers reporting significantly lower KCCQ scores than never smokers or ex-smokers. These findings highlight an additional adverse consequence of smoking in HF patients not previously discussed.
Nowack, Kenneth M.
Much research has examined how individuals cope with work and life stress. Findings have suggested that stress, generally measured as major life events or daily hassles, may be less important to both physical and psychological well-being than are other individual appraisal and coping processes. This study was conducted to examine the effects of…
Masterson, Elizabeth A; Hopenhayn, Claudia; Christian, W J
The purpose of this study was to assess the association between self-perceived mental health status and mammography screening in Kentucky. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined survey data from the 2002 Kentucky Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged > or =40. Mental health status was measured by the reported number of days that mental health was not good; the number of days feeling sad, blue, or depressed; and the number of days feeling worried, tense, or anxious. The outcome was mammography within the last 2 years. Three logistic regression analyses were performed, one with each of the mental health status questions as the predictor variable. Analyses controlled for age, race, marital status, education, income, and health insurance status. The numbers of poor mental health days, depressed days, and anxious days were found to be significant or near-significant predictors of recent mammography. Odds ratios (ORs) comparing women reporting 30 poor mental health days, depressed days, or anxious days with similar women reporting zero days were estimated to be 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.63), 1.49 (0.93-2.40), and 1.46 (0.96-2.23), respectively. Self-reported poor mental health, depression, and anxiety may be associated with nonreceipt of regular mammography screening. How mental health symptoms and self-reported poor mental health status contribute to decreased mammography screening should be explored.
Full Text Available The problem of saving and improving psychological health of educational relations' participants can be considered crucial. This article looked at several approaches to systemic analysis of various factors influencing psychological health of educational relations' participants in a negative way. We identified these factors by the levels they emerge at, namely: the level of learner himself/herself, the level of his/her social environment (teachers and parents, as well as educational institution, municipality and region. It is only possible to save and improve psychological health of educational relations' participants if systemic risk factors are eliminated at every level. Unsolved contradictions of the higher level "descend" to lower levels and require additional efforts to eliminate their effect. The article introduces the notion of learners’ “psychological health standards” that implies a system of socio-psychological, pedagogical, administrative, and technical conditions for saving and improving psychological health.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Health is an important component of active old age, and an old age without disabilities, and along with physical and mental health and active participation in social activities can be known as successful old age. Economic, social, and psychological components as well as cultural factors, such as positive social relationships affect health status. This study aimed to determine the health status of elderly in Qom city. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 300 elderly were selected by systematic-cluster sampling from Qom city in 2011. The study tool was health related quality of life questionnaire for the elderly. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and multiple linear stepwise regression tests. Significance level of tests was considered less than 0.05.Results: Mean and standard deviation of the total score of health-related quality of life of elderly was 0.83±0.12. Sleep (0.76 and vitality (0.75 domains had the lowest mean score, and domains of speaking (0.94 and mental status (0.93 had the highest mean score. Also, health-related quality of life had a significant correlation with age, marital status, education, economic statu,، source of income,، occupation of men, and chronic disease (p0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that due to poor mental health compared to the physical condition in elderly, their mental health should be evaluated along with their physical health, and also factors related to health status, such as personal characteristics, sources of support, and leisure time activities
Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; McGuire, Lynanne; Robles, Theodore F; Glaser, Ronald
This review focuses on human psychoneuroimmunology studies published in the past decade. Issues discussed include the routes through which psychological factors influence immune function, how a stressor's duration may influence the changes observed, individual difference variables, the ability of interventions to modulate immune function, and the health consequences of psychosocially mediated immune dysregulation. The importance of negative affect and supportive personal relationships are highlighted. Recent data suggest that immune dysregulation may be one core mechanism for a spectrum of conditions associated with aging, including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, arthritis, Type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and frailty and functional decline; production of proinflammatory cytokines that influence these and other conditions can be stimulated directly by negative emotions and indirectly by prolonged infection.
Dionne, Frédérick; Ngô, Thanh-Lan; Blais, Marie-Claude
This paper presents a vision of mental health using the model of psychological flexibility of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). ACT is a representative approach of the third wave of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). This article first describes the theoretical and practical aspects of ACT and, in a second part, reviews some of the empirical data supporting its clinical use. Due to the high rate of comorbidity in mental health settings, transdiagnostic approaches in CBT, such as ACT, have recently become popular and particularly appealing to various clinical settings. The theoretical aspects underlying ACT, as well as its clinical components in the treatment of psychopathology were described based on major books in this area, such as Hayes, Strosahl and Wilson (2012). A descriptive literature review was undertaken to explore the data on the efficacy of ACT for the treatment of mental health problems. Psycinfo and Medline, as well as the Association for Contextual Science website were analyzed for relevant articles. The key search terms were: "Acceptance and Commitment therapy" or "ACT" or "acceptance" or "mindfulness" or "defusion." The reference lists of the articles retrieved were also analyzed. The articles that were not in English or French were excluded. Data suggest that ACT is particularly effective for stress, anxiety disorders, depression, substance abuse and various chronic medical conditions. The six processes of the model of psychological flexibility have been validated based on the results of correlational and meditational studies. More than seventy randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis including 18 randomized control trials conclude that ACT is more effective than waiting list, placebo and treatment as usual control conditions. ACT is a promising and evidence-based approach in mental health for the treatment of anxiety and depression as well as for complex and chronic conditions. More research is needed to further validate its
Full Text Available Psychological reactions, risk health behavior and cardiac parameters can influence rehospitalization after acute myocardial infarction.The aim of the paper was to determine the presence of psychological reactions and risk health behavior in patients with acute myocardial infarction on admission as well as the differences after six months.The research included thirty-trhee patients of both sexes, who were consecutively hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction. A prospective clinical investigation involved the following: semi-structured interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I for pcychiatric disorders, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI for measuring the severity of anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for measuring the severity of depression, KON-6 sigma test for aggression, Holms-Rahe Scale (H-R for exposure to stressful events, and Health Behavior Questionnaire: alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, lack of physical activity. Measurement of the same parameters was done on admission and after six months. The differences were assessed using the t-test and chi-square test for p<0.05.On admission, anxiety (BAI=8.15±4.37 and depression (BDI=8.67±3.94 were mild without significant difference after six months in the group of examinees. Aggression was elevated and significantly lowered after six monts (KON-6 sigma =53,26±9, 58:41,42±7.67, t=2,13 for p<0.05. Exposure to stressful events in this period decreased (H-R=113.19±67.37:91,65±63,81, t=3,14 for p<0.05; distribution of physical activity was significantly higher compared to admission values (54.83%: 84.84%. χ2=5.07 for p<0.01.In the group of examinees with acute myocardial infarction in the period of six months, anxiety and depression remained mildly icreased, while the levels of aggression and exposure to stressful events were lowered. Risk health behavior was maintained, except for the improvement in physical activity. In the integrative therapy and
Gary R. VandenBos
Full Text Available AbstractLittle is known about the breadth and depth of scholarly publishing within the field of psychology and its related disciplines originating from Latin American authors. To better define the subject area, we underwent a data analysis to examine the trends (e.g., status, quantity, and quality of publications of scholarly publications emanating from Latin America origin (i.e., the location of the primary author. Our findings suggest that there has been a swift and steady increase in the quantity of scholarly publications published by Latin American authors. This increase is marked as 880% between 2001 and 2013, with a slight increase in the number of International as opposed to Regional publications. This study reveals that scholarly publications originating from Latin America are on the rise, with anticipated future growth.
Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter
Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and psychological status were examined in adult patients with a deep bite and compared with an adult age- and gender-matched control group with neutral occlusion. The deep bite group consisted of 20 females (mean age 30.3 years) and 10 males (mean age 33.1 years......). The control group comprised 20 females (mean age 29.4 years) and 10 males (mean age 34.2 years). TMD examination, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD), cephalometric lateral radiographs, registration of occlusion, and bite force were performed. To test the mean differences between...... craniofacial morphology, bite force, the occurrence of RDC/TMD diagnostic groups, and headache between the two groups, unpaired t-test, Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney U test, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Deep bite patients more frequently reported nocturnal and diurnal clenching...
Aisling T. O'Donnell
Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the unemployed suffer increased psychological and physical health problems compared to their employed counterparts. Further, unemployment leads to an unwanted new social identity that is stigmatizing, and stigma is known to be a stressor causing psychological and physical health problems. However, it is not yet known whether being stigmatized as an unemployed group member is associated with psychological and physical health in this group. The current study tested the impact of anticipated stigma on psychological distress and physical health problems, operationalized as somatic symptoms, in a volunteer sample of unemployed people. Results revealed that anticipated stigma had a direct effect on both psychological distress and somatic symptoms, such that greater anticipated stigma significantly predicted higher levels of both. Moreover, the direct effect on somatic symptoms became non-significant when psychological distress was taken into account. Thus, to the extent that unemployed participants anticipated experiencing greater stigma, they also reported increased psychological distress, and this psychological distress predicted increased somatic symptoms. Our findings complement and extend the existing literature on the relationships between stigmatized identities, psychological distress and physical health problems, particularly in relation to the unemployed group. This group is important to consider both theoretically, given the unwanted and transient nature of the identity compared to other stigmatized identities, but also practically, as the findings indicate a need to orient to the perceived valence of the unemployed identity and its effects on psychological and physical health.
Timmins, Liam; Rimes, Katharine A; Rahman, Qazi
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a 'common cause' of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study investigated minority stressors and distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status. This design provides a test of the role of non-shared environmental factors while minimizing differences due to genetics. Thirty-eight twin pairs in which one was heterosexual and the other was LGB completed a survey. Differences between twin pairs in minority stressors, rumination, psychological distress, and gender non-conformity were examined. Associations between these variables were also tested. Although there were no significant group differences for distress, LGB twins had higher rumination, a vulnerability factor for distress, than heterosexual co-twins. LGB twins also had higher scores than heterosexual co-twins on expectations of rejection, active concealment, self-stigma, prejudice events, childhood gender non-conformity, and lower scores on sexual orientation disclosure. Differences between twin pairs in rumination were positively associated with differences in acceptance concerns and self-stigma. Finally, self-stigma was positively associated with rumination in the full sample of heterosexual co-twins and microaggressions were positively associated with rumination when looking at exclusively heterosexual co-twins. These results support environmental factors as a causal explanation for disparities in rumination between LGB and heterosexual individuals. These factors likely include minority stressors. Rumination may also be associated with minority stressors in heterosexual MZ co-twins of LGB individuals.
Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M
Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults' computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults' health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. This study examined (1) whether older adults' health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others' homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the
Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0
Vincent, Charles; Wearden, Alison; French, David P
While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. As patients, we should be told of the risks of specific treatments but we are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. We suggest that, while there are many examples of individual health psychologists who have made important contributions, this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. Health psychologists have devoted much more attention to patients and devoted much less attention to the potentially huge impact of studying and intervening with staff, clinical practice, and organizations. We believe that there are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety and, more importantly, that this would be of great benefit to both patients and staff. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. Patients are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. Studies using review of medical records in many countries have found that between 8% and 12% of patients in hospital suffer an unintended harm due to health care. What does this study add? There are many examples of individual psychologists who have made important contributions, but this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. There are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety. These include health behaviour change, teamwork, communication after medical error, diagnosis and decision making, organisational culture, and improving compliance with rules and standards. Psychologists providing a clinical service to specialist services in any area could expand their remit from supporting patients to a more general support and engagement with safety and quality initiatives. Health psychologists have models to understand the behaviour of people
von Lengerke, Thomas
Hepworth's assessment of critical health psychology's capacity to contribute to public health promotion (this issue) is commented on and supplemented by selected issues relevant to Hepworth's timely call for interdisciplinary research and action in this context. Drawing on eco-epidemiology, multilevel research strategies are suggested that comprehensively account for individual/psychological and population/sociological factors. It is delineated how health promotion policies may be backed by psychologically informed policy analysis. Regarding health, it is argued to keep scrutinizing ill-health and to resist simplistic notions of quality of life or wellness but also to enhance these by incorporating concepts from positive psychology. Finally, it is considered whether trans disciplinarity may be in aid of fully realizing the potentials of blending the merits of health psychology and public health.
Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration o...
Kunii, Yasuto; Suzuki, Yuriko; Shiga, Tetsuya; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Maeda, Masaharu; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Otsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Abe, Masafumi
Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey. We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7%) evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models. The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1-10). The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%). We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs). Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002). The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by increased risk perception. To provide
Full Text Available Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey.We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6 in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7% evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models.The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1-10. The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%. We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs. Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002.The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by increased risk perception. To
This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality-health link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these within evolutionary cost-benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels. PMID:23772230
Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko; Linna, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi
To investigate the associations of workplace neighbourhood socioeconomic status with health behaviours, health and working conditions among school teachers. The survey responses and employer records of 1862 teachers were linked to census data on school neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In the multilevel analysis, adjustments were made for demographics, work factors and the socioeconomic status of the teacher's own residential area. 226 public schools in Finland. Teachers working in schools from neighbourhoods with the lowest socioeconomic status reported heavy alcohol consumption (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.32 to 3.83) and higher probability of doctor-diagnosed mental disorders (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.12) more often than teachers working in schools located in the wealthiest neighbourhoods. After controlling for the socioeconomic status of the teacher's own residential area, only heavy alcohol consumption remained statistically significant. Teachers working in schools with lower socioeconomic status also reported lower frequency of workplace meetings, lower participation in occupational training, lower teaching efficacy and higher mental workload. School neighbourhood socioeconomic status is associated with working conditions and health of school teachers. The association with health is partially explained by the socioeconomic status of the teachers' own residential neighbourhoods. An independent association was found between low socioeconomic status of school neighbourhoods and heavy alcohol use among teachers.
Fagulha, T; Dana, R H
This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.
Feb 1, 2003 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 80 No. 2 February 2003. HEALTH STATUS ... Objective: To determine the health status and the health seeking behaviour of the elderly people aged 65 years and above. Design: ... social definition of health in terms of departure from normal role functions(2,3). With reduced ...
Bourne, Paul A
.052-1.455; rural area:), education (secondary: 95%CI=1.167-1.576; tertiary: 95%CI=1.466-2.820; primary or below: OR=1.00), social support (95%CI=0.745-0.964), gender (95%CI=1.281-1.706), psychological affective conditions (negative affective: 95%CI=0.939-0.980; positive affective: 95%CI:1.047-1.107), number of males in household (95%CI:1.066-1.235), number of children in household (95%CI=1.117-1.266) and previous health status. The study concludes that good health status across the three age cohorts can be modelled using data for Jamaicans. Health status is determined by a number of non-biological factors, and that poor health status is difficult to model as a low proportion of the data was correctly classified. Public health requires research with which to make more informed decisions, which means that this study offers an understanding of Jamaicans as well as young adults; middle aged adults and elderly.
Background: Despite the reported increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, very few studies have documented report on oral health awareness and oral health conditions of individuals with diabetes mellitus from our environment. Thus this study aimed at assessing the oral health awareness, practices and status of ...
Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...
Kommuri Sahithi Reddy
Full Text Available Introduction: The sense of coherence (SOC has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. Materials and Methods: The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. Results: The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5% males and 511 (65.5% females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender (P = 0.000. The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0 was observed for 67 (24.9% males and 118 (23.1% females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale (r = −0.287. The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.
Santiago-Delefosse, Marie; Del Rio Carral, Maria
This article traces the historical evolution of ongoing theoretical debates in psychology in France from the 1940s until today. Its aim is to show how the conjunction of certain conditions was determinant for a rapid expansion of American-derived mainstream health psychology during the 1980s. The authors describe the French context in the post-World War II period that made possible the introduction of psychology courses at the university, which included the tensions between two epistemological orientations: experimental psychology and clinical psychology, the latter partly inspired by Politzer's concrete psychology. We also outline the process that led to the implementation of 'clinical psychology in health settings' in the 1950s, under the influence of Daniel Lagache. Furthermore, the strong critiques that were made to the new psychology profession in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s are examined against oppositions among psychologists, psychiatrists, philosophers and psychoanalysts. Moreover, we discuss how under turbulent conditions, a pragmatic-oriented psychology arriving from the United States was smoothly and rapidly introduced in France during the 1980s, promoting a socio-cognitive framework and offering new career perspectives. But the French dissension to this new sub-discipline will also be considered. Finally, our conclusion reflects upon future implications of ongoing rivalries between different approaches to psychology. It underlines a growing interest in critical perspectives developed in Anglo-Saxon cultures which are being applied, by French academics and practitioners who work in psychology in health settings.
Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L
When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.
Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok
The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…
Seabra, A C; Seabra, A F; Brito, J
. Indicators of perceived psychological status included body image, self-esteem, attraction to participation in physical activity, and perceived physical competence measured with standardized questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. From baseline through 5 months...
Dyas, R.; Nathanael, M.; Indrasari, M.; Masulili, C.; Rahardjo, T. B.; Agustin, D.; Hogervorst, E.; Kusdhany, L.
Older age is a major risk factor for diseases of the teeth and mouth and dementia. Diseases of the teeth and mouth can lead to tooth loss. The use of removable dentures can help the elderly to replace lost teeth; therefore, dentures are expected to improve the masticatory function, quality of life, and psychological status of the elderly. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of removable denture usage on the improvement of the psychological status, quality of life, and masticatory function of elderly people. The data was obtained from 30 respondents. The patients answered questionnaires before they used the dentures, 2 weeks after they began using dentures, and 2 months after they started wearing dentures. Four different questionnaires were used: EuroQol Five Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), to measure psychological status; a mastication questionnaire to measure masticatory function; and a validated quality of life questionnaire. Based on the results of this study, it is clear that after 2 months of denture usage, removable dentures in the elderly can significantly improve their quality of life, masticatory function, and psychological status(p<0.05).
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…
and Psychological Health in OIF/OEF Veterans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charles W. Wilkinson, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Seattle...COVERED 15 March 2011 - 14 April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Blast Concussion mTBI, Hypopituitarism, and Psychological Health...isolation, and decreased quality of life, as well as muscular weakness, erectile dysfunction, infertility , and diminished cardiovascular function
Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…
Margison, Judith A.; Shore, Bruce M.
Calls for increased collaborative practices in school psychology parallel similar advances in the realm of health care. This article overviews the concepts associated with collaborative practice in school psychology and in health care (e.g., interaction, teamwork, and collaboration) and discusses how the literature emerging from interprofessional…
van Leeuwen, C.M.; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Peter, Claudio; Post, MWM; Stiggelbout, A.M.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the course of mental health and psychological factors over time in persons with a recent spinal cord injury and to determine whether change in psychological factors is associated with change in mental health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands with 3
M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)
textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.
Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti
Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…
Results: Using the OHIP-14 scale the respondents opined that oral health status had an impact on patients' lives by causing pain or handicap. There was a correlation between the glycaemic control and periodontal status of the respondents. A total of 53 persons (43.3%) reported that their lives were less satisfying because ...
Poor nutrition and health can affect children's education. The nutritional status of school children (9-15 years) was assessed in Kumi district, Eastern Uganda in 2006-2007. Selection of schools was done using modified cluster sampling involving 34 schools (n= 645). Assessments for nutritional status were done ...
H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS:
van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.
The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort
Compen, F R; Adang, E M M; Bisseling, E M; Van der Lee, M L; Speckens, A E M
The mental burden of cancer might elicit additional health care utilization. However, it is unclear how psychiatric disorder and psychological distress relate to health care utilization. Therefore, this study explores associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization. It was hypothesized that presence of psychiatric disorder and psychological distress was associated with increased health care utilization and costs. The current study consisted of secondary analyses of baseline data of a larger randomized controlled trial. Two hundred forty-five mixed-cancer patients with at least mild symptoms of psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-T ≥ 11) were mainly recruited via online media, participating centers and patient associations. Patients were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) for depressive, anxiety, and/or adjustment disorder. Psychological distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Retrospective self-reported health care utilization in the past 3 months was collected. Associations between predictors and health care utilization in terms of incidence rate ratios (IRR) and costs per category (mental, primary, somatic, and complementary) were assessed by negative binomial, logistic, and gamma regression. Eighty-nine (36.3%) patients suffered from psychiatric disorder, which was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.63) and costs (OR = 3.11). We observed a nonsignificant trend of somatic health care utilization in patients with psychiatric disorder. Psychological distress was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.09) and costs (OR = 1.09). Psychological distress was also associated with complementary health care utilization (IRR = 1.03). Psychiatric disorder and psychological distress were associated with mental health care use and costs. Psychological distress was associated
Full Text Available Background: Beliefs and emotions could effect on functional status, quality of life, and mortality amongst patients who are suffering coronary heart disease (CHD. Current study examined the role of anxiety: trait/ state, self-efficacy, health beliefs, and functional status among patient with history of CHD. Method: In this correlational study, 105 hospitalized and outpatients patients suffering CHD in Tehran Heart Center Hospital participated by using convenience sampling method in 2012. Cardiac self-efficacy, Seattle Angina, and research- designed health beliefs questionnaires were used to gather data. Results: The functional status in CHD patients showed significant relationships with gender, job, and type of medical insurance of the participants (All ps<0.05. In addition , perceived vulnerability to face again cardiac attack in the future, perceived severity of next cardiac attack, anxiety, state anxiety and trait anxiety (All ps<0.05 had significant and negative relationships with functional status. Conversely, the cardiac self-efficacy had a positive and significant relationship (P<0.001 with functional status. Conclusion: Psychological factors have important role in functional status and quality of life of patients who suffering CHD. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize on supportive and complementary programs to promote Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs.
vegetation index relationships for winter wheat in order to determine indices that are sensitive to changes in the wheat health status. The indices were derived from Landsat 8 scenes over the wheat growing area across Bloemfontein, South Africa.
