Perera, Bilesha; Torabi, Mohammad; Kay, Noy S
This study examined the prevalence of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, psychological distress, anxiety and depression mood and the relationship between these variables in a sample of 534 college students in the USA. In college men, 91% were current alcohol users (those who use alcohol at least once a month) and in college women 80% were current alcohol users (p alcohol use. Beer was more popular among moderate users than heavy users in both sexes. Over 90% of both moderate and heavy users in both men and women had used hard liquor in the 30-day period preceding the survey. College men had more alcohol-related problems than did college women. Blackouts, getting into fights and not being able to meet school responsibilities were the common alcohol-related adverse outcomes reported by the participants. No associations were found between alcohol use and distress and between alcohol use and depressive mood. Mean values of the anxiety scores, however, were higher in moderate users in the male sample compared to that of the female sample. The findings have implications for theories of alcohol-related psychological health in college students.
Aisling T. O'Donnell
Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the unemployed suffer increased psychological and physical health problems compared to their employed counterparts. Further, unemployment leads to an unwanted new social identity that is stigmatizing, and stigma is known to be a stressor causing psychological and physical health problems. However, it is not yet known whether being stigmatized as an unemployed group member is associated with psychological and physical health in this group. The current study tested the impact of anticipated stigma on psychological distress and physical health problems, operationalized as somatic symptoms, in a volunteer sample of unemployed people. Results revealed that anticipated stigma had a direct effect on both psychological distress and somatic symptoms, such that greater anticipated stigma significantly predicted higher levels of both. Moreover, the direct effect on somatic symptoms became non-significant when psychological distress was taken into account. Thus, to the extent that unemployed participants anticipated experiencing greater stigma, they also reported increased psychological distress, and this psychological distress predicted increased somatic symptoms. Our findings complement and extend the existing literature on the relationships between stigmatized identities, psychological distress and physical health problems, particularly in relation to the unemployed group. This group is important to consider both theoretically, given the unwanted and transient nature of the identity compared to other stigmatized identities, but also practically, as the findings indicate a need to orient to the perceived valence of the unemployed identity and its effects on psychological and physical health.
Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti
Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…
Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.
BACKGROUND: There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. AIMS: To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related
Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Grievink, Linda; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris
Background There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. Aims To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related
Psychological maltreatment is an important social and public health problem and associated with a wide range of short and long-term outcomes in childhood to adulthood. Given the importance of investigating mitigating factors on its effect, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health- internalizing and externalizing- problems in adolescents. Participants of the study consisted of 783 adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M=15.57, SD=0.88), with 52.9% female and 47.1% male. Several structural equation models were conducted to investigate the mediating role of coping strategies on the effect of psychological maltreatment on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Findings from mediation analyses demonstrated the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health problems. The outcomes support adolescents use more avoidant coping strategies and fewer active coping strategies in the face of psychological maltreatment experiences, and this affects their mental health. Taken together, these results should contribute to the design of prevention and intervention services in order to promote mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma
Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals' towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents.
-report and parent proxy report using a pediatric HRQOL inventory scale, also, Children Anxiety Scale and Children Depression Inventory (CDI) were ... Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Obesity; Body mass index; Health related quality of life ...
Eman A. Abdel-Aziz
Jan 31, 2014 ... Anxiety;. Depression;. Obesity;. Body mass index;. Health related quality of life. Abstract Background: Obesity in childhood or adolescence could affect quality of life (QOL). ... dren Anxiety Scale and Children Depression Inventory (CDI) were assessed. ... The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics.
Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.
Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…
Chou, Wei-Po; Lee, Kun-Hua; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsiao, Ray C; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Internet addiction became a major mental health problem in college student. Our objective was to examine the relationship between psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance (PIEA) and Internet addiction (IA) and the mediating effects of mental health problem indicators. 500 college students (238 men and 262 women) participated in this study. The level of PIEA was examined using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II. The severity of IA was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. The levels of depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility were evaluated using the Symptom Checklist-90 item-Revised Scale. The relationship among PIEA, mental health problems, and IA was examined using structural equation modeling. The severity of PIEA was positively associated with the severity of IA as well as positively associated with the severity of mental health problems. In addition, the severity of mental health problem indicators was positively associated with the severity of IA. These results provide the severity of PIEA is directly related to the severity of IA and indirectly related to the severity of IA through increasing the severity of mental health problems. The PIEA should be one of the target objectives when administer cognitive-behavioral therapy to college students with IA and mental health problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Imai, Koubun; Iida, Toshiharu; Yamamoto, Maki; Komatsu, Kensuke; Nukui, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Atsuto
The aim of the study was to examine the presence of psychological and mental health problems in patients with thalidomide embryopathy in Japan in order to develop and build future support systems. The present study examined the presence/absence of electroencephalographic abnormalities, intellectual/cognitive functions, and mental health problems in 22 participants (nine men, 13 women) with thalidomide embryopathy. Participants completed the electroencephalograph instrument. Participants were also assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III; the Autism-Spectrum Quotient; the General Health Questionnaire-28, and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The results suggest the following: (i) electroencephalographic abnormality observed in several thalidomide embryopathy participants is unlikely to be the direct result of thalidomide; (ii) the cognitive functions of working memory and processing speed are lower in thalidomide embryopathy patients than in healthy individuals; and (iii) 40.9% of the thalidomide embryopathy participants have possible mental disorders, with more mental problems observed than in healthy individuals. Deterioration of mental health in patients with thalidomide embryopathy is indicated. Anxiety, insomnia, and physical symptoms were especially remarkable and may have resulted in restriction of social activities. Therefore, careful examination and active support of patients' psychological and mental problems is essential. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)
textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.
Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P; Marimuthu, P
Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornography addiction screening tool and screening for mobile phone use, from in-patient and out-patient setting of tertiary mental health setting. It showed the presence of addiction to mobile, internet, video game, and pornography. Age was found to be negatively correlated with this addiction. Average usage time had been associated with management of mood states. The addiction to information technology had been associated with a delay in initiation of sleep. This work has implication for screening technology addiction among subjects seeking treatment for psychological problems and motivate them to develop the healthy use of technology.
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hines, Lisa D
This study explored the racial disparity of substance dependency and psychological health among White, African American, and Hispanic Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients as well as the relationship between substance dependency and psychological health. It analyzed 1,286 TANF recipients from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. Analysis of variance indicated that Whites were experiencing more nicotine and alcohol dependency and psychological distress than others, but African Americans and Hispanics were experiencing more cocaine dependency than Whites. Ordinary least squares regression revealed that nicotine dependency is significantly related to the psychological distress of Whites. Alcohol dependency is significantly associated with the psychological distress of three groups. Culturally competent programs are suggested.
Apolinário-Hagen, Jennifer; Kemper, Jessica; Stürmer, Carolina
Over the past decades, the deficient provision of evidence-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of mental health problems has become a global challenge across health care systems. In view of the ongoing diffusion of new media and mobile technologies into everyday life, Web-delivered electronic mental health (e-mental health) treatment services have been suggested to expand the access to professional help. However, the large-scale dissemination and adoption of innovative e-mental health services is progressing slowly. This discrepancy between potential and actual impact in public health makes it essential to explore public acceptability of e-mental health treatment services across health care systems. This scoping review aimed to identify and evaluate recent empirical evidence for public acceptability, service preferences, and attitudes toward e-mental health treatments. On the basis of both frameworks for technology adoption and previous research, we defined (1) perceived helpfulness and (2) intentions to use e-mental health treatment services as indicators for public acceptability in the respective general population of reviewed studies. This mapping should reduce heterogeneity and help derive implications for systematic reviews and public health strategies. We systematically searched electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, Psyndex, PsycARTICLES, and Cochrane Library, using reference management software for parallel searches) to identify surveys published in English in peer-reviewed journals between January 2010 and December 2015, focusing on public perceptions about e-mental health treatments outside the context of clinical, psychosocial, or diagnostic interventions. Both indicators were obtained from previous review. Exclusion criteria further involved studies targeting specific groups or programs. The simultaneous database search identified 76 nonduplicate records. Four articles from Europe and Australia were included in this scoping
Evans, Dylan J; Pillay, Anthony L
Over a 1-yr. period, 70 men attended district level clinical psychology services in Msunduzi, South Africa. The mean age was 35.9 yr., and 80% had secondary education. Only 65.7% attended of their own accord. 51% were unemployed, 71.4% had financial problems, 44.3% admitted to substance abuse, 74.3% reported relationship problems, and 14.3% admitted to being violent toward their partners. Suicidal ideation was the commonest referral problem, while mood disorder was the most frequent diagnosis. Clinicians estimated that 75.7% of these men had low self-esteem. 45.8% (34) perceived their partner as disengaged, enmeshed, or oppressive.
Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola
.... The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support...
Full Text Available Knowledge about potential protective factors against mental health problems is highly needed. Regular physical activity (PA in an outdoor environment, like mountain exercising, might reduce psychological distress. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of mental health problems in mountain exercisers and to detect factors associated with psychological distress. In a cross-sectional design, we collected self-reported data of 1,536 Austrian mountain exercisers. The prevalence of mental health problems and psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, the level of PA International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and affective valence during PA (Feeling Scale were obtained. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to assess factors influencing psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems in Austrian mountain exercisers was 14%. Health-enhancing PA level and higher affective valence during PA were significantly associated with lower psychological distress. Minimal PA level was not significantly associated with lower psychological distress compared to inactive PA level. Marital status, education, alpine association membership, and body mass index did not show a significant influence on psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems seems to be lower in Austrian mountain exercisers compared to the European population. A health-enhancing PA level and affective valence increasing forms of PA were shown to be associated with lower psychological distress. Results might lead to interventional studies focusing on the potential of outdoor PA, e.g., mountain exercise, as an adjunct treatment in people at risk or with mental health problems.
Rickwood, Debra J; Mazzer, Kelly R; Telford, Nic R; Parker, Alexandra G; Tanti, Chris J; McGorry, Patrick D
To examine changes in psychological distress and psychosocial functioning in young people presenting to headspace centres across Australia for mental health problems. Analysis of routine data collected from headspace clients who had commenced an episode of care between 1 April 2013 and 31 March 2014, and at 90-day follow-up. A total of 24 034 people aged 12-25 years who had first presented to one of the 55 fully established headspace centres for mental health problems during the data collection period. Main reason for presentation, types of therapeutic services provided, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) scores, and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) scores. Most headspace mental health clients presented with symptoms of depression and anxiety and were likely to receive cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Younger males were more likely than other age- and sex-defined groups to present for anger and behavioural problems, while younger females were more likely to present for deliberate self-harm. From presentation to last assessment, over one-third of clients had significant improvements in psychological distress (K10) and a similar proportion in psychosocial functioning (SOFAS). Sixty per cent of clients showed significant improvement on one or both measures. Data regarding outcomes for young people using mental health care services similar to headspace centres are scarce, but the current results compare favourably with those reported overseas, and show positive outcomes for young people using headspace centres.
Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P.; Marimuthu, P.
Background: Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornogra...
Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola
Recently there has been enormous progress in couple infertility treatment and diagnostics. Some couples cannot conceive despite the fact that there seems to be no objective somatic or immunologic reasons. In such situations gynaecologists are helpless and couples may be overwhelmed by a sense of defeat and hopelessness. Thus, consulting a psychologist or therapist on how to cope better with the problem may be a good solution. The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support. The study demonstrates numerous infertility causes and concludes that there is no universal method of dealing with them. Very frequently psychological and somatic problems overlap. Psychological causes are often the primary factors, but sometimes they are secondary derivatives of the therapeutic process. A wide scope of factors must be considered to attempt psychological analysis of patients treated for infertility including the influence of the family and relations within, reaction to the diagnosis and suggested treatment, the influence of religion on the treatment, the evaluation of the relations in the family of procreation, sexual life assessment, the sense of a woman's self-esteem and self-acceptance. Basing on empirical analysis it was concluded that all women treated for infertility want to create a full family. They have problems in coping with emotional liability during treatment and a sense of fear and failure. Understanding the psychological mechanisms observed in patients treated for infertility might help to diagnose the causes of their problems with facing the new, extremely difficult situation.
Blainey, Sarah Heidi; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren; Beck, Alison
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. Method: In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnai...
Chrisler, Joan C.
Reductionistic, misogynistic, and heterosexist views of women's bodies have been often expressed and widely shared, and psychology has not been immune to those views. Second-wave feminist psychologists had plenty of work to do to normalize and destigmatize women's bodies and to point out that cultural pressures, social constructions, and…
Valmaggia, Lucia R; Latif, Leila; Kempton, Matthew J; Rus-Calafell, Maria
The aim of this paper is to provide a review of controlled studies of the use of Virtual Reality in psychological treatment (VRT). Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Only studies comparing immersive virtual reality to a control condition were included. The search resulted in 1180 articles published between 2012 and 2015, of these, 24 were controlled studies. The reviewed studies confirm the effectiveness of VRT compared to treatment as usual, and show similar effectiveness when VRT is compared to conventional treatments. Current developments and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz
This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…
Soeteman, R.J.H.; Yzermans, C.J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Donker, G.A.; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Zee, J. van der
BACKGROUND: Survivors of disaster with pre-disaster psychological problems are believed to be at risk for presenting post-disaster psychological and physical morbidity. Up till now this statement is based on cross-sectional studies with self-reported data and without pre-disaster measurement.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and stress among postpartum Arab mothers of preterm or low birth weight (LBW infants and to identify maternal characteristics that can predict psychological distress among mothers of preterm infants. Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted. A representative sample of 2,091 postpartum mothers was surveyed and 1,659 women (79.3% gave their consent to participate in the study. The study was based on a face-to-face interview with a designed questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measures, medical history, and maternal characteristics. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21. Results: In the study sample, 10.2% of the postpartum mothers had preterm/LBW infants. Depression (29.4 vs. 17.3% and anxiety (26.5 vs. 11.6% were significantly more common among mothers of preterm births compared to mothers of full term infants (p < 0.001. The risk of depression in mothers of preterm/LBW infants was two times the risk in mothers of full term infants, while the risk of anxiety was 2.7 times in mothers of preterm/LBW infants than in mothers of full term infants. Young mothers and those who had less than secondary education (42.0 vs. 21.7%; p = 0.007 and lower monthly household income (72.0 vs. 53.3%; p = 0.024 were more depressed and anxious after the preterm birth when compared with mothers of full term infants. Psychological distress was higher in mothers with history of preterm birth (30.0 vs. 21.7% and delivery complications (52.0 vs. 33.3%. Conclusions: We found a greater risk of depression and anxiety in mothers of preterm births than in mothers of full term infants. Our analysis revealed that depressed and anxious women of preterm infants were younger, less educated, had a lower body weight and low household income than non-depressed and non
This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.
An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...
Unemployed and temporary agency workers and workers with expired fixed-term contracts are a particularly vulnerable group, at risk for sickness absence and prolonged work disability due to psychological problems. These workers who are without an employment contract, are also known as non-permanent
conflict may also contribute to increased child difficulties and therefore serve as predictive role in the model as well. Parent -Child relationship...symptomatology or behavior. Child adjustment from parent , teacher , and child perspectives are one of the key outcomes of the study. Child developmental...Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Julie Wargo Aikins, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Wayne State
Blainey, Sarah H; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren Jayne; Beck, Alison
To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnaire of psychological distress is completed by clients at start and end of therapy. Change over time and reliable and clinical change was assessed for 81 of a total of 122 clients (66.4%). Factors which may influence change over time were explored using available clinical information. Overall, there was a significant reduction in CORE-OM score during therapy with a small effect size. Most clients showed an improvement in psychological distress over therapy (75.4% improved, with 36.9% of these showing reliable changes). Significant and comparable reductions from pre-therapy to post-therapy were seen across the sample, showing that individual differences did not mediate therapy effectiveness. CORE-OM scores mediate the association between age of ASD diagnosis and hours of therapeutic input required, with greater age at diagnosis and higher distress associated with longer therapy duration. Our preliminary findings suggest that psychological therapy may be effective in reducing general distress for clients with ASC and co-morbid mental health conditions and should be routinely offered. Individuals who are diagnosed with ASD in adulthood are likely to require a longer course of therapy when their general distress scores are high. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients...
Yoon Hong Chun
Full Text Available Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents.In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10-18 years of age participating in the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use.Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.68. Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01. The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007.In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents.
Silva, N; Crespo, C; Carona, C; Bullinger, M; Canavarro, M C
Children's health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and psychological problems are important outcomes to consider in clinical decision making in paediatric asthma. However, children's and parents' reports often differ. The present study aimed to examine the levels of agreement/disagreement between children's and parents' reports of HrQoL and psychological problems and to identify socio-demographic, clinical and family variables associated with the extent and direction of (dis)agreement. The sample comprised 279 dyads of Portuguese children with asthma who were between 8 and 18 years of age (M = 12.13; SD = 2.56) and one of their parents. The participants completed self- and proxy-reported questionnaires on paediatric generic HrQoL (KIDSCREEN-10), chronic-generic HrQoL (DISABKIDS-37) and psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Children's and parents' perceptions of family relationships were measured with the Family Environment Scale and the caregiving burden was assessed using the Revised Burden Measure. The child-parent agreement on reported HrQoL and psychological problems was poor to moderate (intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.32 and 0.47). The rates of child-parent discrepancies ranged between 52.7% (psychological problems) and 68.8% (generic HrQoL), with 50.5% and 31.5% of the parents reporting worse generic and chronic-generic HrQoL, respectively, and 33.3% reporting more psychological problems than their children. The extent and direction of disagreement were better explained by family factors than by socio-demographic and clinical variables: a greater caregiving burden was associated with increased discrepancies in both directions and children's and parents' perceptions of less positive family relationships were associated with discrepancies in different directions. Routine assessment of paediatric HrQoL and psychological problems in healthcare and research contexts should include self- and parent-reported data as
Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Koposov, Roman; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, Michal; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav
Loneliness is common in adolescence and has been linked to various negative outcomes. Until now, however, there has been little cross-country research on this phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to examine which factors are associated with adolescent loneliness in three countries that differ historically and culturally-the Czech Republic, Russia and the United States, and to determine whether adolescent loneliness is associated with poorer psychological and somatic health. Data from a school survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), were used to examine these relations among 2205 Czech, 1995 Russian, and 2050 U.S. male and female adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine if specific demographic, parenting, personal or school-based factors were linked to feeling lonely and whether lonely adolescents were more likely to report psychological (depression and anxiety) or somatic symptoms (e.g. headaches, pain). Inconsistent parenting, shyness, and peer victimisation were associated with higher odds for loneliness in at least 4 of the 6 country- and sex-wise subgroups (i.e. Czech, Russian, U.S. boys and girls). Parental warmth was a protective factor against feeling lonely among Czech and U.S. girls. Adolescents who were lonely had higher odds for reporting headaches, anxiety and depressive symptoms across all subgroups. Loneliness was associated with other somatic symptoms in at least half of the adolescent subgroups. Loneliness is associated with worse adolescent health across countries. The finding that variables from different domains are important for loneliness highlights the necessity of interventions in different settings in order to reduce loneliness and its detrimental effects on adolescent health.
Falbe-Hansen, Louise; Le Huray, Corin; Phull, Brendar; Shakespeare, Clare
We describe a new service offering cognitive behavioural therapy in the form of guided self-help to patients experiencing mild mental health problems. The referral pathway is outlined and the various treatment options are illustrated with case descriptions of depression and panic disorder. Patients' responses to this new service are reported and discussed. PMID:26042170
Vancampfort, Davy; Van Damme, Tine; Probst, Michel; Firth, Joseph; Stubbs, Brendon; Basangwa, David; Mugisha, James
There is a growing recognition of the importance of encouraging patients with mental health problems to become more active as an efficacious strategy to reduce the disability-associated burden. The aim of the current study was to investigate if there are differences in quality of life (QoL) outcomes between people with mental health problems that do and do not meet the recommendations of 150min per week of physical activity. 109 (36♀) Ugandan in- and outpatients (mean age = 34.2 ± 10.2 years) (depression = 7, bipolar disorder = 31, schizophrenia = 21, alcohol use disorder = 50) completed the Physical Activity Vital Sign (PAVS) method and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment brief version. Those who did not achieve the minimum physical activity recommendations as assessed by the PAVS (n = 63) had a lower physical, psychological, social and environmental QoL. The current data offer further evidence that the PAVS method might be an important risk identification tool in people with mental health problems. The feasibility and acceptability of the PAVS may help promote the importance of physical activity assessment and prescription as a core part of the treatment of mental health problems in LMICs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients. Consideration of a patient's psychological health is therefore important for all nurses providing holistic care. Awareness of the symptoms of psychological distress, good communication skills and simple screening instruments can be used by nurses to assess patients' mental health. The cognitive and behavioural risk factors associated with depression and anxiety are also explored, as an understanding of these can help nurses to provide appropriate care.
Yen, Jeffery; Vaccarino, Oriana
In contrast to the institutionalization of health psychology in North America and Europe, much psychological work on health issues in South Africa emerged as part of a critical revitalization of South African psychology as a whole, coinciding with the dismantling of Apartheid and global shifts in health discourse. The field's development reflects attempts to engage with urgent health problems in the context of rapid sociopolitical changes that followed democratic transition in the 1990s, and under new conditions of knowledge production. We provide an account of these issues, as well as reflections on the field's future, as inflected through the experiences of 12 South African psychologists whose careers span the emergence of health-related psychology to the present day.
Holtforth, Martin Grosse
Avoidance of aversive experiences is common to all human beings. However, when avoidance is too strong, it might be associated with impaired psychological functioning and psychopathology. This article examines the role of avoidance motivation in psychological problems and psychotherapy from conceptual, assessment, and empirical perspectives. The concept of avoidance motivation is introduced, and measures of the intensity and satisfaction of avoidance motivation that the author developed are presented. Empirical findings generated using these measures are also reported. The findings address the role of avoidance motivation in relation to well-being, psychological problems, and psychotherapy outcome. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed and avenues for further research explored.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known of the importance of social support in the associations between psychological distress and somatic health problems and socio-economic factors among older adults living at home. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the associations of social support, somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with psychological distress. We also examined changes in the association of somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with psychological distress after adjusting for social support. Methods A random sample of 4,000 persons aged 65 years or more living at home in Oslo was drawn. Questionnaires were sent by post, and the total response was 2,387 (64%. Psychological distress was assessed using Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10 and social support with the Oslo-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3. A principal component analysis (PCA included all items of social support and psychological distress. Partial correlations were used, while associations were studied by logistic regression. Results After adjusting for socio-demographics and somatic health problems, we reported a statistically significant association between psychological distress and social support: “Number of close friends”, OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.47-0.80; “Concern and interest”, OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.55-0.84. A strong association between lack of social support and psychological distress, irrespective of variables adjusted for, indicated a direct effect. The associations between psychological distress and physical impairments were somewhat reduced when adjusted for social support, particularly for hearing, whereas the associations between somatic diagnoses and psychological distress were more or less eliminated. Income was found to be an independent determinant for psychological distress. Conclusions Lack of social support and somatic health problems were associated with psychological distress in elders. Social support acted as a
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Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.
With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and
Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz
This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent victimisation and violence perpetration were contrasted with non-involved comparisons. The results show that even low levels of violence involvement were associated with more problems, fewer protective factors and impaired HRQOL. Multiply victimised youth - not perpetrating victims - stood out with internalising, peer and hyperactivity/inattention problems. Discriminant function analysis separated non-involved from violence-affected youth, and multiply victimised from not multiply victimised youth. Externalising behaviours, family issues, male sex and school functioning predicted group separation on the first function (proportion variance explained 80.0%), while internalising and peer issues were predictive for the second function (PVE 14.2%). Implications for prevention, intervention and research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Dayoung; Jung, Song; Park, Seongjun; Hong, Hyun Ju
The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for suicidal ideation in adolescents by gender and age. This study used 2013 nationwide school-based mental health screening test data from 591,303 seventh grade students and 618,271 tenth grade students in Korea. Suicidal ideation, four psychological problems, and three adverse life events were evaluated using the Adolescents Mental Health and Problem Behavior Screening Questionnaire-II. Of all students, 12.9-14.7% of the boys and 17.1-23.2% of the girls had suicidal ideation. Mood had the greatest impact on the risk for suicidal ideation and other factors also significantly increased the risk of suicidal ideation. Distractibility was positively related to suicidal ideation only in seventh grade students and behavioral problems increased suicidal ideation more in girls than in boys. Violence constituted the most powerful factor for suicidal ideation among the events; however, bullying constituted the most important event that increased suicidal ideation in seventh grade girls. All factors except 'Distractibility' increased the risk of severe suicidal ideation. The risk factors for suicidal ideation in adolescents differed by gender and age. Interventions should be made according to these characteristics to reduce suicidal ideation in adolescents.
Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Verhaak, Peter F M; van der Ende, Jan; Bensing, Jozien M; Verhulst, Frank C
Child and adolescent psychological problems are rarely brought to the attention of GPs. Children and adolescents with psychological problems who do visit their GP are seldom identified as such by GPs. To investigate in a general population sample of 2,449 Dutch children and adolescents (4-17 years) GP consultation and GP diagnoses of child psychological problems, and the influence of child and family characteristics upon these variables. The degree to which parent, teacher, and adolescent reports of the presence of child psychological problems are in concordance with GP diagnoses of these problems was determined. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine correlates of GP consultation and psychological diagnoses. Approximately 80% of children and adolescents with psychological problems had visited their GP within the preceding year. GP consultation was most strongly associated with child/adolescent chronic physical disorders. Concordance between GP psychological diagnoses and parent, teacher, and adolescent reports of psychological problems was limited. Children and adolescents with psychological problems according to parent or teacher report, children with school problems, young boys, adolescents with negative health perceptions, and adolescents from single parent families were more likely to be diagnosed with psychological problems by GPs. Improving GPs' interview techniques, introducing standardised screening measures in general practice, increasing GPs' awareness of the possible presence of psychological problems in children consulting for physical problems, and strengthening collaboration between GPs and mental health professionals may increase GP identification of child psychological problems and enhance access to care for those in need.
Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua
Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task…
Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.
