Santander, Jaime T; Pinedo, José P; Repetto, Paula L
Physicians should be exposed, during their training to basic concepts in psychology. To describe the current status of the formal teaching of health psychology or medical psychology in Chilean medical schools. We reviewed the programs of the courses including topics of Medical Psychology, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine at 18 medical schools in Chile, using a focused coding method. The contents and the time spent on these courses were considered and analyzed. Eighty three percent of medical schools have a Medical Psychology or related program, 56.3% are carried out during the first year of medical School teaching and the weekly load has an average of 4 hours. The contents are mixed and predominantly concerning general and developmental psychology, but also address specific issues of Medical Psychology in most cases. There is little clarity about the training issues to be addressed in medical psychology for medical students in Chile. It is necessary to define the minimum content that all medical graduates should learn.
Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127
Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob
that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition......This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...
showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According......This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) years were randomized into a group...... playing floorball (n = 22) or a group playing petanque (n = 17) one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping...
Wikman, Johan M; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens T; Melchor, Pia S; Bangsbo, Jens; Pfister, Gertrud
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65-76) were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22) or a group playing petanque (n = 17) one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.
Johan M. Wikman
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76 were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22 or a group playing petanque (n = 17 one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.
Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Kyoung-Bok
Several studies suggest that subjective health status is closely related to various behavioral addictions, but there are few studies on smartphone overuse. This study investigated the associations between psychological and subjective health conditions and smartphone overuse in Korean college students. A total of 608 college students participated in this study. We investigated the perceived psychological factors, such as stress, depression symptoms and suicidal ideation. Overall health status was evaluated with self-assessed items, including usual health condition and EuroQol-visual analog scales (EQ-VAS) score. Smartphone overuse was evaluated as the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. Students with psychotic anxiety (i.e. stress, depression and suicidal ideation) showed significant associations with smartphone overuse, indicating an approximately twofold increased risk compared to those without psychological anxiety (all p smartphones than those who are in good health (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.22-3.21). The EQ-VAS score, which indicates current self-assessed health status, also showed a similar result with general health status (OR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.14-4.02). Negative conditions in self-perceived emotional or overall health condition are associated with the increased likelihood of smartphone overuse in Korean college students.
Cho, Chul-Hyun; Song, Kwang-Soon; Hwang, Ilseon; Coats-Thomas, Margaret S; Warner, Jon J P
There has been little documentation of the effects of total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) on psychological status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We investigated changes in psychological status (depression and anxiety) and HRQoL following TSA and assessed the effect of preoperative psychological status on postoperative clinical and functional outcome. We hypothesized that TSA would improve both psychological status and HRQoL. We prospectively enrolled 46 patients undergoing TSA for osteoarthritis. Preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, all of the subjects completed the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Scale (ASES), the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV) measure, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF). From 3 months after surgery, significant improvement in HADS-depression, HADS-anxiety, and WHOQOL-BREF scores as well as in the other outcome measures of VAS pain score, ASES score, and SSV were observed. The prevalence of depression and anxiety decreased from a rate of 15.2% and 19.5%, respectively, preoperatively to a rate of 6.5% for each at 12 months postoperatively. Preoperative HADS-depression and HADS-anxiety scores did not correlate with any of the clinical and functional outcome measures at 12 months after surgery. This study showed significant improvement in psychological status and HRQoL as well as in pain and functional ability from 3 months after TSA in patients with osteoarthritis. Preoperative depression and anxiety did not predict poor postoperative outcome. Our findings suggest that TSA offers an excellent chance of improving psychological status and HRQoL. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Kim, Hee Jun; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Koh, Chin-Kang
Cultural variations among ethnic groups may differentially influence health and health behavior. We explored and compared health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status, including depression, anxiety, and stress, among Korean migrants (n = 117) and Arab nationals (n = 103) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pender's Health Promotion Model guided this research. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile was used to measure health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and Lovibond and Lovibond's Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to measure psychological status. The data were analyzed using bivariate procedures and multiple linear regression. No group differences were found in total scores for health-promoting lifestyle behaviors or psychological status. Both groups scored high on self-actualization and interpersonal support; Arabs scored low on exercise, and Koreans scored low on health responsibility. Across groups, psychological status (β = -.390, p Arab nationals in the UAE. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Maricutoiu, Laurentiu P.
Full Text Available The present paper discusses the status of evidence-based practice in Occupational Health Psychology (OHP. After several searches on large online databases, we have found that OHP papers that discuss interventions are less than 10% of the overall literature. Furthermore, quantitative reviews research that reports interventions on major OHP topics are generally absent. In the last part of the paper, we formulate some reccomendations for increasing the number of papers relevant for evidence-based practice in OHP.
Wang Can; Liu Dawei
Since the 1990s, the numbers of college students who drop out of school due to mental disorders have increased dramatically. In recent years, reports on college students’ mental health crisis have drawn more and more public at-tention. Therefore, the mental health status of col-lege students is becoming a serious focus in the field of psychology. However,there are few studies on the mental health of ethnic minority college students. As a standardized practical screening instru-ment, the psychological assessment scale has be-come a widely used tool for many universities to e-valuate psychological problems. This paper intends to analyze the characteristics of the psychological scales commonly used in ethnic minority colleges, and clearly describe the status of its application. Through searching thefull-text database CNKI,we discovered that there are several tools concerning psychological scale that are used commonly in eth-nic minority colleges, including the Symptom Checklist 90 ( SCL - 90 ) , Zung Self - Rating Scales(SDS/SAS),Psychological Health Inventory ( PHI) ,Eysenck Personality Questionnaire( EPQ) , 16 PF Questionnaire ( 16 pf ) , and the College Students’Personality Health Questionnaire ( UPI ) . We did a comparative analysis on them as follows:1. The Symptom Checklist-90-R( SCL-90-R ) is a self -reporting psychometric question-naire published in 1975 . It is designed to evaluate a broad range of psychological problems and symp-toms of psychopathology. It is still one of the most widely used instruments in the investigation of the mental health of college students. 2. The Zung Self - Rating Depression Scale (SDS)and Zung Self -Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS) were designed by psychiatrist William W. K. Zung. The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scaleis used to as-sess the level of depression for patients diagnosed with depressive disorder. The Zung Self-Rating Anx-iety Scale was designed to assess a patient’s level of anxiety. Both of them are commonly used in
Minami, Yuko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Arai, Yumiko; Hosokawa, Toru; Hisamichi, Shigeru
Psychological factors have been suspected to be associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and patient's health status. However, psychological profiles among Japanese patients with SLE have been poorly understood. We started a prospective study of female patients with SLE in 1995. Using the baseline data from 279 patients in this prospective study, we cross-sectionally analyzed the relations of clinical factors and social factors to psychological factors, and the association between psychological factors and mental and physical health status. We used the Japanese notion ikigai as an indicator of mental health, and ambulatory activity as an indicator of their physical health, respectively. To measure psychological factors, the short-form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (short EPQ-R) and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (HLOC) scale were used. Active phase of the disease was significantly related to the neuroticism score in the short EPQ-R. Educational level was inversely related to the scores of powerful others and chance HLOC belief. As for health status, the internal HLOC belief was significantly associated with ikigai, and the chance HLOC belief was inversely associated with ambulatory activity. The scores on the short EPQ-R (Extraversion/Introversion and Neuroticism) were exclusively related to ikigai. This study suggests that psychological factors may have effects on both the development of SLE and patient's health status.
Lindström, Martin; Ali, Sadiq M; Rosvall, Maria
To investigate the association between socioeconomic status, unemployment and self-rated psychological health, taking economic stress and horizontal trust into account. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 55% participation rate. A random sample was invited and 28,198 persons aged 18-80 participated. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic status by occupation (SES), labour market connection and self-rated psychological health (GHQ12). The multiple regression analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress and generalized (horizontal) trust. 13.8% of the men and 18.2% of the women had poor psychological health. Poor psychological health was more common among the young, among those born abroad, among those with lower education, with economic stress, and low horizontal trust. There were no significant differences between the employed and self-employed groups. However, the people who had retired early, the unemployed and those on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health than higher non-manual employees throughout the analyses. There were no differences in psychological health between non-manual employees in higher positions and other employed and self-employed SES groups among men or women. In contrast, the early retired, the unemployed and the category on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health among both men and women throughout the multiple analyses. Both economic stress and trust affected this association (i.e., lowered the odds ratios of poor psychological health), but affected by economic stress to a somewhat higher extent.
This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.
Moshki, M; Ashtarian, H
Health locus of control (HLC) has been associated with a variety of ailments and health outcomes and designed to predict behaviors and cognitive processes relevant to mental and physical health. This study investigated the relationships between perceived health locus of control, self-esteem, and mental health status among Iranian students. In this analytical study the subjects were recruited from students in Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, who studied in the first year (N=154). Students completed the questionnaires for assessing demographic, perceived health locus of control, self - esteem and psychological well- being data. The statistical analysis revealed a negative relationship between perceived Internal HLC and self-esteem with psychological well-being. The positive correlation of the perceived Chance HLC with psychological well-being was statistically significant (r= 0.21, Pself-esteem was statistically significant (r= 0.25, Plow perceived Internal HLC, self-esteem and psychological problems was found among these students. The findings will be addressed in relation to their implications for effective mental health education based on health locus of control especially internal and powerful others beliefs associated with self-esteem for students. This will require additional monitoring and uninterrupted trying in order to be effective.
Ravaghi, Vahid; Underwood, Martin; Marinho, Valeria; Eldridge, Sandra
This study investigated health inequality for self-reported oral health outcomes among adolescents. The role of oral health behaviors and psychological factors in explaining oral health inequality was investigated using the hypothesis of mediation. This was a cross-sectional study that used self-completed questionnaires. This study sampled 639 (315 male and 324 female) 15- to 17-year-old adolescents (second and third grade high school students) of both sexes in the city of Sanandaj in the province of Kurdistan, western Iran. Socioeconomic indicators of the study were subjective socioeconomic status, wealth index, and parental education. Oral health behaviors were measured as toothbrushing frequency, dental flossing frequency, and dental visits. Psychological factors were self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Self-reported oral health outcomes were single item self-rated oral health and the experience of dental pain. Regression analysis was used to test four conditions for the hypothesis of mediation. The results showed that the inequality is present in oral health for some pairs of relationships between socioeconomic status and oral health outcomes. Adjustment for oral health behaviors and psychological factors, individually and simultaneously, led to loss of statistical significance for some pairs of the relationships. However, adjustment for oral health behaviors and psychological factors led to only small changes in the associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study found a graded oral health inequality, but no strong evidence to support the hypothesis that oral health behaviors and psychological factors mediate oral health inequality for self-reported oral health outcomes. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Brouwers, Corline; Caliskan, Kadir; Bos, Sven
patients and 42 DCM patients. Outcome measures were health status (Short Form Health Survey-12), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale) and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item scale). RESULTS: NCCM patients showed significantly worse health status (Physical Component Score F(1...... from DCM patients (Physical Component Score F(1,82) = 2,61, P = .11; Mental Component Score F(1,82) = .55, P = .46), anxiety (F(1,82) = 1.16, P = .28) and depression scores (F(1,82) = 1,95, P = .17). CONCLUSION: Cardiac symptoms are likely to play a role in the observed poor health status and elevated......BACKGROUND: Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) is a cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular tribeculae and deep intertrabecular recesses. Because of its genetic underpinnings and physical disease burden, noncompaction cardiomyopathy is expected to be associated with a lower health status...
Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa
This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Kupper, Nina; Jordaens, Luc
Comorbidity burden has been linked to survival in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), but no study has examined the influence on psychological well-being and health status. We examined the relationship between comorbidity burden and anxiety, depression, and health status...
Олександра Андріївна Ніздрань
Full Text Available The theoretical and methodological foundations and the organization of the empirical research of the connection between social capital and psychological health of persons with low level of economic status were proved. The peculiarities of the state of psychological health and the development of social capital constituents depending on the level of economic well-being of a person were revealed. The model of the influence of social capital as a factor of the psychological health of persons with low level of economic status was given
Hoogwegt, M.T.; Kupper, N.; Jordaens, L.; Pedersen, S.S.; Theuns, D.A.M.J.
Aims Comorbidity burden has been linked to survival in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), but no study has examined the influence on psychological well-being and health status. We examined the relationship between comorbidity burden and anxiety, depression, and health
Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Atbasoglu, Cem
It was aimed to investigate the existence of the symptoms related to fibromyalgia in the first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and to assess the psychologic and general health status of these individuals and the correlation of these with the patients' status. Thirty-seven patients with FS, 32 first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and 30 healthy subjects as a control group were included. Symptoms related to FS were recorded in all subjects. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Nottingham Health Profile were used to assess the components of functional status and quality of life. General health status was evaluated by General Health Questionnaire. Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to assess the psychologic status. There were significant differences in the frequency of the symptoms between three groups (P 0.05). No fibromyalgia symptoms or signs were detected in the relatives/spouses. The general health status, psychologic status and quality of life were found to be not impaired in relatives/spouses of the patients with FS.
Ali Delshad Noghabi
Full Text Available Health psychology is the defined as studying of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. It contributes to is concerned with the understanding of how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute role to in physical health and illness. Psychological factors can affect health directly. For example, health is hurt by the chronically occurring environmental stressors which cumulatively affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, cumulatively, can harm health. On the other hand, a person's health is also interwoven with the Behavioral behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. For exampleinstance, certain behaviors behaviors, including smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can, over time, harm (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption health but exercise and diet low in saturated fat or can enhance health (exercise, diet low in saturated fat.
Li, Li-Rong; Lin, Mei-Guang; Liang, Juan; Hu, Qiong-Yan; Chen, Dan; Lan, Meng-Ying; Liang, Wu-Qing; Zeng, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ting; Fu, Gui-Fen
BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the factors affecting the level of hope and psychological health status of patients with cervical cancer (CC) during radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 480 CC patients were recruited. Psychological distress scale, Herth hope index, functional assessment cancer therapy-cervix, and Jolowiec coping scale were used to conduct surveys on psychological distress, level of hope, quality of life (QOL), and coping style to analyze the factors affecting the level of hope and psychological health status of CC patients. RESULTS The morbidity of significant psychological distress in 480 CC patients during radiotherapy was 68%, and the main factors causing psychological distress were emotional problems and physical problems. During radiotherapy, most patients had middle and high levels of hope, and the psychological distress index of patients was negatively correlated with the level of hope. The QOL of CC patients during radiotherapy were at middle and high levels, and the QOL was positively correlated with confrontment, optimism, appeasement, and self-reliance, but it was negatively correlated with predestination and emotional expression. CONCLUSIONS For CC patients during radiotherapy, the morbidity of psychological distress was high, but they were at middle and high levels of hope.
Padela, Aasim I; Heisler, Michele
We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post-September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post-September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived post-September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans.
Elham Baghban Baghestan
Full Text Available Background and objectives : This study aimed to compare mental health status between students of two faculties of Alzahra University: physical education vs. educational sciences and psychology. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in physical educations and educational sciences and psychology faculties. A total number of 242 and 265 students were surveyed in these faculties respectively by GHQ-28 general health questionnaire. Data were extracted and analyzed using SPSS-17. Results : Results indicated that among 265 students, 135 participants (55.8% in physical education faculty and 170 participants in educational sciences and psychology faculty (60.3% were suspected to suffer from mental disorders. Results showed that prevalence of mental disorders in physical education faculty and faculty of educational sciences and psychology was 9.4% and 30.2% respectively (p Conclusion : The results demonstrated that students of physical education faculty significantly scored lower than students of educational sciences and psychology faculty in all four scales of mental health. They had fewer problems in terms of anxiety, depression, physical disorders and social function. Generally, they had better mental health status.
Zubrick Stephen R
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders. Methods We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6 scores and duration of mental illness. Results The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking. Conclusions The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco
Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro
Overall health status after a disaster may be associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Little is known about factors associated with overall health status in the aftermath of disasters. We examined self-rated health in relation to disaster characteristics, social resources, and post-disaster outcomes in a sample of adults who experienced the 2004 Florida hurricanes. We interviewed a representative sample of 1,452 adults aged 18 years and older residing in the 33 Florida counties that were in the direct path of at least one of the 2004 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne). Overall health status was assessed using a self-rating format known to be predictive of mortality. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 14.6% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p hurricane (p = 0.03), low social support (p = 0.03), and depression (p = 0.003) since the hurricane. Self-rated health following the Florida hurricanes was strongly associated with two variables (social support and depression) that potentially can be mitigated through targeted interventions after disasters. Future work should evaluate secondary prevention strategies that can address general health-related concerns in the wake of a disaster.
Rus, Alma; Molina, Francisco; Ramos, Manuel Miguel; Martínez-Ramírez, María Josefa; Del Moral, María Luisa
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease that imposes physical, psychological, and social limitations. We have reported that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of FM. Olive oil has been shown to be effective treatment against the oxidative stress associated with several diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive oil on oxidative stress and health-related parameters in FM. This preliminary study was performed on blood samples of 23 women diagnosed with FM who consumed 50 ml of organic olive oil daily for 3 weeks. Subjects were randomized into two groups: one ingested extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and the other refined olive oil (ROO), which have different antioxidant content. The patients' oxidative (lipid, protein, and DNA oxidation) and antioxidative (antioxidant enzyme activities and compounds) profiles were examined before and after the treatment period. Functional capacity and physical and mental health status were assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Physical Component (PCS-12) and Mental Component Summaries (MCS-12) of the Short Form-12 Health Survey, respectively. Significant differences were found in pre-post change between the EVOO and ROO groups for protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation, and FIQ and MCS-12 scores. Differences between groups approached statistical significance for oxidative DNA damage and levels of the antioxidant compound zinc. EVOO may protect women with FM against oxidative stress in addition to improving functional capacity and health-related psychological status. Findings suggest that olive oil may be a valuable therapeutic support in FM. © The Author(s) 2016.
Adler, Nancy E
There is growing concern in the United States about avoidable, unjust differences in health associated with sociodemographic characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. This concern has sparked research to identify how disparities develop and how they can be reduced. Studies showing that disparities occur at all levels of socioeconomic status, not simply at the very bottom, suggest that psychosocial factors play an important role. The author discusses both content and process issues in psychological research on disparities. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association
Shah, Drishti; Vaidya, Varun; Patel, Amit; Borovicka, Mary; Goodman, Monica-Holiday
Effectiveness of antidepressants is generally comparable between and within classes. However, real-world studies on antidepressant treatment and its consequences on the overall quality of life and mental health of individuals are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of specific class of antidepressants with the health-related quality of life, psychological distress and self-reported mental health of individuals suffering from depression who are on monotherapy. This retrospective, longitudinal study included individuals with depression who were on antidepressant monotherapy, using data from 2008 to 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Changes in health-related quality of life, self-reported mental health and psychological distress over a year's time were observed. A multinomial logistic regression model was built to examine the association between the class of antidepressant medications and the dependent variables. A total of 688 adults met the study inclusion criteria. No significant difference was observed in the change in Physical Component Summary (PCS), self-reported mental health and psychological distress based on the class of antidepressants. However, individuals on serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (OR 0.337, 95 % CI 0.155-0.730) were significantly less likely to show improvement on Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores as compared to those on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The study findings suggest that practitioners should be aware of the differences in the health-related quality of life of those taking SSRIs versus other classes of antidepressants. Further research needs to be done to determine the reason for SSRIs to show greater improvement on mental health as compared to SNRIs.
Alexander V. Shuvalov
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical study carried out in the framework of the research project «Determinants of psychological health of the modern person». The issue of psychological health is considered in the context of the anthropological crisis that affects public body and causes a decrease in synergetic social life. On the level of specific manifestations, it is associated with damage to the spiritual and moral sphere, distortion of personal way of life and interpersonal relationships, which leads to a general decline in viability. A growing number of people, whose subjective state can be described as mentally fit, but personally sick is identified. Secondary symptoms of such conditions are depression, aggression, dependent behaviour. However, their essential characteristics are not captured by the existing social psychological, psychological pedagogical and medical psychological concepts and also do not fit the typical description of psychological emotional and/or behavioural disorders. The author adheres to the hypothesis that these states have specific spiritual and psychological conditions and symptoms that deserve scientific analysis and philosophical reflection. The leitmotif of the paper is the issue of mental health in its scientific and philosophical sense. Representation of health from the standpoint of modern humanitarian knowledge and traditional spiritual culture are generalized. The theory of general psychological health is developed. The main approaches to the problem of psychological health are presented. Comparative analysis of the humanistic and anthropological models of mental health is shown. Correspondence between the anthropological conditions and criteria of mental health concepts of the modern national educational ideal is presented. Educational activity is described as anthropological practice aimed at acquiring by a child the wide range of values as a person. As such, it is the most conducive to
Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.
With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and
Essink-Bot, M L; van Royen, L; Krabbe, P; Bonsel, G J; Rutten, F F
PROBLEMS: What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than
Essink-Bot, M. L.; van Royen, L.; Krabbe, P.; Bonsel, G. J.; Rutten, F. F.
PROBLEMS--What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than
Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G
AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...
Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond traditional objective measures of social status, such as education, income and occupation. This review summarizes and integrates recent findings on SSS and health. Current studies corroborate associations between low SSS and poor health indicators by extending previous findings to further populations and biological risk factors, providing meta-analytic evidence for adolescents and by demonstrating that negative affect may not confound associations between SSS and self-rated health. Recent findings also highlight the relevance of SSS changes (e.g. SSS loss in immigrants) and the need to consider cultural/ethnical differences in psychological mediators and associations between SSS and health. SSS is a comprehensive measure of one's social position that is related to several poor health outcomes and risk factors for disease. Future investigation, particularly prospective studies, should extend research on SSS and health to further countries/ethnic groups, also considering additional psychological and biological mediators and dynamic aspects of SSS. Recently developed experimental approaches to manipulate SSS may also be promising.
Choi, Y H; Kim, M S; Byon, Y S; Won, J S
This Study was done to design and test an instrument to measure the health status of the elderly including physical, psychological and social dimensions. Data collection was done from July 18 to August 17, 1990. Subjects were 412 older persons in Korea. A convenience sample was used but the place of residence was stratified into large, medium and small city and rural areas. Participants located in Sudaemun-Gu, Mapo-Gu, and Kangnam-Gu, Seoul were interviewed by brained nursing students, and those in Chungju, Jonju, Chuncheon, and Jinju by professors of nursing colleges. Rural residents were interviewed by community health practitioners working in Kungsang-Buk-Do, Kyngsang-Nam-Do, Jonla Buk-Do, and Kyung Ki-Do. The tool developed for this study was a structured questionnaire based on previous literature and then tested for reliability and validity. This tool contained 20 physical health status items, 17 mental-emotional health status items and 38 social health status items. Physical health status items clustered in to six factors such as personal hygiene, activity, home management, digestive, sexual, sensory, and climatization functions. Mental-emotional health status items clustered into two factors, mental health and emotional health. Social health status items clustered into seven factors, grandparent, parent, spouse, friend, kinships, group member and religious role functions. Data analysis included percentage, average, S.D., t-test and ANOVA. The results of the analysis were as follows: 1. The tool measuring the health status of the elderly and developed for this research had a relatively high reliability indicated by a Cronbach = 0.97793. 2. Average score of the subjects physical health status was 4,054 in a 5 point likert scale, mental-emotional health status was 3.803, social health status was 2.939 and the total average was 3.521. The social status of the subjects was the lowest and the next was mental-emotional health status; physical health status was the
Friedman, Howard S; Silver, Roxane Cohen
... and Effective Treatment 9 Adjustment to Chronic Disease: Progress and Promise in Research Annette L. Stanton and Tracey A. Revenson 203 10 Aging and Health 234 Karen S. Rook, Susan T. Charles, and...
[The effect of age, gender and socioeconomic status on the use of services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector: Results from the ESA research program on mental health and aging].
Préville, Michel; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia-Djemaâ; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal
The objective of this study was, first, to document the psychometric characteristics of a measure of the older adults' socioeconomic status and, secondly, to test the effect of the socioeconomic status on the association between the older adults perceived need to improve their mental health and their use of services in the general medical sector for psychological distress symptoms taking into account the effect of age and gender. Data used in this study come from the ESA study (Enquête sur la santé des ainés) on mental health and aging, conducted in 2005-2008 using a probabilistic sample (n=2811) of the older adult population aged 65 years and over living at home in Quebec. Our results showed that a measurement model of the older adults' socioeconomic status including an individual-level (SES_I) and an area/contextual-level dimension of socioeconomic deprivation (SES_C) was plausible. The reliability of the SES index used in the ESA research program was .92. Our results showed that women (b=-.43) and older people (b=-.16) were more at risk to have a disadvantaged socioeconomic status. However, our results did not show evidence of a significant association between the older adults' socioeconomic status, their perception of a need to improve their mental health and the use of medical services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector in the older adult population in Quebec. Our results do not support the idea suggested in other studies that socioeconomic status has an effect on the older adults use of services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector and suggest that in a context where medical health services are provided under a public insurance programme context, the socioeconomic status does not influence access to services in the general medical sector in the older adult population.
Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.
Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…
Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.
Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... The valid psychological constructs were adoption behaviour, leadership abilities, cosmopoliteness, education level, and attitude to innovation. There was a significant ... Key words: Socio-economic Status, Adoption, Leadership, Cosmopolitness, Education, Attitude, Innovation.
Brouwers, Corline; Caliskan, Kadir; de Jonge, Nicolaas
(F = 10.71, p = .001) but poorer mental health status (F = 14.82, p depression scores compared to ICD partners (F = 3.68, p = .05) at 6 months follow-up, also in adjusted analyses. There was no significant difference between groups on anxiety. CONCLUSION: Caregivers of LVAD......OBJECTIVE: To examine if the caregiving for patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is related to a poorer health status and more distress compared to patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). BACKGROUND: Partners distress may influence patient outcomes...... and is therefore an important aspect in the care of LVAD and ICD patients. METHODS: Multi-center prospective observational study with 6 months follow-up of 33 LVAD partners (27% men; mean age = 54 ± 10 years) and 414 ICD partners (22% men; mean age = 60 ± 12 years). RESULTS: LVAD partners reported better physical...
Hu, Yue; Han, Juan; Chen, Xinguang; Yang, Senbei; Xu, Yanghuan; Xie, Shu; Liu, Weiwei
To understand the status of mental health among left-behind children in rural area and to explore its relationship with social capital. A sample of 1 031 left behind children, aged 10-18 years, was randomly selected from six schools of two townships in Macheng city of Hubei province where large number of rural parents were working in the urban area. Data from a cross-sectional survey was collected among the sampled students from primary, middle and high schools, using self-designed questionnaires which targeting the 'left-behind' condition and social capital Mental Health Inventory of Middle-School Students (MMHI-60). Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in mental health among different groups. Spearman correlation and logistical regression analysis were applied to assess the relationship between social capital and mental health. The prevalence of mental problems was 54.12%. Results from linear χ² test indicated that the detection rates of mental problems were parallel with the monthly pocket money and the reduction in the frequency of contacting migrant father/mother (P < 0.01). Results from the multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that students who were senior(OR = 2.410-2.682, P < 0.001), and who reported not caring about their parents (OR = 2.048-2.420, P < 0.001)were at increased risks for mental health problems. After controlling the demographic characteristics and conditions of staying relevant factors, family social capital(OR = 0.845, 95%CI:0.801-0.891), neighborhood social capital (OR = 0.867, 95%CI:0.826-0.910)and school social capital(OR = 0.893, 95%CI:0.863-0.923) were all associated with declined risks of mental health problems, in which the family social capital was the most important one. The prevalence of mental health problems was high among the left-behind children in rural area. Much attention should be paid to assist these children in improving their mental health status. One promising approach appeared to be
Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Faulkner, Guy E; Irving, Hyacinth M
To examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in a school-based sample of Canadian adolescents. Self-reported data of demographics, weight status, physical activity, screen-time, diet, substance use, and psychological distress were derived from a representative sample of 2935 students in grades 9 to 12 (M(age) = 15.9 years) from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Overall prevalence of psychological distress was 35.1%. Significant associations were shown between psychological distress and the following: being female, tobacco use, not meeting physical activity and screen-time recommendations, and inadequate consumption of breakfast and vegetables. These findings highlight the need for targeting greater physical health promotion for adolescents at risk of mental health problems.
A. N. Pudov
Full Text Available Objective: to define the specific features of the psychological status of patients with acute mandibular injury, to compare a psychological reaction to injury in different age groups and in persons with signs of alcohol addiction. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 37 patients of both sexes over 15 years of age. The patients were distributed by age and chronic alcohol intoxication. Psychological parameters were determined using personality questionnaires: Spielberg-Hanin, Zung, GHQ-28, and Wein ones. Results. The patients with mandibular injury were found to have higher levels of situational and personality anxiety. A state of depression as a response to acute mandibular injury of reactive genesis was found in 29.8% of cases. Autonomic dysfunction occurred in 62.2% of the patients with mandibular fractures. Occult pathopsychological states were detected in 35.1% of the study group patients. Conclusion. The main found peculiarities of the psychological status of the patients with acute mandibular injury were high anxiety and the considerable incidence of autonomic dysfunction syndrome. There were no great age differences in psychological status and the direction of reactions. The patients with chronic alcohol intoxication more frequently developed a depressive state, but the autonomic dysfunction syndrome was just less often encountered and pathopsychological states were less frequently found. Key words: acute low anxiety depression alcohol abuse, psychological status.
Yen, Jeffery; Vaccarino, Oriana
In contrast to the institutionalization of health psychology in North America and Europe, much psychological work on health issues in South Africa emerged as part of a critical revitalization of South African psychology as a whole, coinciding with the dismantling of Apartheid and global shifts in health discourse. The field's development reflects attempts to engage with urgent health problems in the context of rapid sociopolitical changes that followed democratic transition in the 1990s, and under new conditions of knowledge production. We provide an account of these issues, as well as reflections on the field's future, as inflected through the experiences of 12 South African psychologists whose careers span the emergence of health-related psychology to the present day.
Fuller, J R
The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.
The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...
Liang, Christopher T. H.; Liu, Jessica; Nguyen, David; Song, Ge
With attention to race, culture, and gender, this chapter contextualizes the help-seeking behaviors and psychological aspects of health facing Asian American college students. Recommendations are provided to student affairs professionals and counselors.
Belar, Cynthia D.
The objective of the study was to discuss critical connections between psychological interventions and health can at various levels: the individual/family, the community/worksite, the health care system, and the general population itself. Psychologists have developed interventions that have positively impacted health in the areas of prevention and health promotion, recovery from illness, management of physical symptoms, stressful medical procedures, adherence and health care systems design. S...
Study protocol to investigate the effect of a lifestyle intervention on body weight, psychological health status and risk factors associated with disease recurrence in women recovering from breast cancer treatment [ISRCTN08045231
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer survivors often encounter physiological and psychological problems related to their diagnosis and treatment that can influence long-term prognosis. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on body weight and psychological well-being in women recovering from breast cancer treatment, and to determine the relationship between changes in these variables and biomarkers associated with disease recurrence and survival. Methods/design Following ethical approval, a total of 100 patients will be randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention (incorporating dietary energy restriction in conjunction with aerobic exercise training or normal care control group. Patients randomised to the dietary and exercise intervention will be given individualised healthy eating dietary advice and written information and attend moderate intensity aerobic exercise sessions on three to five days per week for a period of 24 weeks. The aim of this strategy is to induce a steady weight loss of up to 0.5 Kg each week. In addition, the overall quality of the diet will be examined with a view to (i reducing the dietary intake of fat to ~25% of the total calories, (ii eating at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, (iii increasing the intake of fibre and reducing refined carbohydrates, and (iv taking moderate amounts of alcohol. Outcome measures will include body weight and body composition, psychological health status (stress and depression, cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. In addition, biomarkers associated with disease recurrence, including stress hormones, estrogen status, inflammatory markers and indices of innate and adaptive immune function will be monitored. Discussion This research will provide valuable information on the effectiveness of a practical, easily implemented lifestyle intervention for evoking positive effects on body weight and psychological well-being, two
Fukui, Sakiko; Ozawa, Harumi
The objectives of this study were to examine the degree of psychological distress during the first 6 months after diagnosis of gastric cancer and investigate the relation to psychological support from public health nurses and family members. One hundred and five patients with stomach, colorectal, or esophagus cancer were mailed a questionnaire. They were asked questions concerning the level of shock on the day of diagnosis, at 1-week after the diagnosis, and at 6 months post diagnosis. In addition, their physical and psychological status was assessed at the 6-month time point. They were also asked about perceived psychological support from public health nurses and family members. The relation between psychological distress and such psychological support was then assessed using multiple regression analyses. The levels of shock on the day of diagnosis and after 1-week were both significantly related to the psychological support from public health nurses. Physical and psychological status at 6 months post diagnosis was significantly related to the level of psychological support from the patient's family members. The study revealed that psychological support from public health nurses improves the level of patient psychological distress during the first 1 week after the cancer diagnosis. Psychological support from family members facilitates the physical and psychological adjustment at 6 months post diagnosis. The results indicate that psychological support is important just after cancer diagnosis and for longer term adjustment, pointing to a major role of health care professionals alleviating problems associated with cancer diagnosis.
Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…
The aim of this paper is to outline the contribution of two strands of discursive research, glossed as 'macro' and 'micro,' to the field of health psychology. A further goal is to highlight some contemporary debates in methodology associated with the use of interview data versus more naturalistic data in qualitative health research. Discursive approaches provide a way of analyzing talk as a social practice that considers how descriptions are put together and what actions they achieve. A selection of recent examples of discursive research from one applied area of health psychology, studies of diet and obesity, are drawn upon in order to illustrate the specifics of both strands. 'Macro' discourse work in psychology incorporates a Foucauldian focus on the way that discourses regulate subjectivities, whereas the concept of interpretative repertoires affords more agency to the individual: both are useful for identifying the cultural context of talk. Both 'macro' and 'micro' strands focus on accountability to varying degrees. 'Micro' Discursive Psychology, however, pays closer attention to the sequential organization of constructions and focuses on naturalistic settings that allow for the inclusion of an analysis of the health professional. Diets are typically depicted as an individual responsibility in mainstream health psychology, but discursive research highlights how discourses are collectively produced and bound up with social practices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kaptein, Ad A; Hughes, Brian M; Murray, Michael; Smyth, Joshua M
Growing evidence suggests that the arts may be useful in health care and in the training of health care professionals. Four art genres - novels, films, paintings and music - are examined for their potential contribution to enhancing patient health and/or making better health care providers. Based on a narrative literature review, we examine the effects of passive (e.g. reading, watching, viewing and listening) and active (e.g. writing, producing, painting and performing) exposure to the four art genres, by both patients and health care providers. Overall, an emerging body of empirical evidence indicates positive effects on psychological and physiological outcome measures in patients and some benefits to medical training. Expressive writing/emotional disclosure, psychoneuroimmunology, Theory of Mind and the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation are considered as possible theoretical frameworks to help incorporate art genres as sources of inspiration for the further development of health psychology research and clinical applications.
Hughes, Brian M; Murray, Michael; Smyth, Joshua M
Growing evidence suggests that the arts may be useful in health care and in the training of health care professionals. Four art genres – novels, films, paintings and music – are examined for their potential contribution to enhancing patient health and/or making better health care providers. Based on a narrative literature review, we examine the effects of passive (e.g. reading, watching, viewing and listening) and active (e.g. writing, producing, painting and performing) exposure to the four art genres, by both patients and health care providers. Overall, an emerging body of empirical evidence indicates positive effects on psychological and physiological outcome measures in patients and some benefits to medical training. Expressive writing/emotional disclosure, psychoneuroimmunology, Theory of Mind and the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation are considered as possible theoretical frameworks to help incorporate art genres as sources of inspiration for the further development of health psychology research and clinical applications. PMID:29552350
Sools, Anna Maria; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what
Boone, Melissa R.; Cook, Stephanie H.; Wilson, Patrick A.
Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men. PMID:27017893
Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A
Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men.
Kristensen, Kasper Andreas
This contribution explores the connection between health and subjectivity. Up until recently a marginally discussed topic in health theories, recent critical research in health psychology introduces notions of subjectivity to theories of health. These notions can be linked to phenomenology......, embodied subjectivity, and psychosocial theories that have moved away from a partial, internal understanding of subjectivity. These recent theories tend to define subjectivity as a coherence of concrete, embodied and situated subjectivity that extends capabilities and activities towards a world of social....... Hence, I will argue for the concept of conduct of life as an important concept for health psychology. The concept of conduct of life enables an analysis of how people conduct their activities and of their access to life possibilities, within social settings and societal power systems. The concept can...
Jun 15, 1991 ... and measles is an important preventive health care strategy. I. In southern Africa, recent ... on pr~vious in-depth investigations. The reasons for ..... of the recent M immunisation campaign in Cape Town/ coupled with access to ...
Jun 15, 1991 ... or population classification.3 In this anicle we have end~avou~ed to complement this ... distribution of services parallels this political divide.8. ,9. Department of .... Cape Town City Council Technical Management. Services .... Health, City of Cape Town, for his co-operation; and to Dr Derek. Yach, of the ...
Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of health psychology it considers how the field is represented in a selection of popular textbooks. It concludes by considering the growth of some critical approaches within health psychology.