The status of tuberculosis infection control measures in health care facilities rendering joint TB/ HIV services in “German Leprosy and Tuberculosis Relief Association” supported states in Nigeria.
Nutritional and Health Status of Adolescents from Selected Secondary Schools ... measurements were taken on each subject, to determine body mass index (BMI). ... percentage of underweight and a low risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Pucci, Silvia Helena Modenesi; Pereira, Maria da Graça
This study examined the mediation role of psychological morbidity, defined in this study as depression/anxiety, in the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, and between sleep habits and health behaviors, in adolescents. A total of 272 students, between 12 and 18 years old, underwent a psychological protocol assessing excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, sleep habits, health behavior, and psychological morbidity. Psychological morbidity was not associated with the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, but was associated, with statistical significance, in the relationship between sleep habits and health behaviors. These results emphasize the role of psychological morbidity in adolescent health behaviors. Analyzing the symptoms of depression and anxiety in pediatric patients may help in a more accurate diagnosis, especially in relation to sleep problems and health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Perić, Davorka; Plancak, Darije; Bulj, Martina; Tudor, Vedrana; Spalj, Stjepan
Health status of soldiers affects their quality of life and combat readiness. The aim of the research was to explore the differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between combat ready und unready soldiers and to what extent are clinically assessed combat readiness and psychological dimensions related to self-reported HRQoL. The study included 402 consecutively selected soldiers aged 21 to 54 (mean age 35.3 +/- 6.0) who were classified on the basis of a regular health examination as combat ready (N=327) and unready (N=75). HRQoL was assessed using the Short Form-8 Questionnaire and psychological dimensions using the Brief Symptom Inventory. There were no significant differences in physical and mental components of HRQoL between combat ready and unready soldiers. Clinically assessed combat readiness and psychological symptomatic dimensions were weak predictors of HRQoL. Higher intensity of psychoticism and less years in military service were the only significant predictor of higher physical component of HRQoL (p=0.027 and p=0.020, respectively) but accounted for low variability (each 1%). None variable was a predictor of mental component. In conclusion, clinically assessed combat readiness of soldiers and psychological symptomatic dimensions are poor predictors of HRQoL. HRQoL should be introduced in evaluation of combat readiness.
Lysenko, A I
The authors studied the impact of ambient air pollution with hazardous substances on preschoolchildren's heath status and physical development in Kazan. The health status and physical development were ascertained to be determined by environmental pollution with harmful impurities, as confirmed by a great difference in the findings in control and polluted areas. The findings may be used to develop measures for lowering environmental pollution and for protecting children's health.
Gill, Tiffany K; Price, K; Dal Grande, E; Daly, A; Taylor, A W
Feeling angry about their health status may influence disease progression in individuals, creating a greater burden on the health care system. Identifying associations between different variables and feeling angry about health status may assist health professionals to improve health outcomes. This study used path analysis to explore findings from a population-based survey, informed by qualitative descriptions obtained from focus groups, to determine the prevalence of health-related anger within the community and variables associated with reporting health-related anger. A population-based Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) survey of 3003 randomly selected adults Australia-wide was conducted to examine the prevalence of health-related anger. A wide range of other covariates were included in the survey. Multivariable logistic regression and path analysis were undertaken to identify the relationships between different variables associated with feeling angry about the health status of people, to explore the direction of these associations and as a consequence of the results, consider implications for health service use and delivery. Overall, 18.5 % of the population reported feeling angry about their health "some of the time", "most of the time" or "all of the time". People who felt angry about their health were more likely to have a severe health condition, at least one chronic condition, high psychological distress, fair to poor health status, and needed to adjust their daily lives because of a health condition. Having a tertiary level education was protective. Receiving some form of social support, usually from a support group, and not always doing as advised by a doctor, were also associated with a higher likelihood of being angry about their health. People living with significant health problems are more likely to feel angry about their health. The path between illness and anger is, however, complex. Further research is needed to understand the extent
Tiffany K. Gill
Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeling angry about their health status may influence disease progression in individuals, creating a greater burden on the health care system. Identifying associations between different variables and feeling angry about health status may assist health professionals to improve health outcomes. This study used path analysis to explore findings from a population-based survey, informed by qualitative descriptions obtained from focus groups, to determine the prevalence of health-related anger within the community and variables associated with reporting health-related anger. Methods A population-based Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI survey of 3003 randomly selected adults Australia-wide was conducted to examine the prevalence of health-related anger. A wide range of other covariates were included in the survey. Multivariable logistic regression and path analysis were undertaken to identify the relationships between different variables associated with feeling angry about the health status of people, to explore the direction of these associations and as a consequence of the results, consider implications for health service use and delivery. Results Overall, 18.5 % of the population reported feeling angry about their health “some of the time”, “most of the time” or “all of the time”. People who felt angry about their health were more likely to have a severe health condition, at least one chronic condition, high psychological distress, fair to poor health status, and needed to adjust their daily lives because of a health condition. Having a tertiary level education was protective. Receiving some form of social support, usually from a support group, and not always doing as advised by a doctor, were also associated with a higher likelihood of being angry about their health. Conclusions People living with significant health problems are more likely to feel angry about their health. The path between illness and
Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect, maintain, and promote students' health. School health care is a program that integrates health care services, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student health examination (SHE) system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must be available to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts in both school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legal basis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveys from the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed for the improvement of SHE and school health care.
Li, Chun Yu; Lee, Ogcheol; Shin, Gi Soo; Li, Xian Wen
This descriptive study was done to identify the relationship between health literacy and health status and to provide basic data for developing nursing interventions for Korean-Chinese elders living in Yanbian, China. For data collection, intentional sampling of 300 elders was used. The questionnaire was composed of 5 items based on "Ministry of Health, the People's Republic of China (2008)" to measure health literacy, 33 health status items from the "Korean Health Status Measure for Elderly People" developed by Shin (2002), revised for use in China, and 9 general characteristics. Data were analyzed using SPSS Win 13.0 program. Total level of health literacy was relatively high (68.7%). Elders had high scores for taking medicines according to doctor's instruction, but lower ones for full comprehension through communication with doctors. Health status was high for emotional, physical, and social function in that order. There were significant differences between general characteristics and health status for gender, age, marital status, education, family, smoking, and alcohol consumption in that order. Results of multiple regression analysis for factors influencing health status showed that self-report health level was the most influential, followed by health literacy, age, gender. Health literacy is the main factor affecting health promotion among minority elders indicating a need to develop health promotion programs for elders who have low health literacy.
Bhatia, Haresh L; Patel, Neal R; Choma, Neesha N; Grande, Jonathan; Giuse, Dario A; Lehmann, Christoph U
The advance discussion and documentation of code-status is important in preventing undesired cardiopulmonary resuscitation and related end of life interventions. Code-status documentation remains infrequent and paper-based, which limits its usefulness. This study evaluates a tool to document code-status in the electronic health records at a large teaching hospital, and analyzes the corresponding data. Encounter data for patients admitted to the Medical Center were collected over a period of 12 months (01-APR-2012-31-MAR-2013) and the code-status attribute was tracked for individual patients. The code-status data were analyzed separately for adult and pediatric patient populations. We considered 131,399 encounters for 83,248 adult patients and 80,778 encounters for 55,656 pediatric patients in this study. 71% of the adult patients and 30% of the pediatric patients studied had a documented code-status. Age and severity of illness influenced the decision to document code-status. Demographics such as gender, race, ethnicity, and proximity of primary residence were also associated with the documentation of code-status. Absence of a recorded code-status may result in unnecessary interventions. Code-status in paper charts may be difficult to access in cardiopulmonary arrest situations and may result in unnecessary and unwanted interventions and procedures. Documentation of code-status in electronic records creates a readily available reference for care providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kadayam G. Gomathi; Soofia Ahmed; Jayadevan Sreedharan
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. Methods: All first-year students (N = 125) of the Gulf Medical University (GMU) in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire...
Objectives. I examined how sexual minority status, as indicated by sex of sexual partners, is associated with self-rated health and how socioeconomic status suppresses and age and sex moderate this association. Methods. I used multinomial logistic regression to analyze aggregated data from the 1991 to 2010 General Social Survey, a population-based data set (n = 13 480). Results. Respondents with only different-sex partners or with any same-sex partners reported similar levels of health. With socioeconomic status added to the model, respondents with any same-sex partners reported worse health than those with only different-sex partners, but only if sexual intercourse with same-sex partners occurred in the previous 5 years. Age and sex moderated this relationship: having any same-sex partners was associated with worse health for women but not men and among younger adults only. Conclusions. The relationship between sexual minority status and self-rated health varies across sociodemographic groups. Future research should use population-level data to examine other health outcomes and continue to explore how the intersection of sexual minority status and other sociodemographic indicators shapes health. PMID:23488500
O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A; Ferraro, Anthony J; Ross, D Bruce
In addition to facing stressors that are typical of life course development (e.g., marital struggles, balancing work/family demands), military families face additional stress attributed to their military context (e.g., deployments, relocations). Using a systems framework and stress process perspective, this study examined military couples' relational health, as a gauge for how couples collectively cope and address challenges as a united front and how their relational health influences crucial health behaviors (sleeping and eating) through the promotion or erosion of psychological resources (N = 236 couples). This study evaluated a latent variable structural equation dyadic model whereby each partner's perspective of their family's relational health was hypothesized to influence their own eating and sleeping behaviors (actor effects), as well as the eating and sleeping behaviors of their spouse (partner effects). The role of psychological resources (high self-efficacy, few depressive symptoms, and minimal anxiety) as a mechanism linking family functioning to health behaviors was also examined. Overall, the findings supported the hypothesized model, particularly for actor (intraindividual) effects. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers, including the importance of improving, or maintaining, family relational health, as a means for encouraging positive health behaviors among active duty military members and their spouses. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn
In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.