Wang, I J; Wen, H J; Chiang, T L; Lin, S J; Guo, Y L
Little is known about the effect of postnatal maternal psychologic problems on the development of childhood atopic disorders. To assess the association between early life maternal psychologic problems and atopic dermatitis (AD) in children in a national birth cohort. We used multistage, stratified systematic sampling to recruit 24,200 mother-newborn pairs from the Taiwan national birth registration. Maternal psychologic problems and potential confounders were gathered by the standard questionnaire at 6 months old. At 3 years of age, information about the development of AD was assessed by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood via home interviews. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association of postnatal maternal psychologic problems (postpartum depression (PPD) and maternal mental health index) and AD. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed AD was 10.5%. PPD increased the risk of subsequent physician-diagnosed AD in children after adjusting for potential confounders and other maternal mental health index (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.21-1.66). We observed that the risk of AD associated with PPD was not confounded by other social demographic factors such as maternal AD, maternal education, family income, breastfeeding, day care, and number of siblings. Postpartum depression increased the risk of childhood AD even when other maternal mental health index and social demographic factors are considered. Early intervention of PPD might be helpful for AD prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Eman A. Abdel-Aziz
Conclusions: Obese children and adolescents have lower health-related QOL that correlated negatively with BMI, also they are more susceptible to anxiety and depression symptoms than non obese children.
Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T
The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Melissa A Cortina
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many children can be exposed to multiple adversities in low and middle-income countries (LMICs placing them at potential risk of psychological problems. However, there is a paucity of research using large representative cohorts examining the psychological adjustment of children in school settings in these countries. Children's psychological adjustment has been shown to affect educational progress which is critical for their future. This study, based in a rural, socio-economically disadvantaged area of South Africa, aimed to examine the prevalence of children's psychological problems as well as possible risk and protective factors. METHODS: Rates of psychological problems in 10-12 year olds were examined using teacher- and child-report questionnaires. Data on children from 10 rural primary schools, selected by stratified random sampling, were linked to individual and household data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system collected from households over 15 years. RESULTS: A total of 1,025 children were assessed. Teachers identified high levels of behavioural and emotional problems (41%. Children reported lower, but substantial rates of anxiety/depression (14%, and significant post-traumatic stress symptoms (24%; almost a quarter felt unsafe in school. Risk factors included being a second-generation former refugee and being from a large household. Protective factors highlight the importance of maternal factors, such as being more educated and in a stable partnership. CONCLUSION: The high levels of psychological problems identified by teachers are a serious public health concern, as they are likely to impact negatively on children's education, particularly given the large class sizes and limited resources in rural LMIC settings. Despite the high levels of risk, a proportion of children were managing well and research to understand resilience could inform interventions.
Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G
AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support in the assoc......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of mental illness in young people is the highest of any age group, with the onset of depression, anxiety and substance use peaking between 18 and 24 years. Effective treatments that target sub-threshold or mild to moderate levels of disorder in young people are required to reduce the risk of persistence and recurrence. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether treatments that are less intensive than cognitive-behaviour therapy, such as problem solving therapy and exercise treatments, are acceptable and effective in managing depression and anxiety symptoms in young people and to identify possible attributes in those who are likely to respond to these treatments. Methods/design This is a factorial randomised controlled trial conducted at a large, metropolitan youth mental health service. Participants are young help-seekers aged 15-25 years with sub-threshold or mild to moderate levels of depression and anxiety (with or without comorbid substance use. The interventions comprise 4 treatment combinations delivered by psychologists over 6 sessions on a weekly basis: a psychological intervention (problem solving therapy versus supportive counselling and an exercise intervention (behavioural exercise versus psychoeducation. Structured assessments occur at baseline, mid-point, end-point (6 weeks and at a 6- and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcomes are depression and anxiety symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Secondary outcomes include remission (defined as no longer meeting the diagnostic criteria for a disorder if threshold level was reached at baseline, or no longer scoring in the clinical range on scale scores if sub-threshold at baseline, substance use, and functioning. Discussion The effectiveness of less complex psychological and exercise interventions in young help-seekers with sub-threshold or mild to moderate presentations of high prevalence disorders is yet to be
Parker, Alexandra G; Hetrick, Sarah E; Jorm, Anthony F; Yung, Alison R; McGorry, Patrick D; Mackinnon, Andrew; Moller, Bridget; Purcell, Rosemary
The prevalence of mental illness in young people is the highest of any age group, with the onset of depression, anxiety and substance use peaking between 18 and 24 years. Effective treatments that target sub-threshold or mild to moderate levels of disorder in young people are required to reduce the risk of persistence and recurrence. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether treatments that are less intensive than cognitive-behaviour therapy, such as problem solving therapy and exercise treatments, are acceptable and effective in managing depression and anxiety symptoms in young people and to identify possible attributes in those who are likely to respond to these treatments. This is a factorial randomised controlled trial conducted at a large, metropolitan youth mental health service. Participants are young help-seekers aged 15-25 years with sub-threshold or mild to moderate levels of depression and anxiety (with or without comorbid substance use). The interventions comprise 4 treatment combinations delivered by psychologists over 6 sessions on a weekly basis: a psychological intervention (problem solving therapy versus supportive counselling) and an exercise intervention (behavioural exercise versus psychoeducation). Structured assessments occur at baseline, mid-point, end-point (6 weeks) and at a 6- and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcomes are depression and anxiety symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Secondary outcomes include remission (defined as no longer meeting the diagnostic criteria for a disorder if threshold level was reached at baseline, or no longer scoring in the clinical range on scale scores if sub-threshold at baseline), substance use, and functioning. The effectiveness of less complex psychological and exercise interventions in young help-seekers with sub-threshold or mild to moderate presentations of high prevalence disorders is yet to be explored. This study has been designed to examine the
Friedman, Howard S; Silver, Roxane Cohen
... and Effective Treatment 9 Adjustment to Chronic Disease: Progress and Promise in Research Annette L. Stanton and Tracey A. Revenson 203 10 Aging and Health 234 Karen S. Rook, Susan T. Charles, and...
As part of a growing literature on the histories of psychology in the Global South, this article outlines some historical developments in South African psychologists' engagement with the problem of "health." Alongside movements to formalize and professionalize a U.S.-style "health psychology" in the 1990s, there arose a parallel, eclectic, and more or less critical psychology that contested the meaning and determinants of health, transgressed disciplinary boundaries, and opposed the responsibilization of illness implicit in much health psychological theorizing and neoliberal discourse. This disciplinary bifurcation characterized South African work well into the postapartheid era, but ideological distinctions have receded in recent years under a new regime of knowledge production in thrall to the demands of the global market. The article outlines some of the historical-political roots of key trends in psychologists' work on health in South Africa, examining the conditions that have impinged on its directions and priorities. It raises questions about the future trajectories of psychological research on health after 20 years of democracy, and argues that there currently is no "health psychology" in South Africa, and that the discipline is the better for it. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.
Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…
Hager, Alanna D.; Runtz, Marsha G.
Objective: This retrospective, cross-sectional study investigated the association between childhood physical and psychological maltreatment and self-reported physical health concerns in adult women. The mediating roles of perceived stress and coping strategies were examined. Methods: Participants were 235 women (aged 18-59 years) recruited from…
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jang, Hyesue; Jo, Minkyung
We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES), exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.
Full Text Available We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES, exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.
Shakya, D R; Lama, S; Shyangwa, P M
A high prevalence of psychological/ mental disorders has frequently been reported among nursing staff. However, there is a scarcity of data about 'psychological, mental and behavioural problems' among Nepalese nurses. Current study aimed to measure the prevalence of psychiatric problems among nursing staff in a tertiary care hosital. All nursing staffs working in the hospital during one year were the subjects of this study. With the informed written consent, the responses to semi-structured proforma and the questionnaire General Health Questionnaire 28 were collected. A semi-structured proforma was used to record socio-demographic, clinical profiles and other information. The GHQ 28 was used to screen major psychiatric disorders. The GHQ 28 gives 'psychiatric caseness' to the subjects with score of 4 or more. Overwhelming majority of nursing staff in BPKIHS is female certificate level staff nurses. Majority were from urban and semi urban settings. Some had job and institute related stressors. Most common among the reported health complaints were low back pain and headache. Few staff revealed psychiatric diagnosis. Among the enrolled 337 subjects, 'psychiatric caseness' was present in 34.72%. Some departments (e.g. dialysis, eye, medical, gynecology ward) had proportionately higher 'psychiatric caseness' rates than other (e.g. ENT, psychiatry ward, emergency OT, CSSD). A great proportion of nursing staff suffer from mental and behavioral problems.
Haagmans, Michèle L M; Kamphuis, Mascha
We present two patients with frequent school absences. Patient A is a 12-year-old boy, diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder. When his mother visits the youth community health doctor, he shows signs of an anxiety disorder with stress-related physical symptoms. Patient B is a 15-year-old boy whose teacher suspects a gaming and internet addiction. After consulting the youth community health doctor, he is referred to a psychologist for further diagnosis of a social anxiety disorder. Frequent school absenteeism is associated with psychological problems. After excluding physical causes referral for further psychiatric assessment is recommended. As the medical advisor of the school, the youth community health doctor can play a role in this process.
Graff-Radford, S B; Solberg, W K
Several authors have asserted that psychological factors are the underlying cause of atypical odontalgia. However, objective evidence is lacking to support this claim. In this study, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was used to assess psychological functioning of an atypical odontalgia population. Means of the standard scores for each Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scale were within normal ranges. Standard scores for atypical odontalgia profiles compared with standard scores for a chronic headache group (matched for age, sex, and chronicity) were similar and scales for both groups were within normal ranges. These findings fail to support psychological dysfunction as a primary condition associated with patients suffering from atypical odontalgia.
Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities and problems of usage of personality inventories in psychological diagnostic of persons with "heavy pathology", from aspect of validity and applicability in the first place. Personality inventories are usually designed for health population. By their usage in clinical psychology we often meet problems like specific tendencies when answering defined questions. This could be the result of situational factors but also the impact of their disorders and personality. The possibilities of classical interpretation of results are in this way limited. Do we have the opportunity of development of the diagnostic instruments that we could, not only recognise, but use such deformations (which represent cognitive style or defence of person in diagnostic purpose? The MMPI-2, most famous inventory in this field, offer us great aid, especially because its items are selected empirically. By the analysis of its items from aspect of sensing and localisation of subjects problems, we found differences between clinical scales which represent patients of different clinical groups. These differences are in accordance with psychoanalytical assumptions about characteristics of sensing self and other people.
Johnson, Norine G.
Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…
MIRONENKO IRINA A.; SOROKIN PAVEL S.
This article begins by discussing the origins of the methodological crisis in psychology. In the literature the idea of a permanent methodological crisis in psychology, lasting since the 1890s, dominates. We contest this view and argue that the contemporary methodological problems in psychology should be considered within the context of the novel and larger crisis challenging all socio-humanitarian knowledge in the face of the transformations in social reality in recent decades. The nature of...
James, M J
As quarantine control of international travellers dies away, health screening of immigrants becomes more important. Port health controls attempt to identify the sick immigrant, thereby limiting disease spread among susceptibles and sparking early treatment. Port health controls also ease the impact of immigrants arriving at destinations by alerting relevant authorities so that they can begin health education procedures early, if they wish. Two problems arise: some destination authorities make little attempt to trace their immigrants and even those that do cannot find more than 70 per cent so notified. For receiving communities the most important disease the immigrant may carry or later develop is tuberculosis. In the indigenous population the incidence of this disease is decaying exponentially but, in communities of recent immigrants, may be stable or even rising. This means that in about ten years the great majority of new tuberculosis cases will be in recent immigrants, unless better preventive techniques are used. The overall trend is likely to be a fall in the number of cases, but the disproportion may provoke problems. What can be done? Assuming incoming immigrants are typical of their country of origin, many must enter Britain mantoux-negative, a fact supported by various destination authorities here which have performed testing. So, the logical solution is to ensure that all receive BCG vaccination, preferably before they migrate or otherwise as they enter Britain, and to ensure their babies born later in Britain also receive the protection of BCG vaccination. Consumption of medical services by the travelling public increases with the number of travellers and, as more people penetrate romantic but unhealthy areas formerly inaccessible, importation of communicable disease also increases. Many of these diseases could be prevented by good advice but, unfortunately, unfamiliarity blunts the edge of prophylaxis and diagnosis. Airport experience indicates that the
Astha; Monika; Gitika; Abhishek
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is defined as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents suffer from psychosocial problems at one time or other during their development. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization majority of young couple are employed and get less time to look after their children. Psychosocial problem and drug abuse are quite prevalent in this age group. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of psychosocial, emotional, behavioral problems, sexual orientation, drug abuse in...
Brown, David B.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Roos, Corey R.
There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one’s thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students (N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness. PMID:26504498
Brown, David B; Bravo, Adrian J; Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R
There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one's thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students ( N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness.
The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...
Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don
This study examined associations between AIDS-orphanhood status, poverty indicators, and psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, peer problems, delinquency, conduct problems) among children and adolescents in townships surrounding Cape Town, South Africa. One thousand and twenty-five children and adolescents completed standardized and culturally sensitive cross-sectional surveys. Children orphaned by AIDS had more psychological problems including depression, peer problems, post-traumatic stress, and conduct problems. Specific poverty indicators including food security, access to social welfare grants, employment in the household and access to school were associated with better psychological health. Poverty indicators mediated associations of AIDS-orphanhood with psychological problems. Food security showed the most consistent association with reduced psychological problems. Poverty alleviation measures have the potential to improve psychological health for AIDS-orphaned children in South African townships.
Raj, Stacey P; Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Brown, Tanya M; Kirkwood, Michael W
Adolescents sustaining traumatic brain injury (TBI) show increased prevalence of behavior problems. This study investigated the associations of parent mental health, family functioning, and parent-adolescent interaction with adolescent externalizing behavior problems in the initial months after TBI, and examined whether injury severity moderated these associations. 117 parent-adolescent dyads completed measures of family functioning, adolescent behavior, and parent mental health an average of 108 days post-TBI. Dyads also engaged in a 10-min video-recorded problem-solving activity coded for parent behavior and tone of interaction. Overall, higher ratings of effective parent communication were associated with fewer externalizing behavior problems, whereas poorer caregiver psychological functioning was associated with greater adolescent externalizing behaviors. Results failed to reveal moderating effects of TBI severity on the relationship between socio-environmental factors and behavior problems. Interventions targeting parent communication and/or improving caregiver psychological health may ameliorate potential externalizing behavior problems after adolescent TBI.
Bianchi, Adriana; Phillips, James G
Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.
role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan ...
Kristensen, Kasper Andreas
This contribution explores the connection between health and subjectivity. Up until recently a marginally discussed topic in health theories, recent critical research in health psychology introduces notions of subjectivity to theories of health. These notions can be linked to phenomenology....... Hence, I will argue for the concept of conduct of life as an important concept for health psychology. The concept of conduct of life enables an analysis of how people conduct their activities and of their access to life possibilities, within social settings and societal power systems. The concept can...
Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Derks, Daantje
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the emerging concept of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP). We discuss the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs in order to understand the path to health and well-being at work. We describe research findings on several POHP topics, including engagement, psychological capital, and job crafting. Additionally, we review the first positive interventions in this field and conclude by identifying some specific questions for future research.
I. V. Puz
Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of modern motherhood and studies the phenomenon of deviant maternal behavior. Based on the literature, present study analyzes such forms of violation of maternal behavior as mother's refusal from a baby; mother's cruel treatment of a baby; frequent abortions; maternity in the early reproductive age; conscious maternity postponement for a later reproductive age. Also the factors that contribute to various manifestations of deviant motherhood are described.
Shakya, D. R.; S Lama; P M Shyangwa
Introduction: A high prevalence of psychological/ mental disorders has frequently been reported among nursing staff. However, there is a scarcity of data about ‘psychological, mental and behavioural problems’ among Nepalese nurses. Current study aimed to measure the prevalence of psychiatric problems among nursing staff in a tertiary care hosital. Methods: All nursing staffs working in the hospital during one year were the subjects of this study. With the informed written consent...
T P Lavanya
Full Text Available Background: Study of emotion regulation strategies used by youth becomes necessary in the background of the high prevalence of emotional disorders in this population. This study examined emotion regulation and psychological problems among college youth as well as the relationship between the two. Methodology: Four hundred and nineteen students, who were divided into two groups (older adolescents, aged 16-17 years - group 1, n = 217; young adults aged 18-25 years - group 2, n = 202 participated in this exploratory study. Results: Predominantly positive emotion regulation strategies were used by group 1 (positive refocusing, refocus on planning, and positive reappraisal, respectively. The sample as a whole used more positive strategies (positive refocusing: 82% and 64% and refocus on planning: 93% and 87% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Significant correlations between emotion regulation strategies (CERQ and psychological problems (YSR/YASR were found, thereby indicating that negative emotion regulation strategies were associated with psychological problems and vice versa. Females were found to have more of anxiety problems as opposed to males with more of conduct problems. However with increase in age, increase in the percentage of psychological problems and usage of negative emotion regulation strategies was observed. Conclusion: The findings of the present study contribute to understanding the patterns of emotion regulation in various emotional disorders. Findings could also contribute to developing an intervention program to help students having difficulty in regulation of their emotions.
Begum, Bibi Nooreen; Hasan, Shazia
To explore the difference between anxiety and depression among infertile and fertile women. The study was conducted in 2009 and comprised fertile and infertile women. The sample of infertile women was drawn from the Liaquat National Hospital, Patel Hospital, Infertility Concept and Zainub Hospital, located in urban areas of Karachi, while fertile women were drawn from the general population in urban Karachi. All the subjects had at least 10 years of education and were in the age range of 20-35 years. They two groups were further divided into two sub-groups of working and non-working women. Institute for Personality and Ability Testing Depression and Anxiety scales were used to assess depression and anxiety. SPSS 14.0 was used to analyse the data. Of the 120 subjects, the two groups had 60(50%) each. The mean age of fertile women was 27.48±160.75 and that in the infertile group was 27.36±160.75. Depression among fertile women was 21.85±10.98 compared to 32.01±12.49 among the infertile women. Corresponding values for anxiety was 24.45±9.63 and 36.20±12.51. The difference was significant. Women with infertility experience a greater psychological impact.
Three-year trend survey of psychological distress, post-traumatic stress, and problem drinking among residents in the evacuation zone after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident [The Fukushima Health Management Survey].
Oe, Misari; Fujii, Senta; Maeda, Masaharu; Nagai, Masato; Harigane, Mayumi; Miura, Itaru; Yabe, Hirooki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Suzuki, Yuriko; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi
Prolonged periods of instability in terms of living environment can lead to a serious increase in mental health issues among disaster-affected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess long-term trends in mental health among adult residents in a nuclear-disaster-affected area. Mail-based, self-administered questionnaire surveys were conducted three times (T1-T3), targeting all residents registered with the municipalities in the evacuation zone in Fukushima prefecture at the time of the disaster. Age-adjusted prevalences of the following were analyzed by sex: risk of psychological distress by the Kessler 6-item Scale, post-traumatic stress by the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, and problem drinking by CAGE. The numbers of respondents and response rates were: 73 568, 40.7% (T1); 55 076, 29.9% (T2); and 46 386, 25.0% (T3). Compared with normal Japanese levels in non-disaster settings (4.7%), the prevalence of general psychological distress by Kessler 6-item Scale ≥ 13 was still high 3 years after the event in both men (11.4%) and women (15.8%). Although the age-adjusted prevalence of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist ≥ 44) had decreased over time (from 19.0% [T1] to 17.8% [T3] for men, and from 25.3% [T1] to 23.3% [T3] for women), the age-adjusted prevalence of problem drinking (CAGE ≥ 2) remained steady in both men (20.7% [T2] and 20.4% [T3]; P = 0.18) and women (10.5% [T2] and 10.5% [T3]; P = 0.91). Our results suggest that long-term interventions focused on post-traumatic stress as well as other mental health problems are strongly needed for disaster-affected individuals. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Aug 3, 2012 ... patients. The role of behaviour and lifestyle in the causation of cancer and hypertension has been studied extensively and can be used to illustrate how health psychology interventions could be applied to control these diseases. Health psychology interventions could close the widening communication gap.
Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D.; Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.
Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understand...
Kaslow, Nadine J; Graves, Chanda C; Smith, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku
This article begins by contextualizing specialization and board certification of psychologists, with attention paid to relevant definitions and expectations of other health care professionals. A brief history of specialization and board certification in professional psychology is offered. The benefits of board certification through the American Board of Professional Psychology are highlighted. Consideration is then given to the primary reasons for psychologists working in academic health sciences centers to specialize in the current health care climate and to obtain board certification as a mark of such specialization.
There has been substantial empirical research on the health benefits of expressive writing. However, there has been less psychological research on the broader nature of writing and its relationship with health. The aim of this special section is to promote a more extensive engagement between health psychology and writing. It includes three articles on the value of investigating more established forms of writing, the nature of creative writing and the value of an intensive analysis of written accounts of illness. This article introduces this special section.
Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Fathzadeh, Heidar; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Arman, Soror; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Motavallian, Abbas
The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of psychological problems Iranian children and adolescents have, using parent report form of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In a community-based study, 9636 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were selected using the multistage cluster random sampling method from five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Razavi Khorasan and East Azerbaijan. The parents completed the SDQ, which consisted of five subscales including emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and prosocial behaviors. The results revealed 21.4% of emotional problems, 32.9% of conduct problems, 20% of hyperactivity, 25.6% of peer problems, 7.6% of problems in prosocial behaviors and 16.7% of total difficulties among Iranian children and adolescents. We found that emotional problems were more prevalent among girls, while conduct problems, hyperactivity, total difficulties and problems in prosocial behaviors were more prevalent among boys. High educational level of parents was a protective factor against some psychological problems. Considering the proportion of psychological problems in Iranian children and adolescents, we need to develop and implement special policies and programs to provide appropriate mental health services.
Yanchus, Nancy J; Derickson, Ryan; Moore, Scott C; Bologna, Daniele; Osatuke, Katerine
The purpose of this paper is to explore employee perceptions of communication in psychologically safe and unsafe clinical care environments. Clinical providers at the USA Veterans Health Administration were interviewed as part of planning organizational interventions. They discussed strengths, weaknesses, and desired changes in their workplaces. A subset of respondents also discussed workplace psychological safety (i.e. employee perceptions of being able to speak up or report errors without retaliation or ostracism--Edmondson, 1999). Two trained coders analysed the interview data using a grounded theory-based method. They excerpted passages that discussed job-related communication and summarized specific themes. Subsequent analyses compared frequencies of themes across workgroups defined as having psychologically safe vs unsafe climate based upon an independently administered employee survey. Perceptions of work-related communication differed across clinical provider groups with high vs low psychological safety. The differences in frequencies of communication-related themes across the compared groups matched the expected pattern of problem-laden communication characterizing psychologically unsafe workplaces. Previous research implied the existence of a connection between communication and psychological safety whereas this study offers substantive evidence of it. The paper summarized the differences in perceptions of communication in high vs low psychological safety environments drawing from qualitative data that reflected clinical providers' direct experience on the job. The paper also illustrated the conclusions with multiple specific examples. The findings are informative to health care providers seeking to improve communication within care delivery teams.
Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…
The aim of this paper is to outline the contribution of two strands of discursive research, glossed as 'macro' and 'micro,' to the field of health psychology. A further goal is to highlight some contemporary debates in methodology associated with the use of interview data versus more naturalistic data in qualitative health research. Discursive approaches provide a way of analyzing talk as a social practice that considers how descriptions are put together and what actions they achieve. A selection of recent examples of discursive research from one applied area of health psychology, studies of diet and obesity, are drawn upon in order to illustrate the specifics of both strands. 'Macro' discourse work in psychology incorporates a Foucauldian focus on the way that discourses regulate subjectivities, whereas the concept of interpretative repertoires affords more agency to the individual: both are useful for identifying the cultural context of talk. Both 'macro' and 'micro' strands focus on accountability to varying degrees. 'Micro' Discursive Psychology, however, pays closer attention to the sequential organization of constructions and focuses on naturalistic settings that allow for the inclusion of an analysis of the health professional. Diets are typically depicted as an individual responsibility in mainstream health psychology, but discursive research highlights how discourses are collectively produced and bound up with social practices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…
Hennessy, Eilis; Heary, Caroline
Background: The aim of the present study was to explore children’s beliefs about the causes of psychological problems and their beliefs about potential sources of help for peers experiencing these problems. Despite its importance this is an area that has received relatively little attention from researchers. Methods: One hundred and sixteen children were read short vignettes in focus groups or individual interviews. The vignettes described the behaviour of hypothetical children with ADHD, con...
Win Listyaningrum Arifin
Full Text Available Psychological aspect regarding to learning attitudes plays in determining learning achievement. Psychological problems also involve not only to the students but also teacher. Less-confidence, speech anxiety, and low self-esteem are almost common problem in classroom, and occur on both teachers and students. Students who have low of self-confidence are often hardly able to control themselves for public speaking in the classroom, like, Governing his/ her behavior on that his/her peers think, lose belief on self, thinking that his/her friends dis-appraising, afraid of getting mistakes, etc. However, teachers which are low self-esteem and confidence also lose their performance and ability to manage their classroom optimally. Low self-esteem may caused by teacher’s poor understanding on subject matter. Both of psychological problems impact on dis-effectiveness of classroom activities. This paper takes accounts of some psychological problems of students and teachers in English speaking classroom, and some guidelines to overcome. At the last discus, this paper also provides some keys of how to make good classroom atmosphere.
Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Bielecka-Grzela, Stanisława; Klimowicz, Adam
Androgenetic alopecia is a fairly common disorder which causes serious aesthetic and psychological problems. The paper discusses the etiology, diagnostics and possible treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women. Preparations for both general and external use in treatment of this dermatosis have been presented herein.
In this article the concept of nonverbal communication skill is discovered on the basis of the analysis of the concept ‘skill’ and peculiarities of nonverbal communication. The ‘nonverbal communication skill’ phenomenon is defined as psychological and pedagogical problem. Features and factors that contribute to the development of nonverbal communication skill of future teachers (students of Pedagogical University) are determined.
Oti-Boadi, Mabel; Oppong Asante, Kwaku
Infertility has been shown to have considerable psychological effects on the well-being of couples, especially women. Religion has been found as a resource used by infertile women to cope with their distress. Little research has examined the influence of religious coping on psychological distress among infertile women in Ghana. This study examines the relationship between positive and negative religious coping and psychological health for women with infertility problems in Ghana. One hundred and fifty married women who were receiving assisted reproduction care in two specialized clinics were recruited for this study. Participants were administered with the Brief Symptom Inventory and Brief Religious Coping Scale to assess psychological health associated with infertility and religious coping respectively. A hierarchical regression was performed to examine the relative contribution of the domains of psychological health (i.e. somatization, anxiety and depression) in predicting negative religious coping and positive religious. The results showed that negative religious coping was significant and positively correlated with somatization, depression and anxiety. Furthermore, a positive relationship also existed between positive religious coping and somatization and anxiety but not depression. After controlling for age and duration of infertility, somatization and anxiety predicted positive religious coping whilst all the domains of psychological health (somatization, anxiety and depression) precited negative religious coping. This study expanded on the existing literature by examining positive and negative religious coping with psychological distress associated with infertility for women. These results underscore the need for health professionals providing therapies for women with infertility to acknowledge and consider their religious beliefs as this influences their mental health.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Noise Abatement and Control.