As part of a growing literature on the histories of psychology in the Global South, this article outlines some historical developments in South African psychologists' engagement with the problem of "health." Alongside movements to formalize and professionalize a U.S.-style "health psychology" in the 1990s, there arose a parallel, eclectic, and more or less critical psychology that contested the meaning and determinants of health, transgressed disciplinary boundaries, and opposed the responsibilization of illness implicit in much health psychological theorizing and neoliberal discourse. This disciplinary bifurcation characterized South African work well into the postapartheid era, but ideological distinctions have receded in recent years under a new regime of knowledge production in thrall to the demands of the global market. The article outlines some of the historical-political roots of key trends in psychologists' work on health in South Africa, examining the conditions that have impinged on its directions and priorities. It raises questions about the future trajectories of psychological research on health after 20 years of democracy, and argues that there currently is no "health psychology" in South Africa, and that the discipline is the better for it. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Rozensky, Ronald H
This article is based on the opening presentation by the author to the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers' 5th National Conference, "Preparing Psychologists for a Rapidly Changing Healthcare Environment" held in March, 2011. Reviewing the patient protection and affordable care act (ACA), that presentation was designed to set the stage for several days of symposia and discussions anticipating upcoming changes to the healthcare system. This article reviews the ACA; general trends that have impacted healthcare reform; the implications of the Act for psychology's workforce including the growing focus on interprofessional education, training, and practice, challenges to address in order to prepare for psychology's future; and recommendations for advocating for psychology's future as a healthcare profession.
Gracia, Francisco Javier; Silla, Inmaculada; Peiró, José María; Fortes-Ferreira, Lina
In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.
Elliot, Ari J; Chapman, Benjamin P
Our objective was to investigate interactions of psychological resources and socioeconomic status (SES)-as well as potential gender differences and the explanatory role of childhood and adult stress exposures, health behaviors, and negative and positive affect-in predicting markers of systemic inflammation. We utilized a sample of adults from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study who provided biomarker data (N = 1,152). SES was operationalized as a composite of education, income, and occupational prestige, and the psychological resources construct was operationalized as a latent factor measured with optimism, perceived control, and self-esteem. Linear regression models examined these 2 factors and their interaction in predicting interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured on average 2 years later, as well as 3-way interactions involving gender and the impact of covariate adjustment. Psychological resources interacted with SES in men (for IL-6: p low SES was moderately attenuated upon adjustment for negative affect. Socioeconomic status might modulate the linkage between psychological resources and systemic inflammation in men. At lower levels of SES, resources may be related to lower inflammation in part through lower negative affect. Associations with higher inflammation at higher SES add to growing evidence suggesting that adaptive psychological characteristics may be associated with markers of poorer physiological function under certain conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Objectives: the present study describes assessing mental health status (anxiety, depression, and psychological wellbeing of old people in different age groups in tehran metropolitan city. The outcomes of this study could help to health policy makers to develop of better health policy in gerontology field by determine of priorities of mental care in different age groups of old people. Methods & Materials: this was a cross sectional study in 2010. The participants were (n=402 aged 60 years old and over which have underrepresented from Shahid Beheshti University. The survey methods were via face-to-face interviews, and just in a few cases as telephone interviews. The instrument to data collection included demographic questionnaire, k6 and yeild tools. Data analyzed by Stata and SPSS ver.15 through t-test, one-way anova. Regression models applied as well. Results: based on results in the past 4 weeks,10.9% of elderly had sever anxiety or depression symptoms and about half of them (46.5% had moderate psychological distress. The rate of psychological distress increased with age growing, specifically in 60- 79 years old however, this rate declined from age of 80 years and over. Psychological distress levels among elderly women were more than old men in all age groups, except of 60-69 years old people. Regarding psychological wellbeing, feeling of tireless, lone less, and depression are the most common complain of house dowelling old people in tehran metropolitan area. As the results show 43.1% elderly participants were in moderate level and 17% of them were in the bad level of psychological wellbeing. Based on regression model, sex (P=0.012, housing (P=0.004, and retirement salary (P=0.048 were significant variables that effect on psychological distress. The income rate was only important component that effect on psychological wellbeing of elderly participants. There was no significant different between aged groups 60-64 and 65-69 in psychological
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Zamorski, Mark A; Colman, Ian
We examined the overlap between mood and anxiety disorders and psychological distress and their associations with functional status in Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel. Data on Regular Forces personnel ( N = 6700) were derived from the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of the CAF personnel. Current psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler K10 scale. Past-month mood and anxiety disorders were assessed using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Composite Diagnostic Interview. The prevalence of psychological distress was the same as that of any past-month mood or anxiety disorder (7.1% for each). A total of 3.8% had both distress and past-month mood or anxiety disorder, 3.3% had past-month disorder without psychological distress, while another 3.3% had psychological distress in the absence of a past-month mood or anxiety disorder. After adjusting for age, sex, marital, education, income, language, element, rank, and alcohol use disorder, individuals with both psychological distress and past-month mood and anxiety disorders exhibited the highest levels of disability, days out of role, and work absenteeism relative to those with neither mental disorders nor psychological distress. Relative to individuals with both disorder and distress, those who endured distress in the absence of mental disorder exhibited lower, but meaningful, levels of disability compared with those with neither disorder nor distress. Disability is most severe among CAF personnel with both distress and past-month mood and anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, distress in the absence of disorder is prevalent and is associated with meaningful levels of disability.
Panicker, Anuja S; Ramesh, Sonali
The psychological status of caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability and psychiatric illness (PI) is important for effective management. The aim of this study was to examine the psychological status and its relationship with coping styles among these caregivers. Caregivers (N = 80) of individuals with intellectual disability (n = 40) and PI (n = 40) were administered a socio-demographic questionnaire, depression, anxiety and stress scale and COPE Inventory. Caregivers experienced depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. These symptoms were found to be significantly higher among caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability than those with PI. The most common coping style used was religious coping. Use of positive reinterpretation and growth was associated with lower levels of depression and stress symptoms. Caregivers' mental health plays an important role in the quality of care delivery and outcome. Use of appropriate coping styles can reduce the impact of these symptoms. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ezoe, S; Morimoto, K
Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.
Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina
Marital status and living arrangements, along with changes in these in mid-life and older ages, have implications for an individual's health and mortality. Literature on health and mortality by marital status has consistently identified that unmarried individuals generally report poorer health and have a higher mortality risk than their married counterparts, with men being particularly affected in this respect. With evidence of increasing changes in partnership and living arrangements in older ages, with rising divorce amongst younger cohorts offsetting the lower risk of widowhood, it is important to consider the implications of such changes for health in later life. Within research which has examined changes in marital status and living arrangements in later life a key distinction has been between work using cross-sectional data and that which has used longitudinal data. In this context, two key debates have been the focus of research; firstly, research pointing to a possible selection of less healthy individuals into singlehood, separation or divorce, while the second debate relates to the extent to which an individual's transitions earlier in the life course in terms of marital status and living arrangements have a differential impact on their health and mortality compared with transitions over shorter time periods. After reviewing the relevant literature, this paper argues that in order to fully account for changes in living arrangements as a determinant of health and mortality transitions, future research will increasingly need to consider a longer perspective and take into account transitions in living arrangements throughout an individual's life course rather than simply focussing at one stage of the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feng, Danjun; Ji, Linqin; Xu, Lingzhong
This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between farmers and non-farmers of rural China. Further, this examines the effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress and whether this effect varies between farmers and non-farmers. The study design is a cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in 27 villages of Dongying City in Shandong Province. Rural employed people included 1433 farmers and 584 non-farmers. Psychological distress was assessed by the Kessler 10 questionnaire, and subjective economic status was assessed by a single question. Overall, the farmers did not report significantly higher prevalence of psychological distress than non-farmers (31.13% versus 30.01%). However, the farmers aged 51-70 years did report significantly higher psychological distress than their non-farmer counterparts (33.4% versus 24.2%, P = 0.04). Second, subjective economic status had a significant (β = -0.28, P farmers (β = 0.30, P farmers (β = 0.20, P farmers had a comparable prevalence of psychological distress when compared with non-farmers in rural China. Subjective economic status exerted a significant effect on the psychological distress of rural employed people, and this effect was stronger for the farmers than for the non-farmers. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul; Hilton, Michael; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey
Psychological distress is growing in prevalence in Australia. Comorbid psychological distress and/or depressive symptoms are often associated with poorer health, higher healthcare utilisation and decreased adherence to medical treatments. The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study cross-sectional screening dataset was used to explore the association between psychological distress and a range of health conditions in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The study uses the World Health Organization Health and Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ), to identify self-reported health status. Within the HPQ is the Kessler 6 (K6), a six-item scale of psychological distress which strongly discriminates between those with and without a mental disorder. Potential confounders of age, sex, marital status, number of children, education level and annual income were included in multivariate logistic regression models. Psychological distress was significantly associated with all investigated health conditions in both crude and adjusted estimates. The conditions with the strongest adjusted association were, in order from highest: drug and alcohol problems, fatigue, migraine, CVD, COPD, injury and obesity. Psychological distress is strongly associated with all 14 health conditions or risk factors investigated in this study. Comorbid psychological distress is a growing public health issue affecting Australian workers.
Rodwell, John; Gulyas, Andre
Allied health professionals are vital for effective healthcare yet there are continuing shortages of these employees. Building on work with other healthcare professionals, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of psychological contract (PC) breach and types of organisational justice on variables important to retention among allied health professionals: mental health and organisational commitment. The potential effects of justice on the negative outcomes of breach were examined. Multiple regressions analysed data from 113 allied health professionals working in a medium-large Australian healthcare organisation. The main negative impacts on respondents' mental health and commitment were from high PC breach, low procedural and distributive justice and less respectful treatment from organisational representatives. The interaction between procedural justice and breach illustrates that breach may be forgivable if processes are fair. Surprisingly, a betrayal or "aggravated breach effect" may occur after a breach when interpersonal justice is high. Further, negative affectivity was negatively related to respondents' mental health (affective outcomes) but not commitment (work-related attitude). Healthcare organisations should ensure the fairness of decisions and avoid breaking promises within their control. If promises cannot reasonably be kept, transparency of processes behind the breach may allow allied health professionals to understand that the organisation did not purposefully fail to fulfil expectations. This study offers insights into how breach and four types of justice interact to influence employee mental health and work attitudes among allied health professionals.
Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min
The goal of this research is to examine if the long neglected correlates such as social and leisure activities, social support, and subjective social status contribute to variations in psychological distress among older Chinese. Using data collected in one of the most developed areas in China-Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, the authors find that engaging in various exercises, living with both spouse and adult children, perceived availability of social support from others as well as believing in the importance of caring for other family members are particularly beneficial for mental health whereas the perception of relative deprivation and low life quality is detrimental to mental health for older Chinese. This work is among the first studies that comprehensively examined various important correlates of psychological distress and indicate the unique patterns of distress among the elderly in the most developed area in the contemporary China.
Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao
Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz
Background: The workplace environment has a great influence on employees’ health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees’ psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological...
Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T
The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Bassford, T L
Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.
Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.
The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…
Deo, Michael S.; Lymburner, Jocelyn A.
The current study explored whether an affliction similar to Medical Student Syndrome occurs in psychology students (i.e., Psychology Student Syndrome) by examining the relationship between self ratings of psychological health and the number of psychopathology courses taken. Undergraduate participants rated their level of concern about suffering…
Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A
Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs.
Michélsen, H; Bildt, C
Psychiatric epidemiology has revealed a number of associations between gender, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric disorders. To examine psychosocial conditions on and off the job in relation to psychological ill health. Longitudinal design with 24 year follow up of employed persons (190 women, 177 men). Interview and questionnaire data on work and leisure conditions were collected in 1969 and 1993. Risk analyses were performed in relation to three outcomes in 1993: depression within the preceding 12 months, impaired psychological wellbeing, and heavy alcohol use. Thirteen per cent of the women and 11% of the men showed symptoms of depression, 21% and 22% had impaired psychological wellbeing, and 7% and 15% respectively were heavy alcohol users. Dissatisfaction with the quality (women) or quantity (men) of social contacts 24 years earlier was a significant risk factor for depression. Dissatisfaction with the quality of social contacts was also associated with impaired psychological wellbeing (among women), and dissatisfaction with leisure time activities was associated with heavy alcohol use (among men). Frequent overtime work 24 years earlier was associated with heavy alcohol use among women. Cross sectional analyses also showed associations between psychological ill health and some work related factors (mentally demanding work and lack of job pride). Perceived inadequacies in social contacts, and practical obstacles to social relationships are viewed as risk factors for depression. In this longitudinal study, work related factors, including mental demands and time pressure, do not appear sufficiently associated with psychological ill health.
Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Powell, Ruth, Ph.D.
Drawing on the classic model of balanced affect, the Francis Burnout Inventory conceptualises good work-related psychological health among clergy in terms of negative affect being balanced by positive affect. This paper sets out to explore the relationship between work-related psychological health and psychological type (as assessed by the Francis Psychological-Type Scales) among a sample of 212 Australian clergywomen who completed the National Church Life Survey Form L in 2006. The data supp...
Keshvari, Mahrokh; Yamani, Niko; Adibi, Peyman; Shahnazi, Hossein
Media play crucial role in disseminating health information. Due to the importance of accurate health news reports, and the national need to professionalism in health journalism, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of health journalists, and health reporting status and the challenges involved. Using consensus sampling, this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all health news reporters in Isfahan (34 journalists) in 2015-2016. Data collection was done via a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity of the questionnaire was determined by qualitative method and based on the opinions of six experts. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 98.0. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 and descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for analyzing the responses to two open questions. Among 34 journalists, 56% were women and 44% men; the majority of journalists (65%) had no specialized training on health reporting, 35% of journalists were not able to understand the health issues, and the knowledge of medical terminology in 59% of them was moderate to low. The most important required skill for reporters was the ability to interpret medical research reports (88%), 97% were eager to participate in specialized health education. Our study showed that health journalists lacked knowledge and specialized training for dissemination of health news. This has brought about serious challenges. Thus, development and implementation of training courses in close collaboration with educational department of the Ministry of Health and news programs professionals at Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting is highly recommended.
Tian, Jun; Chen, Zhen-chun; Hang, Li-Fang
The aim of this study was to assess the associations between coping mode, nutritional status, and psychological status and performance status of the patients with advanced stomach cancer. An epidemiological survey was conducted among 233 patients with advanced stomach cancer in Fujian, China. In-person interviews were performed for the participants with respect to information of psychological status prior to chemotherapy, nutritional status during chemotherapy, and physical performance status after chemotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the level of hemoglobin (HB), level of daily calorie intake, score of Depression Status Inventory (DSI), and score of confrontation subscale of Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire had a significant influence on performance status (P or =40 versus DSI score confrontation versus high score of confrontation, respectively. Depression, low score of "Confrontation", low levels of HB, and low level of daily calorie intake may be the risk factors of poor performance status of the patients with advanced stomach cancer.
Abid, Momina; Sultan, Sarwat
Mental health includes several components of living a healthy life such as one's ability to enjoy life and to cope with stresses. Forgiveness is also one path to mental health. Present study aimed to investigate the predictive relationship of dispositional forgiveness with psychological resilience and to explore the role of marital status in…
Murray, Michael; Ziegler, Friederike
Community health psychology is an approach which promotes community mobilisation as a means of enhancing community capacity and well-being and challenging health inequalities. Much of the research on this approach has been at the more strategic and policy level with less reference to the everyday experiences of community workers who are actively involved in promoting various forms of community change. This article considers the narrative accounts of a sample of 12 community workers who were interviewed about their lives. Their accounts were analysed in terms of narrative content. This revealed the tensions in their everyday practice as they attempted to overcome community divisions and management demands for evidence. Common to all accounts was a commitment to social justice. These findings are discussed with reference to opportunities and challenges in the practice of community work. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cybulski, Lukasz; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Grant, Sean
Prospective registration increases the validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In the United States, registration is a legal requirement for drugs and devices regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and many biomedical journals refuse to publish trials that are not registered. Trials in clinical psychology have not been subject to these requirements; it is unknown to what extent they are registered. We searched the 25 highest-impact clinical psychology journals that published at least 1 RCT of a health-related psychological intervention in 2013. For included trials, we evaluated their registration status (prospective, retrospective, not registered) and the completeness of their outcome definitions. We identified 163 articles that reported 165 RCTs; 73 (44%) RCTs were registered, of which only 25 (15%) were registered prospectively. Of registered RCTs, only 42 (58%) indicated their registration status in the publication. Only 2 (1% of all trials) were registered prospectively and defined their primary outcomes completely. For the primary outcome(s), 72 (99%) of all registrations defined the domain, 67 (92%) the time frame, and 48 (66%) the specific measurements. Only 19 (26%) and 5 (7%) defined the specific metric and method of aggregation, respectively, for all primary outcomes. Very few reports of RCTs published in clinical psychology journals were registered prospectively and completely. Clinical psychology journals could improve transparency and reproducibility, as well as reduce bias, by requiring complete prospective trial registration for publication and by including trial registration numbers in all reports of RCTs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Li, L; Wang, B Q; Gao, T H; Tian, J
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and psychosocial characteristics in inpatients with head and neck cancer before surgery. Method: From September 2015 to December 2016, 237 consecutive inpatients with head and neck cancer who had been scheduled for surgery were prospectively enrolled in Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Shanxi Provincial Tumor Hospital. Mental health symptoms were systematically investigated using three psychological instruments: symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS). SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. And he results of SCL-90, SAS and SDS were compared with the Chinese norm. For all statistical analyses, a P value psychological status in inpatients with head and neck cancer before surgery. Identifying these patients using proper screening instrument is of great important clinical implications for the early detection, management, and reduction of the distress associated with head and neck cancer.
Murata, Chiyoe; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to self-rated health and to mortality among 2490 community-living elderly. Respondents were followed for 7.3 years for all-cause mortality. To compare the relative impact of each variable, we employed logistic regression analysis for self-rated health and Cox hazard analysis for mortality. Cox analysis stratified by gender, follow-up periods, age group, and functional status was also employed. Series of analysis found that factors associated with self-rated health and with mortality were not identical. Psychological factors such as perceived isolation at home or 'ikigai (one aspect of psychological well-being)' were associated with self-rated health only. Age, functional status, and social relations were associated both with self-rated health and mortality after controlling for possible confounders. Illnesses and functional status accounted for 35-40% of variances in the fair/poor self-rated health. Differences by gender and functional status were observed in the factors related to self-rated health. Overall, self-rated health effect on mortality was stronger for people with no functional impairment, for shorter follow-up period, and for young-old age group. Although, illnesses and functional status were major determinants of self-rated health, economical, psychological, and social factors were also related to self-rated health.
Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.
Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…
Full Text Available The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.
This paper constitutes a comparative and longitudinal investigation of physical exercise and psychological wellness in a sample of health club members in Zululand, South Africa. The research was contextualized within a public health and community psychological model of mental health promotion. Physical exercise was ...
Stam, Henderikus J; Murray, Michael; Lubek, Ian
Three Canadian colleagues in health psychology recount their careers in a field of research and practice whose birth they witnessed and whose developments they have critiqued. By placing the development of health psychology in Canada in a context that is both institutional and personal, Stam, Murray, and Lubek raise a series of questions about health psychology and its propagation. While uniquely Canadian their professional careers were affected by international colleagues as well as others-patients and community members-whose views shaped their perspectives. This article is a plea for the continuing development of critical voices in health psychology.
Ehmann, B.; Balázs, L.; Fülöp, É.; Hargitai, R.; Kabai, P.; Péley, B.; Pólya, T.; Vargha, A.; László, J.
This paper is about a pilot application of narrative psychological content analysis in the psychological status monitoring of Crew 71 of a space analog simulation environment, the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). Both the method and its theoretical framework, Scientific Narrative Psychology, are original developments by Hungarian psychologists  (László, 2008). The software was NooJ, a multilingual linguistic development environment  (Silberztein, 2008). Three measures were conceptualized and assessed: emotional status, team spirit and subjective physical comfort. The results showed the patterns of these three measures on a daily basis at group level, and allowed for detecting individual differences as well. The method is adaptable to languages involved in space psychology, e.g. Russian, French and German in addition to English.
Dany, Lionel; Roussel, Philippe; Laguette, Vanessa; Lagouanelle-Simeoni, Marie-Claude; Apostolidis, Themis
Time perspective (TP) is a fundamental dimension of the psychological construction of time. It refers to a subjective experience and can be defined as the relationship that individuals and groups have with the present, past, and future. Studies have shown that it is interesting to take into account TP in the field of health, especially for the study of the psychological distress (PD) of individuals faced with aversive situations. We conducted a research, which aimed to explore the relationship between TP and PD in patients with chronic pain. A total of 264 first-time patients (72.3% women; mean age = 49 years) at CHU Timone (Marseille) pain center answered a questionnaire included TP, socioeconomic status, pain beliefs (PB), pain characteristics, and sociodemographic characteristics. Using hierarchical regression analyses adjusted to the characteristics of pain, sociodemographic characteristics, and PB, we can observe significant relationships between different components of TP, socioeconomic status, and PD. These results emphasize the importance of TP as psychosocial variable in the analysis of PD in patients with chronic pain. These results also lead us to point out the role of the socioeconomic status that predicts levels of PD.
Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation
Virudhagirinathan, Baboo Sankar; Karunanidhi, Subbiah
This paper provides an overview of the social and cultural context for the emergence and development of psychology in India and also more specifically of the development of clinical psychology. It details the range of universities offering psychology programmes and the various bodies involved in supporting the development of the psychology. The paper also describes the development of clinical psychology in India and the variety of roles undertaken by clinical psychologists. Finally, it raises a number of issues facing the development of Indian psychology into the future.
Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew
Balanced assessment of mental health involves assessing well-being and strengths as well as psychopathology. The character strengths of curiosity, gratitude, hope, optimism and forgiveness are assessed in 214 new undergraduates and their relationships to mental health, subjective well-being and self-esteem explored. Scoring the mental health scale…
Looby, Sara E; Psaros, Christina; Raggio, Greer; Rivard, Corinne; Smeaton, Laura; Shifren, Jan; Grinspoon, Steven; Joffe, Hadine
HIV-infected women are burdened by depression and anxiety, which may impact adherence to antiretroviral therapy and overall quality of life. Yet, little is known about the scope of psychological symptoms in the growing number of HIV-infected women reaching menopause, when affective symptoms are more prevalent in the general population. We conducted a longitudinal study to compare affective symptoms between perimenopausal HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected women. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) were completed at baseline and 12 months among 33 HIV-infected and 33 non-HIV-infected perimenopausal women matched by race, age, menstrual patterns, and BMI. Linear regression models estimated the relationship of baseline GAD-7 and CES-D scores with clinical factors. All women were perimenopausal at baseline, and the vast majority remained perimenopausal throughout follow-up. HIV status was associated with higher baseline CES-D scores (median [interquartile range] 21 [12, 29] vs 10 [5, 14]; P = 0.03) and GAD-7 scores (7 [5, 15] vs 2 [1, 7]; P = 0.01), controlling for smoking, substance use, and antidepressant use. Depressive symptoms and anxiety remained significantly higher in the HIV-infected women at 12 months (P ≤ 0.01). Significant relationships of depressive symptoms (P = 0.048) and anxiety (P = 0.02) with hot flash severity were also observed. Perimenopausal HIV-infected women experienced a disproportionately high level of affective symptom burden over a 12-month observation period. Given the potential for these factors to influence adherence to HIV clinical care and quality of life, careful assessment and referral for treatment of these symptoms is essential.
The past 10-15 years have seen a rapid increase in the study of narrative across all the social sciences. It is sometimes assumed that narrative has the same meaning irrespective of the context in which it is expressed. This article considers different levels of narrative analysis within health psychology. Specifically, it considers the character of health and illness narratives as a function of the personal, interpersonal, positional and societal levels of analysis. At the personal level of analysis narratives are portrayed as expressions of the lived experience of the narrator. At the interpersonal level of analysis the narrative is one that is co-created in dialogue. At the positional level of analysis the analysis considers the differences in social position between the narrator and the listener. The societal level of analysis is concerned with the socially shared stories that are characteristic of certain communities or societies. The challenge is to articulate the connections between these different levels of narrative analysis and to develop strategies to promote emancipatory narratives.
Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…
The study examined the traumatic experiences and psychological health of women working in male-dominated professions. Their reported traumatic experiences and psychological health were compared with those of women working in female-dominated professions and men in male dominated processions. Samples of ...
Background: Satisfied employees tend to be healthier and more productive. There is no known study on the overall job satisfaction and psychological health of bank employees in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological health among bank employees in a southern city of ...
Tuba Talo Yildirim
Full Text Available Background Dental anxiety is a widespread problem in many populations. This problem can be a barrier to dental care and may lead to poor oral health. Dental anxiety may be related to psychological status. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of dental anxiety, dental fear, Beck Depression, and state-trait anxiety according to age, gender and education level in patients at the periodontology clinic in the Diyarbakır Mouth and Dental Health Center. Study Design A total of 231 patients (115 males, 116 females filled out dental fear scale (DFS, dental anxiety scale (DAS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, state-trait anxiety inventory-state (STAI-S, and state-trait anxiety inventory–trait (STAI-T questionnaires, and evaluations of DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T were conducted according to age, gender, and education level. Results The mean DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-T, and STAI –S were 45.64, 9.15, 13.16, 38.90, and 40.18, respectively. There was a significant association among DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T (p < 0.05. These surveys scores were significantly higher in females than males (p < 0.05. The results of this study indicated that gender age and education level have important effects on DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T (p < 0.05. Conclusion Dental anxiety and dental fear were found to be related to psychological status (BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T over time. There are some patients with unaddressed psychological distress.
Oshio, Takashi; Inagaki, Seiichi
In the current study, we investigated how initial job status at graduation from school is associated with midlife psychological distress, using microdata from a nationwide Internet survey of 3,117 men and 2,818 women aged 30-60 yr. We measured psychological distress using the Kessler 6 (K6) score (range: 0-24) and the binary variable of K6 score ≥5. We found that unstable initial job status substantially raised midlife K6 scores and the probability of a K6 score ≥5 for both men and women. Furthermore, our mediation analysis showed that for men, slightly less than 60% of the effect was mediated by current job status, household income, and marital status. For women, the effect of initial job status was somewhat lesser than that for men, and only 20-30% of it was mediated. Despite these gender asymmetries, the results indicated that initial job status was a key predictor of midlife mental health. The association between job status and mental health should be further investigated with special reference to the institutional attributes of the labor market and their socio-economic/demographic outcomes.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…
Leung, Janni; Atherton, Iain; Kyle, Richard G; Hubbard, Gill; McLaughlin, Deirdre
The aim of this study is to examine the association between optimism and psychological distress in women with breast cancer after taking into account their self-rated general health. Data were aggregated from the Scottish Health Survey (2008 to 2011) to derive a nationally representative sample of 12,255 women (11,960 cancer-free controls, and 295 breast cancer cases identified from linked cancer registry data). The explanatory variables were optimism and general health, and the outcome variable was symptoms of psychological distress. Logistic regression analyses were conducted, with optimism entered in step 1 and general health entered in step 2. In an unadjusted model, higher levels of optimism were associated with lower odds of psychological distress in both the control group (OR = 0. 57, 95 % CI = 0.51-0.60) and breast cancer group (OR = 0. 64, 95 % CI = 0.47-0.88). However, in a model adjusting for general health, optimism was associated with lower odds of psychological distress only in the control group (OR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.44-0.57), but not significantly in the breast cancer group (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.32-4.11). In the breast cancer group, poor general health was a stronger associate of psychological distress (OR = 4. 98, 95 % CI = 1.32-18.75). Results were consistent after adjusting for age, years since breast cancer diagnosis, survey year, socioeconomic status, education, marital status, body mass index, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. This research confirms the value of multicomponent supportive care interventions for women with breast cancer. Specifically, it suggests that following breast cancer diagnosis, health care professionals need to provide advice and signpost to services that assist women to maintain or improve both their psychological and general health.
Thomas, N.; Hayward, M.; Peters, E; van der Gaag, M.; Bentall, R.P.; Jenner, J.; Strauss, C.; Sommer, I.E.; Johns, L.C.; Varese, F.; Gracia-Montes, J.M.; Waters, F.; Dodgson, G.; McCarthy-Jones, S.
This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions,
Proctor, Susan P
.... The objectives are to: 1) describe the current health status of this ARNG cohort, 2) examine to what extent the job strain of ARNG service affects the relationship between Civilian job strain and health and job performance outcomes and, 3...
This article reports on the status of school psychology in Ontario. School psychology practice in Ontario has continued to evolve since the previous report was published in 2001. School psychologists have varied roles, and although the most prominent one remains as assessing students for entry into certain special education services, school-based…
Thielke, Stephen; Thompson, Alexander; Stuart, Richard
Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.
Jan 31, 2014 ... High blood pressure and abnormal body mass have been observed to correlate negatively with health status. Of interest in this study, is the impact such health status have on visual function indicated by near point of convergence. In this community based cross sectional study, 250 randomly selected ...
Full Text Available Health is an issue that manages to provide many top ics in various fields (medicine, geography, sociology, psychology. This study aims to highlight the territorial disparities in health status of Ialomi ţ a county, to identify the health determinants and to make a preliminary analysis of the relationships between the lifestyle and the health status, using an objective assessment (statistics and a subjective evaluation (health surveys. There were analyzed elements such as mortality and morbidity, using health indic ators (mortality rate, infant mortality rate, specific mortality rate and specific morbidity rate and an aggregate index (health index. Combining statistic analysis and spatial analysis, t he study offers the possibility of comparing the rural areas with urban area, and it can be a base f or further studies. The health services, ageing and the characteristics of lifestyle could explain the territorial disparities in health status. A health study can reveal important details about eco nomic features, social behavior, mentality and social environment.
Mental and physical health of operators of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is directly related to normal and safe operation of NPPs. The cognitive process, volitional character, attention, emotion, feeling and personality are important factors that affect operators' safe behavior. Alcohol, medical drugs and operators' biological rhythm are can also make great effects on their psychological health. By means of job-fitness psychological test, better candidates for operators could be primarily selected from point of psychological view. Psychological follow-up of post skill training, simulator training and practical work of operators can make NPPs prevent from operational accidents due to human errors to the greatest extent. It is helpful for NPPs to find and solve some psychological problems by means of psychological counseling, regulation or psychotherapy. (author)
Full Text Available Objective: Anxiety and depression are psychological disorders which frequently accompany and affect the course of rheumatic diseases. Quality of life is also affected by psychological status. In this study, we aimed to assess psychological status and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and fibromyalgia (FM and investigate their association with functional status, disease activity and physical limitation. Method: Thirty-seven patients with AS and thirty-four patients with FM were included in this study. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI were used for assessment of disease activity and physical functions respectively. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL questionnaire was used for disease-related quality of life in AS patients. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ was used for assessment of functional status in FM patients. Nottingham Health Profile (NHP and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were, respectively, used for assessment of quality of life and psychological status in groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups in HADS-total, HADS-depression and HADS-anxiety scores (p>0.05. However, patients with FM had significantly higher NHP-total and NHP-pain scores compared to patients with AS (p<0.05. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the two groups in psychological distress. Higher NHP-pain scores in patients with FM might have been caused by lower pain threshold in these patients. The generalizability of our findings is also limited because of the relatively small sample size. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 41-46
and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice....
Lovell, Elyse D'nn; Munn, Nathan
This study explores Introduction to Psychology students' learning preferences and their personal search for meaning while considering their parental status. The findings suggest that parents show preferences for project-based learning and have lower levels of searching for meaning than non-parents. When parental status, age, and finances were…
Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy
Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318
Patel, Nimisha; Kellezi, Blerina; Williams, Amanda C de C
Torture is widespread, with potentially broad and long-lasting impact across physical, psychological, social and other areas of life. Its complex and diverse effects interact with ethnicity, gender, and refugee experience. Health and welfare agencies offer varied rehabilitation services, from conventional mental health treatment to eclectic or needs-based interventions. This review is needed because relatively little outcome research has been done in this field, and no previous systematic review has been conducted. Resources are scarce, and the challenges of providing services can be considerable. To assess beneficial and adverse effects of psychological, social and welfare interventions for torture survivors, and to compare these effects with those reported by active and inactive controls. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through a search of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS), the Open System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenSIGLE), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and Published International Literature On Traumatic Stress (PILOTS) all years to 11 April 2013; searches of Cochrane resources, international trial registries and the main biomedical databases were updated on 20 June 2014. We also searched the Online Library of Dignity (Danish Institute against Torture), reference lists of reviews and included studies and the most frequently cited journals, up to April 2013 but not repeated for 2014. Investigators were contacted to provide updates or details as necessary. Full publications of RCTs or quasi-RCTs of psychological, social or welfare interventions for survivors of
Peters, Gjalt-jorn Ygram; Kok, Gerjo; Crutzen, Rik; Sanderman, Robbert
The instrument of scientific publishing, originally a necessary tool to enable development of a global science, has evolved relatively little in response to technological advances. Current scientific publishing practices incentivize a number of harmful approaches to research. Health Psychology
Dec 31, 2014 ... Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.
Scheepers, Renée A.
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be
Jun 1, 2013 ... Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological health among ... mainly due to poor working conditions and poor infrastructural .... could be due to the possible impact of the democratic.
... for health, physical activity and sport of psychophysiological resonance, coherence and heart rate variability feedback applications involving respiration and facilitation of positive emotion. Keywords: Heart psychology, psychophysiology, resonance, coherence, transcultural context, heart rate variability, biofeedback.
Duan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Dong; Nie, Jun
To investigate the self-rated health status of the floating population in a district of Guangzhou. Cluster stratified random sampling was applied to survey 219 floating people from a community in Guangzhou, who were assessed with self-rated health status was assessed with Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale. The scores of the floating population were significantly higher than the normal individuals in physical health sub-scales (Pfloating population were significantly lower in psychological and social health sub-scales (Panxiety, depression and obsession, and those in the subscale of social health mainly in participation in social activities and seeking help from others. To improve the health status of the floating population, campaigns of health education need to be launched periodically and psychological counseling should be provided for these individuals. Additionally, interactive activities should be increased in their daily social life.
Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria
The aim of the present study is to investigate associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood, and self-reported psychological health, adjusting for social capital, social support, civil status and economic stress in childhood. A cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in the autumn of 2012 in Scania, southern Sweden, with a postal questionnaire with 28,029 participants aged 18-80. Associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood and self-reported psychological health (GHQ12) were investigated using logistic regressions. A 16.1% proportion of all men 22.4% of all women reported poor psychological health. Among men, 20.4% had experienced parental separation during childhood until age 18 years, the corresponding prevalence among women was 22.3%. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was significantly associated with poor self-rated psychological health among men who had experienced parental separation/divorce at ages 0-4, and among women with this experience at ages 0-4, 10-14 and 15-18. These significant associations remained throughout the multiple analyses. The results support the notion that the experience of parental separation/divorce in childhood may influence psychological health in adulthood, particularly if it is experienced in the age interval 0-4 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The issue of firearm exposure is one of the widespread prevailing problems in today’s world but at the same time it is least talked about. Its psychological effects vary from person to person and the degree of consequences has many variables to measure. The firearm exposure not only implies to an individual but also the whole gambit of social structures around him. Methods: A cross-section study on 505 subjects of the age group 20-45 years from central India was done, where routine social order depends upon massive armament of the citizen. We studied the relationship between socio-demographic variables and firearm exposure with variables of psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF. Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to find the correlates among them. The objectives of the study were to study the attributes of socio demographic variables, which affects psychological health and exposure to firearms in the study population and to see the impact of exposure to firearms on psychological health. Results: Higher education is associated positively with psychological health. The desire to have a gun (OR=1.988, CI 1.306-3.024, p-value <.005 is showing a significant association with low psychological domain score of QOL. Being married (OR=.556, CI .344-.901, p-value <.005 and not Living in a joint family (OR=.581, CI .379-.891, p-value <.005 is associated with poor psychological health. Conclusions: Higher education is the best predictor for good psychological health. Semiskilled workers (farmers and laborers should be prioritized as high risk groups for adverse life situations. Firearm exposures have a significant impact on psychological health. So, policies directed at rural population should target at specific needs of community.
Full Text Available Background: The issue of firearm exposure is one of the widespread prevailing problems in today’s world but at the same time it is least talked about. Its psychological effects vary from person to person and the degree of consequences has many variables to measure. The firearm exposure not only implies to an individual but also the whole gambit of social structures around him. Methods: A cross-section study on 505 subjects of the age group 20-45 years from central India was done, where routine social order depends upon massive armament of the citizen. We studied the relationship between socio-demographic variables and firearm exposure with variables of psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF. Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to find the correlates among them. The objectives of the study were to study the attributes of socio demographic variables, which affects psychological health and exposure to firearms in the study population and to see the impact of exposure to firearms on psychological health. Results: Higher education is associated positively with psychological health. The desire to have a gun (OR=1.988, CI 1.306-3.024, p-value <.005 is showing a significant association with low psychological domain score of QOL. Being married (OR=.556, CI .344-.901, p-value <.005 and not Living in a joint family (OR=.581, CI .379-.891, p-value <.005 is associated with poor psychological health. Conclusions: Higher education is the best predictor for good psychological health. Semiskilled workers (farmers and laborers should be prioritized as high risk groups for adverse life situations. Firearm exposures have a significant impact on psychological health. So, policies directed at rural population should target at specific needs of community.
Kubik, Jeremy F.; Gill, Richdeep S.; Laffin, Michael; Karmali, Shahzeer
Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental ...
Jeremy F. Kubik
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient’s sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.
Kubik, Jeremy F; Gill, Richdeep S; Laffin, Michael; Karmali, Shahzeer
Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient's sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.