D'Souza, Rennie M; Strazdins, Lyndall; Clements, Mark S; Broom, Dorothy H; Parslow, Ruth; Rodgers, Bryan
This study investigates whether the association of job strain and insecurity with health differs by status. A cross-sectional study of 2,249 employed workers aged 40-44 years conducted in two regions in south-east Australia in 2000 used a self-completed questionnaire to collect data. Multivariate analyses were used to compare depression, anxiety, physical health and general practitioner (GP) visits over 12 months across categories of job strain and insecurity for three status groups (high, middle and low). High job strain and job insecurity were independently associated with poor mental health, poor physical health and visits to the GP for all status groups when adjusted for confounders. High job strain was associated with depression (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.96-3.07), anxiety (OR = 2.56, 95% Cl 2.05-3.20), lower mean physical health scores (-1.11, 95% CI -1.98 - -0.23), and more visits to the GP (IRR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37). High job insecurity also showed significant associations with depression (OR = 3.03, 95% Cl 2.03-4.53), anxiety (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.81-3.91), and GP visits (IRR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60). There were no significant differences by status in the associations of job strain and insecurity with outcomes. High-status workers were just as likely as low-status workers to be exposed to adverse work conditions and both status groups showed similar health effects. Exposure to insecure and high-strain jobs is likely to rise as economies and labour markets respond to globalisation and political change. High status may not protect employees from either exposure or impact, thus widening the population health consequences of adverse work conditions.
Reproductive health is an essential aspect of the wellbeing of adolescents. Therefore reproductive health knowledge and sexual behaviour deservedly attract the attention of researchers, programme planners and policy implementers working with young people. Yet in Nigeria, little is known about the effect of migration ...
Pyle Donald N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.
Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that oral health literacy is associated with differences in oral health behaviors and clinical oral health status. An understanding of participants’ oral health literacy levels is crucial for designing effective health educational materials and creating intervention programs to promote oral health.
Full Text Available Background . Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs, including psychological factors, have become an important aspect of both health research and clinical practice. Patients who have undergone cardiac surgery can constitute a large subgroup of the patients of a family physician. Postoperative distress has been observed in up to 40% of patients. Objectives. The study aimed to evaluate anxiety levels among patients who had undergone cardiac surgery, and to explore the correlations between anxiety and depression and subjective health status. Material and methods. The research group consisted of 70 patients (48 men, mean age: 65.9 years; ± 8.5. The study was conducted during consultations three months after surgery. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, including question regarding suicidal thoughts, was used. A four-point Likert scale was used to evaluate subjective effectiveness of the surgery and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to assess subjective health status. Results. An increased level of anxiety was observed in 23 patients (32.9%, and depression was seen in 12 (17.1%. 13 patients (18.6% indicated that they had had suicidal thoughts. Patients with suicidal ideation had significantly higher level of anxiety. Significant positive correlations were noted between levels of anxiety and depression. Anxiety level correlated negatively with subjective health status and assessment of surgery effectiveness. No significant connections were observed between level of anxiety and sex, age, or the type of surgery. Conclusions . 1. Increased levels of anxiety were observed in a significant percentage of patients who had undergone cardiac surgery. 2. Increased anxiety level is concomitant with depression, suicidal thoughts, and lower subjective health status assessment. 3. Health status assessment following cardiac surgery should also include the evaluation of mental health.
Franzén-Dahlin, Asa; Larson, Jenny; Murray, Veronica; Wredling, Regina; Billing, Ewa
To identify predictors of psychological health and examine if these predictors change over time in spouses of stroke patients during the first year after stroke. A second aim was to identify gender differences in psychological health among the spouses. The impact of burden in long-term caregivers may result in psychological consequences for the spouse. The rehabilitation process for the patient can be negatively affected by a stressed caregiver and result in long-term hospitalization. To identify spouses at risk for physical and psychological distress is, therefore, essential to support those in need. Longitudinal, comparative study. One hundred spouses of stroke patients were assessed at baseline, as well as after six and 12 months, regarding psychological health, well-being, own illness, need of assistance from general practitioner and/or district nurse, social network and knowledge about stroke. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted for baseline, six- and 12-month assessments, respectively, with psychological health as the dependent variable. General well-being and presence of illness in spouse were the most prominent predictors of psychological health, throughout the first year. Enhancing psychological health and preventing medical problems in the caregiver are essential considerations to enable patients with stroke-related disabilities to continue to live at home. Evaluating the situation for spouses of stroke patients is an important component when planning for the future care of the patient.
Jobeir, Houssine; Peton, Gabrielle; Brigand, Alain; Chatain, Carine; Sass, Catherine; Moulin, Jean-Jacques
Social vulnerability often leads to the expression of psychological distress. The Health Examination Center of Côtes d'Armor, in Quimper, experimented with the development and implementation of psychological counseling for a highly socio-economically vulnerable population. As part of a periodic health examination, the center offers psychological counseling to patients with pathological sleep disorders and who lack sufficient psychological support. The Health Examination Center's framework and the context of the periodic health examination have facilitated the establishment of a tailored non-stigmatizing intervention well-embedded within the institutional environment. Marginalized people in situations of psychological distress are offered an opportunity to be listened to, and to receive counseling, appropriate prevention services and access to care.
Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Sicilia, Álvaro; Burgueño, Rafael
This study aimed to determine the usefulness of integrating basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) and relational frames theory (RFT) in order to explain the effects of social physique anxiety (SPA) - in the context of exercise - on exercisers' mental health. A total of 296 recreational cyclists and triathletes (100% males) aged 18 to 60 years old (M age = 35.65, SD = 9.49) completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing the target variables. Two models of structural equations with multiple mediators were tested using 5000 bootstrap samples. While the BPNT-based model explained 20% of variance in satisfaction with life (SWL) and 25% of variance in mental health (MH), the model that also incorporated RFT explained 43% of variance in both of those variables. Results showed that SPA negatively impacted exercisers' mental health via two different mechanisms: a) through a decrease in perceived satisfaction of basic psychological needs (β = -.05, p = .045 for SWL; β = -.07, p = .002 for MH); b) through an increase in psychological inflexibility, generated directly by SPA (β = -.24, p < .001 for SWL; β = -.20, p < .001 for MH) and also mediated by basic psychological need thwarting (β = -.09, p < .001 for SWL; β = -.08, p = .002 for MH). Results supported integrating the two theories, elucidating the processes by which a controlling social factor like SPA can affect the potential benefits of exercise.
Campos, Belinda; Ullman, Jodie B; Aguilera, Adrian; Dunkel Schetter, Christine
Familism, a cultural value that emphasizes warm, close, supportive family relationships and that family be prioritized over self, has been associated with psychological health. The goal of this work was to fill a gap in the literature on how familism contributes to psychological health. Drawing from conceptual links between familism and close relationship processes, we hypothesized that familism contributes to better psychological health by facilitating closeness and social support. A university sample of U.S. women and men of Latino (n = 173), European (n = 257), and Asian (n = 642) cultural backgrounds completed measures of familism, closeness to family members, general perceived social support, and psychological health as indexed by perceived stress, general mental health, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation multiple-group modeling analyses found direct effects of familism on closeness to family members and perceived social support and an indirect effect of familism on better psychological health via greater closeness to family members and greater perceived social support. These effects did not differ by cultural background. Consistent with previous research, however, Latinos reported the highest levels of familism of the three cultural groups, and women reported higher familism and support as well as poorer psychological health than men. Discussion is focused on the implications of these findings for understanding the association of familism with psychological health and the relevance of the familism construct for diverse U.S. groups.
Mohiuddin, Ahmed; Boisvert, Charles M.
In our clinical practice, we have attempted to use a positive psychology approach in working with people with schizophrenia and youths with behavioral disorders. We present three clinical applications that use a positive psychology approach with these populations: group treatment with persons with schizophrenia; individual cognitive stimulation…
Scheepers, Renée A
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be facilitated by work engagement and how work engagement is facilitated by job resources and personality traits. First, we conducted a systematic review on the impact of physician work engagement and related constructs (e. g. job satisfaction) on physicians' performance in patient care. We additionally investigated physician work engagement and job resources in relation to patient care experience with physicians' performance at ten outpatient clinics covering two hospitals. In a following multicentre survey involving 61 residency training programs of 18 hospitals, we studied associations between physician work engagement and personality traits with resident evaluations of physicians' teaching performance. The findings showed that physician work engagement was associated with fewer reported medical errors and that job satisfaction was associated with better communication and patient satisfaction. Autonomy and learning opportunities were positively associated with physician work engagement. Work engagement was positively associated with teaching performance. In addition, physician work engagement was most likely supported by personality trait conscientiousness (e. g. responsibility). Given the reported associations of physician work engagement with aspects of their professional performance, hospitals could support physician work engagement in service of optimal performance in residency training and patient care. This could be facilitated by worker health surveillance, peer support or promoting job crafting at the individual or team level.
Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Chen, Ying; Singh, Ankura; Okereke, Olivia I; Kubzansky, Laura D
To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) on factors that influence mental and physical health. Narrative review of all published articles using data from the NHS, the NHS II, and the Growing Up Today Study focusing on mental health conditions (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety) and psychosocial resources and stressors (e.g., job strain, interpersonal violence, social relationships, sexual orientation) between 1990 and 2016. Studies have considered a broad array of determinants (e.g., genes, biomarkers, air pollution) and consequent behavioral and disease-related outcomes (e.g., body weight, smoking, cardiometabolic diseases, cancer, autism). Findings suggest anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, childhood violence, caregiver burden, and job insecurity may increase the risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes, whereas findings with cancer are mixed. This work directly affects public health actions, as demonstrated by recent inclusion of a gender expression measure in state surveys. The NHS cohorts have produced novel and influential research on the interplay of psychological and social factors with health. Psychological and social variables are important contributors to the maintenance or decline of physical and mental health.