This booklet contains nine sections describing ways in which noise may endanger health and well-being. Secions are included on: (1) hearing loss; (2) heart disease; (3) other reactions by the body; (4) effects on the unborn; (5) special effects on children; (6) intrusion at home and work; (7) sleep disruption; (8) mental and social well-being; and…
In this study, structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment-emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents. Participants were 937 adolescents from different high schools in Turkey. The sample included 502 female (53.6%) and 435 male (46.4%) students, 14-19 years old (mean age=16.51, SD=1.15). Results indicated that psychological maltreatment was negatively correlated with resilience and self-esteem, and positively correlated with behavioral problems and emotional problems. Resilience and self-esteem also predicted behavioral problems and emotional problems. Finally, psychological maltreatment predicted emotional and behavioral problems mediated by resilience and self-esteem. Resilience and self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between psychological maltreatment-behavioral and psychological maltreatment-emotional problems in adolescents. Thus, resilience and self-esteem appear to play a protective role in emotional problems and behavioral problems in psychologically maltreated individuals. Implications are discussed and suggestions for psychological counselors and other mental health professionals are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article begins by discussing the origins of the methodological crisis in psychology. In the literature the idea of a permanent methodological crisis in psychology, lasting since the 1890s, dominates. We contest this view and argue that the contemporary methodological problems in psychology should be considered within the context of the novel and larger crisis challenging all socio-humanitarian knowledge in the face of the transformations in social reality in recent decades. The nature of these transformations and their implications for the theory and methodology of the socio-humanitarian sciences are analyzed by drawing on the sociological literature, which is more sensitive to changes in social life than is psychology. Prominent sociologists argue that the “old” theories and interpretations of the “social” are no longer relevant in the new, highly complex, and globally unstable reality; this new reality has largely transformed the dimensions of human beings’ existence. Meanwhile psychology still tends to comprehend the universal nature of the human. This position undermines the relevance of both psychology’s theoretical models and the practical implications derived from these methodological assumptions. We argue for revision of the perennial psychological problem of the biology-culture interaction in human nature. To resolve the contemporary methodological crisis in psychology, a shift is needed from theories of universal and immutable human nature to the idea of the human as an infinitely changing creature. Because culture is, primarily, the ability to change, wherein the speed and extent of changes are unique for humans, distinguishing them from other living beings.
Sools, Anna Maria; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what
Allesch, Christian G
In 1925, the German biologist and philosopher Hans Driesch published a booklet entitled The Crisis in Psychology. It was originally published in English and was based on lectures given at various universities in China, Japan and the USA. The "crisis" in psychology of that time, in Driesch's opinion, lies in the necessity to decide about "the road which psychology is to follow in the future". This necessity refers to five "critical points", namely (1) to develop the theory of psychic elements to a theory of meaning by phenomenological analysis, (2) the overcoming of association theory, (3) to acknowledge that the unconscious is a fact and a "normal" aspect of mental life, (4) to reject "psychomechanical parallelism" or any other epiphenomenalistic solution of the mind-body problem, and (5) the extension of psychical research to new facts as described by parapsychology, for instance. Driesch saw close parallels between the development of modern psychology and that of biology, namely in a theoretical shift from "sum-concepts" like association and mechanics, to "totality-concepts" like soul and entelechy. The German translation of 1926 was entitled Grundprobleme der Psychologie (Fundamental Problems of Psychology) while "the crisis in psychology" forms just the subtitle of this book. This underlines that Driesch's argumentation--in contrast to that of Buehler--dealt with ontological questions rather than with paradigms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Menon, Indu S; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S; Thennarasu, K
Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.
Exploring individual differences in online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions in case of impending mental health problems: The role of adult attachment, perceived social support, psychological distress and self-stigma
Full Text Available Background: Even though common mental health problems such as depression are a global burden calling for efficient prevention strategies, still many distressed individuals face hurdles to access public mental healthcare. Thus, computerized Internet-based psychological services have been suggested as viable approach to overcome barriers, such as self-stigma, and to inform the access to professional support on a large scale. However, little research has targeted predictors of online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Objective: This study aimed at determining whether associations between attachment insecurity and the willingness to seek online versus face-to-face counselling in case of impending emotional problems are mediated by both perceived social support and psychological distress and moderated by self-stigma. Methods: Data was collected from 301 adults from the German-speaking general population (age: M = 34.42, SD = 11.23; range: 18 - 65 years; 72.1% female through an anonymous online survey. Determinants of seeking help were assessed with the self-report measures Experiences in Close Relationship-Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, ENRICHD-Social Support Inventory and an adapted version of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire (i.e. case vignette. Mediation analyses were performed with the SPSS-macro PROCESS by Hayes. Results: About half of the sample indicated being not aware of online counselling. As expected, insecure attachment was associated with less perceived social support and increased psychological distress. Mediational analyses revealed negative relationships between both attachment avoidance and self-stigma with face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Moreover, the relationship between attachment anxiety and the willingness to seek face-to-face counselling was mediated by social support. In contrast, none of the predictors of online counselling was statistically significant. Conclusions: Overall, this study identified
O. I. Afonina
Full Text Available In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are used to assess emotional maturity explicitly and have a theoretical or empirical veri?cation. The second group includes the methods that are intended to assess emotional maturity as a separate scale complimented by other scales, related to evaluating other aspects of emotionality in the structure of the personality. The third group includes the methods in which emotional maturity is mentioned in the description of other psychic phenomena, or in the interpretation of certain factors (scales. Psychodiagnostic methods studying different parameters depending on the theoretical concepts of the authors about the structure and content of the emotional maturity of the personality make references to concepts of emotional development, consciousness, cognitive and volitional capacities of the personality and the coping strategies the individual prefer to use. The problem of developing valid and reliable psychodiagnostic methods of studying emotional maturity of the adult personality as a holistic phenomenon still awaits attention and retains its signi?cance.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000701.htm COPD and other health problems To use the sharing ... diabetes, and high blood pressure. Staying Healthy With COPD Work closely with your doctor to keep COPD ...
Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of health psychology it considers how the field is represented in a selection of popular textbooks. It concludes by considering the growth of some critical approaches within health psychology.
Man, Ye; Mengmeng, Lv; Lezhi, Li; Ting, Mao; Jingping, Zhang
Due to lack of companionship of parents, compared with non left behind children, left behind children (LBC) suffer from more psychological problems compared with children live with their parents. The aim of this study was to explore the mental health status and the relationship among psychological problems and the related factors of LBC. Adopting delaminating-random-group sampling and using region, county, village (town) as sampling framework, we utilized Demographic Data Recording Form, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Scale of APGAR, Perceived Social Support Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Self-Esteem Scale and Scale of Mental Health for Chinese Middle-school Student to assess 1309 left behind child in junior middle school students' mental health in Hunan. Statistic description, Structural equation model was adopted to analyze the data. There was a significant difference in score of psychological problems between LBC and non-LBC(F = 18.224, Pself-esteem (PC = 0.10); social support (PC = -0.02), passive coping (PC =0.07) and active coping PC = -0.04) affected psychological problems directly. Psychoticism (P) (PC = 0.11), Neuroticism (N) influenced psychological problems of LBC both directly (PC = 0.04) and indirectly through affecting self-esteem (PC: P:-1.87; N: -0.83), while Extraversion/Introversion (E) (PC = 0.21) only impact psychological problems indirectly through self-esteem. Altogether, these variables accounted for 50.2% of total variance of psychological problems (F = 130.470, P = 0.000) for LBC. In this research we proved that LBC have more sever psychological problems than non-LBC. We also identified the direct and indirect influential factors of psychological problems of LBC. The findings had important implications for prevention policies and interventions to promote mental health of LBC.
Lutgendorf, Susan K; Costanzo, Erin S
The biopsychosocial model describes interactions between psychosocial and biological factors in the etiology and progression of disease. How an individual interprets and responds to the environment determines responses to stress, influences health behaviors, contributes to the neuroendocrine and immune response, and may ultimately affect health outcomes. Health psychology interventions are designed to modulate the stress response and improve health behaviors by teaching individuals more adaptive methods of interpreting life challenges and more effective coping responses. These interactions are discussed in the context of aging.
Rich, Grant Jewell
Presents an interview with Shelley Taylor, a professor of Psychology at the University of California in Los Angles (California). Addresses topics such as how she became interested in psychology, the importance of health psychology in the curriculum, the ideal training for students in health psychology, and her work with "positive illusions." (CMK)
Rozensky, Ronald H
This article is based on the opening presentation by the author to the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers' 5th National Conference, "Preparing Psychologists for a Rapidly Changing Healthcare Environment" held in March, 2011. Reviewing the patient protection and affordable care act (ACA), that presentation was designed to set the stage for several days of symposia and discussions anticipating upcoming changes to the healthcare system. This article reviews the ACA; general trends that have impacted healthcare reform; the implications of the Act for psychology's workforce including the growing focus on interprofessional education, training, and practice, challenges to address in order to prepare for psychology's future; and recommendations for advocating for psychology's future as a healthcare profession.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of physical, nutritional, and sexual transition, also remarkable for the accompanying psychological changes. Worldwide, 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a disabling mental illness. Therefore, knowledge of the prevalence of these disorders can be used to design intervention strategies. The present study was conducted in the 13–15 years' age group schoolgoing adolescents, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, employing Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in three different schools of Aligarh, in the 13–15 years' age group, with a prior permission from the school authorities. The study was approved by a multidisciplinary Institutional Ethics and Research Advisory Committee. Results: A total of 1456 students were sampled for the study. The prevalence of psychological morbidity on the basis of total difficulties score was found to be 9.75% (95% confidence interval - 8.33–11.39. The prevalence of emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, peer, and prosocial problems was 5.42%, 5.56%, 3.78%, 4.40%, and 4.26%, respectively. Conclusions: Psychological problems are fairly common in the adolescent age group. Despite the need, there is a dearth studies conducted in this crucial age group in India. Of the studies available, a wide variance is reported either due to the difference in diagnostic tools or due to the types of psychological disorders considered in different researches. For the purpose of uniformity and comparability, SDQ stands as a good option.
Kass, J.; Kass, R.; Samaltedinov, I.
With concrete plans for long duration flight taking form a new impetus is lent to preparing man for this hostile and unnatural environment. Cramped conditions, isolation from family and loved ones, work stress, fear, and incompatibility with fellow crew, are but a few of the problems suffered by astronauts and cosmonauts during their long missions in orbit about the earth. Although criteria for selection of crew is one aspect of attacking the problem, it has not solved it Notwithstanding good selection, team combination, and counselling before flight, problems have still occurred with unwanted consequences. Incompatibility of team members, far from being the exception, has been frequent. This has been detrímental both physiologically and psychologically for the individual as well as for the operational success and safety of the missions. Because problems will inevitably occur in future long duration missions, especially when they are of international and multi-cultural nature, the importance of dealing with them is underlined. This paper takes a different approach towards ameliorating these problems, namely that of psychological group training before a mission.
Sools, Anneke M; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben J
In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what are the most important features of the proposed approach and how they are relevant. We illustrate each positioning with the scope and diversity of narrative health psychology brought together in this special issue. Finally, we reflect on where narrative health psychology is now and how it could develop in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gracia, Francisco Javier; Silla, Inmaculada; Peiró, José María; Fortes-Ferreira, Lina
In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.
Cross-cultural patterns of the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety: secondary analysis of the WHO Collaborative Study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care.
Bellos, Stefanos; Skapinakis, Petros; Rai, Dheeraj; Zitko, Pedro; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Lionis, Christos; Mavreas, Venetsanos
Alcohol consumption is associated with several complications of both physical and mental health. Light or moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on physical or mental health but this effect is still controversial and research in the mental health field is relatively scarce. Our aim was to investigate the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in a large international primary care sample. The sample consisted of 5438 primary care attenders from 14 countries who participated in the WHO Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care. Alcohol use was assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depression and generalized anxiety disorder compared to abstinence while excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a higher prevalence of depression. This non-linear association was not substantially affected after adjustment for a range of possible confounding variables, including the presence of chronic disease and the current physical status of participants and was evident in different drinking cultures. The study confirms that excessive drinking is associated with an increased prevalence of depression, but also raises the possibility that light/moderate drinking may be associated with a reduced prevalence of both depression and anxiety. Any causal interpretation of this association is difficult in the context of this cross-sectional study and further longitudinal studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kunnen, E S
Late adolescents with career choice problems often have psychological problems as well. The starting point of this study was the question of career choice counselors whether potential clients with career choice problems and psychological problems could be accepted in career choice intervention, or whether it was better to advise them to seek help for their psychological problems. We investigated whether a successful career choice intervention reduced psychological problems, and whether this program was equally effective in participants with low and with high levels of psychological problems. Participants were 45 Dutch students (age 17-24) with career choice problems. They had above average levels of self-reported psychological problems before the start of the intervention. These problems decreased significantly following the intervention. With regard to vocational commitment development, the intervention was equally effective for participants with low or average and with (very) high levels of psychological problems before the start of the intervention.
Parker, Alexandra G; Hetrick, Sarah E; Jorm, Anthony F; Mackinnon, Andrew J; McGorry, Patrick D; Yung, Alison R; Scanlan, Faye; Stephens, Jessica; Baird, Shelley; Moller, Bridget; Purcell, Rosemary
The prevalence and burden of disease of depression and anxiety disorders in young people necessitates effective early intervention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-intensity interventions (problem solving therapy (PST) and physical activity promotion) in young people (15-25 years) with mild-moderate depression and/or anxiety. A 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial (RCT) with factors of PST versus supportive counselling (control) and behavioural activation physical activity versus lifestyle psychoeducation (control). Help-seeking participants (n=176) were randomised to receive up to 6 manualised intervention sessions. Primary outcomes were post-intervention depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory), and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)). Trial registration ACTRN12608000550303. Depression symptoms were significantly reduced in the physical activity group compared to psychoeducation (BDI-II: d=0.41 (95% CI: 0.07-0.76); MADRS: d=0.48 (95% CI: 0.13-0.82), but not post-intervention anxiety symptoms. PST was not superior to supportive counselling, nor were any interactions between interventions significant. As self reported levels of physical activity did not significantly differ between baseline and end-point in those randomised to the physical activity intervention, it is unclear as to whether some form of physical activity not measured in the trial may have led to the difference in depression symptoms. PST was not superior to supportive counselling in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in young people. Participants who received the physical activity intervention reported the greatest reduction in depression symptoms, however further research is required to establish the mechanism of action and to determine its effectiveness as an adjunct intervention in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Akçakaya, N; Aydogan, M; Hassanzadeh, A; Camcioglu, Y; Cokugraş, H
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of impaired breathing. The disease causes psychological problems due to hospitalization, long-term medication use, and restricted social life. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity and duration of asthma and psychological problems in asthmatic children, as well as the probability of maternal anxiety. Thirty-seven children with mild asthma, 55 with moderate asthma and eight with severe asthma were compared with 50 healthy children. The severity of asthma was evaluated using the Pearlman-Bierman classification. Psychological adjustment was measured using the Achenback child Behavior checklist and Spielberger's scale. Emotional factors and family dynamics were found to be triggering factors for disease attacks in 16% of children with mild asthma, 38% of those with moderate asthma and 63% of those with severe asthma (p anxiety score between the disease severity groups (p > 0.05). The mean depression score was significantly higher in children with moderate and severe asthma than in those with mild asthma (p anxiety. Both asthmatic children and their mothers are negatively affected by the disease.
Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve
Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.
James, L C; Folen, R A; Porter, R I; Kellar, M A
The military patient population, the demanding environment in which medical services are provided, and the rigors of the operational environment create a unique challenge for service members as well as military health care providers. Within the military medical system, the subspecialty of clinical health psychology may provide patient care and consultation interventions necessary to meet the demands of the unique Army medical and military communities. As funding and other resources decrease, military health psychologists can provide high-quality care to difficult-to-manage patients while increasing outcome efficacy and decreasing costs to the hospital. This paper provides a definition of clinical health psychology and a description of its unique interventions and applications and how these unique skills augment medical services. Moreover, we offer a conceptual model for an innovative health psychology program that will assist other military treatment facilities in designing programs to increase outcome efficacy and concurrently reduce costs and utilization of services.
Bazelmans, E.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Vercoulen, J.H.M.M.; Tack, C.J.
OBJECTIVE: Poor glycaemic control is an undesirable, but frequently encountered problem in diabetes. Reasons for not achieving optimal glycaemic control are not yet clear. A common belief is that psychological factors contribute importantly. This study compared general psychological problems and
Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of he...
Full Text Available The problem of saving and improving psychological health of educational relations' participants can be considered crucial. This article looked at several approaches to systemic analysis of various factors influencing psychological health of educational relations' participants in a negative way. We identified these factors by the levels they emerge at, namely: the level of learner himself/herself, the level of his/her social environment (teachers and parents, as well as educational institution, municipality and region. It is only possible to save and improve psychological health of educational relations' participants if systemic risk factors are eliminated at every level. Unsolved contradictions of the higher level "descend" to lower levels and require additional efforts to eliminate their effect. The article introduces the notion of learners’ “psychological health standards” that implies a system of socio-psychological, pedagogical, administrative, and technical conditions for saving and improving psychological health.
Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D; Hooper, Ann E Caldwell
Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of "health," as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory). We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research.
Joshua M. Tybur
Full Text Available Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of “health,” as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory. We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research.
Chao, Lo-Hsin; Tsai, Meng-Che; Liang, Ya-Lun; Strong, Carol; Lin, Chung-Ying
Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with problem behaviors in adolescence, but the mediators, that is, those factors that help build resilience and prevent some children who experience CA from engaging in problem behaviors, await more exploration, including social integration. The aim of this study was to identify the association between CA and adolescent problem behaviors, and to further examine the mediating role of social integration distinctly as psychological and structural integration. Data used were from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey, a core panel of 4,261 students (age 13) surveyed in 2001 and followed for three more waves until age 18. For psychological integration, an average score was calculated to represent adolescents' feelings about their school. Structural integration was constructed using several items about adolescents' school and extracurricular activities. We used structural equation modeling with the diagonally weighted least squares method to examine the effect of CA on the primary outcome: adolescent problem behaviors via social integration. The hypothesized structural equation model specifying the path from CA to adolescent problem behavior had good fit. Respondents with one CA were indirectly linked to problem behaviors via psychological but not structural integration (e.g. the level of participation in school and non-school activities). On mediation analysis, psychological integration significantly mediated the paths from one CA to all six problem behaviors (all P integration; two or more CA were not associated with significant paths to problem behaviors. The contribution of social integration is crucial to an adolescent's development from CA to problem behaviors. To form supportive social relationships to achieve better health, we suggest that those adolescents who have been exposed to CA should be helped to join more teams and take part in more activities, thereby increasing their opportunities for social interaction, and improving
Easpaig, Bróna R Nic Giolla; Fryer, David M; Linn, Seònaid E; Humphrey, Rhianna H
Queer-theoretical resources offer ways of productively rethinking how central concepts such as 'person-context', 'identity' and 'difference' may be understood for community health psychologists. This would require going beyond consideration of the problems with which queer theory is popularly associated to cautiously engage with the aspects of this work relevant to the promotion of collective practice and engaging with processes of marginalisation. In this article, we will draw upon and illustrate the queer-theoretical concepts of 'performativity' and 'cultural intelligibility' before moving towards a preliminary mapping of what a queer-informed approach to community health psychology might involve.
Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora
This special issue celebrates and maps out the 'coming of age' of community health psychology, demonstrating its confident and productive expansion beyond its roots in the theory and practice of small-scale collective action in local settings. Articles demonstrate the field's engagement with the growing complexity of local and global inequalities, contemporary forms of collective social protest and developments in critical social science. These open up novel problem spaces for the application and extension of its theories and methods, deepening our understandings of power, identity, community, knowledge and social change - in the context of evolving understandings of the spatial, embodied, relational, collaborative and historical dimensions of health.
Raj, Stacey P.; Cassedy, Amy; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Brown, Tanya M.; Kirkwood, Michael W.
Objective Adolescents sustaining traumatic brain injury (TBI) show increased prevalence of behavior problems. This study investigated the associations of parent mental health, family functioning, and parent–adolescent interaction with adolescent externalizing behavior problems in the initial months after TBI, and examined whether injury severity moderated these associations. Methods 117 parent–adolescent dyads completed measures of family functioning, adolescent behavior, and parent mental health an average of 108 days post-TBI. Dyads also engaged in a 10-min video-recorded problem-solving activity coded for parent behavior and tone of interaction. Results Overall, higher ratings of effective parent communication were associated with fewer externalizing behavior problems, whereas poorer caregiver psychological functioning was associated with greater adolescent externalizing behaviors. Results failed to reveal moderating effects of TBI severity on the relationship between socio-environmental factors and behavior problems. Conclusions Interventions targeting parent communication and/or improving caregiver psychological health may ameliorate potential externalizing behavior problems after adolescent TBI. PMID:24065551
Full Text Available Orientation: This study examines the beneficial aspects of the interface between work and family and its relationships with psychological health from a positive psychology perspective.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work-family enrichment helps to predict psychological health, specifically increased subjective well-being and decreased feelings of emotional exhaustion and depression.Motivation for the study: The burgeoning literature on the work-family interface contains little on the potentially positive benefits of maintaining work and family roles.Research approach, design and method: The authors used a descriptive research design. Employees in two national organisations in the financial retail and logistics industries completed a self-administered survey questionnaire. The authors analysed responses from those who reported both family and work responsibilities (N = 160.Main findings: Consistent with previous research, factor analysis revealed two distinct directions of work-family enrichment: from work to family (W2FE and from family to work (F2WE. Multiple regression analysis showed that F2WE explained a significant proportion of the variance in subjective wellbeing, whilst W2FE explained a significant proportion of the variance in depression and emotional exhaustion.Practical/managerial implications: The findings of this study revealed the individual and organisational benefits of fostering work-family enrichment. Contributions/value add: This study presents empirical evidence for the need to focus on the positive aspects of the work-family interface, provides further support for a positive organisational psychology perspective in organisations and hopefully will encourage further research on interventions in organisations and families.
Hanoch, Yaniv; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew
Introduces the special issue of Health Psychology, entitled Health Psychology Meets Behavioral Economics. Psychologists have long been interested in understanding the processes that underlie health behaviors and, based on health behavior models that they have developed, have devised a spectrum of effective prevention and treatment programs. More recently, behavioral economists have also provided evidence of effective behavior change strategies through nonprice mechanisms in a variety of contexts, including smoking cessation, weight loss, and illicit drug use. Yet, although all are addressing similar issues, surprisingly little cross-fertilization has taken place between traditional economists, behavioral economists, and psychologists. This special issue is rooted in the assumption that collaboration between economists and psychologists can promote the development of new methodologies and encourage exploration of novel solutions to enduring health problems. The hope is that readers will be intrigued and inspired by the methodologies used in the different articles and will explore whether they might be applicable to the problems they are addressing. Collaborative efforts, although challenging and at times risky, are a promising way to produce more innovative studies, results, and interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Parker, Glennys; Lee, Christina
We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General…
Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Mills, Deborah; Sheridan, Sarah; Lau, Colleen
Gap year travellers can potentially be exposed to many infectious diseases and other travel-related health problems including injuries and psychological problems. Currently, there is little information on health and wellbeing of this particular group of travellers. Participants were recruited from an organization that specialized in organising international gap year placements. Gap year travellers were asked to complete a pre-departure survey on demographics, placement destination and duration, previous travel experience, hobbies, risk taking behaviour, anticipated problems during the placement, and pre-travel preparations. After the placement, participants were asked to complete a post-trip survey on their experiences, problems, health issues, and medical treatment required. The 88 and 34 gap year travellers aged 17-23 years completed pre- and post-placement surveys respectively. The duration of placements ranged from 3 to 12 months. Psychological stressors were frequently reported [ n = 26 (76.5%) felt home sick; n = 18 (52.9%) experienced culture shock; n = 17 (50.0%) had difficulty communicating with the locals]. The majority of participants (91.2%) tried to work out a solution for the stressor on their own. Twenty-eight (82.4%) participants reported medical problems during their placement; the most common problems were sunburn ( n = 19; 55.9%), respiratory infections ( n = 15; 44.1%), weight change ( n = 14; 41.2%), and diarrhoea/food poisoning ( n = 13; 38.2%). Three participants (3.4%) were admitted to hospital; for a muscle injury, head injury and skin infection after getting a tribal tattoo. Psychological stressors were common, but most did not seek help. Some medical problems encountered during their placement may have been preventable with improved pre-departure preparation. Gap year, pre-departure, preparation.
Francisco Prieto García
Full Text Available Geological factors, such as damages, can cause health determinants in people, which were a little-studied and if they have been raised on occasion, usually referred to no communicable diseases. The aim of this work, which is a more or less updated bibliography, has been to develop a holistic idea for a better understanding of a problem and force latent or potential risk that they can carry and consider scientific basis infectious diseases especially complex. In essence, the focus of ecosystem health that should be considered in terrestrial ecosystems. It also provides the basic elements for the development of new research in this field.
Van der Zee, K.I.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Sanderman, R.
The role of social comparison in mediating the relation between 'objective' health status and subjective health evaluations was examined. In a random population sample (N = 361) it was shown that health problems were related to psychological distress, which in turn induced a downward comparison
Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo
This article introduces the monographic section on Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP), presenting eight theoretical and empirical papers about diverse topics. Traditionally, research on occupational health has mainly been focused on causes of diseases and on identifying and preventing work factors related to worker's impaired health. However, this biased view may not provide a complete understanding of the mechanisms that lead to employee well-being and performance. We discuss the differences of POHP with similar constructs, and review reasons for its importance in the development of this field. Overall, the studies included in the monographic section show the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs, and present ideas and questions that we hope may help to further our progress in the field of POHP.
Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.