隋忠庆; 王旸; 侯秀梅; 徐作国
Objective To explore the correlation between psychological health status and perception of social supports in work-injured patients undergoing rehabilitation.Methods 57 work-injured patients undergoing rehabilitation were assessed with Symptom Checklist-90 items (SCL-90)and Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS).Results The incidence of psychological problem was 71.9%.Total score and all factor scores of SCL-90 were significantly negatively correlated with all factor scores of PSSS (P 0.05).Conclusion The psychological health status is poor in work-injured patients undergoing rehabilitation,which is correlated with their social supports.%目的：探讨工伤康复患者的心理健康状况及其与领悟社会支持状况的相关性。方法对57例工伤康复患者运用症状自评量表（SCL-90）和领悟社会支持量表（PSSS）进行评定。结果71．9％的患者 SCL-90量表评分呈阳性。除家庭外支持与人际关系敏感无相关性（P ＞0．05）外，SCL-90总分及各因子分与 PSSS 各分量表评分均呈负相关（P ＜0．05）。结论工伤康复患者的心理健康状况较差，与其社会支持度有明显相关性。
Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe
The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the l......The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts......, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy...... adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress...
Derickson, Ryan; Fishman, Jonathan; Osatuke, Katerine; Teclaw, Robert; Ramsel, Dee
In psychologically safe workplaces, employees feel comfortable taking interpersonal risks, such as pointing out errors. Previous research suggested that psychologically safe climate optimizes organizational outcomes. We evaluated psychological safety levels in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals and assessed their relationship to employee willingness of reporting medical errors. We conducted an ANOVA on psychological safety scores from a VHA employees census survey (n = 185,879), assessing variability of means across racial and supervisory levels. We examined organizational climate assessment interviews (n = 374) evaluating how many employees asserted willingness to report errors (or not) and their stated reasons. Finally, based on survey data, we identified 2 (psychologically safe versus unsafe) hospitals and compared their number of employees who would be willing/unwilling to report an error. Psychological safety increased with supervisory level (P hospital (71% would report, 13% would not) were less willing to report an error than at the psychologically safe hospital (91% would, 0% would not). A substantial minority would not report an error and were willing to admit so in a private interview setting. Their stated reasons as well as higher psychological safety means for supervisory employees both suggest power as an important determinant. Intentions to report were associated with psychological safety, strongly suggesting this climate aspect as instrumental to improving patient safety and reducing costs.
Michalski, Daniel S; Kohout, Jessica L
Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of the PsyD degree and the formalization of the predoctoral internship placement system (the APPIC Match) have been well noted, but efforts to gain a complete understanding of professional practice are lacking. Specifically, piecemeal research on the provider workforce has led to the study of specific subpopulations using varying approaches and definitions of those providing direct clinical service. Consequently, estimates of the supply and need for health service providers are distinctly divergent and generate protracted debate in organized psychology. The APA membership directory and the APA Doctorate Employment Surveys have traditionally been relied on for workforce analyses. Yet, these data have become characterized by limited generalizability in recent years because of declining survey response rates and the fact that APA member data may not be as representative of the entire psychology health service provider population as they were previously. The 2008 APA Survey of Psychology Health Service Providers targeted these limitations by including nonmember psychologists in the sampling frame. Results revealed emerging themes in the demographics, work settings, and delivery of health services of the psychology health service provider workforce. Future areas of research for APA and organized psychology to undertake in addressing need and demand are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz
The workplace environment has a great influence on employees' health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees' psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological health and somatic complaints (i.e., sleep disorders, headache, gastro-intestinal and respiratory problems). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women working in the public sector. Data collection was conducted using a series of self-administered questionnaires. The results of this study show that there is a link between job satisfaction and psychological distress as well as four somatic complaints. Satisfaction with the nature of work was the strongest predictor for psychological distress, sleep disorders, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems. From the results of this study, we conclude that there is a link between job satisfaction and the health status of employees. In addition, job satisfaction levels vary across different dimensions and can even differ from an individual's feelings of global job satisfaction. Policies and practices should focus on improving working conditions to enhance the fit of the job and the employee.
Nilay Pekel Uludagli
Full Text Available In the transition from adolescence to adulthood, individuals are expected to undertake a variety of role transitions. The adult roles and their contents have begun to change for both genders as a part of social, economic and cultural changes in the world. As women began to join to the work force more, mens involvement in family life and childcare increased. Although having multiple roles causes conflict between the roles for both genders nowadays, being married and having children still seem to be related to better psychological health for todays early adults. However, these positive effects of marriage disappear in conflicting and unhappy marriages; and these marriages, on the contrary, damage the health of individuals. In addition to the content, the timing of the roles is also related to the psychological health of individuals. As adults who undertake the roles early have a disadvantaged position in terms of psychological health, marital and family relations, on the other hand, adults who undertake these roles on-time and lately have better psychological health and life conditions. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of undertaking adult roles and its timing on individuals psychological health in todays societies. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 263-283
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Zhang, Xiao-yuan; Yu, Shou-yi; Zhao, Jiu-bo; Li, Jian-ming; Xiao, Rong
To compare the differences in mental health state and psychological capacities between Chinese college students with and without siblings. The psychological status and capacities were evaluated with SCL-90, the Self-Esteem Scale, Spheres of Control Scale, Security Questionnaire and Cattell 16-PF Questionnaire in 427 college students, and among the students who presented valid responses, 139 with and 139 without siblings were selected for this comparative study. The total score and average score of SCL-90 in college students without siblings were significantly lower than those in students with siblings (Psiblings (Pmental health state and some of the psychological capacities are generally better in college students with siblings than in those without siblings.
Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine
The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experienc...
Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Cundiff, Jenny M; Jakubowski, Karen P; Pardini, Dustin A; Matthews, Karen A
Exposure to low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood predicts increased morbidity and mortality. However, little prospective evidence is available to test pathways linking low childhood SES to adult health. In the current study, indirect effects through positive parenting in adolescence and adult SES were tested in the association between childhood SES and adult health behaviors and psychological resources. Men (n = 305; 53% Black) were followed longitudinally from ages 7 to 32. SES was measured annually in childhood (ages 7-9) and again in adulthood (age 32) using the Hollingshead index. Parenting was assessed annually (ages 13-16) using caregivers' and boys' self-report of supervision, communication, and expectations for their son's future. Health behaviors (cigarette and alcohol use, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity) and psychological resources (optimism, purpose in life, self-mastery, and self-esteem) were assessed in adulthood (age 32). Structural equation modeling showed that higher childhood SES was associated with more positive parenting in adolescence and higher adult SES. Higher childhood SES was indirectly associated with healthier behaviors and higher psychological resources in adulthood through pathways involving positive parenting during adolescence and SES in adulthood. Findings were consistent in both racial groups. Positive parenting in adolescence was an important pathway in understanding associations among childhood SES and health behaviors and psychological resources in adulthood. Low childhood SES was prospectively associated with healthier behaviors and greater psychological resources in part through more positive parenting in adolescence.
Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Tamizi, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Hatam
Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence that can affect professional performance and job satisfaction of health care workers. Although several studies have been conducted in Iran, but there is no consensus regarding current status of such violence. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological violence among healthcare workers employed at teaching hospitals in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 5874 health professionals were selected using multistage random sampling. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. It was found that 74.7% of the participants were subjected to psychological violence during the past 12 months. Totally, 64.5% of psychological violence was committed by patients' families, but 50.9% of participants had not reported the violence, and 69.9% of them believed that reporting was useless. The results are indicative of high prevalence of psychological violence against healthcare workers. Considering non-reporting of violence in more than half of participants, use of an appropriate reporting system and providing training programs for health professionals in order to prevent and manage workplace violence are essential.
Background: A good school health programme is necessary to optimize the educational opportunities and make appropriate adjustments for optimal development of the school child. This study was done to determine some haematological parameters as a correlate of health status of new entrants in two mission owned ...
Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; James, Sherman A; Chien, Lung-Chang
This study aimed to explore the levels of John Henryism (JH) active coping and its association with acculturation status and psychological health (specifically perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression) in Korean immigrants to the United States. In 102 Korean immigrants, JH active coping was measured by the JH Scale; acculturation by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale; perceived stress by the Perceived Stress Scale; acculturative stress by the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Scale; anxiety by the State Anxiety Subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The levels of JH active coping in this sample of Korean immigrants appear to be lower than the levels reported in other racial groups. Independent of demographic factors, JH active coping was a significant predictor of higher acculturation status and better psychological health as indicated by lower levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.
Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the partially indirect effects model and demonstrated the ways in which behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, values acculturation, values enculturation, and acculturation gap family conflict related to mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help directly and indirectly through acculturative stress. We also tested a generational status moderator hypothesis to determine whether differences in model-implied relationships emerged across U.S.- (n = 185) and foreign-born (n = 107) participants. Consistent with this hypothesis, statistically significant differences in structural coefficients emerged across generational status. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed.
Sidorchuk, Anna; Engström, Karin; Johnson, Charisse M; Kayser Leeoza, Naima; Möller, Jette
Unemployment and temporary employment are known to impact psychological health. However, the extent to which the effect is altered by migration-related and sociodemographic determinants is less clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between employment status and psychological distress differs between immigrants and Swedish-born and to what extent, the association is modified by gender and reason for immigration. Cross-sectional survey study. Data from public health surveys undertaken in 2002, 2006 and 2010 from random samples of Stockholm County residents, Sweden, were used to analyse a weighted sample of 51 118 individuals aged 18-64 (43 444 Swedish-born, 4055 non-refugees, 3619 refugees). According to their activity in the labour market, the participants were categorised into permanently/self-employed, temporarily employed and unemployed. Associations between self-reported employment and psychological distress measured by a 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire were explored across individuals with different migration status and reasons for immigration using logistic regression and pairwise comparisons. The analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, socioeconomic characteristics and survey year. Unemployment was associated with elevated likelihood of psychological distress across the study population, regardless of migration status and gender. Fully adjusted models revealed nearly a 3-fold higher odds of distress in unemployed Swedish-born (OR 3.05, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.51), non-refugees (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.44 to 5.05) and refugees (OR 2.91, 95% CI 2.20 to 3.85) when compared with permanently/self-employed. Temporary employment also increased the likelihood of distress, particularly among refugees and Swedish-born. The effect of unemployment on increased likelihood of poor psychological well-being overcomes gender-specific and migration-specific differences and is equally pronounced for Swedish
Cornish, Flora; Montenegro, Cristian; van Reisen, Kirsten; Zaka, Flavia; Sevitt, James
This article argues that community health psychology's core strategy of 'community mobilisation' is in need of renewal and proposes a new way of conceptualising community health action. Taking the Occupy movement as an example, we critique modernist understandings of community mobilisation, which are based on instrumental action in the service of a predetermined goal. Aiming to re-invigorate the 'process' tradition of community health psychology, we explore possibilities of an open-ended, anti-hierarchical and inclusive mode of community action, which we label 'trusting the process'. The gains to be made are unpredictable, but we suggest that the risk is worth taking.
This paper considers teacher resilience from the viewpoint of a discipline concerned with the interactions between work design, management style and employee health and well-being: occupational health psychology. It will be suggested that there are strong parallels between interventions designed to promote resilience and those designed to reduce…
This cross-sectional analytical study was designed to assess the level of and factors affecting job satisfaction and psychological health among long distance drivers in Benin City, Edo, Nigeria. A 21-item Job satisfaction questionnaire and the Golberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) were used for data collection ...
Full Text Available Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored. Methods A cross-sectional total geriatric population survey consisting of 254 elderly has been carried out at urban field practice area. A standard geriatric depression scale (Short form has been utilized to assess psychological status. Detailed physical examination and investigations with special reference to Diabetes, Hypertension and Visual defects was carried out. Data was analyzed to find out the relationship of various socio-demographic factors, physical morbidities with depression. Results Out of 254 elderly examined, 32 per cent females and 23 per cent males were found to be suffering from depressive disorders. When assessed for individual health status perception, 25 per cent felt to have good health. Out of 190 geriatric subjects perceiving fair to bad health, 110 were found to be suffering from depression (p<0.001. Depression was also found to be associated with history of hospital admission in the previous year (p<0.05, low vision (p<0.05, diabetes (p<0.01 and hypertension (p<0.01. Conclusion Depression among geriatric age group is associated with physical illness and perception of health.
Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Edmondson, Christine B
We investigated the role of anger expression and cultural framework in predicting Russian immigrant women's physical and psychological health status. One hundred Russian immigrant women between the ages of 30 and 65 completed questionnaires assessing anger expression, cultural framework, and health status. All research questions were addressed using hierarchical regression procedures. The results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding immigration experiences of Russian women who migrate from countries that are more collectivistic and less individualistic than the United States.
Reed, Karla S; Meade, Michelle A; Krause, James S
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employment and psychological health and health management as described by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who were employed at least once following injury. Methods: A qualitative approach used 6 focus groups at 2 sites with 44 participants who were at least 10 years post SCI. All had been employed at some point since injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were delineated based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. Group sessions followed a semi-structured interview format with questions about personal, environmental, and policy related factors influencing employment following SCI. All group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded into conceptual categories to identify topics, themes, and patterns. Inferences were drawn about their meaning. NVivo 10 software using the constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Narratives discussed the relationship between employment and psychological and emotional health and health management. Four themes were identified: (1) adjustment and dealing with emotional reactions, (2) gaining self-confidence, (3) preventing burnout, and (4) attitudes and perspectives. Most themes reflected issues that varied based on severity of injury as well as stage of employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successful in working following injury must determine how to perform the behaviors necessary to manage their health and prevent emotional or physical complications. The emotional consequences of SCI must be recognized and addressed and specific behaviors enacted in order to optimize employment outcomes.
Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Mizumoto, Suely; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Strassman, Rick J
Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
P, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Kote, Sunder; Singh, Shilpi; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo; Vashishtha, Vaibhav
Introduction: Violence against women is one of the major public health and human rights problem in the world today. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim to assess the effect of domestic violence on oral health behavior and oral health status of females attending community outreach programmes in and around Modinagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through the community outreach programmes organized in Modinagar. A structured questionnaire was used to illicit information regarding socio demographic characteristics, oral health behavior and domestic violence. The dental health examination was done to record dental health status, intraoral and extraoral soft tissue injury, tooth fracture and tooth avulsion due to the injury. Results: Out of the total 304 women, 204(67.1%) reported positive domestic violence. Psychological violence was found to be severe whereas sexual violence was found to be mild in most of the cases. Significant difference was found between oral hygiene aids used , frequency of tooth brushing, periodontal status, missing teeth, intraoral soft tissue injuries and fractures between both the groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study confirmed that domestic violence had significant influence on oral health behavior and oral health status of women. Thus, the dental professionals also should make an attempt to help victims gain access to support and referral services and to provide adequate treatment to them so as to make a positive difference in their lives. PMID:25584297
Purnell, Jason Q; Peppone, Luke J; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J; Carroll, Jennifer K; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R
We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination-smoking association. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment.
Peppone, Luke J.; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J.; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R.
Objectives. We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. Methods. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Results. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination–smoking association. Conclusions. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment. PMID:22420821
Full Text Available Objective To understand the mental health status of officers and soldiers (OSs in a Chinese army unit, and analyze its relationship with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori infection. Methods Cross sectional extraction of 1293 male soldiers from a certain unit of Chinese army in September 2015, aged 17-37 years old, average age 20.5±3.2. Using the symptom self rating scale (SCL-90 to conduct a psychological evaluation, comparison between the evaluation results and the Chinese military norm was conducted to understand the mental health status of OSs in the unit. 13C-urea breath test was used to detect H.pylori infection, and the relationship between the positivity rate of various factors, the SCL-90 score and H.pylori infection were analyzed. Ninety OSs who had desire to eradicate H.pylori serves as the experimental group, and 90 H.pylori-infected OSs as control group. The experimental group received quadruple-drug eradication therapy, control group received no drug treatment. SCL-90 scores before and after the treatment were compared, and SCL-90 scores after treatment in the experimental group and those in the control group were also compared for analyzing the relationship between the OSs psychological status and H.pylori infection. Results The SCL-90 score of the OSs was lower than the norm of Chinese army, and the difference was statistically significant (P＜0.05. The psychological screening positive rate was higher in H.pylori-positive OSs than H.pylori-negative those and the positive rates of psychological screening factors somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility and paranoid were higher in H.pylori-positive OSs than in H.Pylorinegative those, and the difference was statistically significant (P＜0.05. After the eradication of H.pylori in the experimental group these factor scores were lower than those before eradication. Compared with control group SCL-90 scores, soldiers somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety
Orbell, Sheina; Szczepura, Ala; Weller, David; Gumber, Anil; Hagger, Martin
Objective: Although ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) correlate with health inequality, efforts to explain variance in health behavior attributable to these factors are limited by difficulties in population sampling. We used ethnicity identification software to test effects of psychological beliefs about screening as mediators of ethnicity and SES on faecal occult blood colorectal screening behavior in a no-cost health care context. Method: N=1678 adults aged 50-67 years of whom 28 % ...
Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.
He, Zhonghu; Ji, Chengye
To assess the influence of orphanhood due to AIDS on children's nutritional status, psychological well-being and life quality, and to explore appropriate intervention strategies in China. In 2005, 186 children aged 8-15 years (93 AIDS orphans and 93 non-orphans) from a rural area of Henan Province were surveyed in a cross-sectional and matched pairs study on nutritional status, psychological health and life quality. We found no compelling evidence for poorer nutritional status in orphans. The nutritional status of both orphans and non-orphans was extremely poor according to the prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and anaemia. Depression, low self-esteem and lower quality of life were more frequent in orphans. These differences mainly existed in boys' groups. No significant differences were found between paternal, maternal and double orphans, or orphans in orphanages or extended families. Regression analysis revealed that orphanhood leads to low self-esteem and more depression which contributes to lower quality of life and mediates the association between orphanhood and quality of life. The high prevalence of poor nutritional status indicates that basic material needs of children, including AIDS orphans, are not met in rural China. Psychological problems were prominent among orphans and had become the most important contributor of lower life quality. Boys were at least as vulnerable as girls. The living conditions of all children in rural China must be improved; school-based care and support are crucial and would be a cost-effective way to improve the overall life quality of AIDS orphans.
Connop, P J
Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.
Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Gagliardi, Cristina; Dedoussis, George; Herbein, George; Fulop, Tamas; Monti, Daniela; Rink, Lothar; Jajte, Jolanta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio
The paper shows the results on the relationship between zinc status, psychological dimensions (cognitive functions, mood, perceived stress) and nutritional aspects in European healthy old subjects recruited for ZINCAGE Project (supported by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme). The old healthy subjects were recruited in Italy, Greece, Germany, France, Poland taking into account the different dietary habits between Northern and Southern European Countries and the pivotal role played by zinc for psychological functions. Measures of the cognitive status, mood and perceived stress level were obtained at baseline, using the "Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)"; the "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS - 15 items)" and the "Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)", respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using "Frequency Food Questionnaire". The sample included 853 old subjects, classified in 4 groups of age: 60-69-years-old (n = 359); 70-74-years-old (n = 225); 75-79-years-old (n = 153); 80-84-years-old (n = 116). Subjects were studied on the basis of plasma zinc, in which zinc relationship between marginal zinc deficiency and impaired psychological dimensions occurred in Greece than in other European countries due to low intake and less variety of foods rich of zinc. This phenomenon was independent by the age, suggesting that a correct zinc intake from a wide range of foods may be useful to maintain a satisfactory plasma zinc levels as well as psychological status in elderly with subsequent achievement of healthy ageing.
Full Text Available The article highlights the new data on the prevalence and structure of the children's disablement in the Russian federation. Among the causes of the children's disablement, the authors mark dominance of the infectious and somatic diseases, neuropathies, mental diseases and congenital growth anomalies, in particular. They show the role of medical and biological, social and hygienic, medical and organizational and economical factors, defining the health formation and conducing to the children's incapacitation. The researchers characterize the health status of the disabled children in respect of the major indices: physical and neuropsychic growth, psychological personality peculiarities, sickness rate and quality of life. The article depicts many issues, arising within the family of an incapacitated child.Key words: disablement, children, prevalence, structure, causes, health indices.
Thielke, Stephen; Thompson,; Stuart,
Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, ...
Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A
This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.
Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva
The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates
Murray, J. Dennis; Keller, Peter A.
Rural people constitute about one-fourth of the U.S. population; their special mental health needs have largely been neglected. Psychologists are needed to practice in rural areas, to develop rural service models, and to support the development of state and federal policies that address rural needs. (DM)
Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Pryor, John B; Brands, Ronald; Liebregts, Maartje; Schaalma, Herman P
HIV-related stigma, psychological distress, self-esteem, and social support were investigated in a sample comprising people who have concealed their HIV status to all but a selected few (limited disclosers), people who could conceal but chose to be open (full disclosers), and people who had visible symptoms that made concealing difficult (visibly stigmatized). The visibly stigmatized and full disclosers reported significantly more stigma experiences than limited disclosers, but only the visibly stigmatized reported more psychological distress, lower self-esteem, and less social support than limited disclosers. This suggests that having a visible stigma is more detrimental than having a concealable stigma. Differences in psychological distress and self-esteem between the visibly stigmatized and full disclosers were mediated by social support while differences between the visibly stigmatized and limited disclosers were mediated by both social support and stigma. These findings suggest that social support buffers psychological distress in people with HIV.
Ng, V; Norwood, A
The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between trauma, physical health and somatisation. A search was made on the Procite Database at the Department of Psychiatry at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences for research articles with the following key words: posttraumatic stress disorder, somatisation, trauma (the Procite Database holds more than 15,000 articles related to trauma and disaster). A review of the current research findings show a link between prior exposure to traumatic events (such as war, disaster, motor vehicles and industrial accidents, crime and sexual assault, domestic violence and child abuse) and subsequent physical heath and medical care utilisation. Possible mechanisms and conceptualisations which may explain the association between trauma and physical health, such as high-risk health behaviours, neurobiology, alexithymia and culture are discussed. Because traumatised persons show high medical utilisation, good screening, thorough assessment, empirically-based treatment and appropriate referral of such patients are essential.
Iqbal, S.; Qureshi, A.; Iqbal, N.; Khan, A.A.
Diabetes causes numerous oral and salivary changes leading to cariogenic and gingival lesions. The present study was designed to elucidate the role of diabetes mellitus in oral health. A cross-sectional study including 60 diabetic children (case group) and 30 non diabetic children (control group) of age 3-14 years was conducted. HbA1c and blood glucose level was measured along with the oral health including gingival status and dental caries status was visually assessed. Gingival status was coded for healthy, marginal gingivitis and calculus. Dental caries status (decayed and filled) for both deciduous and permanent dentition was assessed. Data was recorded in a pre-coded oral health proforma, which was then entered and analyzed in SPSS version 10.0. Descriptive analysis such as percentage frequencies and means was performed. Exact Chi-square test was used to analyze any significant changes observed amongst the study population, where level of significance was p < 0.05 with confidence interval 95%. The results show important difference between both groups of children. Dental caries level is significantly higher in diabetic children both in deciduous and permanent dentition than in non-diabetic children (p <0.05). Gingival health was also observed to be debilitated in diabetic children than nondiabetic children (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study highlights that special preventive measures must be adopted to maintain a good oral health of the diabetic children. (author)
Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Virtanen, Pekka; Hammarström, Anne
The aim of this study was to investigate whether temporary employment was related to non-optimal self-rated health and psychological distress at age 42 after adjustment for the same indicators at age 30, and to analyze the effects of job insecurity, low cash margin and high job strain on this relationship. A subcohort of the Northern Swedish Cohort that was employed at the 2007 follow-up survey (n = 907, response rate of 94%) was analyzed using data from 1995 and 2007 questionnaires. Temporary employees had a higher risk of both non-optimal self-rated health and psychological distress. After adjustment for non-optimal self-rated health at age 30 and psychological distress at age 30 as well as for sociodemographic variables, the odds ratios decreased but remained significant. However, after adjustment for job insecurity, high job strain and low cash margin the odds ratio dropped for non-optimal self-rated health but remained significant for psychological distress. Temporary employment may have adverse effects on self-rated health and psychological health after adjustment for previous health status and sociodemographic variables. Our findings indicate that low cash margin and job insecurity may partially mediate the association between temporary employment and health status.
Xu, Jun Hua; Zhu, Lei Ye; Wang, Hai Bin
Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between individuals and their built and natural environments. Great progress has been made in the areas of environmental psychology by researchers form many countries. However, a thorough quantitative analysis to the emergent research trends and topics has not been found. To reveal the research characteristics and status on Environmental Psychology, 853 related papers from Web of Science core collection were analysed by CiteSpace II. The results show that: (1) the domain of Environmental Psychology was started in 1960s and showed a low growth over the past half century, which reaches a historical peak in 2017. Gifford, USA and the Journal of Environmental Psychology top the list of contributing authors, country and publication respectively. (2) "Environmental Psychology" is the most frequently keywords and has the longest span of the bursts. "ambient scent", "recycling", "children as outsiders" and "ambient temperature" are the top four largest clusters, which are the popular research topics in the domain of environmental psychology.
Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Blomkvist, Klas; Wide Boman, Ulla
Severe dental anxiety (DA) is associated with both oral health and psychosocial consequences in what has been described as a vicious circle of DA. The aim of this study was to investigate self-rated orofacial esthetics in patients with DA and its relationship to psychological and oral health. A consecutive sample of 152 adult patients who were referred or self-referred to a specialized dental anxiety clinic filled out the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) as well as measurements on DA, self-rated oral health and general anxiety and depression. Clinical measures of dental status were also obtained. Compared with the general population, patients with DA had lower ratings of satisfaction on all aspects of their orofacial esthetics, which included the teeth, gingiva, mouth and face, as well as a global orofacial assessment. Furthermore, the perception of the orofacial appearance was related both to dental status and self-rated oral health, as well as to general anxiety and depression. The level of dissatisfaction with the orofacial appearance was similar for both genders, but women reported more regular dental care and better dental status. The results of this study clearly show less satisfaction with dental and facial appearance in patients with DA, and that the self-rating of orofacial esthetics is related to both oral and psychological health. The OES can be used to assess orofacial esthetics in patients with DA.
Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L.-Y.; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C.
This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34–3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70–3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34–4.34 among males and 1.18–3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose–response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. PMID:24218225
Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Strazdins, Lyndall; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C
This paper investigates associations between hazardous jobs, mental health and wellbeing among Thai adults. In 2005, 87 134 distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University completed a self-administered questionnaire; at the 2009 follow-up 60 569 again participated. Job characteristics were reported in 2005, psychological distress and life satisfaction were reported in both 2005 and 2009. We derived two composite variables grading psychologically and physically hazardous jobs and reported adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multivariate logistic regressions. Analyses focused on cohort members in paid work: the total was 62 332 at 2005 baseline and 41 671 at 2009 follow-up. Cross-sectional AORs linking psychologically hazardous jobs to psychological distress ranged from 1.52 (one hazard) to 4.48 (four hazards) for males and a corresponding 1.34-3.76 for females. Similarly AORs for physically hazardous jobs were 1.75 (one hazard) to 2.76 (four or more hazards) for males and 1.70-3.19 for females. A similar magnitude of associations was found between psychologically adverse jobs and low life satisfaction (AORs of 1.34-4.34 among males and 1.18-3.63 among females). Longitudinal analyses confirm these cross-sectional relationships. Thus, significant dose-response associations were found linking hazardous job exposures in 2005 to mental health and wellbeing in 2009. The health impacts of psychologically and physically hazardous jobs in developed, Western countries are equally evident in transitioning Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Regulation and monitoring of work conditions will become increasingly important to the health and wellbeing of the Thai workforce. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic health inequalities in adolescence are not consistently reported. This may be due to the measurement of self-reported general health, which probably fails to fully capture the psychological dimension of health, and the reliance on traditional socio-economic indicators, such as parental education or occupational status. The present study aimed at investigating this issue using simple questions to assess both the physical and psychological dimension of health and a broader set of socioeconomic indicators than previously used. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 5614 adolescents aged 16-18 years-old from 25 senior high schools in Greece. Self-reported general and psychological health were both measured by means of a simple Likert-type question. We assessed the following socio-economic variables: parents' education, parents' employment status, a subjective assessment of the financial difficulties experienced by the family and adolescents' own academic performance as a measure of the personal social position in the school setting. Results One out of ten (10% and one out of three (32% adolescents did not enjoy good general and psychological health respectively. For both health variables robust associations were found in adolescents who reported more financial difficulties in the family and had worse academic performance. The latter was associated with psychological health in a more linear way. Father's unemployment showed a non-significant trend for an association with worse psychological health in girls only. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities exist in this period of life but are more easily demonstrated with more subjective socioeconomic indicators, especially for the psychological dimension of health.
Depaoli, Sarah; Rus, Holly; Clifton, James; van de Schoot, A.G.J.; Tiemensma, Jitske
The aim of the current article is to provide a brief introduction to Bayesian statistics within the field of Health Psychology. Bayesian methods are increasing in prevalence in applied fields, and they have been shown in simulation research to improve the estimation accuracy of structural equation
Dec 31, 2014 ... employees, feels a tension of anxiety caused by their jobs. ...  High job stress creates negative psychological effects ... where product quality is largely dependent ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.
Health related quality of life and psychological variables among a sample of asthmatics in Ile-Ife South-Western Nigeria. ... Sociodemographic and clinical variables were also obtained from the patients, the lung function was assessed using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Results: Mean age of all the patients was 35.22 ...
Health psychology in family practice: Fulfilling a vital need. A Kagee, P Naidoo. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...
Ferrer, R; Palmer, R
Objectives: To analyse the variability in health status within as well as between socioeconomic groups. What is the range of individual variability in the health effects of socioeconomic status? Is the adverse effect of lower socioeconomic status uniform across the entire distribution of health status?
Spink, Mary-Jane P; Brigagão, Jacqueline M; Menegon, Vera M; Vicentin, Maria-Cristina G
Considering the diversity of theoretical approaches and settings for psychological practice, this editorial provides a background for the articles that have been included in this special issue concerning health psychology in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude). We addressed issues concerning the national curricular outline for undergraduate training in psychology and historical data on the social movements that led to the creation of the Sistema Unico de Saude and the Psychiatric Reform which created an important area for psychological work absorbing a considerable number of psychologists. © The Author(s) 2016.
Mental health is a worldwide public health concern, as can be seen from the WHO's comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020 which was adopted by the 66th World Health Assembly. According to the Mental health commission of Canada (2012), one in five Canadians will personally experience a mental illness in their lifetime, and the WHO shows that mental illness represents the second most prevalent risk of morbidity after heart disease. Physical activity certainly provides an answer to this problem. Physical activity has been shown to improve physical health but it is also one of the most natural and accessible means to improve mental health. The aim of the present article is to propose a biopsychosocial model on the basis of a literature review on the psychological benefits of physical activity. In view of the findings we assume that physical activity increases mental well-being and optimal mental health as opposed to poor mental health. Hence, physical activity provides a state of well-being that enables individuals to realize their own potential, and that helps to cope with the normal stresses of life or adversity. The model certainly opens the way for research and new hypothesis, but it also aims at the promotion of the benefits of physical activity on psychological well-being for optimal mental health.
Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with primary respiratory impairment, disability and handicap, as well as with secondary impairments not necessarily confined to the respiratory system. Because the primary goals of managing patients with COPD include relief of dyspnea and the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL, a direct measurement of HRQL is important. Fourteen disease-specific and nine generic questionnaires (four health profiles and five utility measures most commonly used to measure health status in patients with COPD were reviewed. The measures were classified according to their domain of interest, and their measurement properties - specifications, validity, reliability, responsiveness and interpretability - were described. This review suggests several findings. Currently used health status instruments usually refer to the patients’ perception of performance in three major domains of HRQL - somatic sensation, physical and occupational function, and psychological state. The choice of a questionnaire must be related to its purpose, with a clear distinction being made between its evaluative and discriminative function. In their evaluative function, only a few instruments fulfilled the criteria of responsiveness, and the interpretability of most questionnaires is limited. Generic questionnaires should not be used alone in clinical trials as evaluative instruments because of their inability to detect change over time. Further validation and improved interpretability of existing instruments would be of greater benefit to clinicians and scientists than the development of new questionnaires.
Devlin, Courtenay A.; Huberty, Jennifer; Downs, Danielle Symons
Objectives women who have experienced miscarriage may be at increased risk for elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms in subsequent pregnancies. Exercise may be a useful strategy for coping with these symptoms. Little is known about how miscarriage influences prenatal exercise behavior. The study purpose was to examine the influences of miscarriage history and prepregnancy weight status on pregnant women’s psychological health, exercise motivation, and behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants/Setting Pregnant women (N=203; 41 with prior miscarriage; 72 overweight/obese; BMI > 25.0) in the northeast United States. Design Women prospectively reported their depressive/anxiety symptoms and exercise motivation/behavior in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters via mailed surveys. Group differences in depressive/anxiety symptoms, exercise behavior, and its motivational determinants were examined using Chi Square analyses and Univariate and Multivariate Analyses of Covariance. Measurements and findings Women with a history of miscarriage had higher 1st and 2nd trimester depressive/anxiety symptoms and lower 1st trimester attitudes about exercise and 1st and 2nd trimester perceived behavior control than women without a history of miscarriage. Overweight/obese women had higher 1st and 2nd trimester pregnancy depressive/anxiety symptoms, engaged in less prepregnancy exercise, and had lower levels of exercise intention, attitude, and perceived behavior control throughout pregnancy than normal weight women. Key Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage and overweight/obese women have poorer psychological health and lower motivation to exercise during pregnancy than women without a history of miscarriage and normal weight women. Implications for practitioners Interventions and healthcare provider communications aimed at promoting perinatal exercise behavior and psychological health should take into account pre-pregnancy weight status and pregnancy history
Selvaraj, Priscilla Rose; Bhat, Christine Suniti
Behavioral health treatment is grounded in the medical model with language of deficits and problems, rather than resources and strengths. With developments in the field of positive psychology, re-focusing on well-being rather than illness is possible. The primary purpose of this study was to examine relationships and predictions that exist between levels of mental health in college students, i.e., flourishing, moderate mental health, and languishing, and psychological capital (PsyCap). For this cross-sectional, exploratory study survey method was used for data collection and for analyses of results a series of descriptive, correlation, ANOVA, and multiple regression analyses were done. Results indicated that developing positive psychological strengths such as hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism (acronym HERO) within college students significantly increased their positive mental health. Based on the predictive nature of PsyCap, mental health professionals may engage more in creating programs incorporating PsyCap development intervention for college students. Implications for counseling and programmatic services for college students are presented along with suggestions for future research.
Flint, Ellen; Shelton, Nicola; Bartley, Mel; Sacker, Amanda
This study investigates whether the unemployment rate of the area in which an individual lives affects their level of psychological distress, and the extent to which this is dependent on their own labour market status. Data were taken from the British Household Panel Survey (1991-2008) and longitudinal multiple membership multilevel modelling was carried out in order to account for the complex hierarchical structure of the data. The results suggest that living in an area with a high unemployment rate, defined by the claimant count, confers a degree of protection against the negative psychological effects of unemployment. However, psychological distress levels among unemployed people were still significantly and substantially higher than among their securely employed counterparts. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep
The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.
Polushina, N D; Babina, L M; Shvedunova, L N
Experiments on 80 Wistar rats revealed the ability of Essentuki mineral waters to stimulate the reserves and sensitivity of the intestinal serotonin-producing system. A clinical trial on two groups of children (exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation or with posttraumatic astheno-neurotic syndrome) found out pronounced positive changes in the psychological status of the children which progressed in correlation with an increase of the blood serotonin levels.
Kan, Chiemi; Kawakami, Norito; Karasawa, Mayumi; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Coe, Christopher L; Miyamoto, Yuri; Ryff, Carol D; Kitayama, Shinobu; Curhan, Katherine B; Markus, Hazel Rose
Recently, researchers have proposed that psychological resources might be key concept in explaining the association between social class and health. However, empirical examinations of the extent to which psychological resources to social class in health are still few. This study investigated mediating effects of selected psychological resources (sense of control, self-esteem, optimism, and neuroticism) on the association of social class [education and subjective social status (SSS)] with current health status (self-rated health and the number of chronic conditions). This sample consisted of 1,805 Americans (818 males and 987 females) from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey, 2004-2006 and 1,027 Japanese (505 males and 522 females) from the Midlife in Japan (MIDJA) survey in Tokyo, Japan, 2008-2010. Information on social class, psychological resources, and health status was obtained using telephone interviews or written questionnaires. A mediation analysis was conducted separately for males and females in Japan and the USA. Neuroticism significantly mediated the association of education and SSS with self-rated health and chronic conditions among males and females in both countries, with one exception (not for chronic conditions among Japanese females). Sense of control significantly mediated the association of education and SSS with self-rated health among males and females in both countries. As hypothesized, self-esteem significantly mediated almost all of the associations of education and SSS with self-rated health and chronic conditions among men and women in the USA, but very few such associations in Japan. Optimism significantly mediated most associations of social class and health status in both countries, but only among females. Overall, the findings underscore important culture- and gender specificity in the ways in which psychosocial resources mediate the links between social class and health.
van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Wentzel, M.J.; Sieverink, Floor; Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Kelders, Saskia Marion
Introduction: eHealth is gaining more and more ground in health psychology and behavioural medicine to support wellbeing, a healthier lifestyle or adherence to medications. Despite the large number of eHealth projects to date, the actual use of eHealth interventions is lower than expected. Many
Jhangiani, Surita Jassal; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.