De Marchi, Renato José; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira
Evidence suggests that older people with partial tooth loss and edentulism change their diet and lack specific nutrients, but few studies have assessed whether poor oral status is associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in independent-living older people. We evaluated if poor oral status was associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in this population. A random sample of 471 south Brazilians > or =60 y of age was evaluated. Measurements included a questionnaire to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, general, and oral health data; nutritional status assessment, according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and oral status assessment, by means of oral examinations assessing the number of teeth and use of dental prostheses. Correlates of risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the MNA were assessed by means of multivariate logistic regression. Participants who reported dissatisfaction with their gingival health and edentulous persons wearing only one denture were more likely to be at risk of malnutrition, according to the screening MNA. Dissatisfaction with gingival health was a risk indicator, whereas having one to eight natural teeth was protective against the risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the full MNA. In the present study, older people with a compromised oral status had higher odds for risk of malnutrition. The maintenance of a few teeth had a crucial role in increasing the chance of maintaining an adequate nutritional status in the studied population. In cases where edentulism was present, complete dental prosthetic use was associated with better nutritional status.
Mohammad reza khodabakhsh
Full Text Available Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls of Boukan's high schools. The participants were asked to complete psychological well-being inventory and mental health parenting style questionnaire. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results showed that psychological well-being and authoritative parenting styles were significantly related with mental health; also, Permissive parenting styles has significant positive relationship with mental health. The regression analysis indicated that mental health is predictable by psychological well-being and parenting styles. Conclusion: The knowledge of parenting styles and psychological well-being and their relationships with general well-being can provide the significant implications on the provision of students' health. Parenting styles and psychological well-being, as significant variables in general well-being, needs more clinical research.
Meza Borja, Anibal; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
Psychology is defined and levels of behavior organization are proposed. After defining and featuring the psychological approach, behavioral approach is outlined and a broad resentation of cognitive psychology is offered with special emphasis on taxonomy of mental events and its main current orientations. Finally, general features of cognitive psychology are presented. Se define Psicología y se describen los niveles de organización de la conducta. Luego de definir enfoque se reseña el enfo...
Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J
The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.
Full Text Available Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration of post-disaster issues can inform government entities and non-government organizations to assist communities and individuals left in the aftermath of natural disasters.
This study was undertaken to investigate the health status of aged people living in Ekpoma. In this study, a descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in adults aged 50 years and above. Data were collected by direct interview and questionnaire. Health screening activities include history taking, physical examination, ...
Background: Individuals, generally, in this environment are known to rate their oral health status favourably despite the presence of oral diseases and conditions, probably due to sub optimal awareness level about oral health, however it is not known if this is the case with members of the dental team especially those who ...
The children had poor oral hygiene. Conclusion: The oral health of these children needs urgent attention. Parents/caregivers should be educated on the high standard of dental care. Keywords: Congenital heart disease, oral health status, caries, periodontitis, treatment needs. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 (2) 2007: pp.
The study examines the patterns of linkage between households' health status and their socio-economic characteristics in rural Akwa Ibom State using canonical correlation analysis. Data measuring nine socio-economic variables and six health measures were collected from 540 randomly sampled households in 90 ...
Introduction: There is a lack of information about fitness and other health indicators in women from countries such as Morocco. This study aims to explore the association of weight status with physical and mental health in Moroccan perimenopausal women. Methods: 151 women (45-65 years) from the North of Morocco were ...
Jakimovska, V M; Kostovski, E; Biering-Sørensen, F
STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional and retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: To gain more insight into the long-term health status in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), especially perceived psychological distress as well as self-reports of utilization of healthcare services. SETTING......: Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Norway. METHODS: In total, 147 persons with SCI were examined for more than 20 years and interviewed (in 2004/2005) using a self-administrated questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20). Descriptive statistics and a logistic regression analysis were conducted...... to identify variables associated with psychological distress. RESULTS: Most participants had received SCI follow-up health services at least once after initial rehabilitation; 34% were satisfied, 51% neutral and 18% unsatisfied with the health services provided. Concerning psychological distress, 34 persons...
Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R
The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the relationships between roles, acculturation, and perceived health status among 47 FA grandparent caregivers who were providing extensive caregiving to their grandchildren. Role satisfaction was significantly related to perceived health status. Role occupancy was significantly related to years lived in the U.S. and employment. Role integration and role stress were significantly related to gender and income. Acculturation was significantly related to role involvement, years lived in the U.S., language spoken, and education. The findings of this health disparities research study will lead to more contextual work in this area of study.
Rook, Karen S.; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H.; Newsom, Jason T.; Krause, Neal
Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults’ physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with fewer ambivalent kin ties and fewer exclusively problematic kin ties. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, as compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults’ lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. PMID:22775360
Rook, Karen S; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H; Newsom, Jason T; Krause, Neal
Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved in negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults' physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with having fewer ambivalent and exclusively problematic kin ties. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults' lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara; Graber, Jessica; Karraker, Amelia
The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) measures seven indicators of quality of life (QoL) and psychological health. The measures used for happiness, self-esteem, depression, and loneliness are well established in the literature. Conversely, measures of anxiety, stress, and self-reported emotional health were modified for their use in this unique project. The purpose of this paper is to provide (a) an overview of NSHAP's QoL assessment and (b) evidence for the adequacy of the modified measures. First, we examined the psychometric properties of the modified measures. Second, the established QoL measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the modified measures. Finally, gender- and age-group differences were examined for each modified measure. The anxiety index exhibited good internal reliability and concurrent validity. Consistent with the literature, a single-factor structure best fit the data. Stress was satisfactory in terms of concurrent validity but with only fair internal consistency. Self-reported emotional health exhibited good concurrent validity and moderate external validity. The modified indices used in NSHAP tended to exhibit good internal reliability and concurrent validity. These measures can confidently be used in the exploration of QoL and psychological health in later life and its many correlates.
Melina Miaja Ávila
Full Text Available Resilience is an important factor to consider when studying grief due to the loss of health. It not only helps the patient to be aware of his medical condition, but also it benefits the patient to become more psychologically and physically healthy. However, resilience has not been studied using Kübler-Ross’ theoretical framework. Therefore, we formulated the following research questions: How resilience can help the patient dealing with grief which is originated from the loss of health? How does resilience influence a patient’s grief response when other factors, such as spirituality, education, and economic status are taken into account? In order to answer these research questions, we studied the interaction between psychological grief responses of patients with regards to their resilience, socio-demographic variables, and spiritual background. A structural equation model was used to predict the psychological grief responses. This was carried out in a descriptive, correlational study using a cross-sectional non-experimental design, in a nonrandom sample of 120 Mexican women in cancer treatment. Two instruments were used: RDP-PS-38 and RESI-M. Our results show that resilience was more closely associated to the psychological grief response than other variables, such as socio-demographics and spirituality. The predictive model had good fit. The second order’s first factor (less negative reaction to the disease was predicted by greater perceived family support, more frequent attendance at religious services, and higher family income. The second order’s second factor (positive attitude towards the disease based on religious beliefs was predicted by greater social skills, higher rate of attendance at religious services, lower level of education, and lower family income. These two grief second order’s factors are independent from each other. We concluded that resilience is an important variable in the grieving process, with spirituality being
Isbel, Stephen T; Berry, Helen L
Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver's license.
Boyd Patterson Jr.
Full Text Available The significance of status Between nations and across cultures, threats to the social status of an individual or group motivate retaliatory violence. History provides countless examples of such violence, committed at all levels of society. Whether orchestrated by individuals or governments, the perpetrators almost invariably justify the violence as a necessary response to an existential threat. “Cultures of honor” such as the Southeastern United States condone the use of violence to protect one’s reputation and, unsurprisingly, this region of America has consistently produced the highest levels of per capita violence in the entire country.Additionally, religious texts warn of the destructive power of “pride,” placing it with envy, greed, wrath, lust, gluttony and sloth as one of the Seven Deadly Sins. Our personal experiences with road rage, school bullies and office politics all provide a regular stream of anecdotal evidence of the inexplicably powerful emotions driving those whose status has been threatened. As a former mental health counselor, criminal prosecutor and gang task force coordinator in the Southeastern United States, this author has personally observed numerous examples of pride’s destructive influence. Deadly bar fights, domestic violence and street gang conflicts frequently ensue from seemingly trivial offenses to one’s status. In American cities,simply spray painting over a rival gang’s graffiti can lead to retaliation murder. In fact, gang retaliation plays out so consistently that when a gang entrenched neighborhood gets shot up, the police can usually predict which neighborhood they will respond to for the next shooting.
Wilkinson, Ross B.
This paper presents the results of 3 studies examining the relationships of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-esteem to adolescent psychological health. A model is presented in which parental attachment directly influences both psychological health and self-esteem and the influence of peer attachment on psychological health is totally…
Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the collective psychological empowerment of users of online health communities, which has been often overlooked in literature. Drawing on the theories of empowerment in the context of community psychology, it explores the factors - that are also an important characteristic of online health communities - that are associated with the collective psychological empowerment of online health community users.
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hines, Lisa D
This study explored the racial disparity of substance dependency and psychological health among White, African American, and Hispanic Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients as well as the relationship between substance dependency and psychological health. It analyzed 1,286 TANF recipients from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. Analysis of variance indicated that Whites were experiencing more nicotine and alcohol dependency and psychological distress than others, but African Americans and Hispanics were experiencing more cocaine dependency than Whites. Ordinary least squares regression revealed that nicotine dependency is significantly related to the psychological distress of Whites. Alcohol dependency is significantly associated with the psychological distress of three groups. Culturally competent programs are suggested.
Hilton, Charlotte Emma; Johnston, Lynne Halley
Despite the growth in theoretical understandings of health behaviour and standardised approaches to health interventions (e.g. behaviour change taxonomies), health psychology has paid comparatively less attention to the importance of the implementation processes - 'how to' rather than 'what to' of such interventions. The clinical and interpersonal skills that often reflect these implementation processes are poorly defined within the health psychology literature. The level of proficiency in such skills expected of Health and Care Professions Council registered practitioner health psychologists is unclear and poorly documented within the UK training requirements. This article explores the potential impact of this and offers some pragmatic solutions.