The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…
Mauerhofer, Aurélie; Berchtold, André; Michaud, Pierre-André; Suris, Joan-Carles
Among young people, about one in three females and one in five males report experiencing emotional distress but 65-95% of them do not receive help from health professionals. To assess the differences among young people who seek help and those who do not seek help for their psychological problems, considering the frequency of consultations to their GP and their social resources. School survey. Post-mandatory school. Among a Swiss national representative sample of 7429 students and apprentices (45.6% females) aged 16-20 years, 1931 young people reported needing help for a problem of depression/sadness (26%) and were included in the study. They were divided into those who sought help (n = 256) and those who did not (n = 1675), and differences between them were assessed. Only 13% of young people needing help for psychological problems consulted for that reason and this rate was positively associated with the frequency of consultations to the GP. However, 80% of young people who did not consult for psychological problems visited their GP at least once during the previous year. Being older or a student, having a higher depression score, or a history of suicide attempt were linked with a higher rate of help seeking. Moreover, confiding in adults positively influenced the rate of help seeking. The large majority of young people reporting psychological problems do not seek help, although they regularly consult their GP. While young people have difficulties in tackling issues about mental health, GPs could improve the situation by systematically inquiring about this issue.
Pucci, Silvia Helena Modenesi; Pereira, Maria da Graça
This study examined the mediation role of psychological morbidity, defined in this study as depression/anxiety, in the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, and between sleep habits and health behaviors, in adolescents. A total of 272 students, between 12 and 18 years old, underwent a psychological protocol assessing excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, sleep habits, health behavior, and psychological morbidity. Psychological morbidity was not associated with the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, but was associated, with statistical significance, in the relationship between sleep habits and health behaviors. These results emphasize the role of psychological morbidity in adolescent health behaviors. Analyzing the symptoms of depression and anxiety in pediatric patients may help in a more accurate diagnosis, especially in relation to sleep problems and health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Kunnen, E. S.
Late adolescents with career choice problems often have psychological problems as well. The starting point of this study was the question of career choice counselors whether potential clients with career choice problems and psychological problems could be accepted in career choice intervention, or
Habibolah Taghizadeh Moghaddam
Full Text Available Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological human development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood. There are approximately 1.2 billion adolescents (10-19 years globally, roughly 90% of whom live in low and middle-income countries. Most are healthy, but there is still significant death, illness and diseases among adolescents. Illnesses can hinder their ability to grow and develop to their full potential. Alcohol or tobacco use, lack of physical activity, unprotected sex and/or exposure to violence can jeopardize not only their current health, but often their health for years to come. The mortality rate decreased from 126 to 111 per 100 000 between 2000 and 2012. This modest decline of about 12% continues the trend of the past 50 years. Mortality rates dropped in all regions and for all age groups except 15–19 year old males in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas regions. The leading causes of death among adolescents in recent years were: road injury, HIV, suicide, lower respiratory infections, and interpersonal violence. Promoting healthy practices during adolescence, and taking steps to better protect young people from health risks are critical for the prevention of health problems in adulthood, and for countries’ future health and social infrastructure.
Herge, Whitney M; La Greca, Annette M; Chan, Sherilynn F
Peer victimization (PV) is a key interpersonal stressor that can be traumatizing for youth. This study evaluated the relationships between overt, relational, reputational, and cyber PV and adolescents' somatic complaints and sleep problems. Symptoms of depression and social anxiety were examined as potential mediators. Adolescents (N = 1,162; M age = 15.80 years; 57% female; 80% Hispanic) were assessed at three time points, 6 weeks apart, using standardized measures of PV, depression, social anxiety, sleep problems, and somatic complaints. Structural equation modeling evaluated key study aims. Relational, reputational, and cyber PV, but not overt PV, were directly or indirectly associated with subsequent somatic complaints and/or sleep problems. Depression and social anxiety mediated relationships between relational PV and health outcomes, whereas reputational PV was indirectly associated with somatic complaints via depression only. The stress of PV may contribute to adolescents' sleep problems and somatic complaints and has implications for pediatric psychologists. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This document outlines guidelines for supervision of students in health service psychology education and training programs. The goal was to capture optimal performance expectations for psychologists who supervise. It is based on the premises that supervisors (a) strive to achieve competence in the provision of supervision and (b) employ a competency-based, meta-theoretical approach to the supervision process. The Guidelines on Supervision were developed as a resource to inform education and training regarding the implementation of competency-based supervision. The Guidelines on Supervision build on the robust literatures on competency-based education and clinical supervision. They are organized around seven domains: supervisor competence; diversity; relationships; professionalism; assessment/evaluation/feedback; problems of professional competence, and ethical, legal, and regulatory considerations. The Guidelines on Supervision represent the collective effort of a task force convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Bilgiç, Reyhan; Yılmaz, Nilgün
The purpose of this study is to examine the major determinants of psychological health during unemployment. With this in mind, 438 (17% female and 83% male) unemployed individuals were contacted through Turkey's State Employment Office. It was expected that the relationship between duration of unemployment and psychological wellbeing would be nonlinear. Additionally it was hypothesized that perceived social support would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. Further, we suggested that self-esteem would be related to psychological health and moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. The results supported the curvilinearity hypothesis of the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health as measured by General Health Questionnaire. However, social support was not found to moderate the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological distress was not supported, although self-esteem was a strong negative determinant of psychological distress during unemployment. Regression analysis showed that the best predictors of psychological health were self-esteem, perceived social support and perceived adequacy of financial aid received from relatives. Interestingly, perceived adequacy of the financial aid was negatively related to psychological health. This result was contradictory with the previous literature pointing out that financial aid reduces the effects of poverty due to unemployment. The findings of this study are important since the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health was nonlinear, indicating that relevant services should be especially careful to intervene to increase social support and self-esteem during these critical times. The other results and limitations are discussed.
Elisardo Becoña Iglesias
Full Text Available The addiction subject is nowadays a valid one, as well as in the past century. Not only because of the increase of people that are addict, but also because of the important effects that cause on people and their environments. There are many theoretical perspectives to approach the addiction problem, but the most convenient because of its therapeutic results is the one that issupported by the psychology of health. lt is based on the integral approach to the person. This paper describes a general therapeutic scheme to work with addicts from the cognitive behaviora lperspective.
Mutatkar, R K
Developing countries have been peasant societies. The cities in traditional societies have been pilgrimage centres, seats of administration and educational centres. These cities had homogeneous relationships with the villages. Industrialization has developed modern megacities whose way of life is heterogeneous with that in the villages. Rural poverty has pushed villagers to the cities, which were never planned to accommodate immigrants. Public health and social problems have arisen lowering the quality of life. Communicable diseases among the urban poor coexist with non-communicable diseases among the comparatively affluent. Problems of pollution, crime and chronic morbidity increase. The NGOs provide relief to the poor and needy but do nothing toward creating an infrastructure for balanced development. The election of women as a result of non-discriminatory legislation provides good ground for hope.
McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee
Background: Developmental stuttering is associated with increased risk of psychological distress and mental health difficulties. Less is known about the impact of other developmental speech problems on psychological outcomes, or the impact of stuttering and speech problems once other predictors have been adjusted for. Aims: To determine the impact…
Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C
The notion of comorbidities within problem gambling populations has important clinical implications, particularly for appropriate treatment matching. The comorbidities most commonly cited in problem gambling literature include depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Previous research shows evidence of patterns in multiple co-occurring comorbidities and that there may be different subtypes of gamblers based on these patterns. To further the current understanding of gambling subtypes, the aim of our study was to identify subtypes of gamblers currently in treatment. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis yielded four mutually exclusive groups of 202 gamblers: (1) gamblers with comorbid psychological problems (35%); (2) 'pure' gamblers without other comorbidities (27%); (3) gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse (25%); and (4) 'multimorbid' gamblers (13%). The four groups differed on demographic information, drug use and gambling behaviours including gambling activity and problem gambling severity. Gamblers with comorbid psychological problems were more likely to be older women on low income, more likely to report a family history of psychological problems and were more often electronic gaming machine players. As expected, 'pure' gamblers had lower problem gambling severity and were more likely to report current abstinence. Gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse were more likely to be young men who used stimulant drugs, endorsed a higher quality of life and worked full-time. 'Multimorbid' gamblers were elevated on all comorbidities, had general problems related to their health and wellbeing and reported high rates of hostility and aggression. These groups combine elements of existing conceptual models of gambling subtypes and may require different treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.
Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…
This paper constitutes a comparative and longitudinal investigation of physical exercise and psychological wellness in a sample of health club members in Zululand, South Africa. The research was contextualized within a public health and community psychological model of mental health promotion. Physical exercise was ...
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, −0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling. PMID:28849669
In many parts of Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, women and children are so undervalued, neglected, abused, and so often killed, that sex ratios are now strongly male biased. In recent decades, sex-biased abortion has exacerbated the problem. In this article I highlight several important insights from evolutionary biology into both the origin and the severe societal consequences of "Asia's missing women", paying particular attention to interactions between evolution, economics and culture. Son preferences and associated cultural practices like patrilineal inheritance, patrilocality and the Indian Hindu dowry system arise among the wealthy and powerful elites for reasons consistent with models of sex-biased parental investment. Those practices then spread via imitation as technology gets cheaper and economic development allows the middle class to grow rapidly. I will consider evidence from India, China and elsewhere that grossly male-biased sex ratios lead to increased crime, violence, local warfare, political instability, drug abuse, prostitution and trafficking of women. The problem of Asia's missing women presents a challenge for applied evolutionary psychology to help us understand and ameliorate sex ratio biases and their most severe consequences.
von Wagner, Christian; Steptoe, Andrew; Wolf, Michael S.; Wardle, Jane
The association between performance on health literacy measures and health outcomes is well established. The next step is to understand the processes through which health literacy affects health. This review introduces a framework drawing on ideas from health psychology and proposing that associations between health literacy and health outcomes…
Prazak, Michael; Critelli, Joseph; Martin, Luci; Miranda, Vanessa; Purdum, Michael; Powers, Catherine
This study examined the relationships of mindfulness, a form of focused self-awareness, with physical and psychological health. Mindfulness was measured in terms of four stable forms of awareness: Observe, an awareness of internal and external stimuli; Describe, an ability to verbally express thoughts clearly and easily; Act with Awareness, the tendency to focus on present tasks with undivided attention; and Accept without Judgment, the tendency to take a nonjudgmental attitude toward one's own thoughts and emotions. These aspects of mindfulness were explored in relation to both physical health, which consisted of heart rate variability, a measure of overall cardiovascular health, and psychological health, which consisted of flourishing, existential well-being, negative affect, and social well-being in a sample of 506 undergraduate students. Individuals high in mindfulness showed better cardiovascular health and psychological health. © 2011 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2011 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Luis A. Oblitas
Full Text Available Studies on the scientific background of Health Psychology are discussed, including the conceptual definition, as well as the bio-psycho-social model that characterizes it. The relation between health and behavior is described in order to have a better understanding of health and illness, as well as about the pathogenic and immunology issues related to behavior. The main contributions of Health Psychology to improve life quality and health are described. Moreover, medical psychology, psychosocial coping of illness, as well as intervention strategies, are discussed. Health Psychology becomes a good alternative for the understanding of health and illness mechanisms, as well as for the prevention process and illness treatment related to psychological components.
Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation
Franzén-Dahlin, Asa; Larson, Jenny; Murray, Veronica; Wredling, Regina; Billing, Ewa
To identify predictors of psychological health and examine if these predictors change over time in spouses of stroke patients during the first year after stroke. A second aim was to identify gender differences in psychological health among the spouses. The impact of burden in long-term caregivers may result in psychological consequences for the spouse. The rehabilitation process for the patient can be negatively affected by a stressed caregiver and result in long-term hospitalization. To identify spouses at risk for physical and psychological distress is, therefore, essential to support those in need. Longitudinal, comparative study. One hundred spouses of stroke patients were assessed at baseline, as well as after six and 12 months, regarding psychological health, well-being, own illness, need of assistance from general practitioner and/or district nurse, social network and knowledge about stroke. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted for baseline, six- and 12-month assessments, respectively, with psychological health as the dependent variable. General well-being and presence of illness in spouse were the most prominent predictors of psychological health, throughout the first year. Enhancing psychological health and preventing medical problems in the caregiver are essential considerations to enable patients with stroke-related disabilities to continue to live at home. Evaluating the situation for spouses of stroke patients is an important component when planning for the future care of the patient.
Moscow State University of Psychology & Education and Mental Health Research Center invites to take part in the All-Russian scientific & practical conference with international participation Methodological and Applied Problems of Clinical Psychology. Polyakov Readings to the 90th Anniversary of Yu. F. Polyakov. Conference will be held on March 15–16, 2018. Conference Venue: March 15 – Mental Health Research Center (Moscow, Kashirskoe sh., 34) March 16 – Moscow State University of Psychology &...
Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Heidhy, Imran
Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers. In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers. The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure. Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.
Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer
This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness. Additionally, the intimate partner psychological abuse involvement-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by alcohol-related problems. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young women at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors. PMID:20544000
Rozensky, Ronald H
This article is based on the invited presentation by the author at the American Psychological Association's Annual Convention, August 4-7, 2011, upon his receipt of the Joseph D. Matarazzo Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in Academic Health Centers presented by the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers. This article relates the history, roles, and responsibilities of psychologists in academic health centers to the ultimate survival and success of professional psychology. It describes implications of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) on the institutional practice of psychology including how psychology's place in academic health centers positions the field well for the future of healthcare reform. The article provides several recommendations to help professional psychology prepare for that future of integrated, interprofessional healthcare.
Akazawa, Masato; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Katsumata, Yotaro; Kitani, Masahiko; Hirokawa, Seiko; Takahashi, Yoshitomo; Hirayama, Masami; Kameyama, Akiko; Takeshima, Tadashi
Alcohol use disorder is a well-known risk factor for suicide, as alcohol problems can deteriorate the medical and psychosocial conditions of individuals. Furthermore, the pharmacological effect of alcohol can cause impulsive behavior in individuals. However, few studies have investigated the association of alcohol problems with suicide in Japan. The purpose of the present study was to investigate psychosocial and psychiatric features of suicide-completers with alcohol problems in last one year before their death. Since December 2007, we have been conducting a Japan-wide study on suicide-completers using a psychological autopsy method, a semi-structured interview by a psychiatrist and a mental health professional including a public health nurse with the closest bereaved. Items questioned included family environment, suicide situation, history of life, labor situation, economic problems, and psychiatric diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria at the time of death. As of December 2009, we had collected psychosocial and psychiatric information about 76 Japanese suicide cases. 16 suicide-completers with alcohol problems ("Alcohol problem" group 21.1%) were all males and almost middle-aged workers. The percentages of debt and accident proneness in "Alcohol problem" group were significantly higher than "Non-alcohol problem" group. In "Alcohol problem group", none of them have had treatment of alcohol dependence. The prevalence of alcohol use disorders in "Alcohol problem group" was significantly higher than in "Nonalcohol problem" group (81.2% vs. 0%). The findings of the present study suggest that it is important to improvement of psychiatric care in alcohol dependence for prevention future suicides among alcoholics. Furthermore, enlightenment the association between alcohol problems and suicide to the public and medical doctors is required.
Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew
Balanced assessment of mental health involves assessing well-being and strengths as well as psychopathology. The character strengths of curiosity, gratitude, hope, optimism and forgiveness are assessed in 214 new undergraduates and their relationships to mental health, subjective well-being and self-esteem explored. Scoring the mental health scale…
Miloseva, Lence; Milosev, Vladimir
The main aim of this paper is to present a new model and approach in Health and Clinical practice – Applied Positive Psychology. Through discussion about the roots of Positive Psychology and interest in what is good about humans and their lives and in optimal human functioning we will try to introduce a new model of Positive Health and Clinical Psychology. From Aristotle’s treatises on eudemonia, through Aquinas’ writings about virtue during the Renaissance, to the inquires of modern psycholo...
The study examined the traumatic experiences and psychological health of women working in male-dominated professions. Their reported traumatic experiences and psychological health were compared with those of women working in female-dominated professions and men in male dominated processions. Samples of ...
Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…
The literature on suicide among the Chinese indicates that younger individuals from rural areas are at higher risk of suicide than their urban counterparts. While earlier studies have investigated the relationship between psychological health and major demographic variables, the relationship of psychological health as it ...
Background: Satisfied employees tend to be healthier and more productive. There is no known study on the overall job satisfaction and psychological health of bank employees in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological health among bank employees in a southern city of ...
Panjwani, Aliza A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Revenson, Tracey A.
We conducted an online national survey to examine how undergraduate health psychology is taught, offer information about course design and content, and provide a needs analysis. Health psychology instructors (N = 126) answered questions about course format, teaching tools, importance of covering specific topics, and needed resources. A principal…
Brack, Amy Badura; Kesitilwe, Kutlo; Ware, Mark E.
We conducted a random national survey of 100 doctoral, 100 comprehensive, and 100 baccalaureate institutions to determine the current state of the undergraduate health psychology course. We found clear evidence of a maturing course with much greater commonality in name (health psychology), theoretical foundation (the biopsychosocial model), and…
Sheeran, Paschal; Bosch, Jos A; Crombez, Geert; Hall, Peter A; Harris, Jennifer L; Papies, Esther K; Wiers, Reinout W
Implicit processes refer to cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that influence health decisions and behavior without the person intending that influence. This special issue aims to increase appreciation of the diverse and promising research on implicit processes in health psychology,
Schui, Gabriel; Fell, Clemens; Krampen, Günter
Positive Psychology (PP) is a relatively new school of thought in Psychology, focusing on human strengths and virtues, and on improving well-being and quality of life. In its aim and scope, it bears special relation to the fields of Behavioral Medicine (BM) and Health Psychology (HP). Building upon a recent bibliometric analysis (Schui & Krampen, 2010), we trace the impact, PP had on these larger fields by evaluating the corresponding literature found in the PsycINFO-database.
What do parents perceive are the barriers and facilitators to accessing psychological treatment for mental health problems in children and adolescents? A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.
Reardon, Tessa; Harvey, Kate; Baranowska, Magdalena; O'Brien, Doireann; Smith, Lydia; Creswell, Cathy
A minority of children and adolescents with mental health problems access treatment. The reasons for poor rates of treatment access are not well understood. As parents are a key gatekeeper to treatment access, it is important to establish parents' views of barriers/facilitators to accessing treatment. The aims of this study are to synthesise findings from qualitative and quantitative studies that report parents' perceptions of barriers/facilitators to accessing treatment for mental health problems in children/adolescents. A systematic review and narrative synthesis were conducted. Forty-four studies were included in the review and were assessed in detail. Parental perceived barriers/facilitators relating to (1) systemic/structural issues; (2) views and attitudes towards services and treatment; (3) knowledge and understanding of mental health problems and the help-seeking process; and (4) family circumstances were identified. Findings highlight avenues for improving access to child mental health services, including increased provision that is free to service users and flexible to their needs, with opportunities to develop trusting, supportive relationships with professionals. Furthermore, interventions are required to improve parents' identification of mental health problems, reduce stigma for parents, and increase awareness of how to access services.
Reynders, A.; Kerkhof, A.; Molenberghs, G.; Van Audenhove, C.
Purpose: Accessibility and availability of mental health care services are necessary but not sufficient for people to seek help for psychological problems. Attitudes and stigma related to help seeking also determine help seeking intentions. The aim of this study is to investigate how cross-national
Religion encompasses behavioural, attitudinal, public and private activities, all of which potentially involve different antecedent factors and consequences for health outcomes. There is increasing research evidence that religious involvement is associated both cross-sectionally and prospectively with better physical health, ...
Bogdanovich N. V.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the concept of "legally significant situation." Discusses the classification of situations from the point of view of criminology and forensic psychological assessment. Highlights the main features of this type of situations from the point of view of psychology: the nature of conflict, involving the participation of third parties, as well as the presence of certain psychological consequences. This allows to describe the Genesis of certain situations, and to identify the States generated at each stage. It is also noted that the specificity of the legally significant cases involving minors is its group nature (the child as part of a family or other group. Thus, it is possible to give the following definition of a legally relevant situation within legal psychology, children and adolescents: a situation involving minors, subjects who are in relationships, conflict is caused by interactions in the legal context, which leads not only to legally relevant, but also to the psychological consequences for its participants.
Li, Menglong; Nie, Jingsong; Ren, Yujia
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise dependence on the psychological health of Chinese college students. A total of 1601 college students from three universities in Hunan, China, were selected as research subjects. Several measurement scales, including the Exercise Addiction Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Subjective Well-being Scale, were used to survey the psychological health problem of these students and to analyze the effects of exercise dependence on their psychological health. Exercise dependence, based on the structural equation model analysis, can positively influence state anxiety (Pstudents. By contrast, exercise dependence negatively influences students' self-satisfaction (Phealth of college students. Further research using multi-dimensional exercise addiction scales should be conducted to identify all the negative effects of exercise addiction factors on psychological health.
Zulčić-Nakić, Vesna; Pajević, Izet; Hasanović, Mevludin; Pavlović, Slobodan; Ljuca, Dženita
STUDY AND OBJECTIVES: Controversy exists over psychological risks associated with unwanted pregnancy and consecutive abortion. The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of female adolescents following artificial abortion up to 12(th) week of pregnancy. The control case study. The study was carried out in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Clinical Center Tuzla, in Bosnia-Herzegovina. We assessed 120 female adolescents. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 17.7 (1.5) years experiencing sexual intercourse in the age of 14-19 years for trauma experiences, presence of posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression and anxiety as state, and anxiety as trait. Sixty adolescents had intentional artificial abortion and 60 had sexual intercourse but did not become pregnant. We used the PTSD Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y) for assessment of anxiety in adolescents. Basic socio-demographic data were also collected. PTSD presented significantly more often in adolescents who aborted pregnancy (30%), than in adolescents who did not abort (13.3%) (odds ratio = 4.91 (95%CI 0.142-0.907) P = 0.03). Anxiety as state and as trait were significantly higher in the abortion group, as the mean (SD) anxiety score of patients was 59.8 (8.9), 57.9 (9.7) respectively, than in non-abortion group 49.5 (8.8), 47.3 (9.9) respectively (t = 6.392, P aborted pregnancy had significantly higher depression symptoms severity 29.2 (5.6) than controls 15.2 (3.3) (t = 8.322, P abort (10%) (χ(2) = 53.279, P abortion and experience of life threatening(s) reliably predicted depression. Adolescents who aborted pregnancy presented significantly greater prevalence of PTSD and depression, and significantly greater depression severity and anxiety as state and trait than those who did not abort. Abortion predicted depression only, and did not predict PTSD. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for
Chan, David W.
The relationships among adjustment problems, self-efficacy, and psychological distress were investigated in a sample of 207 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. A mediation-effect model specifying that adjustment problems had an effect on psychological distress mediated by self-efficacy was hypothesized and tested using structural equation…
Zwaanswijk, M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Ende, J. van der; Bensing, J.M.; Verhulst, F.C.
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent psychological problems are rarely brought to the attention of GPs. Children and adolescents with psychological problems who do visit their GP are seldom identified as such by GPs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate in a general population sample of 2,449 Dutch children and
College students were administered a series of questionnaires designed to determine the association between psychological health, involvement in a romantic relationship, and the quality of love in a relationship. As predicted, subjects who had been involved in at least one love relationship scored significantly higher on a measure of self-actualization than individuals who had never been in love. In addition, it was found that level of self-actualization directly correlated with the degree of healthy love (Maslow's B-love) among individuals who had been involved in a romantic relationship. Among individuals who had terminated their relationship, those who demonstrated higher levels of self-actualization felt less resentment toward their ex-lover. Furthermore it was discovered that females show a higher level of B-love than males, but contrary to predictions the length of a romantic relationship did not influence B-love. It is concluded that the results of this study are essentially consistent with Maslow's theories about self-actualization, hierarchy of needs, and healthy love.
Full Text Available World Health Organization describes health as the state of being completely fine corporally, socially and psychologically. The state of being completely fine which is indicated in this description of health has been criticised by many scientists and with the idea that noone shall ever realise tha state of being completely fine corporally and psychologically, it was emphasized that individuals could be evaluated to be “healthy” as long as they are productive. Starting from the intrauterine period, woman passes through different periods such as childhood, adolescence, adulthood, elderliness and she experiences some physical, psychological and social differences in each of these periods within the frame of life cycle. While these differences influence productivities and life qualities of women negatively, they also make them more inclined to psychiatric illnesses. Therefore, psychological problems are more common among women and they last longer. Considering the fact that among the medical personnel, it is the nurses who spend time with patients during the phases of diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation the most, it could be said that nurses have a significant role in intervening in problems that affect the psychological health of woman. The nurse has responsibilities such as determining the problem the woman goes through, providing protective care, getting an early diagnosis, making the convenient remedial intervention and consigning, when necessary. In this article, significant woman health problems that could be experienced starting from the intrauterine life until the end of life by woman, the effects of this problem to the psychological health of the woman and nursing approaches in view of these problems are discussed.
Prestes, Francine Cassol; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Silva, Rosângela Marion da; Coelho, Alexa Pupiara Flores
Objective The aim was to measure work-related health problems among nursing workers at a haemodialysis unit in southern Brazil and associate these issues with the socio-occupational characteristics of the workers. Method This is a qualitative study conducted with 46 nursing workers. Data were collected using a general health questionnaire with socio-occupational information and a work-related health assessment scale. The data were subjected to descriptive, correlational, bivariate analysis with significance levels of 5% using Epi-info® and Predictive Analytics Software. Results Physical, psychological, and social problems were considered bearable, and job satisfaction was associated with current income and work absenteeism for health treatment (p 0.31, p <0.05). Conclusion In spite of the positive results of the work-related health assessment among the studied population, the results confirm the need to promote the health of nursing workers.
During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and
Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut
Little attention has been given to psychological factors as correlates of health care use, which could be an important key to manage it. We analyzed the association of psychological factors with health care use. Primary data were obtained from three follow-ups (2002, 2008, and 2011) of a large population-based study with participants aged 40+. Using a longitudinal observational study, we analyzed the psychological factors of negative and positive affect (affective well-being), life satisfaction (cognitive well-being), self-efficacy, loneliness, self-esteem, optimism, and flexible goal adjustment using fixed-effects regressions. The participants provided data on health care use (visits to general practitioners [GPs] and specialists as well as hospitalization) and psychological factors via self-administered questionnaires and personal interviews (7,116 observations). The sample was drawn using national probability sampling. Controlling for self-rated health, chronic diseases and sociodemographics, increases in affective well-being, and optimism decreased health care use of GPs, specialists, and hospital treatment. Increases in cognitive well-being decreased health care use of GPs and specialists. Increases in self-efficacy decreased hospitalization. The study underlines the influence of psychological factors on health care use. Thus, whenever possible, future studies of health care use should include psychological factors, and efforts to reduce health care use might focus on such factors. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Rozensky, Ronald H
Implications for the future of professional psychology are discussed and related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, patient-centered health care homes and accountable care organizations, and the growing importance of interprofessional competencies in health care. The need for increased information about the psychology workforce is related to the history of the institutional practice of psychology and how that data must be used to plan for the supply of psychologists required to meet the service demands of the changing health care system. Several challenges to the field of psychology are offered, along with steps that must be taken by the profession to prepare for increased institutionally based health care services in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M
AbstractMoney is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world - improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth.