The recent shift to a "positive psychological" approach that emphasizes a "health model," rather than a "disease model," in mental health discourses is intended both to reduce the stigma around mental health issues and to enable people to play a role in monitoring their own mental health. As a component of a larger…
Takatsuji, H; Kobayashi, T; Kojima, T; Hasebe, D; Izumi, N; Saito, I; Saito, C
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of orthognathic surgery on psychological status. The subjects were 119 patients (38 males and 81 females, mean age 25.5±9.4 years) who underwent orthognathic surgery. They were divided into class III (84 patients), class II (20 patients), and class I (15 patients) groups according to the anteroposterior skeletal pattern, and they were also divided into an asymmetry group (51 patients) and a symmetry group (68 patients). We assessed psychological status using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) before surgery and at more than 6 months after surgery. The MMPI scores for the depression, hysteria, psychasthenia, and social introversion scales were significantly higher than standard values before surgery, and the hypomania scale significantly lower. The cannot say scale, depression scale, and hysteria scale decreased significantly after surgery. A comparison of MMPI scores among the groups showed the depression scale in the class III group to be higher than those in the class I and II groups; there was no significant difference between the asymmetry and symmetry groups. In conclusion, orthognathic surgery has a positive influence on the psychological status of patients with jaw deformities, especially patients with skeletal class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychological status of adolescents with respiratory allergies and their caregivers. Materials and Methods: Child and adolescent psychiatrists evaluated the adolescents’ psychological status using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED. Psychiatrist evaluated the psychological status of their caregivers using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A. Results: Anxiety symptoms were found in 21 of 63 patients. CDI scores were higher in controls than in patients (p=0.03. HAM-D scores were higher in the caregivers of adolescents with allergic rhinitis and comorbid asthma than in those of controls (p=0.025. None of the scores were affected by the severity of asthma and allergic rhinitis, asthma control levels, presence of an asthma attack in the preceding year as well as by pulmonary function tests (p>0.05. Moderate and strong positive correlations were found between SCARED and CDI (r=0.644, p<0.001 and HAM-A and HAM-D scores (r=0.860, p<0.001. Conclusion: Anxiety symptoms were found in one-third of the patients. HAM-D scores were higher in the caregivers of adolescents with allergic rhinitis and comorbid asthma than in those of controls.
Smyth, Carol; Spada, Marcantonio M; Coultry-Keane, Katherine; Ikkos, George
Research has shown that individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury can experience strong and abrupt variations in their emotional state; however no instrument for nurses has been developed to assess these patients' psychological status. To develop a brief, reliable instrument to enable nurses to accurately assess, record and respond to spinal cord injury patients' psychological status. In Phase 1, semi-structured interviews were conducted with spinal cord injury patients (n = 10) and nurses (n = 10) which were audio recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed to develop the instrument. The instrument's content validity was then ensured via independent expert review. In Phase 2, the instrument was trialled on 80 spinal cord injury patients to determine inter-rater reliability, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In Phase 1, four core themes (emotional impact, coping, relationships and assessment) were identified together with a number of related sub-themes. In Phase 2, the instrument was shown to have excellent inter-rater reliability, acceptable internal consistency and satisfactory test re-test reliability. Subsequently a rating sheet, user manual and prompt card were produced. The new instrument, the Stanmore Nursing Assessment of Psychological Status, was shown to be valid and reliable. It is anticipated that training nurses to use this instrument may help to enhance good emotional care of patients.
Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
of pre-surgical psychological factors on mental wellbeing after surgery is unclear. The aim of the current article therefore is to review recent research investigating psychological predictors of mental health and HRQOL outcome. METHODS: We searched PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science for studies...... investigating psychological predictors of either mental health or HRQOL after bariatric surgery. Original prospective studies published between 2003 and 2012 with a sample size >30 and a minimum of 1 year follow-up were included. RESULTS: Only 10 eligible studies were identified. The findings suggest......BACKGROUND: Improvement of mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important success criterion for bariatric surgery. In general, mental health and HRQOL improve after surgery, but some patients experience negative psychological reactions postoperatively and the influence...
.... Therefore, health status is an increasingly important concept in the management of HF. In fact, most symptomatic patients are more concerned about their everyday health status than the length of their life...
Picos, Andrés Palacios; González, Ruth Pinedo; de la Iglesia Gutiérrez, Myriam
The aim of the researchers is to explore the causes and consequences of the psychological health of sex workers as well as provide an intervention model for the prevention of mental disorders in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) levels. The study sample consisted of 146 sex workers from Spain. Loneliness and maltreatment have a negative influence on psychological health, while self-esteem has a protector role over psychological health. Psychological health has a positive impact on perceived quality of life and other health domains. On the contrary, psychological health has a negative impact on drug use and symptoms of anxiety. Data are discussed.
Deb, Sibnath; Sathyanarayanan, Pooja; Machiraju, Ravali; Thomas, Shinto; McGirr, Kevin
The present study assessed the mental health of adolescents in Puducherry, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 291 students (121 male and 170 female) in the 14-17year old age group, grades IX and XI. The students were recruited from private, public, co-ed and single sex schools. Along with a Structured Questionnaire, the Mental Health Inventory was administered. We sought to investigate as to whether there would be differences in mental health status of adolescents based on age, class, gender and other demographic variables. There were significant age differences with respect to global mental health, psychological distress, anxiety and loss of behavioural/emotional control. Family type-wise significant differences in global mental health, life satisfaction and loss of behavioural/emotional control were also found. Significant differences were observed with respect to global mental health, psychological well-being, positive effects, psychological distress and depression across socio-economic groups. Number of siblings also accounted for differences in anxiety and emotional ties. However, no significant gender differences were observed across mental health sub-scales. Results suggest the need for promotion of mental health awareness and intervention programs for adolescents, their parents and teachers. There is also a need for advocacy in children and adolescent rights regarding welfare, well-being and protection from violence. The objective is to enhance psychological well-being and reduce psychological distress in students across different social strata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and aims: The relationship between physical-mental health and Migraine headaches and stress, especially job stress, is known. Many factors can construct job stress in work settings. The factor that has gained much attention recently is inequality (imbalance of employees’ effort versus the reward they gain. The aim of the current attempt was to investigate the validity of effort-reward imbalance model and indicate the relation of this model with migraine headaches and psychological well-being among subjects in balance and imbalance groups. Methods: Participants were 180 personnel of Oil distribution company located in Isfahan city, and instruments used were General health questionnaire (Goldberg & Hilier, Social Re-adjustment Rating Scale (Holmes & Rahe, Ahvaz Migraine Questionnaire (Najariyan and Effort-reward imbalance scale (Van Vegchel & et al. Results: The result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis for investigating the Construct validity of the effort-reward imbalance model showed that in both analyses, the two factor model was confirmed. Moreover, findings indicate that balance group was in better psychological (p<0/01 and physical (migraine (p<0/05 status comparing to the imbalance group. These findings indicate the significance of justice to present appropriate reward relative to personnel performance on their health. Conclusion: Implication of these findings can improve Iranian industrial personnel health from both physical and psychological aspects.
Full Text Available Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour.
Samara, Muthanna; Burbidge, Vicky; El Asam, Aiman; Foody, Mairéad; Smith, Peter K; Morsi, Hisham
Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK). Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour.
Samara, Muthanna; Burbidge, Vicky; El Asam, Aiman; Foody, Mairéad; Smith, Peter K.; Morsi, Hisham
Bullying and cyberbullying have severe psychological and legal consequences for those involved. However, it is unclear how or even if previous experience of bullying and cyberbullying is considered in mental health assessments. Furthermore, the relevance and effectiveness of current legal solutions has been debated extensively, resulting in a desire for a specific legislation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological and legal components of bullying and cyberbullying. This is a qualitative research that includes interviews with five practitioner psychologists and four lawyers in the United Kingdom (UK). Thematic analysis revealed three main themes. One theme is related to the definition, characteristics, and impact of bullying and cyberbullying and the need for more discussion among the psychological and legal professions. Another theme is related to current professional procedures and the inclusion of questions about bullying and cyberbullying in psychological risk assessments. The third theme emphasised the importance of intervention through education. Two key messages were highlighted by the lawyers: ample yet problematic legislation exists, and knowledge will ensure legal success. The study recommends the necessity of performing revisions in the clinical psychological practices and assessments, and the legal policies regarding bullying and cyberbullying. In addition to improving legal success, this will reduce bullying prevalence rates, psychological distress, and psychopathology that can be comorbid or emerge as a result of this behaviour. PMID:29186780
Pearson, Quinn M.
Role overload, job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health were measured for 155 women who were employed full time. Role overload was negatively correlated with psychological health, job satisfaction, and leisure satisfaction. Job satisfaction and leisure satisfaction were positively correlated with psychological health.…
Townley, Greg; Brown, Molly; Sylvestre, John
Community psychology is rooted in community mental health research and practice and has made important contributions to this field. Yet, in the decades since its inception, community psychology has reduced its focus on promoting mental health, well-being, and liberation of individuals with serious mental illnesses. This special issue endeavors to highlight current efforts in community mental health from our field and related disciplines and point to future directions for reengagement in this area. The issue includes 12 articles authored by diverse stakeholder groups. Following a review of the state of community mental health scholarship in the field's two primary journals since 1973, the remaining articles center on four thematic areas: (a) the community experience of individuals with serious mental illness; (b) the utility of a participatory and cross-cultural lens in our engagement with community mental health; (c) Housing First implementation, evaluation, and dissemination; and (d) emerging or under-examined topics. In reflection, we conclude with a series of challenges for community psychologists involved in future, transformative, movements in community mental health. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Akram, B.; Ilyas, M.
To understand suicidal behaviour among people who inject drugs. Methods: This correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in two Pakistani cities of Gujrat and Jhelum from October 2015 to March 2016, and comprised male injecting-drug users aged18-60 years. Multistage systematic random sampling method was used. Urdu-translated versions of the brief cope inventory, mental health status scale and suicidal behaviour questionnaire (revised) were administered. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 200 participants, 83(41.5%) were aged 26-32 years. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus was in 94(47%) cases. Suicidal behaviour was positively associated with psychological distress and human immunodeficiency virus status (p<0.05), whereas it was negatively associated with mental health, psychological well-being and coping strategies (p<0.05). Regression analysis showed mental health index and psychological well-being were negative predictors, whereas psychological distress and human immunodeficiency virus status were positive predictors of suicidal behaviour among the participants (p<0.05). Conclusion: The level of stress led people who inject drugs towards suicidal behaviour. However, the level of stress varied according to the severity of human immunodeficiency virus and poor mental health. (author)
Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Spertus, John A
Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence...... on the influence of health status on prognosis in CHF and CAD....
Easpaig, Bróna R Nic Giolla; Fryer, David M; Linn, Seònaid E; Humphrey, Rhianna H
Queer-theoretical resources offer ways of productively rethinking how central concepts such as 'person-context', 'identity' and 'difference' may be understood for community health psychologists. This would require going beyond consideration of the problems with which queer theory is popularly associated to cautiously engage with the aspects of this work relevant to the promotion of collective practice and engaging with processes of marginalisation. In this article, we will draw upon and illustrate the queer-theoretical concepts of 'performativity' and 'cultural intelligibility' before moving towards a preliminary mapping of what a queer-informed approach to community health psychology might involve.
Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora
This special issue celebrates and maps out the 'coming of age' of community health psychology, demonstrating its confident and productive expansion beyond its roots in the theory and practice of small-scale collective action in local settings. Articles demonstrate the field's engagement with the growing complexity of local and global inequalities, contemporary forms of collective social protest and developments in critical social science. These open up novel problem spaces for the application and extension of its theories and methods, deepening our understandings of power, identity, community, knowledge and social change - in the context of evolving understandings of the spatial, embodied, relational, collaborative and historical dimensions of health.
Full Text Available In 90-ies years of last century in our country happened the crash of the system of values with transition to the standards of capitalistic society, and it lead to the formation of chronicle psychosocial stress of high and medium levels. Medics of all directions started to face functional psychosomatic diseases. Raised the necessity in grounding of health manpower in discipline of clinical psychology, with the learning of psychophisiological bases of diseases and possibilities if their correction. This direction of development of soviet medical education and health service in general seems progressive and prospective.
Carroll, Bob; Morbey, Hazel; Balogh, Ruth; Araoz, Gonzalo
In 2005, Carlisle suffered severe flooding and 1600 houses were affected. A qualitative research project to study the social and health impacts was undertaken. People whose homes had been flooded and workers who had supported them were interviewed. The findings showed that there was severe disruption to people's lives and severe damage to their homes, and many suffered from psychological health issues. Phenomenological and transactional perspectives are utilised to analyse the psychological processes (identity, attachment, alienation and dialectics) underlying the meaning of home and their impact on psychological health. Proposals for policy and practice are made.
S.Ya. Volgina; M.K. Valiullina
The article deals with the research findings of the health status of 120 female teenagers, suffering from constitutive and exogenous obesity and 116 girls of the same age and standard weight. The authors gave complete characteristics for the somatic, psychic and psychological elements of the teenager's health. They have assessed the consumatory behaviour of the girls. It has been revealed that among all the examined patients with hyperphagia 6,7% are suffering from nervous bulimia. the resear...
Full Text Available Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with “Avoidance coping” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001, and was negatively associated with “Active coping” (β = −0.30, p < 0.001, “exercise habit” (β = −0.25, p = 0.001, and “sleeping” (β = −0.24, p = 0.002. In the path model, “Active coping” and “Avoidance coping” had significant or marginally significant associations with “exercise habits” (active: β = 0.19, p = 0.008, avoidance: β = −0.12, p = 0.088, and psychological distress (active: β = −0.25, p < 0.001, avoidance: β = 0.363, p < 0.001. However, these coping style variables did not have a significant association with “sleep”. In general, the size of the correlations was below 0.4. Conclusions: Exercise habits mediated the relationship between coping styles and psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.
Frazão, Paulo; Costa, Carla Maria; de Almeida, Márcia Furquim
Self-reported tendinitis/tenosynovitis was evaluated by gender, age group, skin color, family income, and educational and psychological status. !The study was carried out in a representative sample of formally contracted Brazilian workers from a household survey. A total of 54,660 participants were included. Occupations were stratified according to estimated prevalences of self-reported injuries. Non-conditional logistic regression was performed, and all variables were analyzed in two occupational groups. The overall prevalence rate of tendinitis/tenosynovitis was 3.1%: 5.5% in high-prevalence occupations (n = 10,726); and 2.5% in low-prevalence occupations (n = 43,934). White female workers between the ages of 45 and 64 years and at a higher socioeconomic level were more likely to report tendinitis/tenosynovitis regardless of their occupational category. An adjusted OR = 3.59 [95% CI: 3.15--4.09] was found between tendinitis/tenosynovitis and psychological status. Among formally contracted Brazilian workers, higher income can imply greater physical and psychological demands that, regardless of occupational stratum, increase the risk of tendinitis/tenosynovitis. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Pontes, Halley M
Background and aims Previous studies focused on examining the interrelationships between social networking site (SNS) addiction and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in isolation. Moreover, little is known about the potential simultaneous differential effects of SNS addiction and IGD on psychological health. This study investigated the interplay between these two technological addictions and ascertained how they can uniquely and distinctively contribute to increasing psychiatric distress when accounting for potential effects stemming from sociodemographic and technology-related variables. Methods A sample of 509 adolescents (53.5% males) aged 10-18 years (mean = 13.02, SD = 1.64) were recruited. Results It was found that key demographic variables can play a distinct role in explaining SNS addiction and IGD. Furthermore, it was found that SNS addiction and IGD can augment the symptoms of each other, and simultaneously contribute to deterioration of overall psychological health in a similar fashion, further highlighting potentially common etiological and clinical course between these two phenomena. Finally, the detrimental effects of IGD on psychological health were found to be slightly more pronounced than those produced by SNS addiction, a finding that warrants additional scientific scrutiny. Discussion and conclusion The implications of these results are further discussed in light of the existing evidence and debates regarding the status of technological addictions as primary and secondary disorders.
Lee, Min-Ah; Kawachi, Ichiro
Socialising with higher-status individuals can be hypothesised to exert opposing influences on the mental health of the ego. On the one hand, socialising with higher-status alters might enable individuals to access valuable resources. On the other hand, status-discrepant friendships could be detrimental to mental health by engendering feelings of unfairness. We sought to examine the impact of status-discrepant social relationships on depressive symptoms in the 2012 Korean General Social Survey (KGSS), a nationally representative sample. We show that socialising with higher-status people is positively associated with depressive symptoms. There is no significant difference between those socialising with equivalent-status or with lower-status alters. Perceived unfairness also increase depressive symptoms. Respondents socialising with higher-status alters tend to report greater depressive symptoms as their perceived unfairness increases. Gender-stratified analyses reveal that the detrimental impact of status-discrepant relationships are observed for men only, not for women. These findings suggest that socialising with higher-status people can be a net detriment for mental wellbeing by increasing stress/frustration or decreasing psychological resources such as self-esteem, and that these effects are more pronounced for individuals who perceive that society is unfair. This pattern appears stronger for men, which might be associated with gender roles internalised through gender socialisation processes. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Maria de las Mercedes Pretel Olite
Full Text Available Alcoholism is a complex biopsychosocial disorder that requires a specialised and multidisciplinary approach focusing on both the patient and the family. Alcohol consumption is the most important addiction worldwide due to its prevalence and impact. Therefore, the main objective of a primary care physician should be to facilitate the referral of patients and their families to a structured treatment, support and guidance program during the whole detoxification process. In every health area in Cienfuegos, there are community mental health centers with a staff trained to deal with these disorders in addicts and their family. A literature review was conducted to establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and its harmful effects on health, family and society, using an approach based on Health Psychology.
Koski, Jessica; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R.
Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are socio-cultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents. PMID:25697184
M. Yu. Arkhipova
Full Text Available The health status was analyzed in extremely preterm infants at a postconceptual age of 38–40 weeks and in the first year of life. All the infants in the analyzed group were shown to have respiratory disorders, severe perinatal CNS lesions, and the high incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and infectious and inflammatory diseases. In the first year of life, these children belonged to a group of the frequently ill. Dysfunction of the digestive system and intestinal microflora and residual signs of rickets were detected in the majority of the patients; the manifestations of bronchopulmonary dysplasia persisted in 50%. 40% of the infants had disabling complications.
Richards, Lindsay; Paskov, Marii
A body of academic research has shown a social class gradient in psychological well-being. Some recent work has also suggested that the gradient is worsening over time, though the evidence is mixed. We focus on two straightforward research questions: Is there a class gradient in mental health? Has this gradient changed over time? We answer these questions with attention to two specific causal pathways: employment status and unobserved heterogeneity. We use two data sources: repeated cross-sections from the Health Survey of England (HSE) and longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The combination of pooled OLS regression (with HSE) and fixed effects analysis (with BHPS) allows for a robust analysis of the relationship between class and psychological well-being. We argue that employment status is a confounder in the analysis of class inequalities and show that, along with unobserved heterogeneity, these two pathways go a long way to explain the class gradient. The effects of employment status are substantive and, unlike social class, cannot be explained away by unobserved heterogeneity. We conclude that employment status deserves greater prominence in the debate as both a pathway by which the class gradient transpires, and as another 'dimension' of inequality in its own right. Our overtime analysis suggests that skilled and unskilled manual workers had higher psychological well-being in the 1990s but by 2008 were closer to the average. Class inequalities do not appear to be widening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter
Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and psychological status were examined in adult patients with a deep bite and compared with an adult age- and gender-matched control group with neutral occlusion. The deep bite group consisted of 20 females (mean age 30.3 years) and 10 males (mean age 33.1 years......). The control group comprised 20 females (mean age 29.4 years) and 10 males (mean age 34.2 years). TMD examination, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD), cephalometric lateral radiographs, registration of occlusion, and bite force were performed. To test the mean differences between...... group compared with the controls. Somatization scores were significantly higher in the deep bite group compared with the controls (P psychological...
Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R
The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.
Youn Ho Shin
Full Text Available Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovi taminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in order to enhance normal calcification of the growth plate and bone mineralization. Moreover, emerging evidence supports an association between 25hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels and immune function, respiratory diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infection, allergy, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases in pediatric and adolescent populations. The risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the pediatric population are season (winter, insufficient time spent outdoors, ethnicity (nonwhite, older age, more advanced stage of puberty, obesity, low milk consumption, low socioeconomic status, and female gender. It is recommended that all infants, children, and adolescents have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU (10 μg of vitamin D. Since the vitamin D status of the newborn is highly related to maternal vitamin D levels, optimal vitamin D levels in the mother during pregnancy should be maintained. In conclusion, given the important role of vitamin D in childhood health, more time spent in outdoor activity (for sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation may be necessary for optimal health in infants, children, and adolescents.
Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura
To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Buduk-ool, L K; Khovalyg, A M
Peculiarities There was performed the study of the mental status of first-year students enrolled in the Tuvan state University. There were detected levels of reactive and personal anxiety, adaptive capacity, the level of social and psychological adaptation and aggression. Adaptation potential in students is within limits of the satisfactory one, there was no detected person with poor adaptive capacity and failure of adaptation, that indicates to the genetically fixed ability of the students’ body to adapt to living conditions. In a state of psychological adjustment there was revealed the more higher level of anxiety in Tuvan students, which is caused by the poor living conditions. More satisfactory condition is typical for the social and psychological adaptation, since in all students values of test scales are within normal limits.There were shown gender differences in adaptation and psychological status of students. Boys have more lower indices of indirect and verbal aggression, anger, resentment, suspicion, guilt. Girls are characterized by higher hostility, at that it even exceeds standard values. In the group of students with a high personal anxiety no differences in adaptive capacities were found, and in students with moderate personal anxiety there were significantly more boys with stress adaptation than girls. Analysis of the socio-psychological adaptation of first-year students shows that in all students values of the test scales are normal, but in young men, indices are higher that indicates to a more successful socialization in the environment of the university. Correlation analysis of indices of aggressiveness and socio-psychological adaptation revealed weak negative relationships between index of aggressiveness with maladaptiveness, non-acceptance of others, emotional comfort in boys. In girls “aggressiveness” positively correlates with the such indices as acceptance of others and adaptation. Factor analysis in young men revealed the first factor
The literature review and focus group findings that compose the Major Contribution illustrate how counseling psychologists can integrate expertise from various subdisciplines (vocational psychology, health psychology, multicultural psychology) to effectively address the needs of those living with HIV. Given changes in the nature of health problems…
Schmidt, Christa K; Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L; Piontkowski, Sarah; Schaefer, Kathryn L
This content analysis investigated the inclusion of positive psychological constructs in research published in three leading health psychology journals. A list of positive constructs relevant to health psychology was compiled and their inclusion in these journals was examined. It was found that although there has been a sharp increase in recent years, only 3 percent of all articles published (114 of 3789) included the study of overtly positive constructs. The constructs that have been most and least studied in health psychology were identified and are discussed. This analysis provides insight into the foundations of positive health psychology and identifies future directions.
Peters, G.-J.Y; Dima, A.; Plass, A.M.; Crutzen, R.; Gibbons, C.; Doyle, F.
A recent debate in Health Psychology Review demonstrated the importance of careful attention to measurement and operationalisation of health psychology constructs (Beauchamp, 2016; Brewer, 2016; de Vries, 2016; Schwarzer & McAuley, 2016; Williams & Rhodes, 2016a, 2016b). This need is met by rapid
Orbell, Sheina; Szczepura, Ala; Weller, David; Gumber, Anil; Hagger, Martin S
Although ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) correlate with health inequality, efforts to explain variance in health behavior attributable to these factors are limited by difficulties in population sampling. We used ethnicity identification software to test effects of psychological beliefs about screening as mediators of ethnicity and SES on faecal occult blood colorectal screening behavior in a no-cost health care context. Adults aged 50-67 years (N = 1,678), of whom 28% were from minority South Asian religiolinguistic ethnic groups (Hindu-Gujarati/Hindi, Muslim-Urdu and Sikh-Punjabi), participated in a prospective survey study. Subsequent screening participation was determined from medical records. Screening nonparticipation in the most deprived SES quintile was 1.6 times that of the least deprived quintile. Nonparticipation was 1.6 times higher in South Asians compared with non-Asians. A process model in which psychological variables mediated effects of ethnicity and SES on uptake was tested using structural equation modeling. Self-efficacy and perceived psychological costs of screening were, respectively, positive and negative direct predictors of uptake. Paths from Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh ethnicity, and SES on uptake were fully mediated by lower self-efficacy and higher perceived psychological costs. Paths from South Asian ethnicity to participation via self-efficacy and psychological costs were direct, and indirect via SES. SES is implicated, but does not fully account for low colorectal screening uptake among South Asians. Targeting increased self-efficacy and reduced perceived psychological costs may minimize health inequality effects. Future research should test independent effects of SES and ethnicity on lower self-efficacy and higher psychological costs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Groenewold, W G F; van Ginneken, J K
To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health status. Data from the World Health Organization's World Health Surveys of former Soviet Republics that include information on ethnicity (i.e. Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Russia) were used. Russia was included as the benchmark population as it is the country of origin of ethnic Russians. Data were collected from respondents aged ≥25 years in 2001-2003. Principal component analysis was used to derive the Health Status Index and Household Wealth Index. Multiple classification analysis was applied to examine the effects of the determinants on health status, including ethnic group membership. In Estonia and Kazakhstan, ethnic Russians have, on average, a lower health status than members of the majority population, while their health status is higher in Ukraine. Higher levels of material wealth, educational attainment and physical activity were associated with a higher health status. The association of these variables with health status was often stronger than the association between ethnic group membership and health status. Differences in health status between Russian ethnic minorities and the majority populations were found in Estonia and Kazakhstan, but were non-existent in Latvia and were the opposite of what was expected in Ukraine. Use of the Health Status Index in combination with multiple classification analysis proved to be a useful approach to examine health status differentials, and to identify and profile vulnerable groups in a society. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patler, Caitlin; Laster Pirtle, Whitney
Exclusionary immigration policies, as a form of structural racism, have led to a sizeable undocumented population that is largely barred from access to resources in the United States. Existing research suggests that undocumented immigration status detrimentally impacts mobility, yet few studies have tested the impacts of legal status on psychological wellbeing. Most importantly, we know little about how changes to legal status impact wellbeing. Announced in 2012, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program allows eligible undocumented youth to apply for temporary lawful status. Drawing on cross-sectional survey data from 487 Latino immigrant young adults in California collected in 2014 and 2015, we analyze the predictors of three specialized outcomes related to immigrants' psychological wellbeing-distress, negative emotions, and deportation worry before and after a transition from undocumented to lawfully present status. Results show that retrospective reports of past psychological wellness, when all respondents were undocumented, are predicted primarily by socioeconomic status. However, reports of current psychological wellness are predicted by DACA status. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the positive emotional consequences of transitioning out of undocumented status for immigrant young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen
Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Depaoli, Sarah; Rus, Holly M; Clifton, James P; van de Schoot, Rens; Tiemensma, Jitske
The aim of the current article is to provide a brief introduction to Bayesian statistics within the field of health psychology. Bayesian methods are increasing in prevalence in applied fields, and they have been shown in simulation research to improve the estimation accuracy of structural equation models, latent growth curve (and mixture) models, and hierarchical linear models. Likewise, Bayesian methods can be used with small sample sizes since they do not rely on large sample theory. In this article, we discuss several important components of Bayesian statistics as they relate to health-based inquiries. We discuss the incorporation and impact of prior knowledge into the estimation process and the different components of the analysis that should be reported in an article. We present an example implementing Bayesian estimation in the context of blood pressure changes after participants experienced an acute stressor. We conclude with final thoughts on the implementation of Bayesian statistics in health psychology, including suggestions for reviewing Bayesian manuscripts and grant proposals. We have also included an extensive amount of online supplementary material to complement the content presented here, including Bayesian examples using many different software programmes and an extensive sensitivity analysis examining the impact of priors.
The article sets out the value of theorizing collective action from a social science perspective that engages with the messy actuality of practice. It argues that community health psychology relies on an abstract version of Paulo Freire's earlier writing, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which provides scholar-activists with a 'map' approach to collective action. The article revisits Freire's later work, the Pedagogy of Hope, and argues for the importance of developing a 'journey' approach to collective action. Theories of practice are discussed for their value in theorizing such journeys, and in bringing maps (intentions) and journeys (actuality) closer together.
Elisardo Becoña Iglesias
Full Text Available The addiction subject is nowadays a valid one, as well as in the past century. Not only because of the increase of people that are addict, but also because of the important effects that cause on people and their environments. There are many theoretical perspectives to approach the addiction problem, but the most convenient because of its therapeutic results is the one that issupported by the psychology of health. lt is based on the integral approach to the person. This paper describes a general therapeutic scheme to work with addicts from the cognitive behaviora lperspective.
Aug 3, 2012 ... to “enhance health, prevent and treat disease, identify risk factors, improve ... becoming rampant in African towns and cities - affecting mainly the middle ... smoking cigarettes, excessive alcohol consumption, and high fat intake until .... be explained by chronic infections and tobacco usage. Schottenfeld and ...
Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve
Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.
Full Text Available Objective: The habit of smoking is more common in members of a family living in the same house. People with psychiatric symptoms smoke more cigarettes. We conducted a study to examine whether the psychological status of couples and partner support affects smoking cessation success. Methods: The outpatients who started taking a therapy for smoking cessation between July 2014 and January 2015 in our clinic were included in this prospective, single-center study. Each couple was assessed on the basis of the Marital Adjustment Scale (MAS and Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS. The smoking status of the participants was assessed after 6 months, and they filled out the Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ. Results: Of 141 volunteers, 55% joined the smoking cessation program as couples. A total of 55.3% of the participants managed to quit smoking. Further, 42.3% of couples quitted smoking. Nearly 96.2% of couples had the same result regarding smoking cessation. The smoking cessation rate was significantly lower in couples with high anxiety depression scores (participant: p=0.028 and 0.037; partner: p=0.003 and 0.007, smoker partners (p<0.01, and participants with low marital adjustments (p<0.01. Logistic regression analysis showed that the independent parameters affecting smoking cessation success were support and the smoking status of partners (p<0.001 and 0.021, respectively. Conclusion: Partner support and psychological status were important parameters associated with smoking cessation. The presence of non-smoker partners made quitting smoking easier. Reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms and support of partners may help in smoking cessation.
Liang, Belle; West, Jennifer
Relational health refers to interpersonal interactions that are growth-fostering or mutually empathic and empowering. Poor relational health increases an individual's risk for developing psychological distress. Alexithymia is the inability to recognize and express one's own internal emotional experience. In this study, the associations of relational health, psychological distress, and alexithymia were examined by surveying 197 female undergraduate psychology students. Support was found for the hypothesis that alexithymic symptoms mediate the direct effect of poor relational health on psychological distress. The importance of assessing relational health and tailoring counseling interventions for people with low relational health and alexithymic symptoms is discussed. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Elliott, John O; Charyton, Christine; Lu, Bo; Moore, J Layne
Epidemiology literature demonstrates socioeconomic status as an important variable for outcomes in persons with epilepsy. However, no previous studies have analyzed the association between poverty and epilepsy in the United States. Forty-one percent (246/604) of persons with a history of epilepsy (PWHE) in the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (n=43,020) had an annual income Poverty Level (FPL), adjusted lifetime prevalence rate 0.5% [98.33% CI 0.4-0.7]. Four groups are presented in the analyses: (1) those with a history of epilepsy history of epilepsy > or =200% FPL, (3) those not reporting a history of epilepsy history of epilepsy > or =200% FPL. PWHE in poverty reported significantly higher amounts of serious psychological distress, based on the validated Kessler 6 (K6) scale, than both non-epilepsy populations. After adjusting for demographics and other comorbid conditions, logistic regression analyses show PWHE in poverty are significantly more likely to report fair or poor self-rated health status when compared to the PWHE not in poverty and both non-epilepsy populations. PWHE in poverty are also more likely to report > or =14 generally unhealthy days and > or =14 physically unhealthy days in the past 30 days compared to the PWHE not in poverty and both non-epilepsy populations. Psychological well-being needs to be incorporated into any comprehensive treatment strategy for managing epilepsy.
During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and
Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon
This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081
Klock, S C; Greenfeld, D A
To determine whether women who get pregnant as a result of IVF differ psychologically from pregnant women who conceived naturally. Prospective, longitudinal study. Healthy volunteers from outpatient infertility and obstetrics practices. Seventy-four women who became pregnant via IVF and 40 women conceiving without medical intervention. Subjects completed self-report questionnaires about demographic and reproductive history, rewards and concerns of pregnancy, self-esteem, marital adjustment, depressive symptoms, and anxiety at 12 and 28 weeks' gestational age. Self-esteem, depression, and anxiety scores. There were no significant differences between groups on any of the outcome measures assessing psychological status at the two assessment times. Differences were found on specific items assessing the rewards and concerns of pregnancy. Within-group changes over time indicated that IVF women, not controls, showed an increase in self-esteem and a decrease in anxiety during pregnancy. Pregnant IVF women are similar psychologically to women who become pregnant naturally on dimensions of self-esteem, depression, and anxiety at 12 and 28 weeks' gestational age. The IVF group, not controls, reported improved self-esteem and decreased anxiety as the pregnancy progressed.
Hansen, Ulla Møller; Jones, Allan; Zander, Mette
AIMS: The aim of this study was to benchmark the Danish sample of the second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study with the global average in order to determine Denmark's comparative position for health status, healthcare provision, self-management and social support from...... to be an untapped potential when it comes to converting education participation of FM into social support for PWD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PWD in Denmark rank above the global average on measures of psychological wellbeing, despite psychological wellbeing being under-prioritised by HCP. However...
Park, Crystal L
Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.
Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E; Leheney, Emma K; Ballman, Alesha D; Scarpa, Angela
Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants. The participants completed measures of sexual assault experiences, ambivalent sexism, and depression and PTSD symptoms. The results supported a significant interaction between acknowledgement status and benevolent sexism in relation to both depression and PTSD symptoms. Conversely, the present study failed to find support for an interaction between acknowledgment status and hostile sexism. The clinical implications suggest that rather than seeing acknowledging rape as essential to the recovery process, clinicians should assess for and take into account other factors that may contribute to psychological functioning. Additionally, the findings support that more complex models of trauma recovery should be investigated with the goal of working toward a more comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal process of rape acknowledgment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred
Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921
Risk perceptions are only slightly correlated with the expected values of a probability distribution for negative health impacts. Psychometric studies have documented that context variables such as dread or personal control are important predictors for the perceived seriousness of risk. Studies about cultural patterns of risk perceptions emphasize different response set to risk information, depending on cultural priorities such as social justice versus personal freedom. This chapter reports the major psychological research pertaining to the factors that govern individual risk perception and discusses the psychometric effects due to people's risk perception and the experience of severe stress. The relative importance of the psychometric content variables, the signals pertaining to each health risks and symbolic beliefs are explained. (Author)
Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne
Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper is used to know about the psychological health situation for middle and primary school students in Xianning City and provide a certain empirical basis for meaningful development of psychological health education and psychological assistance. This paper uses the MHT scale prepared by Bucheng Zhou professor et al. to conduct a test for 1000 students in 7 middle and primary schools in Xianning City. The detection rate of psychological health problem accounts for 1.6% where the positive detection rate of study anxiety ranks first (43.2%. The psychological health situations have much difference in sex (t = -4. 624, P<0. 001, and it’s lower in male students than female ones. There is a significant difference between the psychological health situation for only and non-only children (t = -2. 519, P<0. 01.There is a significant difference on the psychological health situation for primary school, middle school and high school students (F = 11. 3, P<0. 001, and the psychological health situation of primary school students is better than that for middle school students. It can be concluded that the psychological health situation of middle and primary school students in Xianning City is fairly good, and the psychological health situation for male student, only children and primary school student is also fairly good.
Whitley, Rob; Wang, JiaWei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Liu, Aihua; Caron, Jean
To examine variations between immigrants and nonimmigrants in 1) prevalence of common mental disorders and other mental health variables; 2) health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions, and 3) health service satisfaction. This article is based on a longitudinal cohort study conducted from May 2007 to the present: the Epidemiological Catchment Area Study of Montreal South-West (ZEPSOM). Participants were followed up at 4 time points (T1, n = 2433; T4, n = 1095). Core exposure variables include immigrant status (immigrant vs. nonimmigrant), duration of residence, and region of origin. Key outcome variables included mental health status, health service utilisation, and health service satisfaction. Data were analysed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Immigrants had been in Canada for 20 years on average. Immigrants had significantly lower rates of high psychological distress (32.6% vs. 39.1%, P = 0.016), alcohol dependence (1.4% vs. 3.9%, P =0.010), depression (5.2% vs. 9.2%, P = 0.008), and various other mental disorders. They had significantly higher scores of mental well-being (48.9 vs. 47.1 score, P = 0.014) and satisfaction with social (34.0 vs. 33.4 score, P = 0.021) and personal relationships (16.7 vs. 15.6 score, P Immigrants had significantly lower rates of health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions and significantly higher rates of health service satisfaction at all time points. Asian and African immigrants had particularly low rates of utilisation and high rates of satisfaction. Immigrants had better overall mental health than nonimmigrants.
Background: Health care workers (HCWs) from an important component of the health care system of any nation. Adequate knowledge regarding oral health is also mandatory as it is directly related to general health. Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess oral health status and treatment needs of the health ...
Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB on employee mental and physical health (SF-12 using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of PCB on physical health. Also, the findings of this study show that the relative importance of obligations not met by employers differs according to the specific contents of the psychological contract. In conclusion, the results of this study support the idea that PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that represents a crucial risk to employee health.