Christensen, Alan J; Nezu, Arthur M
This issue represents the 4th Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology special issue on behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology over the past 4 decades. Recent developments in health care policy, as well as in the maturation of the science, make a special issue in this area particularly timely. This collection includes state of the clinical science reviews, reports of clinical trials, and articles addressing theory and methods in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology. A multilevel, ecological perspective that considers multiple levels of influences (e.g., cultural influences on behavior-health linkages, individual differences) is salient throughout many of the articles. Our hope is that this sampling of this broad field, and coverage of some key issues and areas, will play a role in stimulating the next 10 years of research, practice, and policy implementation in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology.
Spagnolo, A; Meli, P
The knowledge of the newborns' health status from medical assisted procreation techniques represents the main objective of public health in this field. It is not acceptable, in fact, the use of fertilisation and artificial insemination techniques without a correct evaluation of these newborns' health status. As probable risks exist in medical protocols of treatments (mothers' exposition to hormonal drugs, manipulations of gametes, embryo development in growing coculture with different animal cells, cryopreservation, lack of natural selection of spermatozoa in intracytoplasmatic sperm injection techniques), a check of the results of these techniques is extremely necessary. Newborns' health status must be detected not only at delivery time but also in the following period to evaluate the right physical and psychological development. To estimate infertility risk that these children might run after their mothers' hormonal treatment, it is necessary to follow these subjects till adult age.
Porcerelli, John H; Fowler, Shannon L; Klassen, Brian; Murdoch, William; Thakur, Elyse R; Wright, Brandy E; Morris, Pierre
Family medicine residents increasingly work collaboratively with psychology trainees. One type of collaborative experience involves dual interviewing of clinic patients. The goal of this observational study was to provide an initial description of what occurs during dual interviews as it relates to behavioral health assessments and interventions. Psychology trainees provided detailed descriptions of 550 collaborative patient encounters involving 348 patients from the Wayne State University/Crittenton Family Medicine Residency clinic. Psychology trainees coded the frequency of behavioral health assessments and interventions by the resident, psychology trainee, or both. Eighty percent of the encounters contained a behavioral health assessment, and 29% contained a behavioral health intervention. Most of these clinical activities were collaboratively done. Interestingly, residents and psychology trainees tended to provide different behavioral health interventions. Moreover, residents provided different behavioral health interventions in repeat dual interviews (n=202) as opposed to first-time visits (n=348), while psychology trainees did not. Little is known about the process of dual interviewing, and this study is an important first step in describing how residents and psychology trainees actually interact during these encounters. More research is needed about the impact of dual interviewing on residents' behavior.
Yang, Zhihan; Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yonghong
The present study examines the efficacy of expressive writing among Chinese undergraduates. The sample comprised of 74 undergraduates enrolled in a 9-week intervention (35 in experimental class vs. 39 in control class). The writing exercises were well-embedded in an elective course for the two classes. The 46-item simplified Chinese Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale, which assesses psychological, physical and social health, was adopted to measure the outcome of this study. Baseline (second week) and post-test (ninth week) scores were obtained during the classes. After the intervention on the eighth week, the self-reported psychological, social and physical health of the experimental class improved. Psychological health obtained the maximum degree of improvement, followed by social and physical health. Furthermore, female participants gained more psychological improvement than males. These results demonstrated that the expressive writing approach could improve the physical, social and psychological health of Chinese undergraduates, and the method can be applied in university psychological consulting settings in Mainland China. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Sullivan, Marianne; Levine, Jack
Introduction: Community health assessment (CHA) is a useful tool for identifying health status disparities at the community level. Developing the skills of master's level public health students to conduct CHA addresses a number of the Association of Schools of Public Health Core competencies for graduate public health education. Teaching…
Jun 1, 2013 ... Satisfied respondents were least likely to have psychological disorder. Conclusion: ... screening instrument designed to detect current diagnosable .... meta-analysis: they reported that correlation between job satisfaction and ...
Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation ...
Full Text Available The article analyzes the documents of the international organizations, data of the Russian and foreign authors devoted to poverty and health of children from disadvantaged families. It was shown that poverty is the basic risk factor for the somatic and psychic disorders of children. The reduction of the impact exerted by the given factor on the health status of children may be achieved by the multidisciplinary approach only.Key words: child, poverty, health, lifestyle.
In 2010, an interorganizational effort among the American Psychological Association, the Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology, and the Council of Chairs of Training Councils, known as the Health Service Psychology Education Collaborative (HSPEC), was initiated to address mounting concerns related to education and training for the professional practice of psychology. Given that professional psychology includes diverse areas of practice and the mounting concerns about psychology's role in a reformed health care system, HSPEC chose to focus on preparation of psychologists for the delivery of health care services and made seven recommendations that constitute the core of a blueprint for the future. These recommendations require significant changes in graduate education-changes critical to the future of psychology as a health profession. As part of its work, HSPEC developed a statement of core competencies for the preparation of health service psychologists, integrating feedback solicited through public comment and review by the psychology community, including education and training councils and APA governance groups. The articulation of these competencies serves to inform not only the preparation of health service psychologists but students, employers, regulators, and policymakers as well. It also reflects the discipline's commitment to quality and accountability in the preparation of its workforce. HSPEC recognizes that its recommendations to strengthen the core preparation and identity of health service psychologists will result in some limitations on degrees of freedom at the program level but believes such limitation to be in the service of coherent and uniform standards for education and training. This blueprint supports the evolution and development of the profession within a scientific context. It supports standards as meaningful, versus minimum, indicators as part of the profession's obligation to the public. The blueprint also calls for the profession
Ploeg, E. van der
The risk of high-risk jobs: Psychological health consequences in forensic doctors and ambulance workers This thesis has shown that forensic physicians and ambulance personnel frequently suffer from psychological complaints as a result of dramatic events and sources of chronic work stress. A
Parker, Glennys; Lee, Christina
We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General…
Background: Psychological violence has emerged as a priority concern in all workplaces because of its adverse consequences on victims' health. So far, limited research has been conducted on the effect of psychological violence on the five interrelated contexts of human existence. Objectives: This qualitative study ...
Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors
Dewake, Nanae; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sakai, Rie; Yamada, Shima; Nima, Yuko; Tomoe, Miki; Kakuta, Satoko; Iwasaki, Masanori; Soh, Inho; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Ansai, Toshihiro
Sense of coherence (SOC) is a measurement of ability of an individual to cope with psychological stress and remain in good health. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among SOC score, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults using path analysis. We enrolled 53 older adults (17 men and 36 women) who were attending a day care service (mean age 80.4 ± 6.5 years). SOC was assessed using a 13-item, seven-scale instrument. Oral health status (number of present teeth, denture use) and nutritional status (assessed with Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form) were also evaluated. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship of SOC with other related factors, including care need level. The mean SOC score was 57.0 ± 13.9. Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form results showed that one participant (1.8%) was malnourished, 26 (49.1%) were at risk of malnutrition and 26 (49.1%) had normal nutritional status. Participants with high SOC scores showed a strong positive attitude, had a relatively large number of teeth, were in good nutritional condition and showed low care need levels. The present results showed that maintaining a high SOC level and good oral health help to reduce care need levels in older adults, and also prevent a worsening of their nutritional condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2083-2088. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Hymel, Glenn M; Rich, Grant J
Health psychology represents a context within which massage therapy research, education, and practice can be positioned for the mutual benefit of both. Furthermore, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) more often than not plays a mediating role in relating massage therapy to health psychology. On occasion, though, the linkage between health psychology and massage therapy can be quite direct without the mediating influence of CAM. This paper, accordingly, advances a conceptual model via both flowchart and Venn diagram displays for viewing the health psychology context for massage therapy with the possibility of CAM as a mediating factor. Attention is also given to the broad range of issues constituting contemporary health psychology as well as its correspondence to an equally diverse array of client populations and health conditions addressed in massage therapy research. Future directions in the areas of health psychology, CAM, and massage therapy are proposed with a view toward a mutual and reciprocal benefit accruing to these behavioral and health science arenas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zawadzki, Matthew J
Emotion regulation (ER) strategies are related to psychological health, with most work examining reappraisal and suppression. Yet, emerging findings suggest that rumination may have stronger relationships with psychological health, namely depression, than other ER strategies. This paper replicated and extended this work by testing whether rumination was independently associated with a range of poor psychological health risk indicators and outcomes. In addition, it explored whether the reason why rumination is so deleterious to health is because it underlies the stress-health relationship. Participants (n = 218) completed measures online. Surveys assessed ER strategies (reappraisal, suppression, proactive coping, emotion support seeking, and rumination), health risk indicators (hostility, optimism, self-esteem), health outcomes (depression, poor sleep quality, anxiety) and perceived chronic stress. Multivariate regression analyses revealed rumination as the only ER strategy with a consistent independent effect on all the health risk indicators and outcomes. Bootstrapping analyses revealed indirect effects of perceived chronic stress on all the health variables via rumination. Rumination had a deleterious relationship with psychological health, perhaps because rumination underlies the relationship between stress and psychological health. Results have implications for interventions, particularly emphasizing the need to target ruminative thinking after stressful experiences.
Spahn, Claudia; Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark
The aim of this investigation was to analyze longitudinal data concerning physical and psychological health, playing-related problems, and preventive behavior among music students across their complete 4- to 5-year study period. In a longitudinal, observational study, we followed students during their university training and measured their psychological and physical health status and preventive behavior using standardized questionnaires at four different times. The data were in accordance with previous findings. They demonstrated three groups of health characteristics observed in beginners of music study: healthy students (cluster 1), students with preclinical symptoms (cluster 2), and students who are clinically symptomatic (cluster 3). In total, 64% of all students remained in the same cluster group during their whole university training. About 10% of the students showed considerable health problems and belonged to the third cluster group. The three clusters of health characteristics found in this longitudinal study with music students necessitate that prevention programs for musicians must be adapted to the target audience.
Wall, C H
In the past 30 years, dental health in Australia has undergone a marked improvement. This improvement has been paralleled by a significant change in attitudes to many aspects of dental health and in consequent behaviour. The caries experience of the younger Australian is now about one-third of that of his older counterpart. Two-thirds of the Australian population drink fluoridated water and there is widespread use of fluoridated dentifrices. Hence, the DMFT of 12 year olds is already approaching the target level of 3 for the year 2000, compared with a level of over 10 just 30 years ago. Edentulousness is still a problem, as evidenced by a rate of 68 per cent in those aged 45-64. With the increased retention of teeth in the young there is every expectation that this rate will be reduced significantly with time. Among the problem groups the aboriginal population, particularly those described as 'transitional', show all the ravages created by very high sucrose intake. To formulate plans to combat this a study of aboriginal dental health has been proposed.