Mack, Diane E; Meldrum, Lindsay S; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M
The role of psychological need satisfaction in terms of understanding the mechanisms through which leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with psychological health in breast cancer survivors who have recently completed treatment was examined. Adopting a longitudinal two-wave design, female breast cancer survivors (N = 144) completed self-report instruments of LTPA, psychological need satisfaction, and psychological health at two points separated by 3 months. The first test administration period was 6 months following the completion of primary treatment. Change score analyses demonstrated that greater LTPA across the 3-month period was associated with greater perceptions of well-being (rs ranged from .17 to .20) and lower ill-being (rs ranged from -.06 to -.21). Results of multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological need fulfillment underpinned the LTPA-well-being relationship only. Collectively these findings indicate that increased engagement in LTPA represents one factor associated with greater psychological health in breast cancer survivors, with fulfilling the psychological need for relatedness most salient in understanding this relationship. Continued investigation into the mechanisms associated with reductions in ill-being in breast cancer survivors appear justified. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Valentič Ponikvar, Maša
This diploma focuses on mental health problems in young adults. First I present a medical view on mental health which implies a physiological origin and thus treat the symptoms of so called mental illness. Then I introduce psychosociol view at mental health problems, which focuses on the psychological and social causes of mental health problems. Psychosocial rehabilitation focuses on more holistic support of individuals. Secondly I explain emergence of developmental specific group of young ad...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite widespread acceptance of the 'biopsychosocial model', the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 32,827 (age 18-85 years self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ(2 (3199, N = 23,397 = 126654.8, p<.001; RCFI = .97; RMSEA = .04 (.038-.039. As hypothesised, a family history of mental health difficulties, social deprivation, and traumatic or abusive life-experiences all strongly predicted higher levels of anxiety and depression. However, these relationships were strongly mediated by psychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. CONCLUSION: These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear
Chamberlain, Kerry; Lyons, Antonia C; Stephens, Christine
We examine how critical health psychology developed in New Zealand, taking an historical perspective to document important influences. We discuss how academic appointments created a confluence of critical researchers at Massey University, how interest in health psychology arose and expanded, how the critical turn eventuated and how connections, both local and international, were important in building and sustaining these developments. We discuss the evolution of teaching a critical health psychology training programme, describe the research agendas and professional activities of academic staff involved and how this sustains the critical agenda. We close with some reflections on progress and attainment.
Lowinger, Robert Jay
A sample of 201 college students were surveyed with respect to their perceptions of severity and willingness to seek psychological help for drug and alcohol problems. Results indicated that students perceive alcohol problems as significantly less serious than drug problems and are significantly less willing to seek help for alcohol problems. Males…
This paper focuses on widening participation and accessibility in relation to mental health issues and undergraduate psychology students. Sections 1 and 2 set the context and outline the scope and aims of this paper. Section 3 presents evidence of the student experience from the Improving Provisions for Disabled Psychology Students (IPDPS)…
Upton, Dominic; Mansell, Hayley
Psychology is taught on a range of vocational courses including such training for professions as nurses, medics, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and other health care professionals. However, what is uncertain is what psychology is taught, who it is taught by and how it is taught. This project aims to address these unresolved questions…
Jun 1, 2013 ... mainly due to poor working conditions and poor infrastructural ... The questionnaire contained three sections: 1) respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and work history;. 2) respondents' job satisfaction and. 3) psychological health ..... level and psychological well being of healthcare providers in a ...
Background: Employees should be happy at their work, considering the amount of time they devote to it throughout their working life. There is paucity of data on the job satisfaction and psychological health of medical doctors in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological ...
Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Magerøy, Nils; Gjerstad, Johannes; Einarsen, Ståle
Cross-sectional studies demonstrate that exposure to bullying in the workplace is positively correlated with self-reported health problems. However, these studies do not provide a basis to draw conclusions on the extent to which bullying leads to increased health problems or whether health problems increase the risk of being bullied. To provide better indications of a causal relationship, knowledge from prospective studies on the association between bullying in the workplace and health outcomes is therefore summarised. We conducted a systematic literature review of original articles from central literature databases on longitudinal associations between bullying in the workplace and health. Average associations between bullying and health outcomes are calculated using meta-analysis. A consistent finding across the studies is that exposure to bullying is significantly positively related to mental health problems (OR =1.68; 95% KI 1.35-2.09) and somatic symptoms (OR = 1.77; 95% KI 1.41-2.22) over time. Mental health problems are also associated with subsequent exposure to bullying (OR = 1.74; 95% KI 1.44-2.12). Bullying is positively related to mental health problems and somatic symptoms. The association between mental health problems and subsequent bullying indicates a self-reinforcing process between mental health and bullying. The methodological quality of the studies that were conducted is relatively sound. However, based on the existing knowledge base there are no grounds for conclusions regarding an unambiguous causal relationship between bullying and health.
von Soest, T; Kvalem, I L; Roald, H E; Skolleborg, K C
This study aims to investigate whether cosmetic surgery has an effect on an individual's body image, general self-esteem, and psychological problems. Further tests were conducted to assess whether the extent of psychological problems before surgery influenced improvements in postoperative psychological outcomes. Questionnaire data from 155 female cosmetic surgery patients from a plastic surgery clinic were obtained before and approximately 6 months after surgery. The questionnaire consisted of measures on body image, self-esteem, and psychological problems. Pre- and postoperative values were compared. Pre- and postoperative measures were also compared with the data compiled from a representative sample of 838 Norwegian women, aged 22-55, with no cosmetic surgery experience. No differences in psychological problems between the presurgery patient and comparison samples were found, whereas differences in body image and self-esteem between the sample groups were reported in an earlier publication. Analyses further revealed an improvement in body image (satisfaction with own appearance) after surgery. A significant but rather small effect on self-esteem was also found, whereas the level of psychological problems did not change after surgery. Postoperative measures of appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and psychological problems did not differ from values derived from the comparison sample. Finally, few psychological problems before surgery predicted a greater improvement in appearance satisfaction and self-esteem after surgery. The study provides evidence of improvement in satisfaction with own appearance after cosmetic surgery, a variable that is thought to play a central role in understanding the psychology of cosmetic surgery patients. The study also points to the factors that surgeons should be aware of, particularly the role of psychological problems, which could inhibit the positive effects of cosmetic surgery.
Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Nicholson, Jan M
To examine the association between psychological problems and weight status in children aged 3.5 to 4 years and test whether obesogenic eating behaviors mediate this relationship. This study is a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from first-time mothers (N = 194) in the control arm of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. At child age 3.5 to 4 years, maternal-reported child eating behaviors and psychological problems were collected via valid tools, and child weight and height data were collected by trained study staff. Pearson's correlations and linear regressions examined associations between eating behaviors, psychological problems, and BMI z score. Multiple mediation models were tested by assessing indirect effects of psychological problems on BMI z score via obesogenic eating behaviors. Peer problems were associated with both higher food responsiveness and emotional overeating and directly with higher BMI z score. This relationship was partially mediated by emotional overeating. Both emotional overeating and food responsiveness fully mediated the association between emotional problems and BMI z score, and food responsiveness fully mediated the association between conduct problems and BMI z score. The findings suggest that children with psychological problems may also display obesogenic eating behaviors, which may result in higher BMI. This needs to be considered in the clinical management of both pediatric overweight/obesity and psychological problems. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).
Santander, Jaime T; Pinedo, José P; Repetto, Paula L
Physicians should be exposed, during their training to basic concepts in psychology. To describe the current status of the formal teaching of health psychology or medical psychology in Chilean medical schools. We reviewed the programs of the courses including topics of Medical Psychology, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine at 18 medical schools in Chile, using a focused coding method. The contents and the time spent on these courses were considered and analyzed. Eighty three percent of medical schools have a Medical Psychology or related program, 56.3% are carried out during the first year of medical School teaching and the weekly load has an average of 4 hours. The contents are mixed and predominantly concerning general and developmental psychology, but also address specific issues of Medical Psychology in most cases. There is little clarity about the training issues to be addressed in medical psychology for medical students in Chile. It is necessary to define the minimum content that all medical graduates should learn.
Ask Not Only "What Can Problem-Based Learning Do for Psychology?" but "What Can Psychology Do for Problem-Based Learning?" A Review of the Relevance of Problem-Based Learning for Psychology Teaching and Research
Wiggins, Sally; Chiriac, Eva Hammar; Abbad, Gunvor Larsson; Pauli, Regina; Worrell, Marcia
Problem-based learning (PBL) is an internationally recognised pedagogical approach that is implemented within a number of disciplines. The relevance and uptake of PBL in psychology has to date, however, received very limited attention. The aim of this paper is therefore to review published accounts of how PBL is being used to deliver psychology…
Covington, C H
We have yet to map an "inbreeding avoider" gene or design a psychological test that can accurately diagnose incest transgressors. Until those events occur, sociobiology, nursing, and psychology must explain phenomena, such as the incest taboo, with a theoretical language of supposition. It is in this light that the etiology of taboo is analyzed. This article proposes that a propensity for sexual selection originates in the gene system, and what becomes taboo is acquired through the learning that accompanies the experiences of the individual and culture when sexual selection occurs. Influences of the genetic system and psychological culture on the existence of a taboo are contrasted. The conclusion posits an eclectic taboo hypothesis, derived from the congruencies found in the literature, and suggests how this hypothesis can guide nursing interventions with incestual families.
Derickson, Ryan; Fishman, Jonathan; Osatuke, Katerine; Teclaw, Robert; Ramsel, Dee
In psychologically safe workplaces, employees feel comfortable taking interpersonal risks, such as pointing out errors. Previous research suggested that psychologically safe climate optimizes organizational outcomes. We evaluated psychological safety levels in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals and assessed their relationship to employee willingness of reporting medical errors. We conducted an ANOVA on psychological safety scores from a VHA employees census survey (n = 185,879), assessing variability of means across racial and supervisory levels. We examined organizational climate assessment interviews (n = 374) evaluating how many employees asserted willingness to report errors (or not) and their stated reasons. Finally, based on survey data, we identified 2 (psychologically safe versus unsafe) hospitals and compared their number of employees who would be willing/unwilling to report an error. Psychological safety increased with supervisory level (P report an error; retaliation fear was the most commonly mentioned deterrent. Furthermore, employees at the psychologically unsafe hospital (71% would report, 13% would not) were less willing to report an error than at the psychologically safe hospital (91% would, 0% would not). A substantial minority would not report an error and were willing to admit so in a private interview setting. Their stated reasons as well as higher psychological safety means for supervisory employees both suggest power as an important determinant. Intentions to report were associated with psychological safety, strongly suggesting this climate aspect as instrumental to improving patient safety and reducing costs.
Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa
Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...
Scheepers, Renée A.
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be
Israelsson, Johan; Bremer, Anders; Herlitz, Johan; Axelsson, Åsa B; Cronberg, Tobias; Djärv, Therese; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Larsson, Ing-Marie; Lilja, Gisela; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Wallin, Ewa; Ågren, Susanna; Åkerman, Eva; Årestedt, Kristofer
To describe health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) survivors in relation to gender. This national register study consists of data from follow-up registration of IHCA survivors 3-6 months post cardiac arrest (CA) in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to the survivors, including measurements of health status (EQ-5D-5L) and psychological distress (HADS). Between 2013 and 2015, 594 IHCA survivors were included in the study. The median values for EQ-5D-5L index and EQ VAS among survivors were 0.78 (q1-q3=0.67-0.86) and 70 (q1-q3=50-80) respectively. The values were significantly lower (p<0.001) in women compared to men. In addition, women reported more problems than men in all dimensions of EQ-5D-5L, except self-care. A majority of the respondents reported no problems with anxiety (85.4%) and/or symptoms of depression (87.0%). Women reported significantly more problems with anxiety (p<0.001) and symptoms of depression (p<0.001) compared to men. Gender was significantly associated with poorer health status and more psychological distress. No interaction effects for gender and age were found. Although the majority of survivors reported acceptable health status and no psychological distress, a substantial proportion reported severe problems. Women reported worse health status and more psychological distress compared to men. Therefore, a higher proportion of women may be in need of support. Health care professionals should make efforts to identify health problems among survivors and offer individualised support when needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fajardo, Renato Salviato [UNESP; Zavanelli, Adriana Cristina; Botasim, Eliene Ferreira; Barboza, Glaucia de Souza
To improve mental health services, the World Health Organization proposes an epidemiological approach" based on the constant screening of existing research, and aimed at continuous improvement of psychological treatment rather than strict application of prescribed techniques. This study provides an epidemiological survey conducted at the psychology ward of the municipal Ambulatório de Saúde Mental in Birigui, São Paulo, Brazil. Data from 180 patients in psychotherapeutic care were collected, ...
Jeremy F. Kubik
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient’s sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.
Kelmanson, Igor A.
Background: Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) are among most common diseases in school-aged children. Little is known about possible associations between RRI and children psychological well-being. Aim: To study possible associations between RRI in junior school pupils and their emotional/behavioural characteristics. Methods: The RRI group…
Sinha, Chetan; Fox Lee, Shayna
Discusses the indigenization movement of psychology in India, which attempts to develop a context sensitive discipline that can understand the concept of mind and human behavior from the cultural perspective. It emphasizes the culturally bound aspects of human nature and uses methods to explore the ways in which culture emerges from history. Given the directions of scientific research, it is not absurd to engage with Western theories. Nevertheless, some Indian psychologists have resisted what they consider the intrusion of modern psychology. They have forwarded premises about human nature in the philosophical roots of traditional Indian thought which look tautological and feed back to our oppressive social structures; for example, the patriarchy and caste systems. The scope of social change is limited under the garb of indigenization, unless the movement of indigenization calls for social change. Several points are made, of which Indian psychological approaches should become cognizant to better understand the relevant contexts for social responsibility. In addition, several recommendations are suggested for a new wave of psychological research in India. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…
Full Text Available Historically speaking, psychology and religion have worked separately toward the goal of improving mental health among the people. Can psychology and religion work together and reap better results for the client? How important is religion for the people and how important are religious values for psychologists? What is the relationship between religion and mental health? How today's schools of psychology deal with the religious client? How is religion integrated in psychotherapy? These and other related issues are addressed in this paper. It is concluded that psychologists are obligated to work within the value system of the client and that this approach would achieve a more positive therapeutic outcome.
Shivakumar, Prafulla; Sadanand, Shilpa; Bharath, Srikala; Girish, N; Philip, Mariamma; Varghese, Mathew
Psychological distress in the elderly with various illness conditions often goes unrecognized. Since psychological distress is treatable, it is important to recognize it at the earliest to enhance recovery. This is an interim analysis of screening data of the elderly seeking health care in a hospital in India, with a focus on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), a screening instrument for psychological distress and a rationale for a higher cutoff score in help seeking elderly. A retrospective analysis of screening data of psychological distress using GHQ-12 in the elderly seeking care for neuropsychiatric conditions was carried out. Traditionally, ≥2 is considered positive for distress by GHQ-12. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define new cutoff points for psychological distress. At ≥2, 2443 (50%) of the elderly screened were recognized to be psychologically distressed. Using an ROC and optimum sensitivity and specificity measures, a cutoff score of ≥4 was observed to detect 30% of the elderly who had diagnosable mental health disorders. Female sex, illiteracy, and multiple co-morbidities were the factors that were associated with higher cutoff scores on GHQ-12 proposed here and psychiatric morbidity thereof. There is greater psychological distress among the elderly seeking health care. Hence, it is important to screen them and identify those at higher risk. Using a higher cutoff score with a standardized instrument like GHQ-12 indicated that it was statistically valid to identify those elderly with higher distress in a busy out-patient setting.
Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos
Full Text Available Hypertension is considered an important public health problem in Brazil,which is aggravated by its high prevalence and late detection. In addition, it is oneof the major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Hypertension, considered a “silent murder”, is the largest social problem indeveloped countries and in a large number of developing countries. Despite of knownefficacy and affectivity of various preventive and control measures, including thepharmacological ones, hypertension will continue, for decades, representing oneof the largest health challenges and high cost disease for individuals and society. Ifcontrol of existed cases, as well as control and prevention of risks factors for thisdisease are not implemented, this problematic will affect a large proportion of thepopulation in our country, which, in 2020, will have had increase significantly over60 years of age.Hypertension is a multifactor, multisystem syndrome. It can be cause bymultiple causes, being related to inadequate life style, constitutional factors, suchas: sex, age, race/color and family history; as well as environmental issues, suchas: sedentary lifestyle, stress, smoking, alcoholism, inadequate diet and obesity.Due to its silent course, a person can be surprised by its complications, beingnecessary learn to live with its chronic nature on an every day basis. Nevertheless,this type of problem is influenced by a series of determinants, including personalitycharacteristics, forms to face the disease, self-concept, self-image, experience withthe disease and health care professionals attitudes.One of the difficulties found in the treatment of persons with hypertensionis the lack of adhesion to the treatment, as 50% of the known patients withhypertension don’t treat themselves, and among those who do, few have controlledblood pressure. Between 30 and 50% of persons with hypertension stop treatmentwithin the first year of treatment, and 75% after five
Simon, Dennis J.; Cruise, Tracy K.; Huber, Brenda J.; Swerdlik, Mark E.; Newman, Daniel S.
Effective supervision models guide the supervisory relationship and supervisory tasks leading to reflective and purposeful practice. The Developmental/Ecological/Problem-Solving (DEP) Model provides a contemporary framework for supervision specific to school psychology. Designed for the school psychology internship, the DEP Model is also…
Thomas, Shane A; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Browning, Colette J; Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Enticott, Joanne; Jackson, Alun C
International prevalence rates for problem gambling are estimated at 2.3%. Problem gambling is a serious global public health concern due to adverse personal and social consequences. Previous research evaluating the effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of problem gambling has been compromised by methodological limitations, including small sample sizes and the use of waitlist control groups. This article describes the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), behaviour therapy (BT), motivational interviewing (MI) against a non-directive supportive therapy (NDST) control, in treating problem gambling. This study was a mixed-methods design, with a parallel group, pragmatic RCT as the primary component, and embedded qualitative studies conducted alongside. A total of 297 participants were recruited from the community in Victoria, Australia. Individuals aged 18 years and over, could communicate in English and wished to receive treatment for a gambling problem were eligible. Participants were randomly allocated in to 1 of the 4 psychological interventions: CBT, BT, MI and NDST. Repeated measures were conducted at pretreatment and post-treatment, and 6 and 12 months post-treatment. The statistical analysis will use an intention-to-treat approach. Multilevel mixed modelling will be used to examine changes in the primary outcome measures: gambling symptom severity, using the Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale, and gambling behaviours (frequency, time and expenditure). Secondary outcomes are depression, anxiety, stress and alcohol use. Individual semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted at pretreatment and post-treatment and 12 months post-treatment for a subset of participants (n=66). This study was approved by the Victorian Department of Justice, Monash University and the University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committees. Findings
This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…
Patel, Nimisha; Kellezi, Blerina; Williams, Amanda C de C
Torture is widespread, with potentially broad and long-lasting impact across physical, psychological, social and other areas of life. Its complex and diverse effects interact with ethnicity, gender, and refugee experience. Health and welfare agencies offer varied rehabilitation services, from conventional mental health treatment to eclectic or needs-based interventions. This review is needed because relatively little outcome research has been done in this field, and no previous systematic review has been conducted. Resources are scarce, and the challenges of providing services can be considerable. To assess beneficial and adverse effects of psychological, social and welfare interventions for torture survivors, and to compare these effects with those reported by active and inactive controls. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through a search of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS), the Open System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenSIGLE), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and Published International Literature On Traumatic Stress (PILOTS) all years to 11 April 2013; searches of Cochrane resources, international trial registries and the main biomedical databases were updated on 20 June 2014. We also searched the Online Library of Dignity (Danish Institute against Torture), reference lists of reviews and included studies and the most frequently cited journals, up to April 2013 but not repeated for 2014. Investigators were contacted to provide updates or details as necessary. Full publications of RCTs or quasi-RCTs of psychological, social or welfare interventions for survivors of
Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviors have also been linked with viewing of associated web content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims, and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviors and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The current study investigates the association of cyberbullying roles with viewing of specific suicide-related web content and psychological problems. Data from N = 19,406 (50 percent girls) 11-16-year-olds (M = 13.54, SD = 1.68) of a representative sample of Internet-using children in Europe were analyzed. Self-reports were obtained for cyberbullying role, viewing of web content related to self-harm, and suicide, as well as the emotional, peer, and conduct problem subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with those not involved in cyberbullying, viewing of web content related to suicide was higher for cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, but not for cyberbullies. Viewing of web content related to self-harm was higher for all cyberbullying roles, especially for cyberbully-victims. Rates of emotional problems were higher among cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, rates of peer problems were higher for cybervictims, and rates of conduct problems were higher for all cyberbullying roles. Moreover, the links between cyberbullying role and viewing of suicide-related web content were independent of psychological problems. The results can be useful to more precisely target efforts toward the specific problems of each cyberbullying role. The outcomes on viewing of web content also indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on Internet platforms.
Quick, J C
Occupational health psychology (OHP) is a term first coined by Jonathan Raymond in 1990, yet OHP has historical, international roots dating at least to the early decades of the twentieth century. It involves research and practice to create healthy workplaces. This article has 4 sections. The 1st section discusses psychology's long history of concern for occupational health in industrial organizations, beginning with Hugo Münsterberg's study of industrial accidents and human safety in the late 1800s. The 2nd section focuses on OHP's movement from the convergence of public health and preventive medicine with health and clinical psychology in an industrial/organizational context. The 3rd section addresses the central issues of organizational and individual health through the framework of preventive management. The article concludes with OHP case examples drawn from the Chaparral Steel Company, the U.S. Air Force, and Johnson & Johnson.
Kinderman, Peter; Schwannauer, Matthias; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara
Background Despite widespread acceptance of the ‘biopsychosocial model’, the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. Methods and Findings Participants were 32,827 (age 18–85 years) self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial) and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ2 (3199, N = 23,397) = 126654·8, ppsychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. Conclusion These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear implications for policy, education and clinical practice as psychological processes such as rumination and self-blame are amenable to evidence-based psychological therapies. PMID:24146890
Full Text Available College students’ mental health education research has become an important subject of psychological research in our country. Questionnaire survey and analysis are conducted on the adaptability to the campus life of college students. And we may have better and more effective college English teaching methods through this research. The data used in this paper come from 100 freshmen from Jiujiang University, majoring in Business English. Based on the analysis of the data, the following findings are obtained. By analyzing the psychological problems in college students’ learning process and putting forward the method to solve those problems, universities should carefully summarize the good experience and characteristics, and explore new ideas actively on college students’ psychological health education work to encourage students to learn English better.
Gomathi, Kadayam G; Ahmed, Soofia; Sreedharan, Jayadevan
The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. All first-year students (N = 125) of the Gulf Medical University (GMU) in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire, with items related to academic, psychosocial and health domains was used to identify sources of stress. Pearson's chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for testing the association between psychological morbidity and sources of stress. A total of 112 students (89.6%) completed the survey and the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was found to be 33.6%. The main academic-related sources of stress were 'frequency of exams', 'academic workload', and 'time management'. Major psychosocial stressors were 'worries regarding future', 'high parental expectations', 'anxiety', and 'dealing with members of the opposite sex'. Health-related issues were 'irregular eating habits', 'lack of exercise', and 'sleep-related problems'. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with any of the demographic factors studied. However, total stress scores and academics-related domain scores were significantly associated with psychological morbidity. Psychological morbidity was seen in one in three first-year students attending GMU. While worries regarding the future and parental expectations were sources of stress for many students, psychological morbidity was found to be significantly associated with only the total stress and the academic-related domain scores.
Davidsen, Annette Sofie
a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis...... and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice....
Quirk, Thomas J
This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching educational and psychological statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2013 for Educational and Psychological Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical education and psychology problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in education and psychology courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Educational and Psychological Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and man...
Nilay Pekel Uludagli
Full Text Available In the transition from adolescence to adulthood, individuals are expected to undertake a variety of role transitions. The adult roles and their contents have begun to change for both genders as a part of social, economic and cultural changes in the world. As women began to join to the work force more, mens involvement in family life and childcare increased. Although having multiple roles causes conflict between the roles for both genders nowadays, being married and having children still seem to be related to better psychological health for todays early adults. However, these positive effects of marriage disappear in conflicting and unhappy marriages; and these marriages, on the contrary, damage the health of individuals. In addition to the content, the timing of the roles is also related to the psychological health of individuals. As adults who undertake the roles early have a disadvantaged position in terms of psychological health, marital and family relations, on the other hand, adults who undertake these roles on-time and lately have better psychological health and life conditions. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of undertaking adult roles and its timing on individuals psychological health in todays societies. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 263-283
Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Arman, Soroor; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Salmanian, Maryam; Ahmadi, Nastaran; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Fathzadeh Gharibeh, Heydar; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Motavallian, Ali
The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran. In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors. Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%), and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%). Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05). Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4), hyperactivity problems (21.5%) and overall criterion problems (17.3%); Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1%) and problems with peers (8.1%); and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%). In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12 to 14
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran.In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors.Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%. Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05. Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4, hyperactivity problems (21.5% and overall criterion problems (17.3%; Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1% and problems with peers (8.1%; and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%.In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12
Kim, Jin E.; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan
Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report two studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. PMID:26052815
Dionne, Frédérick; Ngô, Thanh-Lan; Blais, Marie-Claude
This paper presents a vision of mental health using the model of psychological flexibility of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). ACT is a representative approach of the third wave of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). This article first describes the theoretical and practical aspects of ACT and, in a second part, reviews some of the empirical data supporting its clinical use. Due to the high rate of comorbidity in mental health settings, transdiagnostic approaches in CBT, such as ACT, have recently become popular and particularly appealing to various clinical settings. The theoretical aspects underlying ACT, as well as its clinical components in the treatment of psychopathology were described based on major books in this area, such as Hayes, Strosahl and Wilson (2012). A descriptive literature review was undertaken to explore the data on the efficacy of ACT for the treatment of mental health problems. Psycinfo and Medline, as well as the Association for Contextual Science website were analyzed for relevant articles. The key search terms were: "Acceptance and Commitment therapy" or "ACT" or "acceptance" or "mindfulness" or "defusion." The reference lists of the articles retrieved were also analyzed. The articles that were not in English or French were excluded. Data suggest that ACT is particularly effective for stress, anxiety disorders, depression, substance abuse and various chronic medical conditions. The six processes of the model of psychological flexibility have been validated based on the results of correlational and meditational studies. More than seventy randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis including 18 randomized control trials conclude that ACT is more effective than waiting list, placebo and treatment as usual control conditions. ACT is a promising and evidence-based approach in mental health for the treatment of anxiety and depression as well as for complex and chronic conditions. More research is needed to further validate its
Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F
This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Hinkle, J. Scott
Discusses the effect of aerobic running on psychological functioning and its adjunctive use in mental health counseling. Concludes that mental health counselors can provide more comprehensive services if they expand the psychoeducational model to include physiological parameters such as aerobic running that are associated with optimum mental…
This paper considers teacher resilience from the viewpoint of a discipline concerned with the interactions between work design, management style and employee health and well-being: occupational health psychology. It will be suggested that there are strong parallels between interventions designed to promote resilience and those designed to reduce…
This cross-sectional analytical study was designed to assess the level of and factors affecting job satisfaction and psychological health among long distance drivers in Benin City, Edo, Nigeria. A 21-item Job satisfaction questionnaire and the Golberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) were used for data collection ...
Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.
Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834
Hopp, Henrik; Troy, Allison S.; Mauss, Iris B.
Because of the central involvement of emotion regulation in psychological health and the role that implicit (largely unconscious) processes appear to play in emotion regulation, implicit emotion-regulatory processes should play a vital role in psychological health. We hypothesised that implicitly valuing emotion regulation translates into better psychological health in individuals who use adaptive emotion-regulation strategies. A community sample of 222 individuals (56% women) who had recently experienced a stressful life event completed an implicit measure of emotion regulation valuing (ER-IAT) and reported on their habitual use of an important adaptive emotion-regulation strategy: cognitive reappraisal. We measured three domains of psychological health: well-being, depressive symptoms, and social adjustment. As hypothesised, individuals who implicitly valued emotion regulation exhibited greater levels of psychological health, but only when they were high in cognitive reappraisal use. These findings suggest that salutary effects of unconscious emotion-regulation processes depend on its interplay with conscious emotion-regulation processes. PMID:21432692
Huang, X N; Zhang, Y; Feng, W W; Wang, H S; Cao, B; Zhang, B; Yang, Y F; Wang, H M; Zheng, Y; Jin, X M; Jia, M X; Zou, X B; Zhao, C X; Robert, J; Jing, Jin
Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of warning signs checklist developed by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China (NHFPC), so as to determine the screening effectiveness of warning signs on developmental problems of early childhood. Method: Stratified random sampling method was used to assess the reliability and validity of checklist of warning sign and 2 110 children 0 to 6 years of age(1 513 low-risk subjects and 597 high-risk subjects) were recruited from 11 provinces of China. The reliability evaluation for the warning signs included the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability. With the use of Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ) and Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (GESELL) as the criterion scales, criterion validity was assessed by determining the correlation and consistency between the screening results of warning signs and the criterion scales. Result: In terms of the warning signs, the screening positive rates at different ages ranged from 10.8%(21/141) to 26.2%(51/137). The median (interquartile) testing time for each subject was 1(0.6) minute. Both the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability of warning signs reached 0.7 or above, indicating that the stability was good. In terms of validity assessment, there was remarkable consistency between ASQ and warning signs, with the Kappa value of 0.63. With the use of GESELL as criterion, it was determined that the sensitivity of warning signs in children with suspected developmental delay was 82.2%, and the specificity was 77.7%. The overall Youden index was 0.6. Conclusion: The reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening early childhood developmental problems have met the basic requirements of psychological screening scales, with the characteristics of short testing time and easy operation. Thus, this warning signs checklist can be used for screening psychological and behavioral problems of early childhood
Yulia Vladimirovna Vardanyan
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. On the basis of analysis of ideas about psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form the necessity of overcoming the fragmentation and lack of system is substantiated. The authors state that one and the same sports situation can constructively or destructively affect the psychological safety of direct or indirect participants of sports events. In this context, it is important to create the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports. Great attention is paid to systematization of the content of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. The created models of words and expressions that convey ideas about this phenomenon are of particular value. In the structure of the concept the dominant meanings, expressed in the nucleus, and additional meanings, related to the periphery of the concept are distinguished.Purpose: to explore the ideas of psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form; to determine ways of overcoming the conceptual psycholinguistic problems in the process of experimental research of psychological safety in sports; to create the model of words and expressions which are used to verbalize the concept “psychological safety in sports”.Methodology: theoretical analysis of psychological and linguistic literature, creation of the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research, modeling of the conceptual ideas of psychological safety in sports.Results: psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports, the model of content and structure of the corresponding concept.Practical implications: Pedagogical Psychology, Sports Psychology, Philology, Psycholinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-11
Bridgeman, A M; Mellor, A C; Crossley, M L; Shearer, A C
'Mr Lester' is the final case study in a series of four articles that aims to look at some of the problems patients may present with when they visit their dentist. Each article starts with a brief scenario about the hypothetical patient and his/her clinical problems. As well as the clinical problem, each case also raises ethical, legal or psychological problems. All of these issues are discussed and possible management strategies and treatment options investigated.
African Journal of Finance and Management ... The national budget is expected to be an instrument for the judicious allocation of public resources. ... is the health budget as it affects men and women who often face different health problems.
Anastasia K. Deinekina
Full Text Available The article, using theory and experiment, justifies the necessity of regulatory diapason exposure of psychological health of law enforcement authorities’ employees according to neurotization, psychotization, aggression and emotional stability signs.
Sneijder, Petra; te Molder, Hedwig F M
This article draws upon insights from discursive psychology to examine how participants in an Internet forum on veganism orient to the relationship between food choice, health and accountability. First, we explore the ways in which participants ascribe responsibility for health problems like vitamin deficiency to individual recipients. By suggesting individual practices as a cause for problems, speakers undermine the notion that problems arise through veganism as a matter of principle. Second, we show how participants construct solutions to individual health problems as involving mundane and simple actions. Both discursive procedures enable speakers to resist negative assumptions about the potentially complicated nature of veganism in relation to health protection.
Rademakers, J.; Mouthaan, I.; Neef, M. de
The increase in migrant populations in western Europe has led to specific problems and dilemmas in the area of sexual and reproductive health and service provision. In general, these problems and dilemmas can be divided into four categories: (1) epidemiology of diseases and risk factors; (2)
Rademakers, J.; Mouthaan, I.; Neef, M. de
The increase in migrant populations in western Europe has led to specific problems and dilemmas in the area of sexual and reproductive health and service provision. In general, these problems and dilemmas can be divided into four categories: (1) epidemiology of diseases and risk factors; (2)
Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.
Wu, Anise M S; Lei, Lamis L M; Ku, Lisbeth
The negative impacts of excessive and problematic video game playing on both children and adults are attracting increasing concern. Based on self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), this study hypothesized that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with purpose in life, which in turn acts as a protective factor against problem video game playing among Chinese young adult players. Through a questionnaire survey with a sample of 165 Chinese adults aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age = 22.7 years), we found that perceived autonomy, competence, relatedness, and purpose in life were all negatively correlated with problem game playing. The demographic and psychological factors explained 38% of the variances of problem game playing. Specifically, gender, perceived relatedness, and purpose in life emerged as the three most salient predictors of problem game playing among the Chinese young adults. The mediating role of purpose in life was evidenced and it was found that purpose in life mediated the influences of the psychological needs proposed by SDT on problem game playing. Moreover, young men were significantly more susceptible to problem game playing than their female counterparts. To conclude, psychological needs and purpose in life influenced Chinese young adults' vulnerability to problem game playing directly or indirectly. Intervention programs that encourage social involvement and voluntary work, as well as counseling service that helps clients to search for life purpose, are suggested for intervening in problem game playing among Chinese young adults.
Krauss, Stefan; Wang, X T
The Monty Hall problem (or three-door problem) is a famous example of a "cognitive illusion," often used to demonstrate people's resistance and deficiency in dealing with uncertainty. The authors formulated the problem using manipulations in 4 cognitive aspects, namely, natural frequencies, mental models, perspective change, and the less-is-more effect. These manipulations combined led to a significant increase in the proportion of correct answers given by novice participants, largely because of the synergy of frequency-based formulation and perspective change (Experiments 1, 2). In a raining study (Experiment 3) frequency formulation and mental models, but not Bayes's rule training, showed significant positive transfer in solving related problems.
Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A
This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.
Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mcnamara, Patricia Mannix
Poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors for chronic disease and premature mortality. These behaviours are of concern among higher education students and may be linked to psychological distress which is problematic particularly for students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teaching. Understanding how risk behaviours aggregate and relate to psychological distress and coping among this population is important for health promotion. This research examined, via a comprehensive survey undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students' (n = 1557) lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire), self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). The results showed that health- risk behaviours were common, including alcohol consumption (93.2%), unhealthy diet (26.3%), physical inactivity (26%), tobacco smoking (17%), cannabis use (11.6%) and high levels of stress (41.9%). Students tended to cluster into two groups: those with risk behaviours (n = 733) and those with positive health behaviours (n = 379). The group with risk behaviours had high psychological distress and used mostly passive coping strategies such as escape avoidance. The potential impact on student health and academic achievement is of concern and suggests the need for comprehensive health promotion programmes to tackle multiple behaviours. As these students are the nurses and teachers of the future, their risk behaviours, elevated psychological distress and poor coping also raise concerns regarding their roles as future health educators/promoters. Attention to promotion of health and well-being among this population is essential. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Julio Cesar Espín Falcón
Full Text Available La violencia se ha convertido en un problema para la salud pública a nivel mundial. De ella se reconocen varios tipos: la violencia física, la psicológica y la sexual, sus causas pueden variar en dependencia del contexto sociocultural. El presente trabajo se realiza con el objetivo de identificar la violencia como un problema de salud, así como describir los tipos de violencia según las características de quienes cometen el acto violento y la naturaleza de los mismos.Violence has become a problem for public health all over the world. Different types have been recognized: physical, psychological and sexual violence. Their causes may vary depending on the sociocultural context. The present paper is aimed at identifying violence as a health problem and at describing the types of violence according to the characteristics of those who commit the violent act and to the nature of them.
Omigbodun, Olayinka O; Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O; Yusuf, O Bidemi; Bella, Tolulope T; Olayemi, Oladopo
Studies suggest that high levels of stress and psychological morbidity occur in health care profession students. This study investigates stressors and psychological morbidity in students of medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy and nursing at the University of Ibadan. The students completed a questionnaire about their socio-demographic characteristics, perceived stressors and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Qualitative methods were used initially to categorise stressors. Data was then analysed using univariate and logistic regression to determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Medical and dental students were more likely to cite as stressors, overcrowding, strikes, excessive school work and lack of holidays while physiotherapy and nursing students focused on noisy environments, security and transportation. Medical and dental students (1.66; SD: 2.22) had significantly higher GHQ scores than the physiotherapy and nursing students (1.22; SD: 1.87) (t = 2.3; P = 0.022). Socio-demographic factors associated with psychological morbidity after logistic regression include being in a transition year of study, reporting financial distress and not being a 'Pentecostal Christian'. Although males were more likely to perceive financial and lecturer problems as stressors and females to perceive faculty strikes and overcrowding as source of stress, gender did not have any significant effect on psychological morbidity. Stressors associated with psychological distress in the students include excessive school work, congested classrooms, strikes by faculty, lack of laboratory equipment, family problems, insecurity, financial and health problems. Several identified stressors such as financial problems, academic pressures and their consequent effect on social life have an adverse effect on the mental health of students in this environment especially for students of medicine and dentistry. While stressors outside the reach of the school authorities are difficult to
Ehmsen, Boje Kvorning; Biswas, Dan Klausholt; Jensen, Natasja Koitszch
INTRODUCTION: In 2008, 1.9-3.8 million undocumented migrants lived in Europe. We aimed to strengthen the evidence base on undocumented migrants' health problems by describing characteristics of undocumented migrant patients in a Danish non-governmental organisation (NGO) health clinic. MATERIAL...... on average (16+ weeks). CONCLUSION: Undocumented migrants presented with diverse health problems. Some patients presented with critical disease, and an alarming number of pregnant women did not seek medical care until a late stage, and they did not return for infant care after giving birth. FUNDING...
A.D. Andreeva; E.E. Danilova; A.M. Prihozhan
The article regards the questions of scientific-methodological provision of psychologist’s activity in an educational settlement which are urgent for the activity of practical educational psychologist in Russia as well. The presented information concerns the psychologist’s particular strands of work which can be both developing (development of ABM) and psycho-correcting (reasons and forms of school phobias, bullying displays, lying). The ethical problems of psychologist’s work with families ...
Veraksa, Nikolay; Belolutskaya, Anastasiya; Vorobyeva, Irina; Krasheninnikov, Eugene; Rachkova, Elena; Shiyan, Igor; Shiyan, Olga
In this article dialectical thinking is regarded as one of the central cognitive processes. Because of this cognitive function we can analyze the development of processes and objects. It also determines the possibilities for the creative transformation of some content and for solving problems. The article presents a description and the results of experimental studies. This evidence proves that dialectical thinking is a specific line of cognitive development in children and adults. This line c...
Full Text Available The article discloses the main potential aspects of cooperation between psychology and culturology, which are connected through their mutual determination of the psyche (psychic reality and culture. The paper acknowledges the key importance of the cultural-historical traditions initiated by Lev Vygotsky and his successors as well as the idea that their potential has yet to be realized by contemporary psychology. A new vision of culture is given to culturology (in comparison with traditional cultural studies and its significance in conducting modern psychological research: a novel problematization of psychology’s subject matter and its methodological support. Different aspects of the psyche’s cultural determination, the experience with cultural psychology (historical psychology in researching historical mental types (“Annals school” are reviewed alongside with the role of culture knowledge in analyzing the psychological results of this determination. The consistency of culture and its components represented and internalized by mental structures is announced as a fundamental cultural basis of psychological research. The return influence of psychological phenomena on culture’s various aspects, as well as related cultural and psychological problems, are determined by the fundamental place and role of the psyche in any given cultural system as well as the contradictions that exist between a culture and the psyche. All this requires further examination. One of the most vital contemporary challenges facing psychology is the problem of the mental peculiarities of the consciousness, which can be principally explained in terms of a consistent culturological approach. Interrelationships between the psyche’s properties and conscious cultural functions are shown through example of aesthetic attitude.
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz
The workplace environment has a great influence on employees' health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees' psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological health and somatic complaints (i.e., sleep disorders, headache, gastro-intestinal and respiratory problems). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women working in the public sector. Data collection was conducted using a series of self-administered questionnaires. The results of this study show that there is a link between job satisfaction and psychological distress as well as four somatic complaints. Satisfaction with the nature of work was the strongest predictor for psychological distress, sleep disorders, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems. From the results of this study, we conclude that there is a link between job satisfaction and the health status of employees. In addition, job satisfaction levels vary across different dimensions and can even differ from an individual's feelings of global job satisfaction. Policies and practices should focus on improving working conditions to enhance the fit of the job and the employee.
Despite the growing number of cross-cultural studies focusing on psychological problems, little is known about social support outside of western civilization, particularly among people in South Asian cultures. This study examined the cultural orientation regarding perceived social support and psychological problems among 912 undergraduate students (age 19-26) studying at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. The present study supported variance in cultural values regarding the relative prominence of sources of support in collectivist culture indicating that low levels of family support were related to various psychological problems. Further, low levels of peer support were related to depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity. While familial support played a bigger role than peer support in affecting psychological problems, peer support also had a role to play. The results may help counsellors and researchers to identify more effectively the population of students at high risk for mental illness and develop culturally effective interventions to address this significant and growing public health issue.
Sneijder, P.W.J.; Molder, te H.F.M.
This article draws upon insights from discursive psychology to examine how participants in an Internet forum on veganism orient to the relationship between food choice, health and accountability. First, we explore the ways in which participants ascribe responsibility for health problems like vitamin
Ohrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan
This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information.
Øhrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan
This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research...... purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information....
Arvidsdotter, Tina; Marklund, Bertil; Kylén, Sven; Taft, Charles; Ekman, Inger
The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences of persons living with psychological distress who seek help in primary care. Psychological distress is a state of emotional suffering associated with stressors and demands that are difficult to cope with in daily life. The lack of effective care for and difficulty in identifying psychological distress is frustrating for patients and health professionals alike. The aim was therefore to gain more knowledge about the experience of living with psychological distress. Twelve persons (nine women and three men) aged 23-51 years were interviewed. Analyses were based on a phenomenological hermeneutic method and indicated that psychological distress may be seen as an imbalance (incongruence) between the self and the ideal self, which slowly breaks down a person's self-esteem. This imbalance was described in three dimensions: Struggling to cope with everyday life, Feeling inferior to others and Losing one's grip on life. It seems to be associated with a gradual depletion of existential capacities and lead to dissatisfaction, suffering, poor self-esteem and lack of control. As psychological distress may be a forerunner to mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, there is a need to initiate preventive or early interventions to avoid mental, physical and emotional chaos in such patients. Patients' with psychological distress need to be involved in a person-centred salutogenic dialogue with health professionals to become aware of and strengthen their own capacities to regain health and well-being. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.
Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo
Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Shek, D T
Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.
This introduction to the Special Section of History of Psychology argues for greater attention to psychological research on sex in the decades before the publication of the Kinsey volumes. Drawing on scholarship by Adele Clarke, Donna Haraway and Wade Pickren, this introduction argues for the centrality of the psychological research projects funded by the Committee for Research on Problems of Sex (CRPS), chaired by psychologist Robert Yerkes after 1921. The three individual papers all speak to opposition to the functionalist approach to sex often attributed to Yerkes' CRPS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Beijersbergen, Karin A; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Eichelsheim, Veroni I; van der Laan, Peter H; Nieuwbeerta, Paul
Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the longitudinal relationship between prisoners' perceptions of procedural justice--including fairness, respect, humanity and relationships with officers--and their mental health and (2) the moderating role of coping style in this relationship. Data were obtained from the Prison Project, a longitudinal study of adult male prisoners in the Netherlands, interviewed both 3 weeks and 3 months after their reception into pre-trial detention (N = 824). A cross-lagged structural equation model was employed to investigate associations. Prisoners who reported experiencing a higher level of procedural justice 3 weeks after their arrival in custody reported fewer mental health problems after 3 months. No evidence was found that coping style moderated this relationship. These findings suggest a causal relationship between procedural justice and psychological well-being. Fair and respectful treatment of prisoners is a predictor not only of prison order and prisoners' compliance but also of prisoners' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
D. Yu. Barkova
Full Text Available The analysis of the current state of the problem has allowed to de?ne the role of the type of schooling enhancing or, at least, retaining the appropriate level of the psychological health of the learners. According to the de?nition of the author if the paper, psychological health is a condition of openness to experience, ability to maintain contacts with internal and external personality’s reality and successfully acquire knowledge and skills. To de?ne the level of the psychological health the authors have used the following terms: individual manifestation of psychological health, the norms of the health, communicative competence, personal adaptive potential, moral patterns acquired, etc. The authors have revealed in the paper not only the medical backgrounds of investigating the impact of different factors on the level of the psychological health of the secondary school learner, but have carried out an empirical research and checked their postulates in practice. It was found as a result of the research that the problem of psychological health the most signi?cantly arises in the period of the formation of the personality that is at the teen age, since this period as is known from the theory of the personality development plays a signi?cant role in the consequential outcomes and results in certain consequential outcomes in the fundamental psychological structure of the personality. To investigate empirically the level of the psychological health achieved by the learners in different types of educational establishments a sample of 40 teenagers was chosen and the following variables were assessed: the level of the comprehension by the learner of the purpose of life, the emotional stability level and moral normativity. The analysis of the empirical ?ndings proved the hypothesis that there are no signi?cant differences between the levels of adaptability and personal growth among the teenagers grown up and
Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.
Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...
Veraksa, Nikolay E.
Full Text Available In this article dialectical thinking is regarded as one of the central cognitive processes. Because of this cognitive function we can analyze the development of processes and objects. It also determines the possibilities for the creative transformation of some content and for solving problems. The article presents a description and the results of experimental studies. This evidence proves that dialectical thinking is a specific line of cognitive development in children and adults. This line can degrade during school time if the educational program follows formal logical principles, or it can become significantly stronger if the pedagogy is based on dialectical methodology.
Full Text Available The article regards the questions of scientific-methodological provision of psychologist’s activity in an educational settlement which are urgent for the activity of practical educational psychologist in Russia as well. The presented information concerns the psychologist’s particular strands of work which can be both developing (development of ABM and psycho-correcting (reasons and forms of school phobias, bullying displays, lying. The ethical problems of psychologist’s work with families namely in case of the parent-child conflicts is also reviewed in the article.
van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu
Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.
Timmerman, Lotte; Timman, Reinier; Laging, Mirjam; Zuidema, Willij C; Beck, Denise K; IJzermans, Jan N M; Busschbach, Jan J V; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K
Living donor kidney transplantation offers advantages to the patient, however involves risks to the donor. To optimize donors' mental health after donation, we studied the influence of psychological factors on this outcome. Potential predictors were based on models of Lazarus () and Ursin and Eriksen () that describe predictors of mental health mediated by stress. Prospective design. Living kidney donors (n = 151) were interviewed before donation and completed questionnaires 2.5 months before and 3 and 12 months post-donation. Using multilevel regression models, we examined whether appraisals, expectations, knowledge, social support, coping, life events, and sociodemographic characteristics predicted psychological symptoms and well-being and whether these relationships were mediated by stress. A greater increase in psychological symptoms over time was found among donors without a partner. Younger age, lack of social support, expectations of interpersonal benefit, lower appraisals of manageability, and an avoidant coping style were related to more psychological symptoms at all time points. The latter three were mediated by stress. No religious affiliation, unemployment, history of psychological problems, less social support, expectations of negative health consequences, and less positive appraisals were related to lower well-being at all time points. This study identified indicators of a lower mental health status among living kidney donors. Professionals should examine this profile before donation and the need for extra psychological support in relation to the number and magnitude of the identified indicators. Interventions should be focused on the changeable factors (e.g., expectations), decreasing stress/psychological symptoms, and/or increasing well-being. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Until now, research on psychological outcomes after living kidney donation revealed that mental health remained the same for the majority of
This commentary asks the question of whether positive psychology represents an egoistic pursuit of happiness, which is in conflict with basic values within health promotion. A look at key concepts and research findings within positive psychology reveals common ground with health promotion. Similarities are evident in conceptualization of health, resource focus, value focus and consequences for policy. Some influences of happiness on health and functioning are described.
Hossein Ali Yousefi Rizi
Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to survey the health problems caused by exposure to high-voltage facility radiation. Materials and Methods: Sampling included workers exposed to electromagnetic fields at high-voltage facilities. The strength of the electric and magnetic fields was determined by a field meter. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of subjective and psychological symptoms. Statistical descriptive used and data analyzed by a Student′s t-tests. Results: This study indicates that increased symptoms among the exposed workers including depression, anxiety, hostility, paranoia, inter-sensitivity, and obsession-compulsion. Some of the self-reported symptoms were, headache (53.5%, fatigue (35.6%, difficulties in concentration (32.5%, vertigo/dizziness (30.4%, attention disorders (28.8%, nervousness (28.1%, and palpitations (14.7%. A significant relationship was observed between the exposure to the electromagnetic field and psychological symptoms (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Radiation of high-voltage facilities probably increased the risk of mental disorders and intensified them in susceptible workers, especially depression. This finding confirmed the results obtained in provocative studies that indicated an increase in the risk of psychological symptoms, which was put forth by several investigators Observation of occupational health and other control measures play an important role in decreasing the symptoms.
Cynthia Kline O'Sullivan
Full Text Available Background/Significance. Ovarian cancer patients are prone to psychological distress. The clinical significance and best practices for distress among this population are poorly understood. Method. Secondary analysis of research records from a six month randomized control trial included 32 women with primary ovarian cancer. All received 18 advanced practice nurse (APN visits over six months. Three sub-samples were determined by distress level (high/low and mental health service consent for high distress. Demographic, clinical factors, patient problems and APN interventions obtained through content analysis and categorized via the Omaha System were compared. Results. Clinically-significant psychiatric conditions were identified in 8/18 (44% high distress subjects consenting to mental health intervention. High distress subjects who refused mental health intervention had more income and housing problems than the other subjects, received the fewest interventions at baseline, and progressively more throughout the study, exceeding the other sub-samples by study completion. Conclusions. Highly-distressed women not psychologically ready to work through emotional consequences of cancer at treatment onset may obtain support from APNs to manage cancer problems as they arise. Additional studies may identify best practices for all highly-distressed women with cancer, particularly those who do not accept mental health services for distress, but suffer from its effects.
The aim of this study was to record experiences of three meditation conditions: Ratio Breathing, Transcendental Meditation and Zazen, with special reference to sport, health, neuro-physiology and sense of coherence. The participants (N=9), seven males and two females were all British, actively competing across a range of ...
The study investigated stress events, perceived stress and social support in relation to various common health behaviours among black South African students. The sample included 624 students: 314 Grade 12 Secondary school students and 310 third year social science university students in South Africa. The study found ...
Lévesque, David; Sévigny, Serge; Giroux, Isabelle; Jacques, Christian
Despite numerous studies demonstrating the influence of cognitive distortions on gambling problem severity, empirical data regarding the role of psychological vulnerability on the latter is limited. Hence, this study assesses the mediating effect of cognitive distortions between psychological vulnerability (personality and mood), and gambling problem severity. It also verifies whether the relationships between these variables differs according to the preferred gambling activity. The sample is composed of 272 male gamblers [191 poker players; 81 video lottery terminal (VLT) players] aged between 18 and 82 years (M = 35.2). Bootstrap analysis results revealed that cognitive distortions mediate the effect of narcissism on gambling problem severity for both groups. The level of depression for VLT players significantly predicted gambling problem severity, both directly and indirectly via the mediating effect of cognitive distortions. Mediation analyses also indicated that narcissism had an indirect impact on problem gambling through cognitive distortions for both groups. These findings suggest that certain vulnerabilities related to personality and mood may influence cognitive distortion intensity and gambling problem severity. In addition, psychological vulnerabilities could differ based on preferred gambling activity. These results may be useful for prevention policies, identifying high risk gamblers and planning psychological interventions.