Weiss, Robert L.; Aved, Barbara M.
Results indicate correlation between physical health status and depression was greater for wives than husbands. For wives, marital satisfaction and depression were related through uncontrolled variance in physical health status. For husbands, significant relationship between marital satisfaction and depression remained when physical health was…
Maximova, Katerina; Krahn, Harvey
This paper sought to examine which pre- and post-migration factors might be associated with changes in refugees' health status. Using linear regression, the associations between pre- and post-migration factors and changes in self-rated mental and physical health status were examined in 525 refugees from the 1998 Settlement Experiences of Refugees in Alberta study. Having spent time in a refugee camp and having held professional/managerial jobs in one's home country were associated with a greater decline in mental health status since arrival in Canada. Having completed a university degree in one's home country was associated with a greater decline in physical health status. Being employed was associated with greater improvements in mental health status. Perceived economic hardship was associated with greater declines in physical health status. A higher number of settlement services received during the first year in Canada was associated with greater improvements in both mental and physical health status. Longer residence in Canada was associated with greater declines in physical health status but not in mental health status. While little can be done to alter refugees' pre-migration experiences, public policies can affect many post-migration experiences in order to mitigate the negative health consequences associated with resettlement. Results of this study point to the need for continued provision of settlement services to assist refugees with job training, labour market access, and credential recognition, as well as counseling for refugees who experienced the trauma of living in a refugee camp.
Jessica J. Vandeleest
Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also
Webster, I W; Rawson, G K
A comparison of health status between 779 Seventh-day Adventists, who have a strong commitment to heal-related life styles, and two other groups of people--8363 persons referred by general practitioners and 9825 volunteers--was made. The Seventh-day Adventists showed less impairment of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, of plasma cholesterol and plasma urate concentrations, and of lung ventilatory capacity; and less obesity at most specific ages. With increasing age, the level of breathlessness, reported heart disease, hypertension, and hypertensive and diuretic therapy in this sample approached that of the comparative groups, possibly because of natural attrition of high-risk persons in the latter. Depression, sleeplessness, use of sedatives and tranquillizers were lower in the Seventh-day Adventists; although, once again, a drawing together of the three groups in older age categories was evident. It is concluded that the life style of Seventh-day Adventists is conducive to lessened morbidity, delayed mortality, and decreased call on health services in comparison with the general population.
Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Abdin, Edimansyah; Zhang, YunJue; Chang, Sherilyn; Shafie, Saleha; Rahman, Restria Fauziana Abdul; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
This study aimed to explore the psychological status and quality of life among primary caregivers of individuals suffering from various mental illnesses including early psychosis, chronic schizophrenia, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and dementia. A total of 350 primary caregivers with relatives seeking treatment at a tertiary psychiatric hospital were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic data was obtained and the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life instrument was used to assess caregiver's quality of life (QOL). Psychological status among primary caregivers was assessed using the General Anxiety Disorder - 7 item (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 item (PHQ-9) scales. Family Interview Schedule (FIS) was used to assess the impact of caregiving relating to social problems, interpersonal strain among family members, work related problems and financial difficulties as a result of their relative's illness. The socio-demographic and clinical correlates of QOL, PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were examined using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Associations between QOL domains and psychological status was examined using multiple linear regression analyses. The mean age of the primary caregivers was 49.7 years (SD = 13.2), ranging from 21 to 82 years, with a preponderance of females (67.6%), aged 50-64 years old (45.7%). Majority were of Chinese ethnicity (57.5%), had secondary level education (43.1%), were married (65.2%), and employed (64.9%). 18.3% of primary caregivers had symptoms of depression (based on PHQ-9 cut-off point of 10 or greater) while 12.7% had symptoms of anxiety (based on GAD-7 cut-off point of 10 or greater). Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that primary caregivers aged between 35-49 years and 50-64 years, unemployed, living with others, providing care to those diagnosed with dementia and who had higher FIS scores were significantly more likely to report symptoms
Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J
Economic stress and uncertainty is argued to increase older adults' vulnerability to physical health decline and mental distress. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between a large historical economic event, such as the recent global financial crisis (GFC), and health outcomes for older adults. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare self-reported health status and psychological functioning (number of depression and anxiety symptoms) in 1973 older Australian adults (mean age of 66.58 years (SD = 1.5)) prior to the GFC (2005-2006), with their status four years later during the GFC period (2009-2010). Latent difference score models revealed a significant difference in depression and anxiety symptoms over the two measurement occasions, indicating poorer psychological functioning for those who reported an impact as a result of the economic slowdown. These effects were not explained by demographic or socio-economic factors. Interaction effects showed that those participants who were surveyed within the acute salience period of the GFC (April to September 2009) were significantly less likely to report poorer psychological health over time compared to those who were surveyed after September 2009. This interesting timing effect is discussed in terms of potential time-lags in the negative effects of economic stress on health outcomes, as well as the possible protective effects of social norms that may be created by a large scale economic crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sbarra, David A; Hasselmo, Karen; Nojopranoto, Widyasita
Marital separation and divorce are associated with increased risk for early death, and the magnitude of this association rivals that of many well-established public health factors. In the case of divorce, however, the mechanisms explaining precisely why and how some people are at risk for early death remain unclear. This paper reviews what is known about the association between divorce and risk for all-cause mortality, then discusses four emerging themes in this area of research: the biological intermediaries linking divorce to pathophysiology and disease onset, moving beyond the statistical mean, focusing research on the diathesis-stress model, and studying how opportunity foreclosures may place people on a trajectory toward poor distal health outcomes. These ideas are grounded in a set of public lay commentaries about the association between divorce and death; in this way, the paper seeks to integrate current research ideas with how the general public thinks about divorce and its correlates. Although this paper focuses on divorce, many of the emerging themes are applicable to the study of psychosocial stress and health more generally. Therefore, the study of divorce and death provides a good case study for health psychology and considers new questions that can be pursued in a variety of research areas.
Bauger, Lars; Bongaardt, Rob
In response to the ever-increasing longevity in Western societies, old age has been divided into two different periods, labelled the third and fourth age. Where the third age, with its onset at retirement, mostly involves positive aspects of growing old, the fourth age involves functional decline and increased morbidity. This article focuses on the entry to the third age and its potential for health promotion initiatives. Well-being is an important factor to emphasize in such health promotion, and this article views the lifestyle of third agers as essential for their well-being. The structural developmental theory of Robert Kegan delineates how a person's way of knowing develops throughout the life course. This theory is an untapped and salient perspective for health promotion initiatives in the third age. This article outlines Kegan's approach as a tool for developing psychologically spacious health promotion, and suggests future directions for research on the topic. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Purvis, Lynne J; Cropley, Mark
Following the psychological contract model of the employee-employer exchange relationship is offered as a means of understanding the expectations of a UK sample of 223 National Health Service (NHS) nurses in association with their leaving intentions. A pilot study involving 21 NHS nurses, using the repertory grid technique was conducted to elicit contract expectations. Twenty-nine categories of expectation were identified through content analysis. The study proper, employed a survey developed on the basis of results from the pilot study to identify contract profiles among 223 nurses from three London/South-east NHS hospitals, using the Q-sort method. Type of contract held (relational/transactional), satisfaction (job and organization), and leaving intentions were also examined. Q-analysis yielded four contract profiles among the nurses sampled: 'self-development and achievement'; 'belonging and development'; 'competence and collegiality' and 'autonomy and development'. Correlation analysis demonstrated that leaving intentions were associated with a need for personal autonomy and development, and the violation of expectations for being appreciated, valued, recognized and rewarded for effort, loyalty, hard-work and achievement, negative endorsement of a relational contract, positive endorsement of a transactional contract, and job and organizational dissatisfaction. Findings illustrate the diagnostic utility of the term psychological contract for understanding the expectations of NHS nurses. The potential significance of these findings for managing nurse retention is highlighted.
Lolokote, Sainyugu; Hidru, Tesfaldet Habtemariam; Li, Xiaofeng
An unhealthy lifestyle of college students is an important public health concern, but few studies have been undertaken to examine the role of socio-cultural differences. For this cross-sectional comparative study, data on college students' health-promoting lifestyles (HPL), as measured using the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) scale, and self-rated health status (SRH) as measured by Sub-Optimal Health Measurement Scale (SHMS V1.0) were collected from 829 college students. The sample of 829 college students included 504 (60.8%) Chinese and 325 (39.2%) international students. Chinese students had higher scores in overall health-promoting lifestyle (HPL) (P difference in psychological health subscale (P = 0.156, eta squared = 0.002). HPL was predicted by financial status among the Chinese group and by student's major, age and level of education in the international group. Body mass index (BMI) and financial status emerged as predictors of the three subscales of SHMS V1.0 in the Chinese group and also of physiological and psychological subscales in the international group. Gender was associated with psychological health in both groups. Smoking status was a predictor of psychological health in both groups and also of social health in the international group. The level of education emerged as a predictor of social health in the international group. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between health status and healthy lifestyle (P cultural factors as key determinants of the HPL and SRH of college students.
Zawadzki, Matthew J; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M
Both exposure to stress and perseverative cognitions (PCs)-repetitive cognitive representations of real or imagined stressors-are linked with poor psychological health. Yet, stress exposure and PCs are correlated, thus potentially obscuring any unique effects. The purpose of this paper is to concurrently test associations between stress exposure and PCs and psychological health to examine the independent relationship of each with psychological health. Moreover, we examined whether these relationships are similar across sex, age, and race. An adult community sample (n = 302) completed a measure of stress exposure, three PCs scales, and questionnaires assessing self-reported psychological health, including emotional well-being, vitality, social functioning, role limitations due to personal problems, subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and poor sleep quality. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which both stress exposure and PCs predict psychological health. PCs consistently predicted all the psychological health outcomes, but stress was largely unrelated to the outcomes despite bivariate correlations suggesting a relationship. A follow-up model identified indirect effects of stress exposure on psychological health via PCs. Results were fairly consistent regardless of one's sex, age, or race. PCs robustly predicted all of the psychological health outcomes, intimating PCs as a common pathway to poor psychological health. Results have implications for stress interventions, including the need to address PCs after experiencing stress.
Tetrick, Lois E
Measurement of occupational health psychology constructs is the cornerstone to developing our understanding of occupational health and safety. It also is critical in the design, evaluation, and implementation of interventions to improve employees and organizations well-being. The purpose of this article is a brief review of the current state of measurement theory and practice in occupational health psychology. Also included are a discussion of development of newer measurement models and methods, which are in use in other disciplines of psychology, but have not been incorporated into the occupational health psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.
Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…
Background: A good health program is necessary to optimize health care opportunities so as to make appropriate adjustments for optimal service delivery by our health workers in all health sectors. Aim: To determine some hepatic function parameters as a correlate of health status amongst staff of Niger Delta University ...
Full Text Available Psychological reactions, risk health behavior and cardiac parameters can influence rehospitalization after acute myocardial infarction.The aim of the paper was to determine the presence of psychological reactions and risk health behavior in patients with acute myocardial infarction on admission as well as the differences after six months.The research included thirty-trhee patients of both sexes, who were consecutively hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction. A prospective clinical investigation involved the following: semi-structured interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I for pcychiatric disorders, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI for measuring the severity of anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for measuring the severity of depression, KON-6 sigma test for aggression, Holms-Rahe Scale (H-R for exposure to stressful events, and Health Behavior Questionnaire: alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, lack of physical activity. Measurement of the same parameters was done on admission and after six months. The differences were assessed using the t-test and chi-square test for p<0.05.On admission, anxiety (BAI=8.15±4.37 and depression (BDI=8.67±3.94 were mild without significant difference after six months in the group of examinees. Aggression was elevated and significantly lowered after six monts (KON-6 sigma =53,26±9, 58:41,42±7.67, t=2,13 for p<0.05. Exposure to stressful events in this period decreased (H-R=113.19±67.37:91,65±63,81, t=3,14 for p<0.05; distribution of physical activity was significantly higher compared to admission values (54.83%: 84.84%. χ2=5.07 for p<0.01.In the group of examinees with acute myocardial infarction in the period of six months, anxiety and depression remained mildly icreased, while the levels of aggression and exposure to stressful events were lowered. Risk health behavior was maintained, except for the improvement in physical activity. In the integrative therapy and
Manstead, Antony S R
Drawing on recent research on the psychology of social class, I argue that the material conditions in which people grow up and live have a lasting impact on their personal and social identities and that this influences both the way they think and feel about their social environment and key aspects of their social behaviour. Relative to middle-class counterparts, lower/working-class individuals are less likely to define themselves in terms of their socioeconomic status and are more likely to have interdependent self-concepts; they are also more inclined to explain social events in situational terms, as a result of having a lower sense of personal control. Working-class people score higher on measures of empathy and are more likely to help others in distress. The widely held view that working-class individuals are more prejudiced towards immigrants and ethnic minorities is shown to be a function of economic threat, in that highly educated people also express prejudice towards these groups when the latter are described as highly educated and therefore pose an economic threat. The fact that middle-class norms of independence prevail in universities and prestigious workplaces makes working-class people less likely to apply for positions in such institutions, less likely to be selected and less likely to stay if selected. In other words, social class differences in identity, cognition, feelings, and behaviour make it less likely that working-class individuals can benefit from educational and occupational opportunities to improve their material circumstances. This means that redistributive policies are needed to break the cycle of deprivation that limits opportunities and threatens social cohesion. © 2018 The Author. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Aisling T. O'Donnell
Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the unemployed suffer increased psychological and physical health problems compared to their employed counterparts. Further, unemployment leads to an unwanted new social identity that is stigmatizing, and stigma is known to be a stressor causing psychological and physical health problems. However, it is not yet known whether being stigmatized as an unemployed group member is associated with psychological and physical health in this group. The current study tested the impact of anticipated stigma on psychological distress and physical health problems, operationalized as somatic symptoms, in a volunteer sample of unemployed people. Results revealed that anticipated stigma had a direct effect on both psychological distress and somatic symptoms, such that greater anticipated stigma significantly predicted higher levels of both. Moreover, the direct effect on somatic symptoms became non-significant when psychological distress was taken into account. Thus, to the extent that unemployed participants anticipated experiencing greater stigma, they also reported increased psychological distress, and this psychological distress predicted increased somatic symptoms. Our findings complement and extend the existing literature on the relationships between stigmatized identities, psychological distress and physical health problems, particularly in relation to the unemployed group. This group is important to consider both theoretically, given the unwanted and transient nature of the identity compared to other stigmatized identities, but also practically, as the findings indicate a need to orient to the perceived valence of the unemployed identity and its effects on psychological and physical health.
Timmins, Liam; Rimes, Katharine A; Rahman, Qazi
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a 'common cause' of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study investigated minority stressors and distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status. This design provides a test of the role of non-shared environmental factors while minimizing differences due to genetics. Thirty-eight twin pairs in which one was heterosexual and the other was LGB completed a survey. Differences between twin pairs in minority stressors, rumination, psychological distress, and gender non-conformity were examined. Associations between these variables were also tested. Although there were no significant group differences for distress, LGB twins had higher rumination, a vulnerability factor for distress, than heterosexual co-twins. LGB twins also had higher scores than heterosexual co-twins on expectations of rejection, active concealment, self-stigma, prejudice events, childhood gender non-conformity, and lower scores on sexual orientation disclosure. Differences between twin pairs in rumination were positively associated with differences in acceptance concerns and self-stigma. Finally, self-stigma was positively associated with rumination in the full sample of heterosexual co-twins and microaggressions were positively associated with rumination when looking at exclusively heterosexual co-twins. These results support environmental factors as a causal explanation for disparities in rumination between LGB and heterosexual individuals. These factors likely include minority stressors. Rumination may also be associated with minority stressors in heterosexual MZ co-twins of LGB individuals.
Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0
Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M
Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults' computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults' health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. This study examined (1) whether older adults' health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others' homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, PInternet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The birth of a hearing-impaired child and raising him/her often brings special psychological feelings for parents, especially mothers who spend more time with the child. This study aimed to compare the general health status in mothers of hearing-impaired and hearing children. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. General Health Questionnaire was used to identify general health status; and data were analyzed with independent-t test. Results: The general health level of mothers of hearing-impaired children was lower than mothers of normal hearing children (p=0.01 . The average scores of anxiety (p=0.01, depression (p= 0.01 and physical (p=0.02 symptoms and social function (p=0.01 of mothers of hearing-impaired children was higher than mothers of normal hearing ones (p=0.01. Conclusion: Having a child with hearing impairment affects mothers’ general health status. Our findings show that it’s necessary to provide psychological and social support for mothers of hearing-impaired children.
poverty aside from physical capital (Strauss J and Thomas D, 1998). ... factors on health status of children across poverty groups and sector. ...... Decomposing Inequalities in Nutritional Status of ... The causal effect of health on social and.
Vincent, Charles; Wearden, Alison; French, David P
While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. As patients, we should be told of the risks of specific treatments but we are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. We suggest that, while there are many examples of individual health psychologists who have made important contributions, this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. Health psychologists have devoted much more attention to patients and devoted much less attention to the potentially huge impact of studying and intervening with staff, clinical practice, and organizations. We believe that there are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety and, more importantly, that this would be of great benefit to both patients and staff. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. Patients are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. Studies using review of medical records in many countries have found that between 8% and 12% of patients in hospital suffer an unintended harm due to health care. What does this study add? There are many examples of individual psychologists who have made important contributions, but this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. There are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety. These include health behaviour change, teamwork, communication after medical error, diagnosis and decision making, organisational culture, and improving compliance with rules and standards. Psychologists providing a clinical service to specialist services in any area could expand their remit from supporting patients to a more general support and engagement with safety and quality initiatives. Health psychologists have models to understand the behaviour of people
Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0129 TITLE: PHIT for Duty, a Personal Health Intervention Tool for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury... Brain Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Betty Diamond 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Paul N. Kizakevich 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail...and Google App stores. ActiSleep. PHIT-based sleep diary for data collection in an adolescent sleep and marijuana study. National Institute on Drug
Groenewold, W.G.F.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.
Objectives: To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health
Abstract. Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, ...
Cress, Eileen McKenna
Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…
van Stel, Henk F.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Buskens, Erik
Objectives: Estimates regarding the impact of secondary cardiovascular events on health status in patients treated for cardiovascular disease are scarce and of limited accuracy. Methods: We obtained individual patient data on health status (EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire) and secondary
This paper intends to develop health status index among drug abuse prison inmates in Malaysia. A self-admistered questionnaire distributed to 1753 respondents. In this study, to calculate the health status index number of drug abuse inmates, descriptive and factor analyses applied. The data based on 10 indicators of ...
Donners, A.; Bury, D.; Fernstrand, A.; Garssen, J.; Roth, T.; Verster, J.
Introduction: Impaired sleep can have a significant impact on perceived health status. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between perceived health status and sleep quality, total sleep time, and insomnia. Materials and methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch university
van den Berge, Jan C.; Dulfer, Karolijn; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Hartman, Eline M. J.; Daemen, Joost; van Geuns, Robert J.; van Domburg, Ron T.
Subjective health status is an increasingly important parameter to assess the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinical practice. Aim of this study was to determine medical and psychosocial predictors of poor subjective health status over a 10 years' post-PCI period. We included
Mohammad Taghi Savadpour
Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Health is one of the basic needs of human. There is a close relationship between physical and mental health. Human psyche is directly affected by his physical condition, and mutually his body and actions of human systems are influenced by psychological and mental space. Students because of their particular circumstances are vulnerable to mental health problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the general health status of students of Islamic Azad University. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytical research was conducted on 478 students of Khalkhal Islamic Azad University. Simple random sampling method was used. General health questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used as research tool. Following data collection, data were analyzed using SPSS Software 13. Results: The results show that mean score of general health of the subjects is higher than cutoff. In this study, 21.3 percent of students were suspected of impaired health. Also, status of general health of female students was worse than male students and significant statistical relationship was observed between general health status and all its sub-scales except depression and gender (P < 0.5. Conclusions: G eneral health of students especially female students is impaired which may considerably affect their learning and performance and academic achievement.
Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline
Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas, E G; Spittal, M J; Heffernan, E B; Taxman, F S; Alati, R; Kinner, S A
Understanding individual-level changes in mental health status after prison release is crucial to providing targeted and effective mental health care to ex-prisoners. We aimed to describe trajectories of psychological distress following prison discharge and compare these trajectories with mental health service use in the community. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) was administered to 1216 sentenced adult prisoners in Queensland, Australia, before prison release and approximately 1, 3 and 6 months after release. We used group-based trajectory modeling to identify K10 trajectories after release. Contact with community mental health services in the year following release was assessed via data linkage. We identified five trajectory groups, representing consistently low (51.1% of the cohort), consistently moderate (29.8%), high increasing (11.6%), high declining (5.5%) and consistently very high (1.9%) psychological distress. Mood disorder, anxiety disorder, history of self-harm and risky drug use were risk factors for the high increasing, very high and high declining trajectory groups. Women were over-represented in the high increasing and high declining groups, but men were at higher risk of very high psychological distress. Within the high increasing and very high groups, 25% of participants accessed community mental health services in the first year post-release, for a median of 4.4 contact hours. For the majority of prisoners with high to very high psychological distress, distress persists after release. However, contact with mental health services in the community appears low. Further research is required to understand barriers to mental health service access among ex-prisoners.
Kunii, Yasuto; Suzuki, Yuriko; Shiga, Tetsuya; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Maeda, Masaharu; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Otsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Abe, Masafumi
Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey. We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7%) evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models. The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1-10). The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%). We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs). Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002). The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by increased risk perception. To provide
Facchin, F; Barbara, G; Dridi, D; Alberico, D; Buggio, L; Somigliana, E; Saita, E; Vercellini, P
What factors affect the mental health of women with endometriosis? Not only pelvic pain, but also individual characteristics (i.e. self-esteem, body esteem and emotional self-efficacy), time from diagnosis and intimate relationship status influence the psychological health of endometriosis patients. The negative impact of endometriosis on mental health has been widely demonstrated by the research literature, along with the fact that presence and severity of pelvic pain are associated with anxiety and depression. However, endometriosis is a complex multidimensional disease and factors other than pelvic pain, including individual differences, may contribute to explain the variability in women's mental health. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2015 and 2017 at an Italian academic department of obstetrics and gynaecology. A total of 210 consecutive endometriosis patients (age: 36.7 ± 7.0 years) were included. Demographic and endometriosis-related information was collected. Individual differences were assessed using validated measures evaluating self-esteem, body esteem and emotional self-efficacy. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) were used to evaluate mental health. Based on the extant literature, we identified three categories of putative predictors (demographic variables, endometriosis-related factors and individual differences i.e. 'self'), whose psychological impact was examined using a hierarchical multiple regression approach. Being in a stable relationship (coded 1 ['yes'] or 0 ['no']) was associated with decreased rumination (RRS: β = -0.187; P = 0.002). A shorter time from diagnosis was associated with greater anxiety (HADS-A: β = -0.177; P = 0.015). Pelvic pain severity and 'self' were associated with all mental health variables (Ps mental health of women with endometriosis, and the role of individual differences requires further investigation. Targeted multidisciplinary interventions
Full Text Available Background: Military personnel are confronted with physiological and psychological changes caused by stress and exposure to trauma. Although resilience may be protective against psychopathology, very few studies have explored the relationships between the resilience and coping strategies. The study aims to assess how different coping strategies affect resilience, psychological well-being (PWB, and perceived health among military personnel.Subjects and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey. Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC soldiers and nurses in the military medical center were recruited in Taiwan in November 2015. The survey comprised the Brief COPE Scale, Ryff's PWB Scale, and the Resilience Scale for Adults, which examined the relationships among coping strategies, PWB, resilience, and perceived health. Path analysis was applied.Results: We recruited 200 participants (145 male and 177 single aged 24.6 ± 4.7 years (range, 18–46 years. Resilience (coefficient = 0.60, P < 0.001 and PWB (coefficient = 0.33, P < 0.001 were better when using more approach-oriented coping strategies and fewer avoidant coping strategies, whereas the opposite pattern was seen when using avoidant coping (coefficient = −0.31, P < 0.001 for resilience and coefficient = −.20, P < 0.1 for PWB. PWB significantly predicted perceived health (coefficient = 0.45, P < 0.001.Conclusions: Resilience is higher when positive approach-oriented coping strategies are used, which directly affects PWB, and in turn, predicts better-perceived health. Our conceptual model indicates that interventions designed to promote approach-oriented coping strategies may help military personnel develop improved resilience, PWB, and perceived health status.
Amandus, H.E.; Petersen, M.R.; Richards, T.B.
In 1984-1985, medical examinations consisting of a chest radiograph, spirometry test, and questionnaire on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males who were employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in the anthracite coal region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of International Labour Office (ILO) category 1 or higher small opacities was 4.5% in 516 men who had never been employed in a dusty job other than in surface coal mining. Among these 516 workers, all 4 cases of ILO radiographic category 2 or 3 rounded opacities and 1 case of large opacities had been employed as a highwall drill operator or helper. The prevalence of category 1 or higher opacities increased with tenure as a highwall drill operator or helper (2.7% for 0 y, 6.5% for 1-9 yr, 25.0% for 10-19 y, and 55.6% for greater than or equal to 20 y drilling). Radiographic evidence of small rounded opacities, dyspnea, and decreases in FEV1.0, FVC, and peak flow were significantly related to tenure at drilling operations after adjusting for age, height, cigarette smoking status, and exposures in dusty jobs other than in surface coal mining. However, tenure in coal cleansing plants and other surface coal mine jobs were not related to significant health effects. The apparent excess prevalence of radiographic small rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased. Average respirable quartz concentrations at surface coal mine drilling operations should be evaluated to determine whether exposures are within existing standards, and dust exposures should be controlled
Conard, Mark W
Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Yet, little is known about smoking\\'s effects on the health status of established HF patients. HF patients were recruited from outpatient clinics across North America. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) was used to assess disease-specific health status. Smoking behaviors were classified as never having smoked, prior smoker, and as having smoked within the past 30 days. Risk-adjusted multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association of smoking status with baseline and 1-year KCCQ overall summary scores. Smoking was not associated with baseline health status. However, a significant effect was observed on 1-year health status among outpatients with HF with current smokers reporting significantly lower KCCQ scores than never smokers or ex-smokers. These findings highlight an additional adverse consequence of smoking in HF patients not previously discussed.
Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...
Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…
Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti
Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…
Health care psychology is distinguished from traditional child psychology in that it emphasizes clinical application and is concerned with primary mental health care. Diagnosis, classification, prediction, and treatment and control strategies in the field offer definite solutions to problems such as tracheotomy addiction, encopresis, psychogenic…
M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)
textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.
The aim of this study is to analyze Spanish research published between 1989 and 1998 in clinical psychology and its most directly related psychological disciplines: personality psychology, psychopathology, differential psychology, health psychology, and psychological assessment. A search was performed in the various databases of the works published in that decade by Spanish university professors who investigate in these areas. Their localization was verified by direct correspondence with the professors, to whom was also sent a questionnaire to evaluate their research field and preferred theoretical approach. The 2,079 works located allowed me to identify 85 different research trends. These research trends are characterized by the predominance of applied studies over basic studies, of empirical research over theoretical research, and of the cognitive-behavioral approach over the rest of the theoretical orientations. In addition, various bibliometrical indicators of production, dissemination, and impact were calculated. They revealed that productivity and dissemination of Spanish research in these areas grew considerably during this 1989-98 period.
Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok
The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…
Dyas, R.; Nathanael, M.; Indrasari, M.; Masulili, C.; Rahardjo, T. B.; Agustin, D.; Hogervorst, E.; Kusdhany, L.
Older age is a major risk factor for diseases of the teeth and mouth and dementia. Diseases of the teeth and mouth can lead to tooth loss. The use of removable dentures can help the elderly to replace lost teeth; therefore, dentures are expected to improve the masticatory function, quality of life, and psychological status of the elderly. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of removable denture usage on the improvement of the psychological status, quality of life, and masticatory function of elderly people. The data was obtained from 30 respondents. The patients answered questionnaires before they used the dentures, 2 weeks after they began using dentures, and 2 months after they started wearing dentures. Four different questionnaires were used: EuroQol Five Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), to measure psychological status; a mastication questionnaire to measure masticatory function; and a validated quality of life questionnaire. Based on the results of this study, it is clear that after 2 months of denture usage, removable dentures in the elderly can significantly improve their quality of life, masticatory function, and psychological status(p<0.05).
Massé, P.G.; Berg, H. van den; Livingstone, M.M.; Duguay, C.; Beaulieu, G.
The present study was aimed to assess the psychological status of young healthy women after the administration of a triphasic contraceptive steroid preparation for six complete menstrual cycles. Subjects had never used oral contraceptives (OC) and had neither a familial history of depression nor
Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L
When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.
Li, Menglong; Nie, Jingsong; Ren, Yujia
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise dependence on the psychological health of Chinese college students. A total of 1601 college students from three universities in Hunan, China, were selected as research subjects. Several measurement scales, including the Exercise Addiction Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Subjective Well-being Scale, were used to survey the psychological health problem of these students and to analyze the effects of exercise dependence on their psychological health. Exercise dependence, based on the structural equation model analysis, can positively influence state anxiety (Pexercise dependence negatively influences students' self-satisfaction (PExercise dependence adversely affects the psychological health of college students. Further research using multi-dimensional exercise addiction scales should be conducted to identify all the negative effects of exercise addiction factors on psychological health.
Schulte, Timothy J; Isley, Elayne; Link, Nancy; Shealy, Craig N; Winfrey, LaPearl Logan
The profession of psychology is being impacted profoundly by broader changes within the national system of health care, as mental and behavioral health services are being recognized as essential components of a comprehensive, preventive, and cost-efficient primary care system. To fully define and embrace this role, the discipline of professional psychology must develop a shared disciplinary identity of health service psychology and a generalized competency-based model for doctoral education and training. This very framework has been adopted by Combined-Integrated (C-I) doctoral programs in professional psychology, which train across the practice areas (clinical, counseling, and school psychology) to provide a general and integrative foundation for their students. Because C-I programs produce general practitioners who are competent to function within a variety of health service settings, this innovative training approach has great potential to educate and train psychologists for a changing health care marketplace. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Park, Keeho; Park, Jong-Hyock; Park, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Jeong; Park, Bo-Yoon
We analyzed information surveyed from a community-based sample of Korean women older than 40 years of age to understand the relationships between health status and screening behavior. In a cross-sectional population-based study, a two-stage, geographically stratified household-based sampling design was used for assembly of a probability sample of women aged 40-69 years living in Gunpo in Korea, resulting in a total sample size of 503 women. The primary outcome variable for this analysis was the respondent's intention to obtain a mammogram. Predictor variables included health status and other factors known to influence the use of cancer screening, such as age, education, income, marital status and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. Health status was assessed by using the EuroQol (EQ-5D). The median EQ visual analogue scale score was 75.0, ranging from 20 to 100. In bivariate analyses, the percentage of women reporting to have intention toward mammography use decreased with worsening health status. Women who had problems with mobility or anxiety/depression showed lower intention to undergo future screening mammography. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that health status was significantly associated with intention toward mammography use. Anxiety or depression was an independent predictor of future screening mammography use. Health status is significantly associated with intention regarding screening mammography use. Physicians or other health professionals should be aware that health status is an important component for health promotion, and should pay more attention to clients' possible vulnerability in screening mammography use due to their poor health status. (author)
Roberts, Sarah L; Bushnell, John A; Collings, Sunny C; Purdie, Gordon L
To compare the psychological health of men with partners who have post-partum depression (PPD; index group) with that of men with partners without PPD (comparison group). Using a cross-sectional survey, psychological symptoms and disturbances of index group men (n = 58) and comparison group men (n = 116) were compared. Validated self-report measures were used to assess five key areas of mental health: depression, anxiety, non-specific psychological impairment, aggression and alcohol use. Index group men had more symptoms of depression, aggression and non-specific psychological impairment, and had higher rates of depressive disorder, non-specific psychological problems and problem fatigue than comparison group men. Index group men were also more likely to have three or more comorbid psychological disturbances. There was no difference between the groups on measures of anxiety and alcohol use. Although many men in the postnatal period experience a variety of mental health problems, those who have a partner with PPD are themselves at increased risk for experiencing psychological symptoms and disturbances. Differentiation of psychological syndromes is important; higher rates of depressive disorder, non-specific psychological problems and problem fatigue were found, but rates of anxiety disorder and hazardous alcohol use did not differ between the groups. More attention from health professionals to men's mental health in the postnatal period may be beneficial to the entire family system.
To investigate the association between psychosocial conditions at work, unemployment and self-reported psychological health. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire for the 2000 public health survey in Scania was administered to both working and unemployed people aged 18-64 years. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial factors at work/unemployment and self-reported psychological health (General Health Questionnaire 12). Psychosocial conditions at work were classified according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive and job strain. The multivariate analyses included age, country of origin, education, economic stress and social participation. A total of 5180 people returned their questionnaire, giving a participation rate of 59%. Fifteen per cent of men and 20% of women reported poor psychological health. Those with high demands and high control (active category), those with high demands and low control (job strain category) and the unemployed had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health compared to those with low demands and high control (relaxed category). Those with low demands and low control (passive category) did not differ significantly from the relaxed category. The associations remained in the multivariate analyses. The study found that certain psychosocial work factors are associated with higher levels of self-reported psychological ill-health and illustrates the great importance of psychosocial conditions in determining psychological health at the population level. As found elsewhere, being unemployed was an even stronger predictor of psychological ill-health.
Sokolovic, Sekib; Dervisevic, Vedina; Fisekovic, Saida
A significant number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) link the start of illness with psychological trauma or severe stress. Impaired mental health (IMH), defined as depression and anxiety with psychoneuroimmunological factors, can play a significant role in RA. The main objective of this research was to investigate the mutual correlation of IMH and RA activity, estimated by the laboratory and clinical parameters in RA patients. An open clinical prospective study that lasted for 6 months was designed. There were 72 patients included, 58 women and 14 men, aged 34 to 80 years and screened for mental health status. The study population was randomized following the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI) scale, comprised of 53 questions with a range from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe). This mental test was done only once during the study. Following the results from the BSI scale, RA patients were divided into mentally stable and mentally unstable patients to investigate the influence of RA activity on mental health. The following laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed: sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and disease activity score (DAS28). All RA patients did not express extra-articular manifestations or Sjögren's syndrome. The chi-square test, ANOVA, Pearson's coefficient, and IBM Statistics - SPSS v19 were used. From a total of 72 RA patients, there were 44 mentally stable and 28 mentally unstable patients. All patients had either moderate or severe active disease. The only significant correlation of IMH and activity of RA was found in CRP and DAS28, but no significance was observed in ESR, RF, and anti-CCP. The DAS28 showed high disease activity with an average of 5.3 and CRP of 20.9 mg/L in patients with unstable mental health compared to stable mental health patients, where RA was associated with a moderate DAS average value of 4.35 and
Sun, Tao; Gao, Lei; Li, Fujun; Shi, Yu; Xie, Fengzhe; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Shue; Liu, Wenhui; Duan, Xiaojian; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Li; Fan, Lihua
Background Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers is known as violence in healthcare settings and referring to the violent acts that are directed towards doctors, nurses or other healthcare staff at work or on duty. Moreover, WPV can cause a large number of adverse outcomes. However, there is not enough evidence to test the link between exposure to WPV against doctors, psychological stress, sleep quality and health status in China. Objectives This study had three objectives: (1) to identify the incidence rate of WPV against doctors under a new classification, (2) to examine the association between exposure to WPV, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health of Chinese doctors and (3) to verify the partial mediating role of psychological stress. Design A cross-sectional online survey study. Setting The survey was conducted among 1740 doctors in tertiary hospitals, 733 in secondary hospital and 139 in primary hospital across 30 provinces of China. Participants A total of 3016 participants were invited. Ultimately, 2617 doctors completed valid questionnaires. The effective response rate was 86.8%. Results The results demonstrated that the prevalence rate of exposure to verbal abuse was the highest (76.2%), made difficulties (58.3%), smear reputation (40.8%), mobbing behaviour (40.2%), intimidation behaviour (27.6%), physical violence (24.1%) and sexual harassment (7.8%). Exposure to WPV significantly affected the psychological stress, sleep quality and self-reported health of doctors. Moreover, psychological stress partially mediated the relationship between work-related violence and health damage. Conclusion In China, most doctors have encountered various WPV from patients and their relatives. The prevalence of three new types of WPV have been investigated in our study, which have been rarely mentioned in past research. A safer work environment for Chinese healthcare workers needs to be provided to minimise health threats, which is a top
Kenealy, Pamela M; Kingdon, Anne; Richmond, Stephen; Shaw, William C
Despite the widespread belief that orthodontics improves psychological well-being and self-esteem, there is little objective evidence to support this (Kenealy et al., 1989a; Shaw, O'Brien, Richmond, & Brook, 1991). A 20 year follow-up study compared the dental and psychosocial status of individuals who received, or did not receive, orthodontics as teenagers. A prospective longitudinal cohort design with four studies of the effect of orthodontic treatment. Secondary analysis of outcome data incorporated orthodontic need at baseline and treatment received in a 2 x 2 factorial design. A multidisciplinary research programme studied a cohort of 1,018, 11-12 year old participants in 1981. Extensive assessment of dental health and psychosocial well-being was conducted; facial and dental photographs and plaster casts of dentition were obtained and rated for attractiveness and pre-treatment need. No recommendations about orthodontic treatment were made, and an observational approach was adopted. At the third follow-up 337 (30-31 year olds) were re-examined in 2001. Participants with a prior need for orthodontic treatment as children who obtained treatment demonstrated better tooth alignment and satisfaction. However when self-esteem at baseline was controlled for, orthodontics had little positive impact on psychological health and quality of life in adulthood. Lack of orthodontic treatment where there was a prior need did not lead to psychological difficulties in later life. Dental status alone was a weak predictor of self-esteem at outcome explaining 8% of the variance. Self-esteem in adulthood was more strongly predicted (65% of the variance) by psychological variables at outcome: perception of quality of life, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, depression, social anxiety, emotional health, and by self-perception of attractiveness. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the observed effect of orthodontic treatment on self esteem at outcome was accounted for by self esteem at
Coretchi, Liubov; Bahnarel, Ion; Ursulean, Ion; Cornescu, Alexandra; Botezatu, Nicolae; Belic, Ghenadie
The study of the effects of health and the psychological and social rehabilitation of the children born in families of 'liquidators' in the period 1996-2010 reveals compromised immune status and the decrease of the main health indicators. The health status of the children is characterized by a high level of general morbidity, primarily psychosomatic, compared with the general population, a significant frequency of the chromosome aberrations are due to the influence of a large number of endogenous and exogenous factors, most significant exposure to irradiation of the father
Scheepers, Renée A
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be facilitated by work engagement and how work engagement is facilitated by job resources and personality traits. First, we conducted a systematic review on the impact of physician work engagement and related constructs (e. g. job satisfaction) on physicians' performance in patient care. We additionally investigated physician work engagement and job resources in relation to patient care experience with physicians' performance at ten outpatient clinics covering two hospitals. In a following multicentre survey involving 61 residency training programs of 18 hospitals, we studied associations between physician work engagement and personality traits with resident evaluations of physicians' teaching performance. The findings showed that physician work engagement was associated with fewer reported medical errors and that job satisfaction was associated with better communication and patient satisfaction. Autonomy and learning opportunities were positively associated with physician work engagement. Work engagement was positively associated with teaching performance. In addition, physician work engagement was most likely supported by personality trait conscientiousness (e. g. responsibility). Given the reported associations of physician work engagement with aspects of their professional performance, hospitals could support physician work engagement in service of optimal performance in residency training and patient care. This could be facilitated by worker health surveillance, peer support or promoting job crafting at the individual or team level.