Versteeg, Henneke; Spek, Viola; Pedersen, Susanne S.
Background: Knowledge of the factors associated with individual differences in patient-reported outcomes is essential to identify high-risk patients and improve secondary prevention. Design: In this meta-analysis, we examined the association between Type D personality and the individual differences...... in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and health...... status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was associated...
Mewes, Ricarda; Rief, Winfried; Kenn, Klaus; Ried, Jens; Stenzel, Nikola
Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit low physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and high susceptibility to disability. We investigated the influence of psychological factors on HRQL and disability in COPD individuals recruited from the general population. In line with Leventhal's common sense model, we expected psychological factors to be associated with HRQL and disability even after controlling for medical status. Individuals with COPD (n = 502; 59.7 years old; GOLD grades were I: 3%, II: 17%, III: 34%, IV: 46%) were assessed through an online survey administered via COPD patient organisations in Germany. Individuals filled in the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), COPD Assessment Test, Patient Health Questionnaire (modules: GAD-2, PHQ-15, PHQ-9), Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, a questionnaire that assesses causal illness attributions, and the internal illness-related locus of control scale of the 'KKG questionnaire for the assessment of control beliefs about illness and health'. Multiple linear regressions were calculated. The investigated factors explained high variances (disability = 56%, physical HRQL = 28%, mental HRQL = 63%, p ≤ .001). Better mental health, more optimistic illness perceptions, attribution to psychological causes, and stronger internal locus of control were associated with lower disability and better HRQL. Comorbid somatic symptoms contributed to high disability and low quality of life. Psychological factors, such as illness perception, attribution and internal locus of control, were associated with disability and HRQL. These factors should be considered when designing treatments for individuals with COPD, and adequate interventions should be provided to enhance illness understanding and self-management skills.
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Stancin, Terry; Lochman, John E.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Miranda, Jeanne M.; Wysocki, Tim; Portwood, Sharon G.; Piacentini, John; Tynan, Douglas; Atkins, Marc; Kazak, Anne E.
Recent health care legislation and shifting health care financing strategies are transforming health and behavioral health (a broad term referring to mental health, substance use, and health behavior) care in the United States. Advances in knowledge regarding effective treatment and services coupled with incentives for innovation in health and behavioral health care delivery systems make this a unique time for mobilizing our science to enhance the success of health and behavioral health care redesign. To optimize the potential of our current health care environment, a team was formed composed of leaders from the Societies of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Pediatric Psychology, and Child and Family Policy and Practice (Divisions 53, 54, and 37 of the American Psychological Association). This team was charged with reviewing the scientific and policy literature with a focus on five major issues: (a) improving access to care and reducing health disparities, (b) integrating behavioral health care within primary care, (c) preventive services, (d) enhancing quality and outcomes of care, and (e) training and workforce development. The products of that work are summarized here, including recommendations for future research, clinical, training, and policy directions. We conclude that the current emphasis on accountable care and evaluation of the outcomes of care offer numerous opportunities for psychologists to integrate science and practice for the benefit of our children, families, and nation. The dramatic changes that are occurring in psychological and behavioral health care services and payment systems also require evolution in our practice and training models. PMID:26430948
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Stancin, Terry; Lochman, John E; Hughes, Jennifer L; Miranda, Jeanne M; Wysocki, Tim; Portwood, Sharon G; Piacentini, John; Tynan, Douglas; Atkins, Marc; Kazak, Anne E
Recent health care legislation and shifting health care financing strategies are transforming health and behavioral health (a broad term referring to mental health, substance use, and health behavior) care in the United States. Advances in knowledge regarding effective treatment and services coupled with incentives for innovation in health and behavioral health care delivery systems make this a unique time for mobilizing our science to enhance the success of health and behavioral health care redesign. To optimize the potential of our current health care environment, a team was formed composed of leaders from the Societies of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Pediatric Psychology, and Child and Family Policy and Practice (Divisions 53, 54, and 37 of the American Psychological Association). This team was charged with reviewing the scientific and policy literature with a focus on five major issues: (a) improving access to care and reducing health disparities, (b) integrating behavioral health care within primary care, (c) preventive services, (d) enhancing quality and outcomes of care, and (e) training and workforce development. The products of that work are summarized here, including recommendations for future research, clinical, training, and policy directions. We conclude that the current emphasis on accountable care and evaluation of the outcomes of care offer numerous opportunities for psychologists to integrate science and practice for the benefit of our children, families, and nation. The dramatic changes that are occurring in psychological and behavioral health care services and payment systems also require evolution in our practice and training models.
Johnston, Lindsay; Vieira, Alexandre R
The aim of this work was to evaluate whether self-reported systemic diseases were associated with caries experience. Medical history data and caries experience (DMFT and DMFS; Decayed, Missing due to caries, Filled Teeth/Surface) were obtained from the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine dental registry and DNA repository. Information on 1,281 subjects was evaluated (839 with primary caries and 492 with secondary caries experience). Regression analysis was used to test for association between caries experience and disease status. Associations were found between caries experience and specific conditions: stroke (R2 = 0.007, P = 0.001), asthma (R2 = 0.003, P = 0.025), hepatitis (R2 = 0.009, P = 0.0001), liver disease (R2 = 0.009, P = 0.00001), high blood pressure (R2 = 0.072, P = 0.00001) and diabetes (R2 = 0.03, P = 0.00001). We found primary caries to be associated with hepatitis (DMFT with R2 = 0.011, P = 0.002 and DMFS with R2 = 0.008, P = 0.006). We also found an association between secondary caries and asthma (DMFS with R2 = 0.006, P = 0.04), high blood pressure (DMFT with R2 = 0.014, P = 0.005 and DMFS with R2 = 0.043, P = 0.00001) and diabetes (DMFT with R2 = 0.013, P = 0.007 and DMFS with R2 = 0.023, P = 0.00001). Hepatitis, asthma, high blood pressure, stroke, liver disease and diabetes are associated with higher caries experience.
Kretova, I G; Belyaeva, O V; Shiraeva, O I; Komarova, M V; Chygarina, S E; Kostsova, E A
There was performed an assessment of anthropometric indices of physical development and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system, psychological and social status in 770 students of the higher educational institutions in the city ofSamara. There was revealed the presence of I-III degree obesity in 13.2% of young males and underweight in 19.1% of young females. Stress and disruption of the processes of the adaptation process were shown to be observed in 7.6% and 6.1% of students, respectively. There was found a tendency to hypertension in 12.6% of young males. Revealed changes are related to lifestyle of the modern student. The main factors for the improvement of the life quality is the duration of sleep and ultimate nutrition. Initially, the lower level of physical and functional capabilities is compensated by virtue of the correct organization of social and psychological factors and prevents possible deviations from the part of health.
Dumitrescu, Alexandrina Lizica; Toma, Carmen; Lascu, Viorica
A sense of humor and an ability to laugh reduces stress, enhances hope, relieves tension, and stimulates the immune system. This study explored the role of humour on oral health status and behaviors. The factor structure and the construct validity of the Romanian version of the Multidimensional Sense of Humour Scale (MSHS) was also assessed. The present study sample consisted of 213 first year dental students. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic factors, behavioral variables and self-reported oral health status. Sense of humour was assessed using the Multidimensional Sense of Humour Scale (MSHS) (Thorson and Powell, 1993). There was no significant gender difference with regard to total MSHS scale of humour; however, a detailed analysis of the factors and items reveals some differences in constructions of sense of humor between males and females. We have compared the highest and the lowest 30% of individuals with respect to their MSHS humour scores, in order to test the hypothesis that persons in high humour groups would report higher levels of good health than those in low humour groups. It was revealed that four of the dependent variables, oral health status, gingival health status, toothbrushing frequency and dental visit frequency differed significantly among the two groups. It was also shown that participants who flossed their teeth or used mouthwash once a month presented significant lower values of humour thon those who used everyday dental floss or oral mouthrinses. The independent variables (demographic variables [age, gender, tobacco usage] and humour) were regressed on each of the dependent oral health status and behaviour scales. Although the multiple regression analysis on gingival status was non-significant overall, humour contributed a small, but significant 1.51% of the predictive variance, P < 0.05. Further research is required in order to gain a better understanding of the concept of humour and its uses in healthcare.
Kim, Y H
To explore the negative health behaviors of Korean adolescents, reveal factors affecting their negative health behavior, and present a substantial correlation model between the negative health behaviors and psychological factors. A total of 2124 adolescents randomly selected from junior high and high schools in Seoul were surveyed. Four Korean-version instruments were used to identify the negative health behavior and psychological construct of adolescents: Adolescent Health Survey, Health Locus of Control scale, Self-Esteem scale, and Self-Efficacy scale. Korean adolescents showed high prevalence of smoking, drinking alcohol, bad eating habits, and viewing pornography; and very low prevalence, however, of sexual intercourse and illegal drug use. In addition to this, the findings revealed that the subdomains in adolescents' negative health behavior were statistically correlated with the subdimensions of a psychological factor. A correlation model was an adequate fit to identify a possible relationship between the negative health behaviors and the psychological factors. This study provides significant and new information about the relatively unstudied Korean adolescents and has the potential to influence the development of better health education and health psychology.
Altenhöner, T; Philippi, M; Böcken, J
Individual health behaviour counts as an important factor for health status. A healthier lifestyle substantially contributes to better health. People burdened with lower health and with lower socio-economic status could benefit notably. So far it is not known exhaustively to what extent education and social status contribute to changes in health behaviour and which motifs play a decisive role. Based on cross-sectional data from the seventh wave of the "Gesundheitsmonitor", Bertelsmann Foundation, (n=1 436), the influence of social status and education on health behaviour and changes in behaviour was analysed. Specific health behaviour correlates with level of education and socio-economic status. In contrast, regarding health behaviour changes in the last 12 months prior to survey, no social class- or education-specific effect was found. Age, health status as well as fears and wishes in relation to health seem to be important causalities for changes of health-related behaviour. Interventions to foster healthy lifestyles should include class differences in specific health-related behaviour and personal reasons for behavioural changes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Olofsson, N; Lindqvist, K; Danielsson, I
To assess the association between fear of crime and/or psychological and/or physical abuse in relation to self-reported physical and psychological health, using a large representative sample of elderly women and men in Sweden. Cross-sectional national survey. Data were taken from a nationwide representative public health survey (2006). Men and women between the ages of 65 and 84 years were selected for the present analyses (4386 men and 4974 women). The response rate for this age group was 59% for men and 70% for women. Psychological and physical abuse against elderly women and men led to higher odds ratios for negative health outcomes, independently of socio-economic status. Strong correlation was found between psychological abuse and negative health outcomes in both men and women, while the correlation was less strong for physical abuse, especially among women. The men had high odds ratios for suicidal thoughts and even for attempted suicide in connection with physical and psychological abuse and fear of crime. The study provides representative results addressing an extensive negative health outcome panorama caused by fear of crime and exposure to abuse. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony
This study investigates the impact of HIV diagnosis on subjective social status and if changes are linked to health outcomes. Two measures of subjective social status, socio-economic and standing in the community were examined in 342 Australian HIV-positive gay men in 2014. Participants recalled ratings at diagnosis were compared with current ratings. Self-reported mental (psychological distress, self-esteem, positive mental health and satisfaction with life) and physical health (self-rated health, CD4 count, viral load). Half of the participants reported improvements in subjective socio-economic status (59%) or standing in the community (52%) since diagnosis, yet one quarter reported socio-economic status (25%) or standing in the community had decreased (23%). Increases in either measure of subjective social status were linked to higher self-esteem, positive mental health, satisfaction with life and better self-rated health. Decreases in subjective social status, however, were strongly linked to poorer outcomes on all mental health measures. Decreases in standing in the community were also associated with poorer physical self-rated health. Most participants reported their subjective social status were the same or better since diagnosis. Changes in subjective social status following diagnosis were strongly linked to mental health outcomes. Those who reported a decrease in subjective social status were particularly vulnerable to mental health problems.
Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Perry, Brea L
With increasing rates of obesity in the United States, attention to life chances and psychological consequences associated with weight stigma and weight-based discrimination has also intensified. While research has demonstrated the negative effects of weight-based discrimination on mental health, little is known about whether different social groups are disproportionately vulnerable to these experiences. Drawing on the modified labelling theory, the focus of this paper is to investigate the psychological correlates of body weight and self-perceived weight-based discrimination among American women at the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Analyses use data from the National Health Measurement Study (NHMS), a national multi-stage probability sample of non-institutional, English-speaking adults, ages 35 to 89 in 2005-2006. Our findings demonstrate that the effect of weight-based discrimination on psychological well-being is highly contingent on social status. Specifically, the psychological consequences of discrimination on Hispanic women and women in the lowest household income group is significantly greater relative to White women and women with higher household income, controlling for obesity status and self-rated health. These results suggest that higher social status has a buffering effect of weight stigma on psychological well-being. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Roz Shafran; Sophie D Bennett; Mhairi McKenzie Smith
There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a ‘holistic’ and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs...
H. Bosma (Hans); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of psychological attributes (personality characteristics and coping styles) to the association between social class in childhood and adult health among men and women. DESIGN: Partly retrospective, partly cross sectional study
Acharya, Indranil; Acharya, Jayanti P; Waghrey, Divya
.... on rampant users like college-goers. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students pursuing professional courses in colleges in a big city...
Li, Menglong; Nie, Jingsong; Ren, Yujia
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise dependence on the psychological health of Chinese college students. A total of 1601 college students from three universities in Hunan, China, were selected as research subjects. Several measurement scales, including the Exercise Addiction Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Subjective Well-being Scale, were used to survey the psychological health problem of these students and to analyze the effects of exercise dependence on their psychological health. Exercise dependence, based on the structural equation model analysis, can positively influence state anxiety (Pstudents. By contrast, exercise dependence negatively influences students' self-satisfaction (Phealth of college students. Further research using multi-dimensional exercise addiction scales should be conducted to identify all the negative effects of exercise addiction factors on psychological health.
Haslam, N; Lusher, D
Psychiatry and clinical psychology are the two dominant disciplines in mental health research, but the structure of scientific influence and information flow within and between them has never been mapped. Citations among 96 of the highest impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals were examined, based on 10 052 articles published in 2008. Network analysis explored patterns of influence between journal clusters. Psychiatry journals tended to have greater influence than clinical psychology journals, and their influence was asymmetrical: clinical psychology journals cited psychiatry journals at a much higher rate than the reverse. Eight journal clusters were found, most dominated by a single discipline. Their citation network revealed an influential central cluster of 'core psychiatry' journals that had close affinities with a 'psychopharmacology' cluster. A group of 'core clinical psychology' journals was linked to a 'behavior therapy' cluster but both were subordinate to psychiatry journals. Clinical psychology journals were less integrated than psychiatry journals, and 'health psychology/behavioral medicine' and 'neuropsychology' clusters were relatively peripheral to the network. Scientific publication in the mental health field is largely organized along disciplinary lines, and is to some degree hierarchical, with clinical psychology journals tending to be structurally subordinate to psychiatry journals.
Jayanti P Acharya, Indranil Acharya, Divya Waghrey
Cell phones have come to stay. Their use without any knowledge of their harmful effects like cancers and other health effects is not ‘quite’ safe. Studies on cancers due to electromagnetic radiations from cell phones are available but there is a need to research on the detrimental physical and psychological effects esp. on rampant users like college-goers. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students pursuing professional courses in...
Roche, Adeline; Ogden, Jane
Samaritan listening volunteers provide emotional support to people in distress or suicidal. Samaritans' has high volunteer turnover, which may be due to burnout. This study evaluated the role of demographic and psychosocial factors in predicting Samaritans listening volunteers' burnout and health status. Samaritans' listening volunteers (n = 216) from seven branches across UK completed an online survey to assess their levels of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, personal accomplishment), subjective health status, coping, empathy and social support. Overall, listeners showed low levels of burnout and good health. Regression analysis revealed that higher emotional exhaustion was predicted by younger age and avoidant coping style; higher depersonalisation was predicted by lower empathy fantasy and higher avoidant coping style; lower personal accomplishment scores were predicted by higher empathy personal distress and worse health status was predicted by more hours per week spent on listening duties, lower social support and higher avoidant coping style. Overall, different factors influenced different facets of burnout. However, higher use of avoidant coping style consistently predicted higher burnout and worse health status, suggesting avoidant coping is an important target for intervention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health status (SRHS is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to assess which candidate variables were independently associated with SRHS in university students, to compare these variables by country and by gender, and to investigate which of the variables was most important as a rating frame for SRHS. Methods The data is from the Cross-National Student Health Survey, conducted in 2005 in universities in Germany, Bulgaria, and Poland (n = 2103; mean age = 20.7 years. SRHS was assessed with a single question using a five-point scale ranging from "excellent" to "poor". The study also measured a wide range of variables including: physical and psychological health, studying, social contacts/social support, and socio-demographic status. Results Psychosomatic complaints (considered an aspect of physical health and, adjusted for psychological health were the most important indicators in forming a rating frame for students' SRHS. There were few differences in the effects of variables associated with SRHS by gender (well-being: a measure of psychological health and the variables associated with SRHS by country (well-being and self-efficacy. The remaining variables showed homogenous effects for both genders and for all three countries. Conclusion The results suggest that SRHS can be reasonably used to compare students' health across countries. SRHS is affected by different physical, psychological and psychosomatic aspects of health; however, its strongest association is with psychosomatic complaints.
Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma
Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals' towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents.
Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W
Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims.
Wright, Breanna; Forbes, Andrew; Kelsall, Helen; Clarke, David; Ikin, Jill; Sim, Malcolm
Understanding how veterans appraise their post-deployment experiences could provide insight into better assisting their deployment transitions. We aimed to assess the factor structure of positive and negative post-deployment appraisals in Australian veterans and to examine the resultant factors in their relationship with military stress and psychological health. Questions capturing post-deployment attitudes were developed by the researchers in collaboration with veterans. The questions were administered to 1938 veterans and the results factor analysed. The relationships between post-deployment appraisal, military stress and psychological health were examined using Structural Equation Modelling. A three-factor solution was found for the post-deployment appraisal questions; representing personal development, lack of recognition, and appreciation of life and country. Military stress was associated with the three factors and psychological health. The three factors were weakly to moderately associated with psychological health. Mediation between military stress and psychological health by any post-deployment appraisal factor was minimal. Post-deployment appraisal measures three important attitudes and concerns of veterans after deployment. Military stress is associated with the post-deployment appraisal factors. However, the factors did not mediate the relationship between military stress and psychological health. These factors provide insight into how veterans appraise their complex array of post-deployment experiences, and may provide useful in regard to transitions and integration into civilian life.
Full Text Available The psychological impact on patients suffering radical cystectomy is twofold - (both that of the underlying neoplastic disease and that measured by the quality of life subsequent to surgery and increases as the urinary derivation technique is less physiological and affects more the local anatomy. Although there are numerous questionnaires that assess the quality of life of patients with cancer (HRQoL - health related QoL, not many probe bladder cancer morbidity or correlate the different types of urinary diversions’ impact on QoL (quality of life. We analyzed 39 cases in our clinic who underwent radical cystectomy between August 2013 and August 2014. Different diversions were performed, as follows: for 24 patients a cutaneous ureterostomy was performed, in 10 cases a Mainz II pouch, in 3 cases a Bricker derivation and in 2 patients a Studer neobladder was performed. In these patients, QoL - Cancer Version and FACT-BL questionnaires were administered and were followed for an initial period of 2 years. According to our survey, the Bricker derivation is best tolerated, followed by neobladder and the Mainz II pouch.
Gao, Yang; Li, Li Ping; Kim, Jean Hee; Congdon, Nathan; Lau, Joseph; Griffiths, Sian
.... Little is known about the health status of these left behind children (LBC). This study compares the health status and health-related behaviours of left behind adolescent school children and their counterparts in a rural area in Southern China...
Feb 1, 2003 ... Objective: To determine the health status and the health seeking behaviour of the elderly ... The study points out the need to formulate policies that will target on the health needs of the elderly. INTRODUCTION. Quality of life changes over life ..... services has affected health care delivery system resulting.
K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); K. van der Velde (Kelly); P. Joosten (Pieter); H. Rutten (Hans); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); K. Dulfer (Karolijn)
textabstractPurpose: In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the
Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…