Parker, Cindy L; Everly, George S; Barnett, Daniel J; Links, Jonathan M
A full-scale public health response to disasters must attend to both the physical and mental health needs of affected communities. Public health preparedness efforts can be greatly expanded to address the latter set of needs, particularly in light of the high ratio of psychological to physical casualties that often rapidly overwhelms existing mental health response resources in a large-scale emergency. Psychological first aid--the provision of basic psychological care in the short term aftermath of a traumatic event--is a mental health response skill set that public health personnel can readily acquire with proper training. The application of psychological first aid by public health workers can significantly augment front-line community-based mental health responses during the crisis phase of an event. To help achieve this augmented response, we have developed a set of psychological first aid intervention competencies for public health personnel. These competencies, empirically grounded and based on best practice models and consensus statements from leading mental health organizations, represent a necessary step for developing a public health workforce that can better respond to the psychological needs of impacted populations in disasters.
Naess, Eva Elisabeth; Bahr, David; Gravholt, Claus H
Turner syndrome (TS) is a complex medical condition with specific cognitive and psychosocial characteristics and frequent medical morbidity. Few studies have investigated the influence this has on health status, education and ability to work. To explore health status, level of education, work participation, medical conditions, physical activity, satisfaction with life and aspects of sexual functioning in adult TS women and compare with a matched control group. A questionnaire was sent to 168 adult women with TS >18 years registered in a database of Frambu Resource Centre for Rare Disorders and The TS Association in Norway. We assessed health status with Short Form 36, education with Norwegian Standard Classification of Education, and employment with The General Nordic Questionnaire. Life satisfaction was measured with LiSat-9, and questions on psychological strain during life phases were included. Eighty women with TS (34.0 +/- 11.7 years) and 214 controls (32.9 +/- 10.6) responded. The TS group reported significantly more health problems and impaired health status in the two subscales "physical functioning" and "general health" (P education and work participation was similar among TS and controls. TS moved away from their parents' home later than controls (20.4 +/- 4.0 vs. 18.7 +/- 2.1, P = 0.001). Age at sexual debut differed significantly (21.2 +/- 4.3 vs. 17.3 +/- 2.4 years, P education and level of employment as controls, they report more frequent occurrence of medical conditions, but scored lower on only two subscales in the SF-36. Despite considerable medical morbidity, TS seem to cope well with life.
Bourne, Paul A
.052-1.455; rural area:), education (secondary: 95%CI=1.167-1.576; tertiary: 95%CI=1.466-2.820; primary or below: OR=1.00), social support (95%CI=0.745-0.964), gender (95%CI=1.281-1.706), psychological affective conditions (negative affective: 95%CI=0.939-0.980; positive affective: 95%CI:1.047-1.107), number of males in household (95%CI:1.066-1.235), number of children in household (95%CI=1.117-1.266) and previous health status. The study concludes that good health status across the three age cohorts can be modelled using data for Jamaicans. Health status is determined by a number of non-biological factors, and that poor health status is difficult to model as a low proportion of the data was correctly classified. Public health requires research with which to make more informed decisions, which means that this study offers an understanding of Jamaicans as well as young adults; middle aged adults and elderly.
Reddy, Kommuri Sahithi; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth; Reddy, Madupu Padma
The sense of coherence (SOC) has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5%) males and 511 (65.5%) females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender ( P = 0.000). The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0) was observed for 67 (24.9%) males and 118 (23.1%) females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale ( r = -0.287). The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status) were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.
address not only the problems of undernutrition, but also to monitor the weight and health ..... women of low socio-economic status were found to be at the greatest risk of an .... Public Health, Harvard University Press. 1996. 2. World Health ...
Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...
Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...
Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...
Mohammad reza khodabakhsh
Full Text Available Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls of Boukan's high schools. The participants were asked to complete psychological well-being inventory and mental health parenting style questionnaire. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results showed that psychological well-being and authoritative parenting styles were significantly related with mental health; also, Permissive parenting styles has significant positive relationship with mental health. The regression analysis indicated that mental health is predictable by psychological well-being and parenting styles. Conclusion: The knowledge of parenting styles and psychological well-being and their relationships with general well-being can provide the significant implications on the provision of students' health. Parenting styles and psychological well-being, as significant variables in general well-being, needs more clinical research.
van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.
The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort
H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS:
Hobbs, Mark; Moor, Catherine; Wansbrough, Tony; Calder, Lester
Approximately 1500 to 1800 applications for refugee status are made to the New Zealand Immigration Service each year. Approximately one third of these asylum seekers receive health screening from Auckland Public Health. We report here key findings from this screening programme for the period 1999 to 2000. The files of patients attending the Auckland Public Health Protection Asylum Seekers Screening Clinic at Green Lane Hospital were reviewed. Data on demographics, medical examination, diagnostic testing and referrals were analysed. Nine hundred people, mainly from Middle Eastern countries, received screening. Important findings were: symptoms of psychological illness (38.4%); Mantoux skin test positivity ( 36.4%); active tuberculosis (0.6%); TB infection requiring chemoprophylaxis (18%) or chest X-ray monitoring (15%); gut parasite infection; carrier state for alpha and beta thalassaemia and the heterozygous states for HbS and HbE; incomplete immunisation; and the need for referral to a secondary care service (32.6%). Immigrant communities in New Zealand have special healthcare needs, as well as experiencing language barriers, cultural differences and economic difficulties. Healthcare providers should be alert to these needs. Appropriate resources are required to address these issues in a timely fashion.
Huang, Yunong; Wong, Hung; Tan, Ngoh Tiong
This study examines the effects of economic loss on the life satisfaction and mental health of Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Economic loss is measured by earthquake impacts on the income and houses of the survivors. The correlation analysis shows that earthquake impact on income is significantly correlated with life satisfaction and depression. The regression analyses indicate that earthquake impact on income is indirectly associated with life satisfaction and depression through its effect on financial strain. The research highlights the importance of coping strategies in maintaining a balance between economic status and living demands for disaster survivors. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
Saltürk, Z; Arslanoğlu, A; Özdemir, E; Yıldırım, G; Aydoğdu, İ; Kumral, T L; Berkiten, G; Atar, Y; Uyar, Y
This study investigated the relationship between psychological well-being and different voice rehabilitation methods in total laryngectomy patients. The study enrolled 96 patients who underwent total laryngectomy. The patients were divided into three groups according to the voice rehabilitation method used: esophageal speech (24 patients); a tracheoesophageal fistula and Provox 2 voice prosthesis (57 patients); or an electrolarynx (15 patients). The participants were asked to complete the Turkish version of the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) to assess voice problems. They were also asked to complete the Turkish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The test scores of the three groups were compared statistically. Patients who used esophageal speech had a mean VHI-10 score of 10.25 ± 3.22 versus 19.42 ± 5.56 and 17.60 ± 1.92 for the tracheoesophageal fistula and Provox 2 and electrolarynx groups respectively, reflecting better perception of their voice. They also had a PSS score of 11.38 ± 3.92, indicating that they felt less stressed in comparison with the tracheoesophageal fistula and Provox 2 and electrolarynx groups, which scored 18.84 ± 5.50 and 16.20 ± 3.49 respectively. The HADS scores of the groups were not different, indicating that the patients' anxiety and depression status did not vary. Patients who used esophageal speech perceived less stress and were less handicapped by their voice.
identify and bring under control at workplaces all health risks; provide ... on the status of occupational safety among hospital workers in Tanzania. ..... The assistance from the IPC/IS. National ... tions of the Healthcare Infection Prevention.
The study of Health Status of Military Women and Men in the Total Force will obtain comprehensive probability-based epidemiological data for women and men across all pay grades for active-duty Army...
Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J
The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.
Full Text Available Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration of post-disaster issues can inform government entities and non-government organizations to assist communities and individuals left in the aftermath of natural disasters.
Recklitis, Christopher J; Zhou, Eric S; Zwemer, Eric K; Hu, Jim C; Kantoff, Philip W
Epidemiological studies have shown prostate cancer (PC) survivors are at an increased risk of suicide compared with the general population, but to the authors' knowledge very little is known regarding what factors are associated with this increased risk. The current study examined the prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI) and its association with cancer treatment and posttreatment physical and emotional health in a cohort of long-term PC survivors. A total of 693 PC survivors (3-8 years after diagnosis) completed a mailed survey on physical and psychological functioning, including cancer treatments, the Short Form-12 (SF-12), the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite Instrument (EPIC-26), a depression rating scale, and 8 items regarding recent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A total of 86 PC survivors (12.4%) endorsed SI, with 10 individuals (1.4%) reporting serious SI. Serious SI was more common in this sample compared with age-adjusted and sex-adjusted normative data. SI was not associated with most demographic variables, or with PC stage or treatments. However, SI was found to be significantly associated with employment status, poor physical and emotional functioning, greater symptom burden on the EPIC-26, higher frequency of significant pain, and clinically significant depression (P physical and emotional function, including disability status and pain, were found to be associated with SI (P depression. A significant percentage of PC survivors report recent SI, which is associated with both physical and psychological dysfunction, but not PC treatments. The results of the current study help to explain the increased risk of suicide previously reported in PC survivors and have important implications for identifying and treating those survivors at greatest risk of suicidality. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Tiffany K. Gill
Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeling angry about their health status may influence disease progression in individuals, creating a greater burden on the health care system. Identifying associations between different variables and feeling angry about health status may assist health professionals to improve health outcomes. This study used path analysis to explore findings from a population-based survey, informed by qualitative descriptions obtained from focus groups, to determine the prevalence of health-related anger within the community and variables associated with reporting health-related anger. Methods A population-based Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI survey of 3003 randomly selected adults Australia-wide was conducted to examine the prevalence of health-related anger. A wide range of other covariates were included in the survey. Multivariable logistic regression and path analysis were undertaken to identify the relationships between different variables associated with feeling angry about the health status of people, to explore the direction of these associations and as a consequence of the results, consider implications for health service use and delivery. Results Overall, 18.5 % of the population reported feeling angry about their health “some of the time”, “most of the time” or “all of the time”. People who felt angry about their health were more likely to have a severe health condition, at least one chronic condition, high psychological distress, fair to poor health status, and needed to adjust their daily lives because of a health condition. Having a tertiary level education was protective. Receiving some form of social support, usually from a support group, and not always doing as advised by a doctor, were also associated with a higher likelihood of being angry about their health. Conclusions People living with significant health problems are more likely to feel angry about their health. The path between illness and
Muraki, S; Tsunawake, N; Hiramatsu, S; Yamasaki, M
To examine whether the psychological benefits of sports activity differ between tetraplegics and paraplegics with spinal cord injury, and investigate the effect of frequency and modes of sports activity on the psychological benefits. The Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Profiles of Mood States (POMS) were administered to 169 male individuals with spinal cord injury (mean age=42.7 years) including 53 tetraplegics and 116 paraplegics. The subjects were divided into four groups according to their frequencies of sports activity; High-active (more than three times a week; n=32), Middle-active (once or twice a week, n=41), Low-active (once to three times a month, n=32), and Inactive (no sports participation, n=64). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in depression for SDS, trait anxiety for STAI and depression and vigor for POMS among the groups. High-active group showed the lowest scores of depression and trait anxiety and the highest score of vigor among the four groups. In contrast, no significant difference was found for any psychological measurements between tetraplegics and paraplegics. In addition, there was no significant difference for any psychological measurements among modes (wheelchair basketball, wheelchair racing, wheelchair tennis and minor modes). These findings demonstrated that sports activity can improve the psychological status, irrespective of tetraplegics and paraplegics, and that the psychological benefits are emphasized by sports activity at high frequency.
Dark-Freudeman, Alissa; West, Robin L
The present study identified middle-aged (ages 40-64) and older individuals (ages 65-90) who reported a highly important possible self related to health. The relationship between age, physical health, health efficacy, and psychological well-being were examined among these individuals. We tested a model in which health efficacy predicted both positive and negative psychological well-being. For both age groups, self-reported health predicted health self-efficacy; however, the direct effects of health efficacy on both positive and negative psychological well-being were also significant. Higher levels of health efficacy were associated with higher levels of positive psychological well-being and lower levels of negative well-being, as predicted. Physical health indirectly predicted well-being through its impact on health self-efficacy for middle-aged and older individuals who valued their health highly. Overall, these results support the notion that health efficacy related to a most important health self is a predictor of psychological well-being in mid and late life. © The Author(s) 2016.
Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara; Graber, Jessica; Karraker, Amelia
The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) measures seven indicators of quality of life (QoL) and psychological health. The measures used for happiness, self-esteem, depression, and loneliness are well established in the literature. Conversely, measures of anxiety, stress, and self-reported emotional health were modified for their use in this unique project. The purpose of this paper is to provide (a) an overview of NSHAP's QoL assessment and (b) evidence for the adequacy of the modified measures. First, we examined the psychometric properties of the modified measures. Second, the established QoL measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the modified measures. Finally, gender- and age-group differences were examined for each modified measure. The anxiety index exhibited good internal reliability and concurrent validity. Consistent with the literature, a single-factor structure best fit the data. Stress was satisfactory in terms of concurrent validity but with only fair internal consistency. Self-reported emotional health exhibited good concurrent validity and moderate external validity. The modified indices used in NSHAP tended to exhibit good internal reliability and concurrent validity. These measures can confidently be used in the exploration of QoL and psychological health in later life and its many correlates.
Mohammad reza khodabakhsh; Fariba kiani; Soliman Ahmedbookani
Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls) of Boukan's hi...
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hines, Lisa D
This study explored the racial disparity of substance dependency and psychological health among White, African American, and Hispanic Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients as well as the relationship between substance dependency and psychological health. It analyzed 1,286 TANF recipients from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. Analysis of variance indicated that Whites were experiencing more nicotine and alcohol dependency and psychological distress than others, but African Americans and Hispanics were experiencing more cocaine dependency than Whites. Ordinary least squares regression revealed that nicotine dependency is significantly related to the psychological distress of Whites. Alcohol dependency is significantly associated with the psychological distress of three groups. Culturally competent programs are suggested.
Li, Lin; Dai, Jia-Xi; Xu, Le; Huang, Zhen-Xia; Pan, Qiong; Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Mei-Yun; Chen, Zhao-Hong
To observe the effect of a rehabilitation intervention on the comprehensive health status of patients with hand burns. Most studies of hand-burn patients have focused on functional recovery. There have been no studies involving a biological-psychological-social rehabilitation model of hand-burn patients. A randomized controlled design was used. Patients with hand burns were recruited to the study, and sixty patients participated. Participants were separated into two groups: (1) The rehabilitation intervention model group (n=30) completed the rehabilitation intervention model, which included the following measures: enhanced social support, intensive health education, comprehensive psychological intervention, and graded exercise. (2) The control group (n=30) completed routine treatment. Intervention lasted 5 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t test were conducted. The rehabilitation intervention group had significantly better scores than the control group for comprehensive health, physical function, psychological function, social function, and general health. The differences between the index scores of the two groups were statistically significant. The rehabilitation intervention improved the comprehensive health status of patients with hand burns and has favorable clinical application. The comprehensive rehabilitation intervention model used here provides scientific guidance for medical staff aiming to improve the integrated health status of hand-burn patients and accelerate their recovery. What does this paper contribute to the wider global clinical community? Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Wilkinson, Ross B.
This paper presents the results of 3 studies examining the relationships of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-esteem to adolescent psychological health. A model is presented in which parental attachment directly influences both psychological health and self-esteem and the influence of peer attachment on psychological health is totally…
Yang, Zhihan; Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yonghong
The present study examines the efficacy of expressive writing among Chinese undergraduates. The sample comprised of 74 undergraduates enrolled in a 9-week intervention (35 in experimental class vs. 39 in control class). The writing exercises were well-embedded in an elective course for the two classes. The 46-item simplified Chinese Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale, which assesses psychological, physical and social health, was adopted to measure the outcome of this study. Baseline (second week) and post-test (ninth week) scores were obtained during the classes. After the intervention on the eighth week, the self-reported psychological, social and physical health of the experimental class improved. Psychological health obtained the maximum degree of improvement, followed by social and physical health. Furthermore, female participants gained more psychological improvement than males. These results demonstrated that the expressive writing approach could improve the physical, social and psychological health of Chinese undergraduates, and the method can be applied in university psychological consulting settings in Mainland China. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Darin-Mattsson, Alexander; Fors, Stefan; Kåreholt, Ingemar
Socioeconomic status has been operationalised in a variety of ways, most commonly as education, social class, or income. In this study, we also use occupational complexity and a SES-index as alternative measures of socioeconomic status. Studies show that in analyses of health inequalities in the general population, the choice of indicators influence the magnitude of the observed inequalities. Less is known about the influence of indicator choice in studies of older adults. The aim of this study is twofold: i) to analyse the impact of the choice of socioeconomic status indicator on the observed health inequalities among older adults, ii) to explore whether different indicators of socioeconomic status are independently associated with health in old age. We combined data from two nationally representative Swedish surveys, providing more than 20 years of follow-up. Average marginal effects were estimated to compare the association between the five indicators of SES, and three late-life health outcomes: mobility limitations, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), and psychological distress. All socioeconomic status indicators were associated with late-life health; there were only minor differences in the effect sizes. Income was most strongly associated to all indicators of late-life health, the associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for the other indicators. In the fully adjusted models, education contributed to the model fits with 0-3% (depending on the outcome), social class with 0-1%, occupational complexity with 1-8%, and income with 3-18%. Our results indicate overlapping properties between socioeconomic status indicators in relation to late-life health. However, income is associated to late-life health independently of all other variables. Moreover, income did not perform substantially worse than the composite SES-index in capturing health variation. Thus, if the primary objective of including an indicator of socioeconomic
Ploeg, E. van der
The risk of high-risk jobs: Psychological health consequences in forensic doctors and ambulance workers This thesis has shown that forensic physicians and ambulance personnel frequently suffer from psychological complaints as a result of dramatic events and sources of chronic work stress. A
Background: Psychological violence has emerged as a priority concern in all workplaces because of its adverse consequences on victims' health. So far, limited research has been conducted on the effect of psychological violence on the five interrelated contexts of human existence. Objectives: This qualitative study ...
Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn
In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.
In 2010, an interorganizational effort among the American Psychological Association, the Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology, and the Council of Chairs of Training Councils, known as the Health Service Psychology Education Collaborative (HSPEC), was initiated to address mounting concerns related to education and training for the professional practice of psychology. Given that professional psychology includes diverse areas of practice and the mounting concerns about psychology's role in a reformed health care system, HSPEC chose to focus on preparation of psychologists for the delivery of health care services and made seven recommendations that constitute the core of a blueprint for the future. These recommendations require significant changes in graduate education-changes critical to the future of psychology as a health profession. As part of its work, HSPEC developed a statement of core competencies for the preparation of health service psychologists, integrating feedback solicited through public comment and review by the psychology community, including education and training councils and APA governance groups. The articulation of these competencies serves to inform not only the preparation of health service psychologists but students, employers, regulators, and policymakers as well. It also reflects the discipline's commitment to quality and accountability in the preparation of its workforce. HSPEC recognizes that its recommendations to strengthen the core preparation and identity of health service psychologists will result in some limitations on degrees of freedom at the program level but believes such limitation to be in the service of coherent and uniform standards for education and training. This blueprint supports the evolution and development of the profession within a scientific context. It supports standards as meaningful, versus minimum, indicators as part of the profession's obligation to the public. The blueprint also calls for the profession
Hymel, Glenn M; Rich, Grant J
Health psychology represents a context within which massage therapy research, education, and practice can be positioned for the mutual benefit of both. Furthermore, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) more often than not plays a mediating role in relating massage therapy to health psychology. On occasion, though, the linkage between health psychology and massage therapy can be quite direct without the mediating influence of CAM. This paper, accordingly, advances a conceptual model via both flowchart and Venn diagram displays for viewing the health psychology context for massage therapy with the possibility of CAM as a mediating factor. Attention is also given to the broad range of issues constituting contemporary health psychology as well as its correspondence to an equally diverse array of client populations and health conditions addressed in massage therapy research. Future directions in the areas of health psychology, CAM, and massage therapy are proposed with a view toward a mutual and reciprocal benefit accruing to these behavioral and health science arenas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng
This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.
Reproductive health is an essential aspect of the wellbeing of adolescents. Therefore reproductive health knowledge and sexual behaviour deservedly attract the attention of researchers, programme planners and policy implementers working with young people. Yet in Nigeria, little is known about the effect of migration ...
Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.
Pyle Donald N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.
Cromby, John; Harper, David J.; Reavey, Paula
One of the limitations on developing more progressive applied psychology\\ud training is the teaching received by students at undergraduate level. In this\\ud study, we focus on the provision of teaching about mental health or its\\ud equivalents (e.g. abnormal psychology and clinical psychology) on UK\\ud undergraduate psychology programmes. Most students who go on to train as\\ud clinical psychologists will have received teaching on modules like these. A\\ud survey questionnaire was sent to 109 u...
Seabra, A C; Seabra, A F; Brito, J
The effects of a 5-month intervention of football instruction and practice on the perceived psychological status and body composition of overweight boys were examined. Twelve boys (8-12 years; body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) participated in a structured 5-month football program, consisting...... of four weekly 60-90 min sessions with mean heart rate > 80%HRmax [football group (FG)]. A control group (CG) included eight boys of equivalent age from an obesity clinic located in the same area as the school. Both groups participated in two sessions of 45-90-min physical education per week at school....... Indicators of perceived psychological status included body image, self-esteem, attraction to participation in physical activity, and perceived physical competence measured with standardized questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. From baseline through 5 months...
Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li
Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the independent influencing factors of health literacy included education level, race, former occupation, household income, age, physical exercise, health examination, smoking, and health information access (p
De Marchi, Renato José; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira
Evidence suggests that older people with partial tooth loss and edentulism change their diet and lack specific nutrients, but few studies have assessed whether poor oral status is associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in independent-living older people. We evaluated if poor oral status was associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in this population. A random sample of 471 south Brazilians > or =60 y of age was evaluated. Measurements included a questionnaire to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, general, and oral health data; nutritional status assessment, according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and oral status assessment, by means of oral examinations assessing the number of teeth and use of dental prostheses. Correlates of risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the MNA were assessed by means of multivariate logistic regression. Participants who reported dissatisfaction with their gingival health and edentulous persons wearing only one denture were more likely to be at risk of malnutrition, according to the screening MNA. Dissatisfaction with gingival health was a risk indicator, whereas having one to eight natural teeth was protective against the risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the full MNA. In the present study, older people with a compromised oral status had higher odds for risk of malnutrition. The maintenance of a few teeth had a crucial role in increasing the chance of maintaining an adequate nutritional status in the studied population. In cases where edentulism was present, complete dental prosthetic use was associated with better nutritional status.
Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Siddanna, Sunitha
One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, Karnataka state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for.
Kazak, Anne E; Derosa, Branlyn Werba; Schwartz, Lisa A; Hobbie, Wendy; Carlson, Claire; Ittenbach, Richard F; Mao, Jun J; Ginsberg, Jill P
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and young adult (AYA) pediatric cancer survivors and peers without a history of serious illness on psychological distress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health beliefs; examine age at diagnosis and cancer treatment intensity on these outcomes; and examine relationships between number of health problems and the outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS AYA cancer survivors (n = 167) and controls (n = 170), recruited during visits to a cancer survivorship clinic and primary care, completed self-report questionnaires of distress, health problems, and health beliefs. For survivors, providers rated treatment intensity and health problems. Results There were no statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in psychological distress or HRQOL. Cancer survivors had less positive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed as adolescents had significantly greater psychological distress and fewer positive health beliefs than those diagnosed earlier. Survivors with the highest level of treatment intensity had greater anxiety and fewer positive health beliefs than those with less intense treatments. Provider report of current health problems related to survivors' beliefs and mental HRQOL only, whereas patient report of health problems correlated significantly with most psychosocial outcomes and beliefs. CONCLUSION AYA cancer survivors did not differ from peers in psychological adjustment but did endorse less adaptive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed during adolescence and who had more intensive cancer treatments evidenced poorer psychosocial outcomes. Beliefs about health may be identified and targeted for intervention to improve quality of life, particularly when patient perceptions of current health problems are considered.
Mewes, Ricarda; Rief, Winfried; Kenn, Klaus; Ried, Jens; Stenzel, Nikola
Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit low physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and high susceptibility to disability. We investigated the influence of psychological factors on HRQL and disability in COPD individuals recruited from the general population. In line with Leventhal's common sense model, we expected psychological factors to be associated with HRQL and disability even after controlling for medical status. Individuals with COPD (n = 502; 59.7 years old; GOLD grades were I: 3%, II: 17%, III: 34%, IV: 46%) were assessed through an online survey administered via COPD patient organisations in Germany. Individuals filled in the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), COPD Assessment Test, Patient Health Questionnaire (modules: GAD-2, PHQ-15, PHQ-9), Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, a questionnaire that assesses causal illness attributions, and the internal illness-related locus of control scale of the 'KKG questionnaire for the assessment of control beliefs about illness and health'. Multiple linear regressions were calculated. The investigated factors explained high variances (disability = 56%, physical HRQL = 28%, mental HRQL = 63%, p ≤ .001). Better mental health, more optimistic illness perceptions, attribution to psychological causes, and stronger internal locus of control were associated with lower disability and better HRQL. Comorbid somatic symptoms contributed to high disability and low quality of life. Psychological factors, such as illness perception, attribution and internal locus of control, were associated with disability and HRQL. These factors should be considered when designing treatments for individuals with COPD, and adequate interventions should be provided to enhance illness understanding and self-management skills.
Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Morin, Charles M; Lavoie, André
To compare the long-term psychological functioning of 3 groups of survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI): (1) those who report being regularly active either by working or studying, (2) those who are not competitively employed but are active volunteers, and (3) those who report neither working, studying, nor volunteering. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE: Two hundred eight participants aged 16 years and older with minor to severe TBI were classified as (1) Working/Studying (N = 78), (2) Volunteering (N = 54), or (3) Nonactive (N = 76). Measures of psychological distress (anxiety, depression, cognitive disturbance, irritability/anger), fatigue, sleep disturbance, and perception of pain. Survivors of TBI who report being active through work, studies, or volunteering demonstrate a significantly higher level of psychological adjustment than persons who report no activity. Even among participants who are unable to return to work and are declared on long-term disability leave, those who report engaging in volunteer activities present significantly better psychological functioning than participants who are nonactive. Volunteering is associated with enhanced psychological well-being and should be encouraged following TBI.
Curtis, Sarah; Setia, Maninder S; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie
The paper reviews arguments that associations between small area socio-economic conditions and individual health are likely to vary according to the type of health condition considered. We comment on the importance of longitudinal research to examine how far area conditions predict later health outcomes, and also how far area variations in health may result from selective migration processes predicted by health status. Using data for 1996 and 2002, from the National Population Health Survey of Canada, linked to small area data on social and on material deprivation in the area of residence for 6950 survey respondents at the two time points, we report on analyses to address these questions. The area measures of material and social deprivation were previously developed by Pampalon and colleagues at the Institut National de Santé Publique de Québec and related to the dissemination area matching the informant's postal code. The health outcomes considered were restriction of activity due to chronic conditions and psychological distress. Our findings suggest that individuals living in materially deprived areas in 2002 were more likely to be affected by health conditions resulting in restriction of activity. Prevalence of psychological distress was higher in areas with greater social deprivation in 2002. Most of these area differences were attenuated when adjustment was made for individual socio-demographic characteristics. Measures recorded in 1996 of individual characteristics and measures of deprivation for area of residence were used to predict change in health outcomes by 2002. Several individual factors (sex, age group, income, household composition) in 1996 were predictive of later health outcomes. After controlling for these individual characteristics the only significant association between health change and area deprivation was with development of restricted activity, which was more common among people who, in 1996, had lived in areas that ranked moderately
Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.
Haslam, N; Lusher, D
Psychiatry and clinical psychology are the two dominant disciplines in mental health research, but the structure of scientific influence and information flow within and between them has never been mapped. Citations among 96 of the highest impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals were examined, based on 10 052 articles published in 2008. Network analysis explored patterns of influence between journal clusters. Psychiatry journals tended to have greater influence than clinical psychology journals, and their influence was asymmetrical: clinical psychology journals cited psychiatry journals at a much higher rate than the reverse. Eight journal clusters were found, most dominated by a single discipline. Their citation network revealed an influential central cluster of 'core psychiatry' journals that had close affinities with a 'psychopharmacology' cluster. A group of 'core clinical psychology' journals was linked to a 'behavior therapy' cluster but both were subordinate to psychiatry journals. Clinical psychology journals were less integrated than psychiatry journals, and 'health psychology/behavioral medicine' and 'neuropsychology' clusters were relatively peripheral to the network. Scientific publication in the mental health field is largely organized along disciplinary lines, and is to some degree hierarchical, with clinical psychology journals tending to be structurally subordinate to psychiatry journals.
Hye-Sook Shin, PhD, RN
Conclusion: The study found cultural characteristics of middle-aged Korean women in psychologic distress. Health care providers should consider marital satisfaction, self-actualization, nutrition, and interpersonal relations, in particular, among Korean middle-aged women.
Hibbard, J H; Pope, C R
This study examines the characteristics of jobs held by women as compared to men during the 1970s and assesses associations between job characteristics and family status with health status by sex. Sex differences in perceptions about the meaning of work, commitment to the work role, and stresses and rewards are considered. Survey data on 1490 employed men and women, ages 18-64, drawn from a random sample of enrollees of a large health maintenance organization in 1970-71 are linked with medical record data covering seven years of outpatient and inpatient services. The findings suggest important differences in the characteristics of jobs held by men and women and in the relative importance of these job characteristics in relation to health. Men held jobs with higher quality intrinsic work characteristics and perceived their jobs to be less stressful and less physically and mentally tiring than did women. Social support and integration through work and occupational status were significantly related to health status for both sexes, however, family responsibilities interact with job characteristics to affect health status for women. Single motherhood, in combination with low social support and integration through work, was related to poor health among women.
Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A
A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.
Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants attending child welfare clinics of a teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Maternal older age, multiparity and delivery at a government health facility were positively associated with higher rates of EBF (p < 0.05). Only 110 (48.2%) babies were put to the breast ...
Rajan, R.; Satyanarayan, C.; Raghunathan, C.; Koya, S.S.; Ravindran, J.; Manikandan, B.; Venkataraman, K.
Status of reef health incorporating species-wise cover of scleractinians has been reported covering 61 stations in 29 reef locations of the four major reef regions in India as of March 2011, alongside a review of available reef health data since...
population's smoking status, their knowledge of the health ... the highest smoking rates are the Northern Cape (55%), ... expense of tobacco products and because of a medical ... tobacco excise tax if the money is used for health .... Although not shown in ... (35%) and cost of tobacco products (17%). ..... International tourist.
Gulis, Gabriel; Mulumba, J.A.A.; Juma, Olivia; Kakosova, Beatrica
The objective of this study was to describe the health status of people living in the slums of Nairobi. It was designed as a cross-sectional study based on data from visitors at a clinic at Trnava University located in Mukuru slum in Nairobi. There were about 16,000 visits registered at Mary Immaculate Clinic of Trnava University in Nairobi during 2 years of operation. A random 5% sample was drawn from the paper-card database of this clinic to assess basic characteristics and health complaints of visitors. Both self-reported health complaints and diagnoses written by physicians were used to assess health status of participants. More females with average age (by slum) ranging from 20.46 to 21.30 years than males with average age ranging from (by slum) 15.86 to 19.49 years are the visitors of the clinic. The major self-reported health complaints of visitors were cough, abdominal pain, and headache for both sexes. The most frequent diagnoses were consequently virosis, acute respiratory infections, and bronchitis. Differences in health complaints by slums were observed and are described herein. The major health complaints and diagnoses in addition to the differences in health complaints and diagnoses by slum show that environmental conditions can have major influences on health status. Therefore, environmental improvements are important in the improvement of health status. A very high prevalence of respiratory complaints and gastrointestinal problems signify that improvements in air pollution reduction, drinking water provision, and waste management in slums can lead to more significant and sustainable improvements in health status than just simple treatment. This fact should be taken into account when planning future relief programs
Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R
The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the relationships between roles, acculturation, and perceived health status among 47 FA grandparent caregivers who were providing extensive caregiving to their grandchildren. Role satisfaction was significantly related to perceived health status. Role occupancy was significantly related to years lived in the U.S. and employment. Role integration and role stress were significantly related to gender and income. Acculturation was significantly related to role involvement, years lived in the U.S., language spoken, and education. The findings of this health disparities research study will lead to more contextual work in this area of study.
Woo, Bongki; Wang, Kaipeng; Tran, Thanh
Racial and ethnic minorities often suffer from poorer health than Whites given their exposure to more stressors and fewer resources that buffer the effects of stress. Given that alcohol is often consumed to alleviate the negative moods, the present study hypothesized that psychological distress may impact the involvement in binge drinking differently across racial and ethnic groups. We used data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2007 to 2012. The sample consisted of 130,556 adults including African Americans (N=6541), Asians (N=13,508), Latinos (N=18,128), and Whites (N=92,379). Binary logistic regression analysis was used with consideration for complex survey design. The results indicated that psychological distress was significantly associated with binge drinking across all racial and ethnic groups. However, this association differed by race and ethnicity adjusting for age, gender, marital status, education, poverty, and employment status. The results revealed that psychological distress had the largest effect on binge drinking for Asian Americans, particularly Filipinos and South Asians, compared to Whites. This study highlights the importance of examining racial and ethnic differences in the impacts of psychological distress on alcohol consumption. Future research is needed to better understand the potential factors that mediate the effects of psychological distress on binge drinking specific to each racial and ethnic group in order to develop culturally sensitive interventions and hence decrease the alcohol-related racial health disparities. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shafran, Roz; Bennett, Sophie D.; McKenzie Smith, Mhairi
There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a ‘holistic’ and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs. Such holistic approaches are characterized by the treatment of the whole person, taking into account mental and social factors, rather than just the symptoms of a disease. Holistic approaches can impact on mental and physical health and are cost-effective. Several psychological interventions have...
Dollard, Maureen; Bakker, Arnold
textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety. Using the job demands-resources framework, we hypothesized that PSC as an upstream organizational resource influenced largely by senior management, would precede the work context (i.e., job demand...
Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Petersen, Anders; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers
The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress and mental health, after controlling for age, gender, income, socioeconomic occupational class, stressful life events, and social desirability (β = 0.32-.42, ps health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Doumit, Jacqueline H; Nasser, Ramzi N; Hanna, Dimitri R
This study described the differences between elderly men and women living in Lebanese long-term care nursing homes on socio-economic, health and nutritional status. This study used a cross-sectional design. Field researchers obtained data from 221 residents; 148 (67%) women and 73 (33%) men, living in 36 nursing homes. Data on health conditions; nutritional, psychological, and functional status; socio-demographic characteristics, as well as social relations were collected. The analysis used both chi-square and t-test tests. The majority of elderly had low socio-economic and poor health status. In comparison to men, women were significantly less educated, had lower occupational status, had no partner, relied financially on their children and relatives, and enjoyed better social relations and health behaviours. Furthermore, the prevalence of both; malnutrition, and at risk of malnutrition, were at 3.2% and 27.6% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between women and men on Mini Nutritional Assessment, Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, Body Mass Index, and chronic diseases. While women reported "good" health status compared to men, they continued to have higher prevalence of diseases and chronic pain. This study explored the socio-demographic, health, and nutritional status of elderly residing in Lebanese nursing homes and compared these characteristics across gender. The results indicated the need of health support and institutional interventions for elderly women residents.
Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Lee, Kheng Hock; Low, Lian Leng
It is well-established that low socioeconomic status (SES) influences one's health status, morbidity and mortality. Housing type has been used as an indicator of SES and social determinant of health in some studies. In Singapore, home ownership is among the highest in the world. Citizens who have no other housing options are offered heavily subsidised rental housings. Residents staying in such rental housings are characterised by low socioeconomic status. Our aim is to review studies on the association between staying in public rental housing in Singapore and health status. A PubMed and Scopus search was conducted in January 2017 to identify suitable articles published from 1 January 2000 to 31 January 2017. Only studies that were done on Singapore public rental housing communities were included for review. A total of 14 articles including 4 prospective studies, 8 cross-sectional studies and 2 retrospective cohort studies were obtained for the review. Topics addressed by these studies included: (1) Health status; (2) Health seeking behaviour; (3) Healthcare utilisation. Staying in public rental housing was found to be associated with poorer health status and outcomes. They had lower participation in health screening, preferred alternative medicine practitioners to western-trained doctors for primary care, and had increased hospital utilisation. Several studies performed qualitative interviews to explore the causes of disparity and concern about cost was one of the common cited reason. Staying in public rental housing appears to be a risk marker of poorer health and this may have important public health implications. Understanding the causes of disparity will require more qualitative studies which in turn will guide interventions and the evaluation of their effectiveness in improving health outcome of this sub-population of patients.
Van Son, M A C; De Vries, J; Roukema, J A; Gosens, T; Verhofstad, M H J; Den Oudsten, B L
The aim of this prospective study was to describe the course of health status (HS), health-related quality of life, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with lower extremity fractures (LEF) up to 6 months post-fracture. Patients (n = 171; age range 18-100 years) completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instrument-Bref (WHOQOL-Bref) and the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire (SMFA) at time of diagnosis (i.e., pre-injury status), 1 week, and 6 months post-fracture. Linear mixed modeling was performed. Interaction effects of time with treatment were detected for the WHOQOL-Bref facet Overall QOL and General health (p = .002) and Physical health (p = .003). Patients did not return to their pre-injury Physical health, Psychological health, and Environment 6 months post-fracture (p choice of the questionnaire influences the derived conclusions. LEF did not affect satisfaction with social relationships.
Weinstein, A; Dinur Klein, L; Dannon, P N
Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers—sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)—in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers.
Macleod, Catriona; Chiweshe, Malvern; Mavuso, Jabulile
Taking a feminist health psychology approach, we conducted a systematic review of published research on abortion featured in PsycINFO over a 7-year period. We analysed the 39 articles included in the review in terms of countries in which the research was conducted, types of research, issues covered, the way the research was framed and main findings. Despite 97 per cent of abortions performed in Africa being classifiable as unsafe, there has been no engagement in knowledge production about abortion in Africa from psychologists, outside of South Africa. Given this, we outline the implications of the current knowledge base for feminism, psychology and feminist health psychology in Africa.
Apolinar Membrillo Luna
Full Text Available Family Health (FH has three main elements: individual health, life material conditions and family functioning. Its main actors are the individual, the family and society. A common framework is the basis of FH, as each one of these elements is extremely important. Currently, in Mexico two aspects are considered: epidemiological studies and those inherent to the family medicine specialty. That latter has a residency and an integrated specialty curriculum, as well as certification from the corresponding board. All of this allows us to apply the HF approach to each and every family and individual that is cared for.
Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W
Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims.
Wright, Breanna; Forbes, Andrew; Kelsall, Helen; Clarke, David; Ikin, Jill; Sim, Malcolm
Understanding how veterans appraise their post-deployment experiences could provide insight into better assisting their deployment transitions. We aimed to assess the factor structure of positive and negative post-deployment appraisals in Australian veterans and to examine the resultant factors in their relationship with military stress and psychological health. Questions capturing post-deployment attitudes were developed by the researchers in collaboration with veterans. The questions were administered to 1938 veterans and the results factor analysed. The relationships between post-deployment appraisal, military stress and psychological health were examined using Structural Equation Modelling. A three-factor solution was found for the post-deployment appraisal questions; representing personal development, lack of recognition, and appreciation of life and country. Military stress was associated with the three factors and psychological health. The three factors were weakly to moderately associated with psychological health. Mediation between military stress and psychological health by any post-deployment appraisal factor was minimal. Post-deployment appraisal measures three important attitudes and concerns of veterans after deployment. Military stress is associated with the post-deployment appraisal factors. However, the factors did not mediate the relationship between military stress and psychological health. These factors provide insight into how veterans appraise their complex array of post-deployment experiences, and may provide useful in regard to transitions and integration into civilian life.
Full Text Available The psychological impact on patients suffering radical cystectomy is twofold - (both that of the underlying neoplastic disease and that measured by the quality of life subsequent to surgery and increases as the urinary derivation technique is less physiological and affects more the local anatomy. Although there are numerous questionnaires that assess the quality of life of patients with cancer (HRQoL - health related QoL, not many probe bladder cancer morbidity or correlate the different types of urinary diversions’ impact on QoL (quality of life. We analyzed 39 cases in our clinic who underwent radical cystectomy between August 2013 and August 2014. Different diversions were performed, as follows: for 24 patients a cutaneous ureterostomy was performed, in 10 cases a Mainz II pouch, in 3 cases a Bricker derivation and in 2 patients a Studer neobladder was performed. In these patients, QoL - Cancer Version and FACT-BL questionnaires were administered and were followed for an initial period of 2 years. According to our survey, the Bricker derivation is best tolerated, followed by neobladder and the Mainz II pouch.
Bacchus, Loraine; Mezey, Gillian; Bewley, Susan
To examine the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) and its associations with obstetric complications and psychological health in women on antenatal and postnatal wards. A cross-sectional survey conducted in an inner-London teaching hospital. Two hundred English-speaking women aged 16 and over, were interviewed between July 2001 and April 2002. The Abuse Assessment Screen was used to assess for experiences of DV. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The analysis of predictors of obstetric complications grouped together those known to be associated with DV. 23.5% of women had lifetime experience of DV, 3% during the current pregnancy. Women with a history of DV were significantly more likely to be single, separated or in non-cohabiting relationship and to have smoked in the year prior to and/or during pregnancy. Higher EPDS scores were significantly associated with DV, single, separated or non-cohabiting status, and obstetric complications. Both a history of DV and increased EPDS scores were significantly associated with obstetric complications after controlling for other known risk factors. Domestic violence is regarded as an important risk marker for the development of obstetric complications and depressive symptomatology. This finding of itself justifies training and education of maternity health professionals to raise awareness.
Sampson, James P., Jr., Ed.; Bullock-Yowell, Emily, Ed.; Dozier, V. Casey, Ed.; Osborn, Debra S., Ed.; Lenz, Janet G., Ed.
This publication is based on the 2016 Society for Vocational Psychology (SVP) Biennial Conference, that was held at the Florida State University on May 16-17, 2016. The conference theme was "Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Vocational Psychology." The conference content and the resulting edited book are based on the…
Lum, O M
The elder Asian or Pacific-Island American presents a dynamic, interactive paradigm of forces beyond medical practice that includes religious, societal, and historical factors of delivering health care. The cultural characteristics of family and function, perception of time and healing, and the anthropologic factors of health beliefs on health behaviors can add to understanding our medical patients. Some important trends of environmental factors on expression of genetic predisposition to certain illnesses, such as diabetes and gout, can be used in health prevention. The significance of diet on certain cancers can be better understood using nativity factors. Many of the mental illnesses borne by immigrants can be recognized and treated. Significant clinical research directions imply an ability of American medicine to target at-risk Asians and Pacific Islanders for specific prevention and early diagnoses. The base knowledge of differential physiologic changes for aging and disease due to genetic predisposition and the correlates of social, cultural, and behavioral factors of diseases can then be improved.
program; medical supported • Doctrine signed Dec 2010 • Training: > 200,000 trained to date • 8 courses on Navy eLearning • Formal curriculum delivered...Address future concerns and build psychological resiliency 10 Reserve Resilience Initiatives 2011 MHS Conference NSW Resilience Enterprise Resilience
Eman A. Abdel-Aziz
Jan 31, 2014 ... icant positive correlations between BMISDS and each of anxiety (r = 0.81, ... atively with BMI, also they are more susceptible to anxiety and depression symptoms than non ... sional construct, and includes physical , emotional, social, ..... psychological hunger) and may contribute to this complicated.
Spahn, Claudia; Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark
The aim of this investigation was to analyze longitudinal data concerning physical and psychological health, playing-related problems, and preventive behavior among music students across their complete 4- to 5-year study period. In a longitudinal, observational study, we followed students during their university training and measured their psychological and physical health status and preventive behavior using standardized questionnaires at four different times. The data were in accordance with previous findings. They demonstrated three groups of health characteristics observed in beginners of music study: healthy students (cluster 1), students with preclinical symptoms (cluster 2), and students who are clinically symptomatic (cluster 3). In total, 64% of all students remained in the same cluster group during their whole university training. About 10% of the students showed considerable health problems and belonged to the third cluster group. The three clusters of health characteristics found in this longitudinal study with music students necessitate that prevention programs for musicians must be adapted to the target audience.
Dewake, Nanae; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sakai, Rie; Yamada, Shima; Nima, Yuko; Tomoe, Miki; Kakuta, Satoko; Iwasaki, Masanori; Soh, Inho; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Ansai, Toshihiro
Sense of coherence (SOC) is a measurement of ability of an individual to cope with psychological stress and remain in good health. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among SOC score, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults using path analysis. We enrolled 53 older adults (17 men and 36 women) who were attending a day care service (mean age 80.4 ± 6.5 years). SOC was assessed using a 13-item, seven-scale instrument. Oral health status (number of present teeth, denture use) and nutritional status (assessed with Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form) were also evaluated. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship of SOC with other related factors, including care need level. The mean SOC score was 57.0 ± 13.9. Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form results showed that one participant (1.8%) was malnourished, 26 (49.1%) were at risk of malnutrition and 26 (49.1%) had normal nutritional status. Participants with high SOC scores showed a strong positive attitude, had a relatively large number of teeth, were in good nutritional condition and showed low care need levels. The present results showed that maintaining a high SOC level and good oral health help to reduce care need levels in older adults, and also prevent a worsening of their nutritional condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2083-2088. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Intergenerational and cross-cultural differences in emotional wellbeing, mental health service utilisation, treatment-seeking preferences and acceptability of psychological treatments for Arab Australians.
Kayrouz, Rony; Dear, Blake F; Johnston, Luke; Keyrouz, Liliane; Nehme, Edmond; Laube, Roy; Titov, Nickolai
Little is known about the intergenerational and cross-cultural differences in emotional wellbeing and acceptability of psychological treatments for Arab Australians. To contribute to the emerging data about the mental health status and needs of Arab Australians. An Internet survey examined psychological distress and functional impairment as measured by the Kessler 10 Item scale (K-10) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) among Arab Australians. Additional questions enquired about their help-seeking behaviours, barriers to accessing psychological treatments and preferences for delivery of psychological treatments. A total of 252 participants were recruited through public talks, media and online promotions. Forty-three percent of the respondents reported moderate-to-severe functional impairment (M = 9.5; standard deviation (SD) = 1.8), 32% reported high psychological distress (M = 28.5; SD = 5.4) and 30% were born overseas. First-generation Arab Australians experiencing high psychological distress (i.e. K-10 ≥ 22), reported a greater preference for Internet-delivered treatment when compared to their second-generation counterparts. Only 18% of the sample reported seeking help from a mental health professional in the past year. The significant barriers reported by respondents with high psychological distress were poor mental health literacy, lack of time and stigma. Respondents preferred face-to-face (90%) over Internet-delivered treatment (55%). Finally, Arab Australians experienced higher psychological distress and underutilised mental health services when compared to the Australian population. Targeted public health campaigns that make culturally relevant interventions such as modifying existing Internet-delivered treatment for Arab Australians may reduce barriers and increase treatment options for this population. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A; Sheffler, Julia; Arce, Darleine; Rushing, Nicole C; Corsentino, Elizabeth
Older adults who have experienced traumatic events earlier in life may be especially vulnerable to additional challenges associated with aging. In a cross-sectional study of older females, the present study examines whether a history of rape is associated with current psychological and health problems. This study used existing data from the female respondents (N = 1228) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a national probability sample of adults between the ages of 57 and 85 interviewed in their homes. It was determined whether or not the participant experienced forced sexual contact since the age of 18. Measures of psychological health (e.g., scales of depression, anxiety, and loneliness), the presence or absence of a number of serious health problems, and a one-item measure of self-esteem were obtained. Adult rape occurred in 7% of the sample. On average, 36 years had elapsed since the rape had occurred. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), rape was associated with lower self-esteem, psychological, and physical health functioning. Self-esteem partially mediated the association between rape and psychological functioning, but not health functioning. These associations were significant even after controlling for participant characteristics and risky health behaviors. Mechanisms linking prior rape to psychological and health problems in older age are discussed, as well as treatment recommendations for symptomatic older adults.
Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors
Full Text Available The family and its function as a social institution has an important role in children’s psychological development. The Aim of this study is to investigate the relations of family functioning and the level of psychological basic needs of adolescents with their mental health. Research design is descriptive -correlational and the sample has been recruited from four military areas in Tehran city via simple random sampling method. A total number of 200 families with their youth (14 to 22 year old completed three questionnaires: Family Assessment Device (FAD, Psychological Needs Questionnaire (PNQ, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. The resultsindicate that there are significant correlations between family functionig subscales and mental health of their adolescences. Other finding show that low family functioning has negative correlation with psychological basic needs (including three subscales: competence, autonomy, and relatednessof adolescents. We discuss the results in the light of previous findings and provide suggestions to improve family function.
Wann, Daniel L; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship between team identification and well-being, earlier studies focused solely on college student populations. The current study extended past work in this area by investigating the team identification/well-being relationship among older sport fans. A sample of older adults (N = 96; M age = 70.82) completed scales assessing demographics, identification with a local college basketball team, and measures of social psychological well-being. As hypothesized, team identification accounted for a significant proportion of unique variance in two measures of social psychological health (collective self-esteem and loneliness).
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to outline the concept of emotional health and its integrative potential in the field of clinical psychology. It is a well-known fact that the transdiagnostic approach and psychotherapy integration – the two most influential integrative movements in clinical psychology – search for a sound conceptual foundation of the efforts to organize a plethora of theories and data relating to the psychological aspects of physical and mental health. Following a short presentation of general discrepancies afflicting clinical psychology and the main ideas of both the transdiagnostic approach and psychotherapy integration, the notion of emotional health is introduced and its unifying convenience, as well as limitations, is discussed.
Kornienko, D S; Kozlov, A I; Otavina, M L
Self-assessment of health is the one out of the most important characteristics, which gives an idea about the health of the respondent as a psychophysiological continuum. The purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between indices of self-rated health and characteristics of the psychological well-being. Sample 344 young adults - students at an average age of 20.9 ± 1.6 years. Methods. “Self-assessment of health” questionnaire was used; MOSSF36 questionnaire and “Psychological wellbeing scale” developed by K. Riff. Respondents were divided into groups: (1) without chronic diseases; (2) having one or more chronic diseases of any etiology. Results. The presence of chronic diseases was shown to negatively effect on the self-estimation of physical and psychological state. The significant positive correlation (p psychological wellbeing as unrelated to each other characteristics. In contrast, in cases with even mild chronic health problems there is pronounced the relationship between somatic and psychological health, which forms a complex of physical and psychological factors determining the general state of a person.
Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Perry, Brea L
With increasing rates of obesity in the United States, attention to life chances and psychological consequences associated with weight stigma and weight-based discrimination has also intensified. While research has demonstrated the negative effects of weight-based discrimination on mental health, little is known about whether different social groups are disproportionately vulnerable to these experiences. Drawing on the modified labelling theory, the focus of this paper is to investigate the psychological correlates of body weight and self-perceived weight-based discrimination among American women at the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Analyses use data from the National Health Measurement Study (NHMS), a national multi-stage probability sample of non-institutional, English-speaking adults, ages 35 to 89 in 2005-2006. Our findings demonstrate that the effect of weight-based discrimination on psychological well-being is highly contingent on social status. Specifically, the psychological consequences of discrimination on Hispanic women and women in the lowest household income group is significantly greater relative to White women and women with higher household income, controlling for obesity status and self-rated health. These results suggest that higher social status has a buffering effect of weight stigma on psychological well-being. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Gan, Wan Ying; Yeoh, Wei Ching
Intuitive eating, which can be defined as reliance on physiological hunger and satiety cues to guide eating, has been proposed as a healthy weight management strategy. To date, there has not been a published study on intuitive eating in the context of Malaysia. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aims to determine associations between body weight status, psychological well-being and disordered eating behaviors with intuitive eating among undergraduate university students. A total of 333 undergraduate respondents (21.3% males and 78.7% females) from three randomly selected faculties in a public university in Malaysia participated in this study. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire which featured socio-demographic characteristics, intuitive eating, self-esteem, body appreciation, general unconditional acceptance, body acceptance by others, body function and disordered eating. Body weight, height, body fat percentage and waist circumference were measured. The results from this study revealed that there was no difference (t = 0.067, p = 0.947) in intuitive eating scores between males (75.69 ± 7.16) and females (75.62 ± 7.90). Multiple linear regression results have shown that body appreciation (β = 0.385, p < 0.001) and disordered eating (β = -0.168, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of intuitive eating, which accounted for 19.6% of the variance in intuitive eating. Health promotion programs should highlight the importance of enhancing body appreciation and preventing disordered eating behaviors among university students in order to promote intuitive eating as one of the healthy weight management approaches.
Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work-Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has an estimated one million orphans, 250,000 are due to AIDS parental deaths. This is the first study that examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS status and death on the mental health of children in Ghana. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, 4 groups of 200 children (children whose parents died of AIDS, children whose parents died of causes other than AIDS, children living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS, and non-orphaned children whose parents are not known to be infected with HIV/AIDS aged between 10 and 19 were interviewed on their hyperactivity, emotional, conduct, and peer problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Children whose parents died of AIDS showed very high levels of peer problems [F (3,196 = 7.34, p Conclusion Orphans and children living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS are at heightened risks for emotional and behavioural disorders and that efforts to address problems in children affected by HIV/AIDS must focus on both groups of children. Parallel to this, researchers should see these findings as generated hypotheses (rather than conclusions calling for further exploration of specific causal linkages between HIV/AIDS and children's mental health, using more rigorous research tools and designs.
Versteeg, Henneke; Spek, Viola; Pedersen, Susanne S.
Background: Knowledge of the factors associated with individual differences in patient-reported outcomes is essential to identify high-risk patients and improve secondary prevention. Design: In this meta-analysis, we examined the association between Type D personality and the individual differences...... in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and health...... status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was associated...
Vernberg, Eric M; Hambrick, Erin P; Cho, Bridget; Hendrickson, Michelle L
Positive psychology concepts and principles can be incorporated into preparedness, crisis response, and recovery phases of disaster mental health efforts to address the needs of children, adolescents, and families. This article articulates general developmental considerations for applying positive psychology in disaster mental health contexts and discusses how 5 essential elements of immediate and midterm mass trauma intervention identified by Hobfoll et al. (2007) may be infused in applications of positive psychology for children and adolescents. Specific strategies for working with children, adolescents, and their families in home, community, and school contexts are drawn in part from disaster mental health resources developed jointly by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, including the Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide (Brymer et al., 2006), the Skills for Psychological Recovery Field Operations Guide (Berkowitz et al., 2010), and the Psychological First Aid for Schools Field Operations Manual (Brymer et al., 2012). Two case examples illustrate the use of positive psychology principles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony
This study investigates the impact of HIV diagnosis on subjective social status and if changes are linked to health outcomes. Two measures of subjective social status, socio-economic and standing in the community were examined in 342 Australian HIV-positive gay men in 2014. Participants recalled ratings at diagnosis were compared with current ratings. Self-reported mental (psychological distress, self-esteem, positive mental health and satisfaction with life) and physical health (self-rated health, CD4 count, viral load). Half of the participants reported improvements in subjective socio-economic status (59%) or standing in the community (52%) since diagnosis, yet one quarter reported socio-economic status (25%) or standing in the community had decreased (23%). Increases in either measure of subjective social status were linked to higher self-esteem, positive mental health, satisfaction with life and better self-rated health. Decreases in subjective social status, however, were strongly linked to poorer outcomes on all mental health measures. Decreases in standing in the community were also associated with poorer physical self-rated health. Most participants reported their subjective social status were the same or better since diagnosis. Changes in subjective social status following diagnosis were strongly linked to mental health outcomes. Those who reported a decrease in subjective social status were particularly vulnerable to mental health problems.
Krasnyanskaya, T M; Tylets, V G
The present work was designed to address the problem of ensuring the psychological security in the framework of organization of the rehabilitative treatment based at the spa and health resort facilities. We undertook the questionnaire study for which 650 subjects were recruited among those attending spa and health resort facilities of the cities of Essentuki and Kislovodsk. The participants were asked to estimate the level of their personal security and the quality of the provided means for the rehabilitative treatment and general health improvement. It was found that as many as 43% of the respondents reported the moderate level of psychological security whereas about 30% of them estimated the level of their psychological security as low. Overall, the attitude toward the available means for health improvement and rehabilitation proved extremely variable. The factorial analysis has demonstrated the highly subjective opinions of the responders as regards the provided services categorized in terms of therapeutic (mineral water, preformed physical factors, peloid and dietary therapy), health improvement (herbal medicine, therapeutic physical training, therapy, bioclimatic therapy), and recreational (animation, excursion and touristic activities) factors. The value of these factors was perceived differently by the vacationers with different feelings of psychological security. Those reporting the high level of psychological security demonstrated the positive attitude toward all factors and circumstances available for the general improvement of the health status whereas the holidaymakers reporting the moderate level of personal psychological security exhibited the non-equivalent attitude toward the provided services; namely, they highly estimated the available therapeutic factors but either underestimated the value of the constituent components of the health improving and recreational factors or demonstrated the very selective attitude toward their assessment. Generally
Listen as Dr. Machell Town, a branch chief and statistician with CDC's Division of Population Health, talks about her team's study on self-perceived health and reported mental distress among working-aged adults.
Xiao, Hong; Barber, Janet P
To examine the effect of perceived health status on three components of patient satisfaction. The Household Component of the 1999 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for people 35-64 years of age was used to examine the effect of perceived health status on patient satisfaction measured in terms of access to care, provider quality and quality of care. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were used to describe the subjects and to examine the relationship between patient satisfaction and perceived health status controlling for patient demographic factors, health factors and provider characteristics. All analyses used STATA 8.0 which is designed to analyze weighted data. A total of 4,417 patients (71% women) met the inclusion criteria for the study. Patients who rated their health excellent or good scored higher on the three dimensions of patient satisfaction. Higher scores on one or more components of patient satisfaction were associated with being older, married, better educated and having higher income, health insurance and good mental health. Seeing the health-care provider for an old problem resulted in lower levels of patient satisfaction. Provider characteristics significantly related to patient satisfaction were listening to the patient, being a specialist, seeing patients in an office setting and being located in the South. This study has shown that patient satisfaction is influenced by a person's self-perceived health status and other personal characteristics that are external to the delivery of health care. These findings suggest that patient satisfaction data should be used judiciously because a significant portion of the variation may be attributed to factors endogenous to the patient and therefore are not amenable to provider intervention.
Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Casimiro, Antonio J; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel
To characterize a representative sample of fibromyalgia women based on a set of relevant factors known to be related to this disease. To distinguish specific factors of the disease from other symptoms that might also exist in non-fibromyalgia women. To test whether fibromyalgia affects more severely physical or psychological outcomes. A total of 459 fibromyalgia women vs. 214 non-fibromyalgia (control) women from Southern Spain (Andalusia) took part in this cross-sectional study. Several instruments were used to assess tenderness, impact of fibromyalgia, fatigue, health-related quality of life, mental health, and cognitive performance. Overall, fibromyalgia women showed a worse status in pain, fatigue, health-related quality of life, depression, and anxiety than controls (P fibromyalgia and controls were observed in cognitive and memory performance, except for delayed recall, but the observed effect size was low (~0.25). The effect size observed for the global physical component (~3.3) was larger than that for the global psychological component (~1.3), all P fibromyalgia as a polysymptomatic distress condition with pain as its main symptom. Our findings support that fibromyalgia seems to have a greater impact on physical than on psychological outcomes, though both are largely affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kadayam G Gomathi
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. Methods: All first-year students (N = 125 of the Gulf Medical University (GMU in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE, were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire, with items related to academic, psychosocial and health domains was used to identify sources of stress. Pearson’s chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for testing the association between psychological morbidity and sources of stress. Results: A total of 112 students (89.6% completed the survey and the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was found to be 33.6%. The main academic-related sources of stress were ‘frequency of exams’, ‘academic workload’, and ‘time management’. Major psychosocial stressors were ‘worries regarding future’, ‘high parental expectations’, ‘anxiety’, and ‘dealing with members of the opposite sex’. Health-related issues were ‘irregular eating habits’, ‘lack of exercise’, and ‘sleep-related problems’. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with any of the demographic factors studied. However, total stress scores and academics-related domain scores were significantly associated with psychological morbidity. Conclusion: Psychological morbidity was seen in one in three first-year students attending GMU. While worries regarding the future and parental expectations were sources of stress for many students, psychological morbidity was found to be significantly associated with only the total stress and the academic-related domain scores.
Negeri, Gutema; Haile Mariam,Damen
Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this stud...
Azodo, Clement C; Ehizele, Adebola O; Umoh, Agnes; Ojehanon, Patrick I; Akhionbare, Osagie; Okechukwu, Robinson; Igbinosa, Lawrence
To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3%) rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5%) agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life. Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%), tooth restoration (10.3%), to extraction (1.2%). This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.
Clement C. Azodo
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. Results: The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3% rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5% agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life.Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%, tooth restoration (10.3%, to extraction (1.2%. Conclusion: This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health status (SRHS is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to assess which candidate variables were independently associated with SRHS in university students, to compare these variables by country and by gender, and to investigate which of the variables was most important as a rating frame for SRHS. Methods The data is from the Cross-National Student Health Survey, conducted in 2005 in universities in Germany, Bulgaria, and Poland (n = 2103; mean age = 20.7 years. SRHS was assessed with a single question using a five-point scale ranging from "excellent" to "poor". The study also measured a wide range of variables including: physical and psychological health, studying, social contacts/social support, and socio-demographic status. Results Psychosomatic complaints (considered an aspect of physical health and, adjusted for psychological health were the most important indicators in forming a rating frame for students' SRHS. There were few differences in the effects of variables associated with SRHS by gender (well-being: a measure of psychological health and the variables associated with SRHS by country (well-being and self-efficacy. The remaining variables showed homogenous effects for both genders and for all three countries. Conclusion The results suggest that SRHS can be reasonably used to compare students' health across countries. SRHS is affected by different physical, psychological and psychosomatic aspects of health; however, its strongest association is with psychosomatic complaints.
Studies on fathering and child mental health are now increasingly looking for specificity in children's psychological adjustment, indicating whether the impact of fathering is diagnostically specific or non-specific. Data from 435 fathers of secondary school-aged children in Britain were used to explore the association between resident biological fathers', non-resident biological fathers' and stepfathers' involvement and children's total difficulties, prosocial behaviour, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems (all measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) in adolescence. After controlling for child-, father- and family-related factors, fathers' involvement was negatively associated with children's total difficulties and hyperactivity, was positively associated with children's prosocial behaviour, and was unrelated with children's emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. There was no non-resident biological father effect. Compared with resident biological fathers, stepfathers reported more total difficulties, conduct problems and hyperactivity in their children even after adjusting for involvement. Whether this reflects stepfathers' low tolerance levels or biological fathers' complacency, as sociobiologists would argue, or whether this is due to pre-existing predispositions of children in families which separate and restructure, to the effects of these multiple family changes or to the high exposure of children in restructured families to parental risk factors, is, given the data available and the study design, unclear. However, this study showed that, compared with their peers in biological father families, adolescents in stepfather families are perceived to be at higher risk of behaviour problems, and that father involvement is related to specific aspects of child adjustment.
Temple, Jeff R; Choi, Hye Jeong; Elmquist, JoAnna; Hecht, Michael; Miller-Day, Michelle; Stuart, Gregory L; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin
Existing literature indicates that acceptance of dating violence is a significant and robust risk factor for psychological dating abuse perpetration. Past work also indicates a significant relationship between psychological dating abuse perpetration and poor mental health. However, no known research has examined the relationship between acceptance of dating violence, perpetration of dating abuse, and mental health. In addition to exploring this complex relationship, the present study examines whether psychological abuse perpetration mediates the relationship between acceptance of dating violence and mental health (i.e., internalizing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hostility). Three waves of longitudinal data were obtained from 1,042 ethnically diverse high school students in Texas. Participants completed assessments of psychological dating abuse perpetration, acceptance of dating violence, and internalizing symptoms (hostility and symptoms of anxiety and depression). As predicted, results indicated that perpetration of psychological abuse was significantly associated with acceptance of dating violence and all internalizing symptoms. Furthermore, psychological abuse mediated the relationship between acceptance of dating violence and internalizing symptoms. Findings from the present study suggest that acceptance of dating violence is an important target for the prevention of dating violence and related emotional distress. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kinderman, Peter; Schwannauer, Matthias; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara
Despite widespread acceptance of the 'biopsychosocial model', the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. Participants were 32,827 (age 18-85 years) self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial) and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ(2) (3199, N = 23,397) = 126654.8, pmental health difficulties, social deprivation, and traumatic or abusive life-experiences all strongly predicted higher levels of anxiety and depression. However, these relationships were strongly mediated by psychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear implications for policy, education and clinical practice as psychological processes such as rumination and self-blame are amenable to evidence
Roche, Adeline; Ogden, Jane
Samaritan listening volunteers provide emotional support to people in distress or suicidal. Samaritans' has high volunteer turnover, which may be due to burnout. This study evaluated the role of demographic and psychosocial factors in predicting Samaritans listening volunteers' burnout and health status. Samaritans' listening volunteers (n = 216) from seven branches across UK completed an online survey to assess their levels of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, personal accomplishment), subjective health status, coping, empathy and social support. Overall, listeners showed low levels of burnout and good health. Regression analysis revealed that higher emotional exhaustion was predicted by younger age and avoidant coping style; higher depersonalisation was predicted by lower empathy fantasy and higher avoidant coping style; lower personal accomplishment scores were predicted by higher empathy personal distress and worse health status was predicted by more hours per week spent on listening duties, lower social support and higher avoidant coping style. Overall, different factors influenced different facets of burnout. However, higher use of avoidant coping style consistently predicted higher burnout and worse health status, suggesting avoidant coping is an important target for intervention.
Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status.
Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju
Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t -test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation ( P periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.
Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status
Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.
Zhang, Jie; Qi, Qing; Delprino, Robert P
The literature on suicide among the Chinese indicates that younger individuals from rural areas are at higher risk of suicide than their urban counterparts. While earlier studies have investigated the relationship between psychological health and major demographic variables, the relationship of psychological health as it relates to suicide by those from urban and rural areas have been rare. Studying the psychological health of college students from rural China in comparison with students who originate from urban areas may shed light on the mental health disparities of the two populations. This study examined the relationship of psychological health and rural/urban origins of college students in China. Data was obtained from 2 400 college students who completed a survey questionnaire while in attendance at a key university in Beijing China in 2013. Four standardised psychological health scales were administered to obtain measures of participants' self-esteem, depression, social support, and suicide ideation. Findings indicated that urban students had significantly higher scores than their rural counterparts on self-esteem and social support. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups on measures of depression and suicide ideation.
This article reviews key arguments around evidence-based practice and outlines the methodological demands for effective adoption of recovery model principles. The recovery model is outlined and demonstrated as compatible with current needs in substance misuse service provision. However, the concepts of evidence-based practice and the recovery model are currently incompatible unless the current value system of evidence-based practice changes to accommodate the methodologies demanded by the recovery model. It is suggested that critical health psychology has an important role to play in widening the scope of evidence-based practice to better accommodate complex social health needs.
de Gelder, Rianne; Koster, Emmy M; van Buren, Laurens P; van Ameijden, Erik J C; Harrison, Annie; Birt, Christopher A; Verma, Arpana
With a growing proportion of the European population living in urban areas (UAs), exploring health in urban areas becomes increasingly important. The objective of this study is to assess the magnitude of differences in health and health behaviour between adults living in urban areas (UAs) across Europe. We also explored whether and to what extent such differences can be explained by socio-economic status (SES) and physical or social environment. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, performed between as part of the European Urban Health Indicator System Part 2 (EURO-URHIS 2) project. Using multi-level logistic regression analysis, UA differences in psychological distress, self-assessed health, overweight and obesity, daily smoking, binge drinking and physical exercise were assessed. Median Odds Ratios (MORs) were calculated to estimate the extent to which the observed variance is attributable to UA, individual-level SES (measured by perceived financial strains, education level and employment status) and/or characteristics of physical and social environment. The dataset included 14 022 respondents in 16 UAs within 9 countries. After correction for age and gender, all MORs, except that for daily smoking, indicated statistically significant UA health differences. SES indicators (partly) explained UA differences in psychological distress, decreasing the MOR from 1.43 [95% credible interval (Cr.I.) 1.27-1.67, baseline model], to 1.25 (95% Cr.I. 1.14-1.40, SES model): a reduction of 42%. Accounting for the quality of green areas reduced the MOR for psychological distress by an additional 40%, to 1.15 (95% Cr.I. 1.05-1.28). Our study showed large differences in health and health behaviour between European UAs. Reducing socio-economic disadvantage and improving the quality of the neighbourhood's green spaces may reduce UA differences in psychological distress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European
K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); K. van der Velde (Kelly); P. Joosten (Pieter); H. Rutten (Hans); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); K. Dulfer (Karolijn)
textabstractPurpose: In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the
Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…
Fitzgerald, Carey J; Danner, Kimberly M
We review the empirical literature that has implemented aspects of our ancestral environment into the workplace and discuss the positive influence these factors have had on employees' physical and psychological health. We focus upon several components of our ancestral environment, including sunlight, greenery, sleep, physical movement, and social interaction with fellow humans as well as animals (specifically, dogs). Employers who are willing to adopt an evolutionary psychological approach to organizing their workplaces may drastically improve their workers' overall physical and psychological health as well as their overall productivity. This will, in turn, decrease employer costs related to medical care, absenteeism, and lack of productivity. Suggestions regarding how to implement these evolutionary psychological methods to the workplace are also discussed.
Carey J. Fitzgerald
Full Text Available We review the empirical literature that has implemented aspects of our ancestral environment into the workplace and discuss the positive influence these factors have had on employees' physical and psychological health. We focus upon several components of our ancestral environment, including sunlight, greenery, sleep, physical movement, and social interaction with fellow humans as well as animals (specifically, dogs. Employers who are willing to adopt an evolutionary psychological approach to organizing their workplaces may drastically improve their workers' overall physical and psychological health as well as their overall productivity. This will, in turn, decrease employer costs related to medical care, absenteeism, and lack of productivity. Suggestions regarding how to implement these evolutionary psychological methods to the workplace are also discussed.
Nipp, Ryan D; El-Jawahri, Areej; Moran, Samantha M; D'Arpino, Sara M; Johnson, P Connor; Lage, Daniel E; Wong, Risa L; Pirl, William F; Traeger, Lara; Lennes, Inga T; Cashavelly, Barbara J; Jackson, Vicki A; Greer, Joseph A; Ryan, David P; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Temel, Jennifer S
Patients with advanced cancer often experience frequent and prolonged hospitalizations; however, the factors associated with greater health care utilization have not been described. We sought to investigate the relation between patients' physical and psychological symptom burden and health care utilization. We enrolled patients with advanced cancer and unplanned hospitalizations from September 2014-May 2016. Upon admission, we assessed physical (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]) and psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire 4 [PHQ-4]). We examined the relationship between symptom burden and healthcare utilization using linear regression for hospital length of stay (LOS) and Cox regression for time to first unplanned readmission within 90 days. We adjusted all models for age, sex, marital status, comorbidity, education, time since advanced cancer diagnosis, and cancer type. We enrolled 1,036 of 1,152 (89.9%) consecutive patients approached. Over one-half reported moderate/severe fatigue, poor well being, drowsiness, pain, and lack of appetite. PHQ-4 scores indicated that 28.8% and 28.0% of patients had depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The mean hospital LOS was 6.3 days, and the 90-day readmission rate was 43.1%. Physical symptoms (ESAS: unstandardized coefficient [B], 0.06; P cancer experience a high symptom burden, which is significantly associated with prolonged hospitalizations and readmissions. Interventions are needed to address the symptom burden of this population to improve health care delivery and utilization. Cancer 2017;123:4720-4727. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Alvarez-del Arco, Debora; del Amo, Julia; Garcia-Pina, Rocio; Garcia-Fulgueiras, Ana Maria; Rodriguez-Arenas, M Angeles; Ibañez-Rojo, Vicente; Díaz-del Peral, Domingo; Jarrin, Inma; Fernandez-Liria, Alberto; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Garcia-Ortuzar, Visitación; Mazarrasa, Lucia; Llacer, Alicia
The aim of this study was to describe perceived abuse in adult Spanish and Ecuadorian women and men and to assess its association with mental health. A population-based survey was conducted in Spain in 2006. Data were taken from a probabilistic sample allowing for an equal number of men and women, Spaniards and Ecuadorians. Mental disorder was measured with the General Health Questionnaire-28. The nine questions on exposure to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse during the previous year were self-administered. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between exposure to abuse and poor mental health, adjusting for potential confounders. The sample was composed of 1,059 individuals aged 18 to 54, 104 of whom reported physical, psychological, or sexual abuse. Some 6% refused to answer the questions on abuse. Overall, reported abuse ranged from 13% in Ecuadorian women to 5% in Spanish men. Psychological abuse was the most frequent. Half the abused women, both Spanish and Ecuadorian, reported intimate partner violence (IPV), as did 22% of abused men. Poor mental health was found in 61% of abused Spanish women (adjusted Odds Ratio [ORa] = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.8-14.4), and 62% abused Ecuadorian women (ORa = 4; 95% CI: 2-7.9), in 36% of abused Spanish men (ORa = 3; 95% CI: 0.9-10.7) and in 30% abused Ecuadorian men (ORa = 2.8; 95% CI: 1-7.7). Interpersonal violence is frequent in relations with the partner, the family, and outside the family, and it seriously affects the mental health. Ecuadorian women stand out as the most vulnerable group.
The Supreme court took a narrow view of the term environmental in Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy when it stated that the purpose of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is to protect the physical environment. Psychological health damage caused by the perception of the risk of a nuclear accident is not an environmental effect cognizable under NEPA unless their is a demonstrable relationship. Litigants seeking the protection of NEPA must carefully examine the origin and nature of alleged psychological harms and frame their complains to establish a close relationship between a change in the physical environment and the alleged psychological harm
Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.
The Farr-Bertillon law states that the mortality rate of single and widowed persons is about three times the rate of married people of same age. This excess mortality can be measured with good accuracy for all ages except for young widowers. The reason is that, at least nowadays, very few people become widowed under the age of 30. Here we show that disability data from census records can also be used as a reliable substitute for mortality rates. In fact excess-disability and excess-mortality go hand in hand. Moreover, as there are about ten times more cases of disability than deaths, the disability variable is able to offer more accurate measurements in all cases where the number of deaths is small. This allows a more accurate investigation of the young widower effect; it confirms that, as already suspected from death rate data, there is a huge spike between the ages of 20 and 30. By using disability rates we can also study additional features not accessible using death rate data. For example we can examine the health impact of a change in living place. The observed temporary inflated disability rate confirms what could be expected by invoking the ;Transient Shock; conjecture formuladted by the authors in a previous paper. Finally, in another observation it is shown that the disability rate of newly married persons is higher than for those who have been married for more than one year, a result which comes in confirmation of the ;newly married couple; effect reported in an earlier paper.
de Castro, A B; Gee, Gilbert C; Takeuchi, David
This study investigated the relationship between job dissatisfaction and psychological and physical health among Filipino immigrants in the United States. Cross-sectional data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study were analyzed for 1,381 Filipino immigrants. The primary independent variable of interest was job dissatisfaction. Linear and negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to determine separate associations between job dissatisfaction and the outcomes of psychological distress and physical health conditions, respectively. Job dissatisfaction was positively associated with both psychological distress (beta = 0.32, p job category. This community-based study demonstrated that job dissatisfaction has implications for health and well-being among an understudied, immigrant group of workers. Findings also suggest that job-related experiences should be considered when examining disparate health for immigrant, minority populations.
Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Bartoll, Xavier; Basart, Helena; Borrell, Carme
This study aimed to (i) identify family responsibilities associated with moderately long working hours (41-60 hours a week); (ii) examine the relationship between moderately long working hours and three health outcomes; and (iii) analyze whether patterns differ by welfare state regimes. The sample was composed of all employees aged 16-64 years working 30-60 hours a week interviewed in the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey (9288 men and 6295 women). We fitted multiple logistic regression models separated by sex and welfare state regime typologies. Married males were more likely to work long hours in countries with male breadwinner models whereas family responsibilities were related to long working hours among both sexes in countries with dual breadwinner models. The association between long working hours and health was (i) stronger among men in countries with male breadwinner models, primarily in Anglo-Saxon countries [adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) associated with working 51-60 hours of 6.43, 6.04 and 9.60 for work-related poor health status, stress and psychological distress, respectively); (ii) similar among both sexes in Nordic countries; and (iii) stronger among women in Eastern European countries. In the European Union of 25 members (EU-25), working moderately long hours is associated with poor health outcomes with different patterns depending on welfare state regimes. The findings from this study suggest that the family responsibilities and breadwinner models can help explain the relationship between long working hours and health status.
Hall, Jennifer; d'Ardenne, Patricia; Nsereko, James; Kasujja, Rosco; Baillie, Dave; Mpango, Richard; Birabwa, Harriet; Hunter, Elaine
The Butabika-East London Link collaborated with Ugandan mental health services to train mental health professionals (psychiatric clinical officers, "PCOs", and clinical psychologists and psychiatrists, "Core Group") in psychological therapies. The aims of this research were to investigate how professionals were applying and…
This study examined the effects of a sexual health curriculum developed for school psychological counsellors in Turkey on the sexual health knowledge of the participating candidates, their beliefs in sexual myths and their tendencies towards ambivalent sexism and sexism in romantic relationships. The study adopted a semi-experimental design. Study…
American Psychologist, 2013
Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…
Aims: The aim of the present study was to comparatively analyze oral health status and influential factors in children with autism living in the Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Subjects and Methods: This cross‑sectional study was conducted in two steps: 1 ‑ questionnaire and 2 ‑ interview. This study was conducted ...
Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the oral health status and diet habits of institutionalized elders in Lagos, Nigeria Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized elders in Lagos State, Nigeria. Age and sex matched non-institutionalized elderly were also ...
Smoking, alcohol consumption and diet were among the criteria selected to screen health status among the residents of the urban migrant council-built hostels of Langa, Nyanga and. Guguletu outside Cape Town. Smoking patterns fell within the range found elsewhere. Problems associated with alcohol consumption were ...
Health status based on lifestyle-related disease is a concern in many developing countries, including Kenya. Factors related to such disease conditions, are important in ensuring economic sustainability in future. Currently there is limited research in this area. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship ...
The study aimed at investigating the causes of poor nutritional and health status of students in higher institutions in Nigeria and the measures for improvement for sustainable national development. The population comprised nurses, medical doctors, nutritionists, Home Economics lecturers, post graduate students; ...
Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.
Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and
Here a high infant mortality rate is examined against a low prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and syphilis and some of the effects of migrant labour on the health status of migrant hostel dwellers are identified. The low prevalence of disease among the Cape Town hostel residents suggests that migrant labour, by sifting ...
Schiffer, Angélique A; Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a promising treatment in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, a subgroup of patients still report impaired health status, cardiac symptoms, and feelings of disability following CRT. The aims of this study were to examine (1) whether CHF patients treated...
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...
Hodgetts, Darrin; Chamberlain, Kerry
This article outlines reasons why psychologists should concern themselves with media processes, noting how media are central to contemporary life and heavily implicated in the construction of shared understandings of health. We contend that the present research focus is substantially medicalized, privileging the investigation and framing of certain topics, such as the portrayal of health professionals, medical practices, specific diseases and lifestyle-orientated interventions, and restricting attention to social determinants of health as appropriate topics for investigation. We propose an extended agenda for media health research to include structural health concerns, such as crime, poverty, homelessness and housing and social capital.
Quality Improvement (QI) is a health care interprofessional team activity wherein psychology as a field and individual psychologists in health care settings can and should adopt a more robust presence. The current article makes the argument for why psychology's participation in QI is good for health care, is good for our profession, and is the right thing to do for the patients and families we serve. It reviews the varied ways individual psychologists and our profession can integrate quality processes and improve health care through: (1) our approach to our daily work; (2) our roles on health care teams and involvement in organizational initiatives; (3) opportunities for teaching and scholarship; and (4) system redesign and advocacy within our health care organizations and health care environment.
Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Saidu, Mohammed Bashir
Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.
Sun, Tao; Gao, Lei; Li, Fujun; Shi, Yu; Xie, Fengzhe; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Shue; Liu, Wenhui; Duan, Xiaojian; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Li; Fan, Lihua
Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers is known as violence in healthcare settings and referring to the violent acts that are directed towards doctors, nurses or other healthcare staff at work or on duty. Moreover, WPV can cause a large number of adverse outcomes. However, there is not enough evidence to test the link between exposure to WPV against doctors, psychological stress, sleep quality and health status in China. This study had three objectives: (1) to identify the incidence rate of WPV against doctors under a new classification, (2) to examine the association between exposure to WPV, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health of Chinese doctors and (3) to verify the partial mediating role of psychological stress. A cross-sectional online survey study. The survey was conducted among 1740 doctors in tertiary hospitals, 733 in secondary hospital and 139 in primary hospital across 30 provinces of China. A total of 3016 participants were invited. Ultimately, 2617 doctors completed valid questionnaires. The effective response rate was 86.8%. The results demonstrated that the prevalence rate of exposure to verbal abuse was the highest (76.2%), made difficulties (58.3%), smear reputation (40.8%), mobbing behaviour (40.2%), intimidation behaviour (27.6%), physical violence (24.1%) and sexual harassment (7.8%). Exposure to WPV significantly affected the psychological stress, sleep quality and self-reported health of doctors. Moreover, psychological stress partially mediated the relationship between work-related violence and health damage. In China, most doctors have encountered various WPV from patients and their relatives. The prevalence of three new types of WPV have been investigated in our study, which have been rarely mentioned in past research. A safer work environment for Chinese healthcare workers needs to be provided to minimise health threats, which is a top priority for both government and society. © Article author(s) (or
Fledderus, M.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Smit, Filip; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
Objectives: We assessed whether an intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and mindfulness was successful in promoting positive mental health by enhancing psychological flexibility. Methods: Participants were 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress. They were
Inoue, Mariko; Nishikitani, Mariko; Tsurugano, Shinobu
The participation of women in the Japanese labor force is characterized by its M-shaped curve, which reflects decreased employment rates during child-rearing years. Although, this M-shaped curve is now improving, the majority of women in employment are likely to fall into the category of non-regular workers. Based on a review of the previous Japanese studies of the health of non-regular workers, we found that non-regular female workers experienced greater psychological distress, poorer self-rated health, a higher smoking rate, and less access to preventive medicine than regular workers did. However, despite the large number of non-regular workers, there are limited researches regarding their health. In contrast, several studies in Japan concluded that regular workers also had worse health conditions due to the additional responsibility and longer work hours associated with the job, housekeeping, and child rearing. The health of non-regular workers might be threatened by the effects of precarious employment status, lower income, a lower safety net, outdated social norm regarding non-regular workers, and difficulty in achieving a work-life balance. A sector wide social approach to consider life course aspect is needed to protect the health and well-being of female workers' health; promotion of an occupational health program alone is insufficient.
INOUE, Mariko; NISHIKITANI, Mariko; TSURUGANO, Shinobu
The participation of women in the Japanese labor force is characterized by its M-shaped curve, which reflects decreased employment rates during child-rearing years. Although, this M-shaped curve is now improving, the majority of women in employment are likely to fall into the category of non-regular workers. Based on a review of the previous Japanese studies of the health of non-regular workers, we found that non-regular female workers experienced greater psychological distress, poorer self-rated health, a higher smoking rate, and less access to preventive medicine than regular workers did. However, despite the large number of non-regular workers, there are limited researches regarding their health. In contrast, several studies in Japan concluded that regular workers also had worse health conditions due to the additional responsibility and longer work hours associated with the job, housekeeping, and child rearing. The health of non-regular workers might be threatened by the effects of precarious employment status, lower income, a lower safety net, outdated social norm regarding non-regular workers, and difficulty in achieving a work-life balance. A sector wide social approach to consider life course aspect is needed to protect the health and well-being of female workers’ health; promotion of an occupational health program alone is insufficient. PMID:27818453
Kimberly A. Rapoza
Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychological disorders among community health centers in Batang Padang district Perak. Material & Methods: To conduct this study survey research method was used, seven community health centers in Batang Padang District, Perak were contacted to collect data from (N=216 respondents, who attended health facilities in Batang Padang District. There is no age limit, no education difference and no other requirement needed. Instrument and Materials: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 PRIME Screen and PRIME MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ. Results: Data collected from seven health community centers revealed that prevalence of Stress 86%, anxiety 124%, depression 67, psychotic symptoms 16%, somatoform symptoms 52%, panic symptoms 28%, and substance abuse 21%. the higher prevalence was stress and depression among people attending health centers. Conclusion: Results findings indicated that there is significant prevalence of psychological disorder among community health centers. Analysis of the results help us to determine that there is strong need to provide psychological services, awareness and education plan, management and prevention for psychological disorders
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychological disorders among community health centers in Batang Padang district Perak. Material & Methods: To conduct this study survey research method was used, seven community health centers in Batang Padang District, Perak were contacted to collect data from (N=216 respondents, who attended health facilities in Batang Padang District. There is no age limit, no education difference and no other requirement needed. Instrument and Materials: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 PRIME Screen and PRIME MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ. Results: Data collected from seven health community centers revealed that prevalence of Stress 86%, anxiety 124%, depression 67, psychotic symptoms 16%, somatoform symptoms 52%, panic symptoms 28%, and substance abuse 21%. the higher prevalence was stress and depression among people attending health centers. Conclusion: Results findings indicated that there is significant prevalence of psychological disorder among community health centers. Analysis of the results help us to determine that there is strong need to provide psychological services, awareness and education plan, management and prevention for psychological disorders
Schneiderman, Neil; Ironson, Gail; Siegel, Scott D.
Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health. The relationship between psychosocial stressors and disease is affected by the nature, number, and persistence of the stressors as well as by the indiv...
Wagner, Mette Kirstine; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Risom, Signe Stelling
(EHRA) score I-II had a positive effect of rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that sex differences exist in self-reported health after rehabilitation in patients ablated for AF. Patients with an I-II EHRA score seem more likely to gain from the rehabilitation programme compared with those......BACKGROUND: Increased physical capacity after comprehensive rehabilitation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing ablation has been found in the CopenHeartRFA trial. The purpose of this study was to investigate: (a) sex differences in health status, psychological distress and quality...... of life, (b) sex differences in rehabilitation outcomes and (c) predictors of effect of rehabilitation. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory analysis of data from the randomized CopenHeartRFA trial, where patients treated with ablation were randomized with 1:1 to comprehensive rehabilitation consisting...
Oktayoglu, Pelin; Tahtasiz, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Em, Serda; Ucar, Demet; Yazmalar, Levent; Mete, Nuriye; Nas, Kemal; Gezer, Orhan
High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory cytokine. Previous studies have suggested that HMGB1 can play an important role in the pathogenesis of many rheumatic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and its association with quality of life and psychological and functional status in these patients. Twenty-nine patients who met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for the classification of FM and 29 healthy controls (HC) were included in the present study. Serum samples were collected from both the patients and the HC, and HMGB1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was used to assess the disease severity and functional status in patients with FM. Furthermore, the Nottingham Health Profile was used to assess quality of life in all subjects, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess depression and anxiety. The serum levels of HMGB1 protein were positively correlated with the FIQ scores in patients with FM (P = 0.002). Mean serum levels of HMGB1 were higher in patients with FM than in HC but this difference was not statistically significant. HMGB1 protein might be a good laboratory-sourced candidate for the assessment of functional status and disease severity in patients with FM. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Vishnu Rekha, C; Arangannal, P; Shahed, H
To assess the oral health status of autistic children in Chennai. Oral health status was assessed for 483 children with autism, solicited from special education schools, autistic child centres and therapy centres. Conditions assessed were plaque accumulation, gingival health, dental caries, malocclusion, developmental anomalies, oral injuries and restorations. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests of significance were used to compare groups. Proportions test was used to compare the significance of the parameters between boys and girls. Autistic children with primary dentition showed significantly higher incidence of dental caries (24%), when compared to other oral conditions. Children with mixed dentition had more gingivitis (50%) and children with permanent dentition had more gingivitis (48.96%) and malocclusion (71.15%). All the oral conditions were seen more in boys than girls. Autistic children have significantly poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of malocclusion and dental caries when compared to other oral conditions.
Wehmeyer, J M; Wehmeyer, S
Clinical psychology has received little attention as a subject in health sciences library collections. This study seeks to demonstrate the relative importance of the monographic literature to clinical psychology through the examination of citations in graduate student theses and dissertations at the Fordham Health Sciences Library, Wright State University. Dissertations and theses were sampled randomly; citations were classified by format, counted, and subjected to statistical analysis. Books and book chapters together account for 35% of the citations in clinical psychology dissertations, 25% in nursing theses, and 8% in biomedical sciences theses and dissertations. Analysis of variance indicates that the citations in dissertations and theses in the three areas differ significantly (F = 162.2 with 2 and 253 degrees of freedom, P = 0.0001). Dissertations and theses in biomedical sciences and nursing theses both cite significantly more journals per book than the dissertations in clinical psychology. These results support the hypothesis that users of clinical psychology literature rely more heavily on books than many other users of a health sciences library. Problems with using citation analyses in a single subject to determine a serials to monographs ratio for a health sciences library are pointed out. PMID:10219478
Ríos-Risquez, Mª Isabel; García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Sabuco-Tebar, Emiliana de Los Angeles; Carrillo-Garcia, Cesar; Martinez-Roche, Maria Emilia
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between resilience, academic burnout and psychological health in a sample of nursing students. A descriptive and cross-sectional design was applied, with questionnaires as tools. The convenience sample consisted of 113 nursing students in their final academic year, who voluntarily participated in the study. The results indicated a statistically significant relationship between resilience and both emotional exhaustion (r = -.55; p burnout and psychological health. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that high scores for resilience and low scores for emotional exhaustion predict better perceived psychological health [F (2.96) = 17.75; p burnout. These findings highlight the importance of developing resilience and integrating it as an element in the nursing educational programme.
Jacobs, Gerard A; Gray, Brandon L; Erickson, Sara E; Gonzalez, Elvira D; Quevillon, Randal P
Any community can experience a disaster, and many traumatic events occur without warning. Psychologists can be an important resource assisting in psychological support for individuals and communities, in preparation for and in response to traumatic events. Disaster mental health and the community-based model of psychological first aid are described. The National Preparedness and Response Science Board has recommended that all mental health professionals be trained in disaster mental health, and that first responders, civic officials, emergency managers, and the general public be trained in community-based psychological first aid. Education and training resources in these two fields are described to assist psychologists and others in preparing themselves to assist their communities in difficult times and to help their communities learn to support one another. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gundala, Rupasree; Chava, Vijay K.
Background: The health model which forms the basis is knowledge, attitude, temporary, and permanent behaviors. Currently, more emphasis has been directed towards the combined influence of lifestyle, education, levels and socioeconomic factors, instead of regular risk factors in dealing with chronic illnesses. The present study is conducted to correlate the periodontal health of people with reference to lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore. A total of 1350 subjects were examined and 948 patients were randomly selected from out patient department. Information about their lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status were recorded using a questionnaire and correlated with the periodontal status. Results: The statistical analysis showed significant decrease in periodontitis when income and education levels increased. Also the prevalence of periodontitis associated with a healthy lifestyle is significantly lower when compared to an unhealthy lifestyle. Conclusions: There is a strong association of lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status with periodontal health. PMID:22114373
Petrelli, Alessio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Rossi, Alessandra; Gargiulo, Lidia; Mirisola, Concetta; Costanzo, Gianfranco
to evaluate self-perceived health status of immigrants in Italy. cross-sectional study based on the representative national samples of the multipurpose surveys "Health conditions and use of health services" conducted in 2005 and 2013 by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat). the study was conducted on the age group of 18-64: No. 80,661 in 2005, among which 3.2% were immigrants, and No. 72,476 in 2013, among which 7.1% were immigrants. prevalence rate ratios (PRR) calculated through log-binomial regression models, stratified by survey edition and gender, by evaluating the association between the Physical Component Score (PCS), the Mental Component Score (MCS), and the overall health index and citizenship. Adjustment for the following confounding factors was performed: age, educational level, working condition, perceived economic resources, body mass index (BMI). in 2005, immigrants had a lower probability of poor-perceived physical health, both among men (PRR: 0.79; 95%CI 0.70-0.89) and women (PRR: 0.89; 95%CI 0.82- 0.97), compared to Italians. In 2013, the perceived health advantage of immigrants was reduced for both genders (PRR males: 0.87; 95%CI 0.80-0.95; PRR females: 0.94; 95%CI 0.88-0.99). In the considered period, the prevalence of people with worse mental health conditions increases, with lower PRR among immigrants, compared to Italians. Higher probability of «NOT good» overall perceived health was also observed among immigrants residing in Italy for at least 10 years (PRR men: 1.24; PRR women: 1.15) and among immigrants men from America (PRR: 1.35). from 2005 to 2013, immigrants seemed to maintain a better perception of health status than Italians. Nevertheless, study results show a decrease in self-perceived health, particularly mental health, in the considered period - apart from demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors - as well as a worse overall self-perceived health status among immigrants who stayed in Italy longer. Such
Hartig, T.; Berg, van den A.E.; Hagerhall, M.
In this chapter we consider how experiences of nature can affect human health and well-being. We first address the matter of ‘what has been’; that is, we sketch the development of theory and research concerned with health benefits of natural environments, from ancient times to the current situation.
Gervais, H.; Looren De Jong, H.
The validity of functional explanations as they are commonly used in psychology has recently come under attack. Kim's supervenience argument purports to prove that higher-level generalizations have no causal powers of their own, and hence are explanatorily irrelevant. In a nutshell, the
Msengi, Clementine M.; Msengi, Israel G.; Harris, Sandra; Hopson, Michael
The purpose of this study was to assess the health status and physical health of international students at five American universities. International students in the United States were asked to compare the status of their health before and after coming to the United States. Findings suggested that health status of international students declined…
Korol, N.; Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi
Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)
Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi
Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)
Full Text Available Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results: Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000 in the region. Conclusion: Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: health aid, infant mortality, developing countries, panel data
Full Text Available World Health Organization describes health as the state of being completely fine corporally, socially and psychologically. The state of being completely fine which is indicated in this description of health has been criticised by many scientists and with the idea that noone shall ever realise tha state of being completely fine corporally and psychologically, it was emphasized that individuals could be evaluated to be “healthy” as long as they are productive. Starting from the intrauterine period, woman passes through different periods such as childhood, adolescence, adulthood, elderliness and she experiences some physical, psychological and social differences in each of these periods within the frame of life cycle. While these differences influence productivities and life qualities of women negatively, they also make them more inclined to psychiatric illnesses. Therefore, psychological problems are more common among women and they last longer. Considering the fact that among the medical personnel, it is the nurses who spend time with patients during the phases of diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation the most, it could be said that nurses have a significant role in intervening in problems that affect the psychological health of woman. The nurse has responsibilities such as determining the problem the woman goes through, providing protective care, getting an early diagnosis, making the convenient remedial intervention and consigning, when necessary. In this article, significant woman health problems that could be experienced starting from the intrauterine life until the end of life by woman, the effects of this problem to the psychological health of the woman and nursing approaches in view of these problems are discussed.
Full Text Available Objective: This study illuminates the degree of psychological stress response experienced by spouses of cancer patients when given bad news at three different times (notification of the name of the disease, notification of recurrence, and notification of terminality as well as the factors that influence the response and the health status of the spouse as measured by health-related quality of life (QOL. Methods: A total of 203 individuals (57 men and 146 women who had received the three types of news were surveyed using a self-report questionnaire on psychological stress response, marital satisfaction, and health-related QOL scales. Results: The degree of the psychological stress response was the highest for notification of terminality, followed by notification of the name of the disease, and notification of recurrence. The influencing factors varied depending on the notification period. Although no significant difference was observed for health-related QOL among the three notification types, significant differences were observed for certain items when compared with national standard values. Conclusions: When a notification of terminality, which produced the highest psychological stress response, is given, providing care that considers health-related QOL is necessary not only for patients but also for their spouses.
A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman
Full Text Available Child and maternal nutritional and health status is a very much concerning issue of Bangladesh. To summarize the specific conditions of Bangladeshi child and maternal health and related issues. This is a descriptive review and overall analysis and description of the literature was done regarding child and maternal health of the general population living in Bangladesh. The evidence reflected that infant, child, and maternal mortality in Bangladesh have declined gradually at least over the past years. It is found that infant mortality 2 times, child mortality 6 times, and under five mortality rates 3 times declined comparatively than the last two decades but it is noted that maternal assassination circumstance has not declined. Knowledge on child and maternal health carries an important role in education. Health knowledge index significantly improve child and maternal health although differentially. It is obvious that poverty is one of the root causes that have led to a high child and maternal mortalities and morbidities faced by the people of Bangladesh. The requirement for socio economic relief for those living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues. Recently, Bangladesh is successfully declining the total number of childhood and nutrition related mortalities despites various complexities, but maternal health status is not improving at the same pace. Nongovernment and government funded organizations and policymakers should come forward for running some effective programs to conquer the situation completely in Bangladesh.
Ling, Davina C; Wong, William C W; Holroyd, Eleanor A; Gray, Sister Ann
This article examines factors that relate to psychological health (as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument) as well as suicide attempts among female street sex workers (FSSWs) in Hong Kong. On average, our sampled FSSWs scored significantly lower on the psychological health domain in comparison to the general Hong Kong female population. Factors associated with the working environment in the sex industry were significantly associated with poor psychological health and suicidality. Greater attention is needed to examine the physical and emotional harm intrinsic to certain occupations and the role of financial needs in the experience of psychological stress.
Ye, Hui-juan; Hu, Li-jun; Yao, Yuan-yuan; Chen, Jiang-hua
To investigate the effects of two health education models on the psychology and nutrition of patients waiting for cadaveric renal transplantation. A total of 125 patients waiting for cadaveric renal transplantations were involved in our study. They were diagnosed with chronic renal failure in our hospital during September 1, 2009 to August 30, 2010. The patients were randomly divided into control group (n = 62) and observational group (n = 63). Patients in the control group received traditional health education with routine preoperative education during hospitalization. In the observational group, full-time nurses assessed the nutrition status of each patient and monitored the data. The observational patients were followed up and were given dietary guidance and knowledge of transplantation. Various kinds of education formats were adopted in observational group to provide communication opportunities between patients and surgeons in charge as well as patients who underwent transplantation. Psychological testings of patients in both groups were tested by self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) before and after the health education. Triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and biochemistry index were also tested. Psychological and nutritional status of patients in the two groups was compared. There were no significant differences in scores of the SAS, SDS, TSF, Hb, and albumin (Alb) between the two groups (all P > 0.05) before health education. After health education, SAS and SDS in observational group were lower than those in the control group (40.02 ± 9.05 vs 47.05 ± 10.32, 42.70 ± 10.01 vs 50.83 ± 10.12; both P < 0.01). Both TSF and Hb were elevated after education (P < 0.001 or 0.05). Alb was significantly elevated in the observational group [(35.67 ± 6.19) g/L vs (37.48 ± 5.09) g/L, P < 0.01]. Comprehensive and various health education methods can significantly alleviate mental stress and improve
Mock, Steven E; Arai, Susan M
Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.
Steven E Mock
Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.
Roos, E; Lahelma, E; Saastamoinen, P; Elstad, J-I
The Nordic countries have relatively equal employment participation between men and women, but some differences between countries exist in labour market participation. The aim was to examine the association between employment status and health among women and men in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and analyse whether this association is modified by marital status and parental status. The data come from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys carried out in Denmark (n = 2,209), Finland (n = 4,604), Norway (n = 1,844) and Sweden (n = 5,360) in 1994-95. Women and men aged 25-49 were included. Employment status was categorized into full-time employed, part-time employed, unemployed, and housewives among women and into employed and unemployed among men. Health was measured by perceived health and limiting longstanding illness. Logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for age and education. Marital status and parental status were analysed as modifying factors. The non-employed were more likely to report perceived health as below good and limiting longstanding illness than the employed among both women and men. The association between employment status and perceived health remained unchanged when marital status and parental status were adjusted for among all men and Finnish women, but the association was slightly strengthened among Danish and Swedish women, with the housewives becoming more likely to report ill health than employed women. The association between employment status and limiting longstanding illness was slightly strengthened among women, and slightly weakened among Norwegian men when marital and parental status were adjusted for. Non-employment was associated with poorer health in all countries, although there are differences in the employment patterns between the countries. Among women marital status and parental status showed a modest or no influence on the association between employment status and health. Among men there was no
Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... higher scores than their rural counterparts on self-esteem and social support. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups on ... AJOL African Journals Online.
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Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.
Gagné, Thierry; Ghenadenik, Adrian E
The Scandinavian Journal of Public Health recently reiterated the importance of addressing social justice and health inequalities in its new editorial policy announcement. One of the related challenges highlighted in that issue was the limited use of sociological theories able to inform the complexity linking the resources and mechanisms captured by the concept of socioeconomic status. This debate article argues that part of the problem lies in the often unchallenged reliance on a generic conceptualization and operationalization of socioeconomic status. These practices hinder researchers' capacity to examine in finer detail how resources and circumstances promote the unequal distribution of health through distinct yet intertwined pathways. As a potential way forward, this commentary explores how research practices can be challenged through concrete publication policies and guidelines. To this end, we propose a set of recommendations as a tool to strengthen the study of socioeconomic status and, ultimately, the quality of health inequality research. Authors, reviewers, and editors can become champions of change toward the implementation of sociological theory by holding higher standards regarding the conceptualization, operationalization, analysis, and interpretation of results in health inequality research.
Mukherjee, Dhrubodhi; Saxon, Verletta
This exploratory paper presents a case study where a community based mental health organization forging a partnership with a local hospital system to establish a crisis stabilization unit (CSU) to address behavioral health emergency care. The study takes a mixed methods case study approach to address two research questions; (a) did this approach reduce the overall length of stay in the hospital emergency departments? (b) What challenges did the taskforce face in implementing this CSU model? The paper shares recommendation from the findings.
Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young
To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.
... 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim final rules with...
Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents are major result of death and disability that their victims need relief Relief worker who do this, are at risk of psychological disorder because of Overwhelming accident and rescue work-related stress .It is necessary to be evaluated their psychological status for giving them psychological support. This study was conducted to compare the mental state in active and inactive relief workers in traffic accident in Karaj red cross in1391. Methods: This descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study was done among both of active and inactive relief worker in traffic accident in Karaj red cross. Data collection tool were demographic questionnaire and Standard questionnaire for measuring depression, anxiety and stress. Collected data was analysed by SPSS16. Results: Result showed that there is no significant difference between mean of depression, stress and anxiety score in both of them(P>0.05, also there is no significant relationship between psychological status with age, educational level, work backward and marital status but stress and marital status in inactive group was significant(P<0.05. Conclusion: It appears besides traffic accident relief worker, inactive relief worker need more attention and scale up psychological support programs and psychological disorder screening. Also it is proposed to do similar study in larger scale.
Bentley, Jacob A; Bruyère, Susanne M; LeBlanc, Jeanne; MacLachlan, Malcolm
This article reviewed foundational principles in rehabilitation psychology and explored their application to global health imperatives as outlined in the World Report on Disability (World Health Organization & World Bank, 2011). Historical theories and perspectives are used to assist with conceptual formulation as applied to emerging international rehabilitation psychology topics. According to the World Report on Disability (World Health Organization & World Bank, 2011), there are approximately 1 billion individuals living with some form of disability globally. An estimated 80% of persons with disabilities live in low- to middle-income countries (WHO, 2006). The primary messages and recommendations of the World Report on Disability have been previously summarized as it relates to potential opportunities for contribution within the field of rehabilitation psychology (MacLachlan & Mannan, 2014). Yet, undeniable barriers remain to realizing the full potential for contributions in low- to middle-income country settings. A vision for engaging in international capacity building and public health efforts is needed within the field of rehabilitation psychology. Foundational rehabilitation psychology principles have application to the service of individuals with disabilities in areas of the world facing complex socioeconomic and sociopolitical challenges. Foundational principles of person-environment interaction, importance of social context, and need for involvement of persons with disabilities can provide guidance to the field as it relates to global health and rehabilitation efforts. The authors illustrate the application of rehabilitation psychology foundational principles through case examples and description of ongoing work, and link foundational principles to discreet domains of intervention going forward. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bello, S; Asuzu, M C; Ofili, A N
Employees should be happy at their work, considering the amount of time they devote to it throughout their working life. There is paucity of data on the job satisfaction and psychological health of medical doctors in Nigeria. To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological health among medical doctors in a southern city of Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive survey. Three major public hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria. Medical doctors who had worked for at least six months in the hospitals. Response rate was 73.0%. More than half (56.7%) of the respondents expressed overall satisfaction with their job. Inadequate pay and work overload were the most commonly mentioned reasons for job dissatisfaction. About a fifth of the respondents were at increased likelihood of psychological disorder. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between job satisfaction scores and GHQ scores. Satisfied respondents were least likely to have psychological disorder. Causes of job dissatisfaction among medical doctors should be addressed to improve their psychological health.
Full Text Available Facilities across Africa care for apes orphaned by the trade for "bushmeat." These facilities, called sanctuaries, provide housing for apes such as bonobos (Pan paniscus and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes who have been illegally taken from the wild and sold as pets. Although these circumstances are undoubtedly stressful for the apes, most individuals arrive at the sanctuaries as infants and are subsequently provided with rich physical and social environments that can facilitate the expression of species-typical behaviors.We tested whether bonobo and chimpanzee orphans living in sanctuaries show any behavioral, physiological, or cognitive abnormalities relative to other individuals in captivity as a result of the early-life stress they experience. Orphans showed lower levels of aberrant behaviors, similar levels of average cortisol, and highly similar performances on a broad battery of cognitive tests in comparisons with individuals of the same species who were either living at a zoo or were reared by their mothers at the sanctuaries.Taken together, these results support the rehabilitation strategy used by sanctuaries in the Pan-African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA and suggest that the orphans we examined did not show long-term signs of stress as a result of their capture. Our findings also show that sanctuary apes are as psychologically healthy as apes in other captive settings and thus represent a valuable resource for non-invasive research.
Alang, Sirry M; McAlpine, Donna D; Henning-Smith, Carrie E
Structural resources, including access to health insurance, are understudied in relation to the stress process. Disability increases the likelihood of mental health problems, but health insurance may moderate this relationship. We explore health insurance coverage as a moderator of the relationship between disability and psychological distress. A pooled sample from 2008-2010 (N=57,958) was obtained from the Integrated Health Interview Series. Chow tests were performed to assess insurance group differences in the association between disability and distress. Results indicated higher levels of distress associated with disability among uninsured adults compared to their peers with public or private insurance. The strength of the relationship between disability and distress was weaker for persons with public compared to private insurance. As the Affordable Care Act is implemented, decision-makers should be aware of the potential for insurance coverage, especially public, to ameliorate secondary conditions such as psychological distress among persons who report a physical disability.
Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Wydler, Hans; Zellweger, Ueli; Gutzwiller, Felix
OBJECTIVE: Very few studies specifically have examined the health status of 20-year-olds. The purpose of the present study is to examine the changes in health status and behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003. METHODS: The present study used data from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents, conducted in 1993 and 2003 among 20-year-olds in Switzerland. The study sample included military recruits and a representative community cohort. More than 20,000 subjects participate...
Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory YH; Gill, Paramjit
Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) ...
Lindstrom, Martin; Mohseni, Mohabbat
This study investigates the association between political trust (an aspect of institutional trust) in the Riksdag (the national parliament in Sweden) and self-reported psychological health, taking generalized (horizontal) trust in other people into account. The 2004 public health survey in Skåne in Southern Sweden is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study that was answered by 27,757 respondents aged 18-80 yielding a 59% response rate. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between political trust and self-reported psychological health adjusting for possible confounders (age, country of origin, education, economic stress and generalized trust in other people i.e. horizontal trust). We found that 13.0% of the men and 18.9% of the women reported poor psychological health. A total of 17.3% and 11.6% of the male and female respondents, respectively, reported that they had no trust at all in the national parliament, and another 38.2% and 36.2%, respectively, reported that their political trust was not particularly high. Respondents in younger age groups, born abroad, with high education, high levels of economic stress, low horizontal trust and low political trust had significantly higher levels of self-reported poor psychological health. There was a significant association between low political trust and low horizontal trust. After adjustments for age, country of origin, education and economic stress, the inclusion of horizontal trust reduced the odds ratios of self-reported poor psychological health in the "no political trust at all" category compared to the "very high political trust" category from 1.6 to 1.4 among men and from 1.7 to 1.4 among women. It is concluded that low political trust in the Riksdag seems to be significantly and positively associated with poor mental health.
Grilo, Carlos M; Reas, Deborah L; Mitchell, James E
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress about binge eating without the extreme compensatory behaviors for weight control that characterize other eating disorders. BED is prevalent, associated strongly with obesity, and is associated with heightened levels of psychological, psychiatric, and medical concerns. This article provides an overview of randomized controlled treatments for combined psychological and pharmacological treatment of BED to inform current clinical practice and future treatment research. In contrast to the prevalence and significance of BED, to date, limited research has been performed on combining psychological and pharmacological treatments for BED to enhance outcomes. Our review here found that combining certain medications with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or behavioral weight loss (BWL) interventions produces superior outcomes to pharmacotherapy only but does not substantially improve outcomes achieved with CBT/BWL only. One medication (orlistat) has improved weight losses with CBT/BWL albeit minimally, and only one medication (topiramate) has enhanced reductions achieved with CBT in both binge eating and weight. Implications for future research are discussed.