Chung, He Len; Docherty, Meagan
Objective: To examine relations between neighborhood characteristics and psychological health, specifically whether neighborhood trust and cooperation buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on depression and aggressive behavior. Methods: The sample was composed of 127 urban, African American young adults from Trenton, NJ. Results: The…
Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.
This article introduces the Major Contribution on integrating health and vocational psychology, using persons with HIV who have work-related concerns as an example. The authors describe the demographics associated with HIV disease and new treatments that have allowed people with HIV to remain healthy and continue working, or consider returning to…
Upton, Dominic; Cooper, Carol
On-line teaching material in health psychology was developed which ensured a range of students could access appropriate material for their course and level of study. This material has been developed around the concept of smaller "content chunks" which can be combined into whole units of learning (topics), and ultimately, a module. On the…
Jun 1, 2013 ... Request for reprints to: S . Bello, Department of Community Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, P.O.Box. 1750 .... between job satisfaction and psychological health was calculated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS. A total of 215 questionnaires were distributed and.
Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria
The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes.
Full Text Available The majority of studies devoted to child visual perception suggest that child spontaneous orientation at an integral form of an object emerges at about 6–7 years of age and gradually strengthens up to adolescence. Simultaneously their capacity to perceive local parts also grows within the childhood. Parallel and heterochronic maturation of these relatively independent mechanisms leads to great data scatter in behavioral studies of child integral perception. Besides, it brings forth the acute problem of content and ecology validity of experimental methods of its study. The genuine authors’ study suggests the non-directive approach to evidence of child tendency to integral perception in available activity in preschool age, based on analyses of quality of their mistakes in recognizing the fragmented images of real objects. Mechanisms of age-related development of Gestalt perception are discussed in regard to maturation of association cortex of the right hemisphere and inhibitory interhemispheric links through callosum.
Hartmann's monograph is an argument for the problem-solving value of all aspects of the mind and for the subordination of intelligence to the organism's larger, primarily social purposes. Hartmann proposed that, in psychoanalytic treatment, intelligent reflection serves one's largest purposes by taking respectful account of non-rational but adaptive ways of appraising reality, with a view toward making the best use of non-rational as well as rational propensities. He regarded it as the kind of thinking that the sociologist, Karl Mannheim, had recommended to government planners faced with immensely complicated, incompletely masterable forces. Hartmann's view of the role of the intellect in analytic treatment suggests that therapists should maintain both their demand for intelligent reflection and their hopefulness about other kinds of work that may be going on sub rosa.
Spink, Mary-Jane P; Brigagão, Jacqueline M; Menegon, Vera M; Vicentin, Maria-Cristina G
Considering the diversity of theoretical approaches and settings for psychological practice, this editorial provides a background for the articles that have been included in this special issue concerning health psychology in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude). We addressed issues concerning the national curricular outline for undergraduate training in psychology and historical data on the social movements that led to the creation of the Sistema Unico de Saude and the Psychiatric Reform which created an important area for psychological work absorbing a considerable number of psychologists. © The Author(s) 2016.
GPs have an important position in the identification of patients’ mental health problems. As generalists, GPs are often the first health professionals contacted by patients with mental health problems and they are assigned to provide integrated care for both patients’ somatic and psychological
Kuppens, Toon; Pollet, Thomas
Two recent articles (both published in Psychological Science) rely on nation-level data to address questions about psychological processes: Oishi and Diener (2014), referred to here as “OD,” and Hershfield et al. (2014), referred to as “HBW.” In our opinion, both articles contain problems with regard to the use and interpretation of nation-level data. The problems are (1) the failure to account for the statistical dependence of countries within regions, (2) the use of nation-level data with q...
Seligman, Martin E.P.; Peterson, Christopher; Diener, Ed; Zack, Matthew M.; Chapman, Daniel; Thompson, William
Positive psychology is the study of what is “right” about people—their positive attributes, psychological assets, and strengths. Its aim is to understand and foster the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to thrive. Cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal research demonstrates that positive emotions are associated with numerous benefits related to health, work, family, and economic status. Growing biomedical research supports the view that positive emotions are not merely the opposite of negative emotions but may be independent dimensions of mental affect. The asset-based paradigms of positive psychology offer new approaches for bolstering psychological resilience and promoting mental health. Ultimately, greater synergy between positive psychology and public health might help promote mental health in innovative ways. PMID:21680918
Recent research has established evidence of a strong link between poor physical health during childhood (and even in utero) and health and economic outcomes much later in adulthood. But much less is known about the long-term economic consequences of psychological conditions experienced during childhood, although childhood psychological…
Law, Rebecca; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian
Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is defined as shared perceptions of organizational policies, practices and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety, that stem largely from management practices. PSC theory extends the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework and proposes that organizational level PSC determines work conditions and subsequently, psychological health problems and work engagement. Our sample was derived from the Australian Workplace Barometer project and comprised 30 organizations, and 220 employees. As expected, hierarchical linear modeling showed that organizational PSC was negatively associated with workplace bullying and harassment (demands) and in turn psychological health problems (health impairment path). PSC was also positively associated with work rewards (resources) and in turn work engagement (motivational path). Accordingly, we found that PSC triggered both the health impairment and motivational pathways, thus justifying extending the JD-R model in a multilevel way. Further we found that PSC, as an organization-based resource, moderated the positive relationship between bullying/harassment and psychological health problems, and the negative relationship between bullying/harassment and engagement. The findings provide evidence for a multilevel model of PSC as a lead indicator of workplace psychosocial hazards (high demands, low resources), psychological health and employee engagement, and as a potential moderator of psychosocial hazard effects. PSC is therefore an efficient target for primary and secondary intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pastore, Valentina; Colombo, Katia; Villa, Federica; Galbiati, Susanna; Adduci, Annarita; Poggi, Geraldina; Massimino, Maura; Recla, Monica; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Strazzer, Sandra
To describe and compare psychological, behavioural and adjustment problems in pre-school patients with acquired brain lesions of different aetiology. Three groups of patients with acquired brain lesions (14 patients post-TBI, 18 brain tumour survivors and 23 patients with vascular or infectious brain lesions), ranging in age between 24-47 months, received a psychological evaluation, including the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 2-3 (CBCL) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). About half of the total sample (47.2%) showed psychological and behavioural problems. Difficulties vary according to the aetiology of the brain lesions. Brain tumour survivors showed more marked internalizing problems, whereas children with vascular or infectious brain lesions scored higher on the CBCL externalizing scales. Children with traumatic brain injury reported intermediate scores on most of the CBCL scales. Psychological and behavioural difficulties are very common, not only among school-aged children and adolescents, but also among pre-schoolers with acquired brain lesions. The relevance and the impact of these difficulties must necessarily be considered when developing psychological treatment and rehabilitation plans and planning for social re-entry.
Full Text Available Introduction: Menstrual disorders are common problems among women in the reproductive age group. Yuga interventions may decrease the physical and psychological problems related to menstrual disorders. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of Yoga Nidra on psychological problems in patients with menstrual disorders. Methods: A total number of 100 women recruited from the department of obstetrics and gynecology and were then randomly allocated into two groups: a intervention received yogic intervention and medication for 6 month, and b control group received no yogic intervention and they only received prescribed medication. Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI and hormonal profile were assessed at the time of before and after six months on both groups. Results: The mean score of anxiety, depression, positive well-being, general health, and vitality scores, as well as hormonal levels, in posttest were significantly different in intervention group as compared with pretest. But there was no significant difference in control group. Conclusion: Yoga Nidra can be a successful therapy to overcome the psychiatric morbidity associated with menstrual irregularities. Therefore, Yogic relaxation training (Yoga Nidra could be prescribed as an adjunct to conventional drug therapy for menstrual dysfunction.
The report on the disease conditions in donkeys in most West African countries is scanty in literature. This study was conducted to identify the health related problems including gastrointestinal and blood parasites of donkeys at the Bolgatanga livestock market in the Upper East region of Ghana from July to December, 2012.
Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Wong, S. Lo Fo; Muijsenbergh, M. van den
OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in health problems in general practice. METHODS: We performed a study using data from the Continuous Morbidity Registration (CMR) Nijmegen. To study the distribution by gender we analysed overall morbidity per 1000 patients years over a period of 10
Shields, Cleveland G.; Finley, Michelle A.; Chawla, Neelu
Intervention research for couples and families managing chronic health problems is in an early developmental stage. We reviewed randomized clinical trials of family interventions for common neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, which is similar to the content of previous reviews discussed later. One overriding theme…
Introduction. Leptospirosis has been recognized as an important emerging global public health problem because of its epidemic proportions and increasing incidence in both developing and developed countries (Meites et .... and E jaundice, non-malarial febrile illnesses and non-dengue haemorrhagic fever in South East ...
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P
The present study analyzed change in psychological problems of German adolescents with and without visual impairment across a 2-year interval. A total of 182 adolescents with severe visual impairment and 560 sighted adolescents provided longitudinal data. At the start of the study, adolescents with visual impairment had, on average, elevated scores on all difficulties scales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Goodman R, J Child Psychol Psychiat 38:581-586), 1997 and about 39 % of them scored in the abnormal range of one or more scales as compared to 30.5 % of their sighted peers (p visual impairment and with early onset of visual impairment in particular, may benefit from psychological interventions aimed at preventing and reducing psychological problems and increasing the ability to cope with stressors associated with vision loss.
Quirk, Thomas J
This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach educational and psychological statistics effectively. It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical problems in education and psychology. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and practitioners, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in statistics courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2013 for Educational and Psychological Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and practitioners how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. E...
Full Text Available A fundamental project on reproducibility carried out in the USA by Brian Nosek in 2015 (the Reproducibility Project revealed a serious methodological problem in psychology: the issue of replication of psycho- logical experiments. Reproducibility has been traditionally perceived as one of the basic principles of the scientific method. However, methodological analysis of the modern post-nonclassical stage in the development of science suggests that this might be a bit too uncompromising as applied to psychology. It seems that the very criteria of scientific research need to be reconsidered with regard to the specifics of post-nonclassical science, and, as the authors put it, as a result, reproducibility might lose its key status or even be excluded at all. The reviewed problem and the proposed ways of coping with it are of high importance to research and practice in psychology as they define the strategies for organizing, conducting and evaluating experimental research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD = 8.7 and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD = 1.20 years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4% cases. The mean GSI (1.46 of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4 of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size = 0.507, unemployment (effect size = 0.464 and having more than 3 children (effect size = 0.62. Among the participants, 87 (58.4% cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6% cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference = -0.621 with SD = 0.120. There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history
van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Wentzel, M.J.; Sieverink, Floor; Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Kelders, Saskia Marion
Introduction: eHealth is gaining more and more ground in health psychology and behavioural medicine to support wellbeing, a healthier lifestyle or adherence to medications. Despite the large number of eHealth projects to date, the actual use of eHealth interventions is lower than expected. Many
Wilson, Dawn K
This issue of Health Psychology includes original contributions for advancing research on theoretical issues such as mediation and moderation effects in promoting healthy diet and physical activity behavior change. This special issue was developed to highlight some of the fundamental issues from a biological, cognitive, social, and environmental perspective for understanding the impact of intervention effects on behavior change processes and ultimate health. Given the increasing prevalence of health-related problems, such as the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States, the perspective presented in this issue should be very useful to researchers, scientists, scholars, and a wide range of health professionals who hope to curb these critical public health problems. (Copyright) 2008 APA.
Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.
Kees, Michelle; Rosenblum, Katherine
The decade long conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have placed considerable strain on military families. Given robust data showing high rates of deployment-related psychological health problems in spouses and children, and the near absence of evidence-based psychological health programs for military families in the community, interventions are urgently needed to support and strengthen spouses as they adjust to deployment transitions and military life experiences. This Phase 1 pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a resiliency intervention for military spouses in civilian communities (HomeFront Strong; HFS), and generated preliminary efficacy data regarding impacts on psychological health and adjustment. Through two group cohorts, 14 women completed the intervention, with 10 women providing pre- and postgroup assessment data. Findings support feasibility of the intervention and high rates of program satisfaction. Participants reported learning new strategies and feeling more knowledgeable in their ability to use effective coping skills for managing deployment and military-related stressors. Participation in HFS was also associated with reduction in levels of anxiety and perceived stress, and improvements in life satisfaction and life engagement. HFS is a promising community-based intervention for military spouses designed to enhance resiliency, reduce negative psychological health symptoms, and improve coping. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Hongsheng Chen PhD
Full Text Available This study analyzed the health of migrants in 4 types of neighborhood in the city of Guangzhou in China. The research shows that the health of internal migrants in urban villages and private housing neighborhoods is much better than those living in older inner city neighborhoods (which are known as jiefang shequ and unit neighborhoods (which are known as danwei. The reasons behind this are the facts that the migrants in urban villages tend to be relatively young and there tend to be better social and economic conditions in the private housing neighborhood. Moreover, among the 4 kinds of neighborhood, the gap between psychological health and physical health is the largest in urban villages. In addition, migrants who are younger, have better working conditions, and have higher levels of education have better health scores, and they tend to have more friends in the city, larger houses, better insurance, and more satisfaction with their neighborhood relationships, and they tend to be better adapted to urban life. As for the determinants of health, individual characteristics, community factors, and insurance are the most important factors. Specifically, individual age and age of housing have negative influences on physical health while insurance has a positive effect. This study shows that the type of neighborhood that migrants live in has a great impact on their psychological health, which can be improved by promoting neighborhood environments. Last, we propose that it is necessary to implement different strategies in different communities.
Ehmsen, Boje Kvorning; Biswas, Dan Klausholt; Jensen, Natasja Koitszch
INTRODUCTION: In 2008, 1.9-3.8 million undocumented migrants lived in Europe. We aimed to strengthen the evidence base on undocumented migrants' health problems by describing characteristics of undocumented migrant patients in a Danish non-governmental organisation (NGO) health clinic. MATERIAL...... on the International Classification of Primary Care, 2nd Edition (ICPC-2). RESULTS: A total of 830 patients (39.75% women and 60.25% men) visited the clinic, which led to a total of 2,088 visits and 1,384 ICPC-2 classifications. The patients seen had 94 different nationalities. The most common reasons for medical...... on average (16+ weeks). CONCLUSION: Undocumented migrants presented with diverse health problems. Some patients presented with critical disease, and an alarming number of pregnant women did not seek medical care until a late stage, and they did not return for infant care after giving birth. FUNDING...
Awat Feizi; Badroddin Najmi; Aseih Salesi; Maryam Chorami; Rezvan Hoveidafar
Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s paren...
Pettit, Gregory S.; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.
The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected...
We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollab...
Rosenkranz, Susan E.; Muller, Robert T.; Henderson, Joanna L.
Objectives: Research has demonstrated that experiences of childhood maltreatment are prevalent in the life histories of youth with substance use problems; however, most of this research has focused on sexual or physical abuse. The purpose of the current study was to extend the scope of previous investigations to include psychological maltreatment…
Aldous, Carol R.
This paper examines the intersection between creativity, problem solving, cognitive psychology and neuroscience in a discussion surrounding the genesis of new ideas and innovative science. Three creative activities are considered. These are (a) the interaction between visual-spatial and analytical or verbal reasoning, (b) attending to feeling in…
This paper describes the introduction of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) into a final-year option module in psychology. The background and rationale for the changes introduced are discussed and the experience of PBL is considered from the point of view of tutor and students. The introduction of PBL considerably increased student attainment in the…
Hess, Timothy R.; Tracey, Terence J. G.
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to understand psychological help-seeking intention for 3 common concerns: anxiety or depression, career choice concerns, and alcohol or drug use. Eight hundred eighty-nine university students completed surveys for the TPB variables plus belief in personal efficacy and control to solve the problems.…
Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hastings, Richard P.; Crowe, Rachel; Pemberton, Jemma
Background: Several studies have reported relationships between life events and psychological problems in people with intellectual disabilities. In contrast to the general literature, data have consistently been collected via proxy informants and putative moderator variables such as social support have not been examined. Materials and Methods:…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Bista Archana, Joshi Sarala
Introduction: Globally, number of old age population is increasing with advancement of biomedical technology. Old age is the time associated with biological, psychological and social changes which situate elderly to acquire different health related problems. Objectives: To find out lived experiences of elderly regarding their health problems residing in homes of Kathmandu city. Methods: Qualitative hermeneutic phenomenology approach was adopted. Researcher selected purposively four elderly r...
Lagutina, Larissa; Sperlinger, David; Esterhuyzen, Alexander
This study aimed to explore therapists' understanding of how people with a wide range of physical problems address the psychological aspects of these problems through sandplay, what happens for them in the process, what changes they experience and what sandplay can contribute to working with such people. This exploratory qualitative study used grounded theory to systematically analyse the data and construct a substantive theory of therapists' understanding of the processes and themes involved in sandplay therapy with people with physical problems. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with nine sandplay therapists with the participants asked about their experiences of using sandplay to address physical problems. The participants offered evidence of their clients' ability to address their physical problems and the corresponding psychological issues through symbolic expression in the sand. The emergent theory suggested that such symbolic expression could facilitate access to feelings and experiences that can be difficult to address through verbal therapy alone, thus facilitating the process of integration and recovery. The theory suggests how therapists thought that clients may address their physical problems through sandplay and what is important in that process. There was also a suggestion that the focus and themes unfolding in sandplay process may vary depending on whether the clients present with somatisation, chronic illness, or terminal illness. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.
Kim, Jin E; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan
Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report 2 studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Masud, Abdullah Al; Ahmed, Md. Shahoriar; Sultana, Mst. Rebeka; Alam, S. M. Iftekhar; Kabir, Russell; Arafat, S. M. Yasir; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos
Abstract Background: Rohingya refugees are one of the most vulnerable group due to lack of health care system, personal hygiene, shelter, sanitation and violence. Aim: The present study aims to find out the health problems and health care seeking behavior of rohingya refugee peoples, to identify the socio-demographic information for such exposure group in relation to age, sex, occupation, living areas, to explore the patient's physical, emotional, perceptions, attitudes and environmen...
Pollard, Mary Ward; McKinney, Cliff
Research has indicated that negative parenting practices, such as physical punishment, are associated with negative outcomes in children. These negative outcomes can present during childhood and during emerging adulthood. One negative consequence can be excessive alcohol use, a problematic outcome with its own myriad consequences. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of parental physical force on emerging adult functioning, specifically alcohol and psychological problems. A sample of 488 young adults completed questionnaires on current perceptions related to alcohol-related problems, physical and psychological aggression by their parents experienced during the previous year, and current emotional and behavioral functioning. Results showed full mediation between paternal physical force and emerging adult alcohol problems by emerging adult psychological problems. Emerging adult psychological problems partially mediated the effect of maternal physical force on emerging adult alcohol problem. Gender did not moderate these effects. The results support existing literature suggesting that the use of parental physical force may lead to a chain reaction of problems, even during emerging adulthood. These results also reveal that emerging adults report currently receiving physical force from their parents, which brings to light a concerning lack of literature on the use of parental physical force on emerging adult children. These results advocate for positive parenting practives and efforts to teach them, even for emerging adult children. The results may also clinically suggest that paying attention to parental force in emerging adult clients could yield a better understanding of their current functioning, especially including excessive alcohol use. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lowe, Sarah R; Willis, Margaret; Rhodes, Jean E
Although the mental health consequences of disasters have been well documented, relatively less is known about their effects on survivors' physical health. Disaster studies have also generally lacked predisaster data, limiting researchers' ability to determine whether postdisaster physical health problems were influenced by disaster exposure, or whether they would have emerged even if the disaster had not occurred. The current study aimed to fill this gap. Participants were low-income, primarily non-Hispanic Black mothers (N = 334) who survived Hurricane Katrina and completed 4 survey assessments, 2 predisaster and 2 postdisaster. In each assessment, participants reported on whether they had experienced 3 common health problems (frequent headaches or migraines, back problems, and digestive problems) and completed 2 mental health measure (the K6 scale, the Perceived Stress Scale). The descriptive results suggested that the hurricane led to at least short-term increases in the 3 health outcomes. Fixed effects modeling was conducted to explore how changes in various predictor variables related to changes in each health condition over the study. Bereavement and increases in psychological distress were significant predictors of increases in health problems. Based on these results, further research that explores the processes through which disasters lead to both physical and mental health problems, postdisaster screenings for common health conditions and psychological distress, and interventions that boost survivors' stress management skills are suggested.
Van Herzeele, Charlotte; De Bruyne, Pauline; De Bruyne, Elke; Walle, Johan Vande
The evidence for organic pathogenetic factors in enuresis and the discovery of effective therapies targeting the bladder and/or nocturnal diuresis have overwhelmed every potential role of psychological factors in pathogenesis and treatment. However, psychopathology is still important in enuresis because according to the document of the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) 20-30% of the children with enuresis have at least one psychological/psychiatric disorder at rates two times higher than non-wetting children. The most common comorbid disorder with enuresis is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this review is to translate the existing evidence on the importance of a psychological screening into daily clinical practice of the medical practitioner. The use of the minimal psychological screening tool should be considered mandatory in each primary setting. If psychological problems are indicated, referral of the patient to a multidisciplinary setting should be considered, not only to allow psychological assessment to screen for a possible psychopathology, but also since therapy resistance might be expected. This review concentrates on two items from psychopathology/psychotherapy that might predict insufficient treatment response: the psychological comorbidities as described according to the DSM-5 criteria and the underestimated importance of therapy adherence. Adherence is a cornerstone of effective therapy in enuresis. It is a problem involving the doctor, the patient, and the parents. Increasing adherence takes effort and is time-consuming. But it is worthwhile knowing that several studies have demonstrated that high adherence is associated with high therapy success of enuresis. Eventually, this is the ultimate goal of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève
Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Marmash, Lily R
Assessment of individuals' psychological well-being and mental health is an important aspect of health promotion. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of psychological well-being and general health report among Jordanian university students. A total of 1108 students from six universities in Jordan were surveyed regarding psychological well-being and general health. The results showed that students perceived their psychological well-being as moderate. Psychological wellbeing subscales were negatively correlated with reports of physical pain, chronic infections, and previous or current treatment of a psychiatric illness. Male and female university students were similar in their perceptions of psychological well-being; however, they differed in their general health report. Perception of psychological well-being is an important component of university students' health. The importance of psychological well-being is highlighted, and implications for mental health nurses are presented.
Obasi, Ezemenari M; Brooks, Jessica J; Cavanagh, Lucia
Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M-age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kirkeby, Mette Jørgine; Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid
The objective for this study was to investigate socio-economic status (SES) differentials in the use of overthe- counter and prescribed medicine for pain and psychological problems among adolescents. Data consisted of questionnaire data on medicine use and health status, collected from 17- to 18...
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to estimate prevalence rates of psychological problems in immigrant Iranian children in the UK and to evaluate the associated characteristics. Methods: A group of 244 children and adolescents, 111 boys and 133 girls between the ages 6 to 15 was selected. The children were categorised into groups with different psychological problems by their teachers on the Teacher’s Report Form (TRF. Also, the parents and The children completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL and the Youth Self-Report (YSR for the ages 11 to 15 years, respectively. Results: Two-way ANOVAs using gender and age groups as factors showed that there were significant effects of gender in these subscales. Attention problems (p<0.001, delinquent behaviour (p<0.001, aggressive behaviour (p<0.01, externalising (p<0.001 and total problems (p<0.02. Two-way ANOVAs using age-group and gender as factors showed that there were no significant effects of age in the eight subscales of the CBCL; although a trend toward significance was observed for the withdrawn subscale. The interactions between gender and age for all subscales were not significant. Conclusion: The results show that the level of psychological problems in this group is as high as their counterparts in Iran and Achenbach's US normative samples, if not higher. This might result from immigration stressors and the pressure of bilingual education.
Huggett, Charlotte; Birtel, Michèle D; Awenat, Yvonne F; Fleming, Paul; Wilkes, Sophie; Williams, Shirley; Haddock, Gillian
Prior research has examined various components involved in the impact of public and internalized stigma on people with mental health problems. However, studies have not previously investigated the subjective experiences of mental health stigma by those affected in a non-statutory treatment-seeking population. An in-depth qualitative study was conducted using thematic analysis to investigate the experiences of stigma in people with mental health problems. Eligible participants were recruited through a local mental health charity in the North West of England. The topic of stigma was examined using two focus groups of thirteen people with experience of mental health problems and stigma. Two main themes and five subthemes were identified. Participants believed that (1) the 'hierarchy of labels' has a profound cyclical impact on several levels of society: people who experience mental health problems, their friends and family, and institutional stigma. Furthermore, participants suggested (2) ways in which they have developed psychological resilience towards mental health stigma. It is essential to utilize the views and experiences gained in this study to aid understanding and, therefore, develop ways to reduce the negative impact of public and internal stigma. People referred to their mental health diagnosis as a label and associated that label with stigmatizing views. Promote awareness and develop improved strategies (e.g., training) to tackle the cyclical impact of the 'hierarchy of labels' on people with mental health problems, their friends and family, and institutional stigma. Ensure the implementation of clinical guidelines in providing peer support to help people to combat feeling stigmatized. Talking about mental health in psychological therapy or health care professional training helped people to take control and develop psychological resilience. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Dorota E. Ortenburger
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the medical and psychological problems which occurred while diagnosing and treating a 42-year-old woman with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. It presents a description of somatic and emotional symptoms, social problems, and problems in diagnosis and treatment (left lower limb. Based on the described symptoms, it must be stated that there are specific premises to claim that the studied case fulfils the criteria of complex regional pain syndrome. Data concerning the patient’s psycho-emotional state were taken from a semi-structured interview, the degree of intensity of automatic negative thoughts, and psychological manifestations of hyperactivity by deep limbic system, developed by D. Amen. The patient had symptoms from a few categories, including sensation, reduced mobility, and trophic symptoms (skin lesions. Due to the complex nature of the formation of CRPS pain and associated disorders that are difficult to treat, multidisciplinary therapy was recommended.
Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Keating, Xiaofen D; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José
Psychological positive health and health complaints have long been ignored scientifically. Sleep plays a critical role in children and adolescents development. We aimed at studying the association of sleep duration and quality with psychological positive health and health complaints in children and adolescents from southern Spain. A randomly selected two-phase sample of 380 healthy Caucasian children (6-11.9 years) and 304 adolescents (12-17.9 years) participated in the study. Sleep duration (total sleep time), perceived sleep quality (morning tiredness and sleep latency), psychological positive health and health complaints were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children questionnaire. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) reported sleep time for children and adolescents was 9.6 (0.6) and 8.8 (0.6) h/day, respectively. Sleep time ≥10 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of reporting no health complaints (OR 2.3; P = 0.005) in children, whereas sleep time ≥9 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of overall psychological positive health and no health complaints indicators (OR ~ 2; all P adolescents. Reporting better sleep quality was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting excellent psychological positive health (ORs between 1.5 and 2.6; all P adolescents with no difficulty falling asleep were more likely to report no health complaints (OR ~ 3.5; all P sleep duration and poor perceived quality of sleep might directly impact quality of life in children, decreasing general levels of psychological positive health and increasing the frequency of having health complaints.
Ehmsen, Boje Kvorning; Biswas, Dan; Jensen, Natasja Koitszch
INTRODUCTION: In 2008, 1.9-3.8 million undocumented migrants lived in Europe. We aimed to strengthen the evidence base on undocumented migrants' health problems by describing characteristics of undocumented migrant patients in a Danish non-governmental organisation (NGO) health clinic. MATERIAL...... on the International Classification of Primary Care, 2nd Edition (ICPC-2). RESULTS: A total of 830 patients (39.75% women and 60.25% men) visited the clinic, which led to a total of 2,088 visits and 1,384 ICPC-2 classifications. The patients seen had 94 different nationalities. The most common reasons for medical...
Feizi, Awat; Najmi, Badroddin; Salesi, Aseih; Chorami, Maryam; Hoveidafar, Rezvan
Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin's parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05). The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01). A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05); also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05) Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management PMID:24778669
Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05. The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01. A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05; also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05 Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management
Grealish, Annmarie; Tai, Sara; Hunter, Andrew; Emsley, Richard; Murrells, Trevor; Morrison, Anthony P
There is consensus that empowerment is key to recovery from mental health problems, enabling a person to take charge of their life and make informed choices and decisions about their life. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which empowerment affects mental health in young people. The current study involved young people aged 16-29 years and examined empowerment as a potential mediator of the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, cognition, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from personal problems. A cross-sectional, Internet-based questionnaire study recruited 423 young people aged between 16 and 29 attending universities in England (n = 336) and Ireland (n = 87). Psychological factors, mental well-being, empowerment, and recovery from personal problems were measured using self-report measures. Mediation analysis in both the single and one over-arching mediator models revealed that empowerment mediates the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, self-efficacy, thinking style, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from general life problems. This study demonstrates the importance of empowerment, showing that it mediates the relationship between psychological processes and mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people. Clinical implications for working with young people within mental health services, and facilitating their empowerment are discussed. Empowerment is currently a poorly defined concept. This study demonstrates how empowerment mediates the relationship between psychological processes and mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people. Clinicians working with young people might benefit from a structured means of understanding and assessing the different ways in which individuals manage their thinking styles. Empowerment in young people is influenced by the manner in which clinicians facilitate them in establishing social
Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Morse, Laura; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine
The Internet provides a new means of obtaining psychological health care, but Internet site quality varies widely. To help in the search for reliable information in cyberspace, a ratings scale, which assesses six dimensions of site quality (accuracy, practicality, normalization, sense of belonging, referral, and feedback mechanisms) is offered…
Sumner, Kenneth E.; Lampmann, Jodi L.
This article describes a project to reinforce learning in an undergraduate health psychology seminar. The project required students to (a) profile the physical and mental health status of at least 15 family members, (b) identify trends or patterns related to health and illness in their families, and (c) develop an action plan for maintaining good…
Sargent, Kelli S; Krauss, Alison; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee
Both cyber victimization and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) have been associated with negative mental health outcomes among adolescents and young adults. The present study examined relations among cyber victimization, psychological IPV, and mental health outcomes (depressive symptoms, antisocial behavior) among first-year college students. Consistent with polyvictimization theory, we hypothesized that cyber victimization and psychological IPV would be related to each other. We also hypothesized that each would uniquely contribute to depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior, after accounting for the other. Participants (N = 342, M age = 18.33 years; 50% male) completed questionnaires during a single lab visit. Results indicated that cyber victimization and psychological IPV were related to each other, and both contributed uniquely to depressive symptoms, but only cyber victimization contributed uniquely to antisocial behavior. Exploratory analyses indicated that experiencing both cyber victimization and psychological IPV was necessary for increased depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior. This study is the first to establish a unique relation between cyber victimization and mental health problems, after accounting for psychological IPV. The findings also suggest a need to consider multiple forms of victimization when considering relations between specific types of victimization and mental health problems.
Full Text Available In 90-ies years of last century in our country happened the crash of the system of values with transition to the standards of capitalistic society, and it lead to the formation of chronicle psychosocial stress of high and medium levels. Medics of all directions started to face functional psychosomatic diseases. Raised the necessity in grounding of health manpower in discipline of clinical psychology, with the learning of psychophisiological bases of diseases and possibilities if their correction. This direction of development of soviet medical education and health service in general seems progressive and prospective.
Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
BACKGROUND: Improvement of mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important success criterion for bariatric surgery. In general, mental health and HRQOL improve after surgery, but some patients experience negative psychological reactions postoperatively and the influence...... investigating psychological predictors of either mental health or HRQOL after bariatric surgery. Original prospective studies published between 2003 and 2012 with a sample size >30 and a minimum of 1 year follow-up were included. RESULTS: Only 10 eligible studies were identified. The findings suggest......, psychiatric symptoms that persist after surgery and inappropriate eating behaviour postoperatively are likely to contribute to poor health-related quality of life outcome. CONCLUSION: Certain psychological factors appear to be important for mental health and HRQOL after bariatric surgery. However...
Full Text Available There are many health and safety risks in occupational environment. These are causing occupational diseases and accidents that can directly affect individual’s health. One of the hazardous occupational places is health service area. Health workers are experienced with biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic and psycho-social risks in health service areas, especially in hospitals. Many researches from our country inform that these problems reached serious levels in last years and caused difficulties on performing professional efficiencies of workers. Additionally, these researches denote the requirements of contemporary work health practices for providing healthy and safety work environment for health workers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 373-382
Ma, Nylanda; Furber, Gareth; Roberts, Rachel; Winefield, Helen
Siblings of children with mental health problems (MHPs) have been found to have higher rates of psychopathology and impaired psychosocial functioning compared to control children. It is not yet known how these siblings are managed within the clinical service context (e.g., are they assessed for mental health problems? Do they receive appropriate psychological treatment?). The following brief report describes a pilot study which aimed to explore (a) the rate of caregiver-identified MHPs in siblings and (b) the proportion of siblings receiving psychiatric or psychosocial treatment or support (i.e., treatment utilisation). Eighty-five caregivers of children receiving treatment at CAMHS were interviewed about the mental health and treatment utilisation of their siblings. The findings revealed a high rate of caregiver-identified MHPs in siblings (34.1%) and a high rate of treatment utilisation (85.7%). The findings suggest that, for the vast majority, when siblings of children with MHPs are identified by their caregivers as having MHPs, they are receiving some kind of support and treatment. Implications for mental health service costs are discussed and recommendations for future research are outlined.
Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O
OBJECTIVES: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. DESIGN: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy....../borderline (TDS 16). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression to relate the presence of psychological symptoms to child and family characteristics. RESULTS: About a quarter of the children had TDS > 16 indicating significant psychological symptoms, most...... commonly in the domain Peer Problems. Better gross motor function, poorer intellect, more pain, having a disabled or ill sibling and living in a town were independently associated with TDS > 16. The risk of TDS > 16 was odds ratio (OR) = .2 (95% CI: .1 to .3) comparing children with the most and least...
Uraz, Ahu; Tocak, Yasemin Sezgin; Yozgatligil, Ceylan; Cetiner, Sedat; Bal, Belgin
This study investigated the psychological well-being and overall health of a group of Turkish dental students and their sources of stress. Two hundred and seventy-seven students (57 percent female) from Gazi University Dental Faculty completed the Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire, the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index, and the SF-36 Health Survey. The results showed that the DES scores increased over the five-year period. Pressure to perform, faculty and administration, workload, and students' perceptions of their self-efficacy were the most stress-provoking factors. Students whose first choice was dentistry experienced less stress and fewer health problems (pstudents whose first choice had not been dentistry. Psychological well-being and overall health were significantly associated with year of study. Statistically significant gender differences were observed on depressed mood and anxiety dimension scores of PGWB. Female students experienced greater stress than males, while male students had better overall health than females (pStudents who lived with their parents had lower PGWB scores (pstress among these Turkish dental students was influenced by gender, year of study, social background, and lifestyle. Based on the results of this study, recommendations can be made for changes in the dental education system in order to reduce stress among dental students especially during the last two years of study.
Penner, Louis A; Blair, Irene V; Albrecht, Terrance L; Dovidio, John F
Large health disparities persist between Black and White Americans. The social psychology of intergroup relations suggests some solutions to health care disparities due to racial bias. Three paths can lead from racial bias to poorer health among Black Americans. First is the already well-documented physical and psychological toll of being a target of persistent discrimination. Second, implicit bias can affect physicians' perceptions and decisions, creating racial disparities in medical treatments, although evidence is mixed. The third path describes a less direct route: Physicians' implicit racial bias negatively affects communication and the patient-provider relationship, resulting in racial disparities in the outcomes of medical interactions. Strong evidence shows that physician implicit bias negatively affects Black patients' reactions to medical interactions, and there is good circumstantial evidence that these reactions affect health outcomes of the interactions. Solutions focused on the physician, the patient, and the health care delivery system; all agree that trying to ignore patients' race or to change physicians' implicit racial attitudes will not be effective and may actually be counterproductive. Instead, solutions can minimize the impact of racial bias on medical decisions and on patient-provider relationships.
Full Text Available The main research problems and tasks of a new scientific field in Russia—the psychology of professional health — are formulated. A definition of professional health as the abilities of a person successfully to cope with the demands and requirements in a professional environment is offered. A psychological vision for professional health with four basic provisions is proposed. The aim of the research was to study the extent of the influence on the professional health of managers of such psychological factors as systems of values, stress in professional activity, individual and psychological features, strategies for overcoming stressful situations. Data are provided from research conducted in 2002-2012 on managers in Russian companies. Taking part in the research were 651 managers of various organizations in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Veliky Novgorod, and Kharkov. For collecting empirical material on methods of supervision, I used polls, tests, interviews, content analysis, self-reports of participants in training programs, and a method for forming the experiment. In addition I employed psychodiagnostic techniques intended for studying the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of health, a technique for revealing the personal potentials (regulatory, communicative, intellectual of the managers, and also my own techniques. The study positively correlated health with such values as having interesting work, having a happy family life, being financially secure, having an active life, and giving and receiving love. Connections between the behavioral manifestations of type A behavior and the managers’ values were revealed. The greatest negative impact on the managers was made by such factors of professional activity as an excessive workload, emotional pressure at work, difficulty in carrying out activity, and insufficient time. Health is important in the structure of the professional activity of managers; it acts as a strategic
Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha; Feng, Xin
This study examined the effects of a family systems therapy (Ecologically-Based Family Therapy [EBFT]) on the co-occurring trajectory of mothers' substance use and psychological control, and its association with children's problem behaviors. Participants included 183 mothers with a substance use disorder who had at least one biological child in their care. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention conditions: EBFT-home, n = 62; EBFT-office, n = 61; or Women's Health Education, n = 60. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-baseline. A dual-trajectory class growth analysis identified three groups of mothers in regard to their change trajectories. The majority of the mothers exhibited a synchronous decrease in substance use and psychological control (n = 107). In all, 46 mothers exhibited a synchronous increase in substance use and psychological control. For the remaining 30 mothers, substance use and psychological control remained stable. Mothers in the family therapy condition were more likely to show reduced substance use and psychological control compared to mothers in the control condition. Moreover, children with mothers who showed decreased substance use and psychological control exhibited lower levels of problem behaviors compared to children with mothers showing increased substance use and psychological control. The findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of family systems therapy, EBFT, in treating mothers' substance use, improving parenting behaviors, and subsequently improving child behavioral outcomes. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Petrov V. E.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the problems of the organizational providing of psychological work in divisions of the state traffic Inspectorate. Detailed the range of tasks that need to be implemented to psychologists, and specifics of the state traffic Inspectorate. The features of carrying out of activities of professional psychological selection of candidates for service, psychological training, prevention and other support activities. Potentially conflicting interaction of inspectors of traffic police with the participants of traffic, the inability to predict traffic situations and the psycho drivers necessitate treatment to psychological knowledge and the application of the constant efforts of specialists-psychologists. It is shown that the replacement of tenured psychologists psychologists state traffic Inspectorate of the territorial body of internal Affairs will not amount to nor the volume of work nor its quality. Psychological work with the personnel of the state traffic Inspectorate should only be carried out by psychologists of this unit. Eventually psychologist in the state traffic Inspectorate has expressed prospects and can not be replaced by the activities of other specialists.
Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina
According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)-hypothesis, conditions early in life may have life-long consequences. In a series of epidemiological birth cohort and clinical studies and natural experiments, we have had the chance to test the extent to which this hypothesis is useful in understanding individual differences in psychological development and mental health. Our findings have provided evidence that individual differences in cognitive, social and emotional development and in mental health may lie in early life circumstances, and add significantly to the literature by pointing out which periods of early growth are the most critical. These findings are also important in translating pre-clinical evidence to humans. What remains less clear, however, is what the mechanisms of programming are. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms before information on the early life origins of health and disease can be used in designing prevention and intervention programs.
Maria de las Mercedes Pretel Olite
Full Text Available Alcoholism is a complex biopsychosocial disorder that requires a specialised and multidisciplinary approach focusing on both the patient and the family. Alcohol consumption is the most important addiction worldwide due to its prevalence and impact. Therefore, the main objective of a primary care physician should be to facilitate the referral of patients and their families to a structured treatment, support and guidance program during the whole detoxification process. In every health area in Cienfuegos, there are community mental health centers with a staff trained to deal with these disorders in addicts and their family. A literature review was conducted to establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and its harmful effects on health, family and society, using an approach based on Health Psychology.
ter Hark, Michel
Otto Selz has been hailed as one of the most important precursors of the cognitive revolution, yet surprisingly few studies of his work exist. He is often mentioned in the context of the Würzburg School of the psychology of thinking and sometimes in the context of Gestalt psychology. In this paper, it is argued that Selz's emphasis on the role of problems and schemas in the direction of thought processes and creativity sets him apart from the program of the Würzburg School. On the other hand, by developing a theory of thinking that is exclusively at the intentional level, Selz also differs from psychologists that take physics as a model for psychology, such as the Gestalt psychology of Wolfgang Kihler. Special emphasis is given in this paper to Selz's use of the concept of problem or task and the concept of the schema. It is further argued that the concept of the schema is the result of Selz's adaptation of the theory of relations as developed by the philosopher Meinong. The paper begins with a sketch of Selz's life that ended so tragically.
Full Text Available For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers’ productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research. Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states—emotions and moods—deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1 providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2 introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3 raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a
Graziotin, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka
For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers' productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states-emotions and moods-deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint.
Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Andersson, G.
Cognitive-behavioral interventions are the most extensively researched form of psychological treatment and are increasingly offered through the Internet. Internet-based interventions may save therapist time, reduce waiting-lists, cut traveling time, and reach populations with health problems who can
Full Text Available The magnitude and impact of mental disorders does not correspond to the resources devoted to research and attention. Although we have made significant progress in their understanding and the efficacy of the psychological treatments, we are still far from an optimal situation. This paper focuses on one of the major issues which we consider fundamental challenges and needs in this area, the increase in research focusing on psychopathology, especially on the mechanisms and processes that explain and maintain mental disorders, as a key point for the design and development of new psychological interventions for the prevention, treatment, and promotion of mental health. The aim is to promote discussion among all stakeholders and debate on those lines we think as a priority.
Bista Archana, Joshi Sarala
Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, number of old age population is increasing with advancement of biomedical technology. Old age is the time associated with biological, psychological and social changes which situate elderly to acquire different health related problems. Objectives: To find out lived experiences of elderly regarding their health problems residing in homes of Kathmandu city. Methods: Qualitative hermeneutic phenomenology approach was adopted. Researcher selected purposively four elderly residing in an urban area of Kathmandu Valley as the study participants. In-depth interview was conducted by using in-depth interview guideline, as well as medical records, field notes and observation clues were recorded. Interview was conducted in Nepali Language and was audio taped. The recording was transcribed by the researcher herself, and the data were analyzed thematically. Finally, different sources of data were triangulated. Results: The four main themes identified were physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, psychological and social problems. Experienced physical health problems were joint pain, hearing and vision deficit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, gastritis and fall injury. Impaired Functional abilities in performing activities of daily living was commonly experienced problems. Loneliness and decreased recent memory power were the psychological problems. Being neglected by family members, financial constraints for treatment and improper care during illness were the discerned social problems. Conclusion: Elderly are suffering from different physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, as well as various psycho-social problems. Thus, health promotional activities need to be promoted for decreasing morbidity of elderly. Family members need to be focused in the care of elderly through national policy.
Dowling, N A; Brown, M
The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.
Kuittinen, Saija; Mölsä, Mulki; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Tiilikainen, Marja; Honkasalo, Marja-Liisa
Causal attributions of mental health problems play a crucial role in shaping and differentiating illness experience in different sociocultural and ethnic groups. The aims of this study were (a) to analyze older Somali refugees' causal attributions of mental health problems; (b) to examine the associations between demographic and diagnostic characteristics, proxy indicators of acculturation, and causal attributions; and (c) to analyze the connections between causal attributions and the manifestation of somatic-affective and cognitive depressive symptoms. A sample of 128 Somali refugees aged 50-80 years living in Finland were asked to list the top three causes of mental health problems. Depressive symptoms were analyzed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The results showed that the most commonly endorsed causal attributions of mental health problems were jinn, jealousy related to polygamous relationships, and various life problems. We identified five attribution categories: (a) somatic, (b) interpersonal, (c) psychological, (d) life experiences, and (e) religious causes. The most common causal attribution categories were life experiences and interpersonal causes of mental health problems. Men tended to attribute mental health problems to somatic and psychological causes, and women to interpersonal and religious causes. Age and proxy indicators of acculturation were not associated with causal attributions. Participants with a psychiatric diagnosis and/or treatment history reported more somatic and psychological attributions than other participants. Finally, those who attributed mental health problems to life experiences (e.g., war) reported marginally fewer cognitive depressive symptoms (e.g., guilt) than those who did not. The results are discussed in relation to biomedical models of mental health, service use, immigration experiences, and culturally relevant patterns of symptom manifestation.
Horick, Nora K; Manful, Adoma; Lowery, Jan; Domchek, Susan; Moorman, Patricia; Griffin, Constance; Visvanathan, Kala; Isaacs, Claudine; Kinney, Anita Y; Finkelstein, Dianne M
Registries provide a unique tool for tracking quality of life in rare cancer survivors, whose survivorship experience is less known than for common cancers. This paper reports on these outcomes in 321 patients enrolled in the Rare Cancer Genetics Registry diagnosed with rare gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, head/neck, or hematologic cancers. Four outcomes were assessed, reflecting registrants' self-reported physical and mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness. Combining all patients into a single analysis, regression was used to evaluate the association between outcomes and socio-demographic and clinical factors. Median time since diagnosis was 3 years (range 0-9); 69 % were no longer in treatment. Poorer physical health was reported in registrants who were older at diagnosis, unmarried, and still in treatment. Poorer mental status was associated with younger diagnosis age and unmarried status. Psychological distress varied by cancer type and was higher among currently treated and unmarried registrants. Greater loneliness was reported in registrants with gynecological cancers, and those who were less educated or unmarried. The physical and mental health profile of rare cancer survivors is similar to what is reported for common cancers. Unmarried participants reported poorer outcomes on all measures of quality of life. Furthermore, physical and mental health were not significantly different by cancer type after adjustment for diagnosis age, whether currently in treatment and marital status. Thus, the combined analysis performed here is a useful way to analyze outcomes in less common diseases. Our findings could be valuable in guiding evaluation and intervention for issues impacting quality of life. Rare cancer survivors, particularly those without spousal support, should be monitored for challenges to the physical as well as psychological aspects of quality of life.
Full Text Available Psychological perspective determines how people will intervene into problems, issue, cases and define their reasoning. It became more essential to study the psychological perspectives of medical students because they have to deal with human beings. In learning process, a teacher takes part in the learning process as a role model and becomes the greatest source of inspiration. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychological viewpoints of teachers on Health and Rehabilitation Sciences College students’ viewpoints. Method: Study was conducted during Sep 2016-Jan 2017, into two-time point intervention. The sample of this study comprised of (n=143 students and (n=8 teachers of college of health and rehabilitation sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University. Measures included were sociodemographic information data sheet and psychological view point scale. Results: Indicated that scores of students enrolled within traditional lecture based programs were significantly correlated (p<0.05 with behavioural perspective. In contrast, students’ score of PBL based programs were correlated (p<0.05 with psychoanalytical perspective. Teachers of both programs scored high on behavioural and psychoanalysis and it increased average scores of students at the end of semester. Conclusion: The methods used for teaching and teaching teachers both can influence the students point of view.
Many countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean offer substantial tax breaks to foreign corporations that set up shops in free-trade zones and waive environmental regulations and repress trade unions to further induce this practice. Workers in these shops--mainly women--perform repetitive machine-based motions, are exposed to toxic chemicals and unsafe equipment, and face dangerously high production quotas. Health problems caused by these working conditions include headache and dizziness, fatigue, anemia, forgetfulness, stomach pains, respiratory problems, hypertension, heart disease, and allergies. Water and air pollution and dumping of hazardous waste affect the health of entire communities. Since free-trade zones are a permanent feature of the global economy, organizing to protect workers and communities assumes critical importance. Groups such as the Border Committee of Women Workers in Mexico are providing workers with skills and support to make demands such as better treatment of pregnant workers. International labor, environmental, and public health advocates can support such efforts by providing assistance to worker-controlled organizations and pressuring governments to enforce laws intended to protect workers and their communities.
The literature review and focus group findings that compose the Major Contribution illustrate how counseling psychologists can integrate expertise from various subdisciplines (vocational psychology, health psychology, multicultural psychology) to effectively address the needs of those living with HIV. Given changes in the nature of health problems…
Brimstone, Renee; Thistlethwaite, Jill E; Quirk, Frances
Doctors are often reluctant to seek health care through the usual channels and tend to self-diagnose and prescribe. Medical students learn attitudes and values from clinician role models and may also adopt behaviour patterns that lead them to seek help for physical and mental health problems from informal sources. This study aimed to explore the behaviour of students in seeking health care for physical and mental health problems, comparing medical with psychology students, and to understand what barriers to conventional routes of seeking health care may affect this. We administered a questionnaire asking for demographic details and responses to 2 vignettes in which a student from the respondent's discipline was experiencing firstly symptoms of a mental health problem and secondly symptoms of a physical health problem. Data were analysed with spss and univariate anovas to examine differences between respondents. A total of 172 students at the psychology and medical schools at James Cook University in Australia participated. We identified a number of barriers affecting student behaviour in seeking help, which included worries about knowing the doctor they could consult at the university health centre or having future dealings with him or her, and cost of treatment. There were differences between the 2 groups of students. There are several barriers for both psychology and medical students to accessing appropriate professional mental health care. Medical students also experience barriers to attaining appropriate physical health care when needed. Psychology and medical students were more likely to seek advice informally from friends and/or family with regard to mental health care.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study was conducted to assess the psychological health status of dentists in Shiraz city.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects consisted of 106 dentists and 94 general practitioners (comparison group from private and public clinics in Shiraz city. Subjects were requested to complete the standard general health questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographic variables. The data wereanalyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Chi-Square test and independent sample t-test were used to compare demographic and occupational variables of both groups. The questionnaires were scored and the overall score of each individual determined his/her psychological health status. Means of GHQ scores of both groups werecompared using statistical tests.Results: Both groups were similar in all demographic variables, except for age. The mean total score of GHQ-28 for both dentists (17.9 and physicians (16.34 groups were significantly lower than the cut-off point value of 23(P <0.01. The means of scores for somatic problems, depression, anxiety and insomnia as well as unusual social performance scales were significantly different between both groups (P<0.05. A significant positive association was found between GHQ total score and job tenure.Conclusion: Our findings revealed that psychological health status of dentists was poorer than that of physicians.Additionally, dentists’ scores were significantly different from those of their counterparts in all GHQ sub-scales.
Bhuvaneswari, Mohanraj; Immanuel Selvaraj, Chinnadurai; Selvaraj, Balakrishnan; Srinivasan, Thiruvengadam
Visual impairment tends to evoke more discomfiture than any other disability. Primarily, the biggest issue may be that blindness is visible. Furthermore, visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economic problems. The focus of the current study was to investigate the psychological and psycho physiological problems of visually impaired adolescent students. Purposive sampling was adopted to select 150 visually impaired students (71 males and 72 females) from five schools in Coimbatore city of the Tamil Nadu state, India. Anxiety, frustration, aggression and social and personal adjustment levels of the visually impaired students were measured in this study using Taylor's manifest anxiety scale, frustration test, aggression scale and the adolescent adjustment inventory, respectively. Anxiety (χ(2) = 185.66, P = 0 at P adjustment among visually impaired students. The adjustment score had a significant positive correlation with anxiety (r = 0.919, P = 0 at P adjustment among visually impaired students. Visually impaired students exhibited significant levels of psychological and psycho-physiological problems.
Full Text Available Musicians need to deal with a range of challenges during their performance career and in response to these have reported a number of conditions that impact on their performance. Although social support from peers and teachers has been identified as part of the process of dealing with these challenges, little is understood about musicians' coping methods, beliefs and their attitudes toward support. Therefore, this study aimed to explore (a performers' previous experiences of psychological challenges, (b the types of support they used and, (c how this might inform future support programs in learning environments. Fifteen interviews were conducted with pre-elite (n = 5 transitioning elite (n = 3 and established elite performers (n = 7 in order to elicit data on psychological challenges, coping, beliefs and preferences for support. Inductive content analysis suggested that elite performers in this sample reported positive health habits, philosophical views of performance, health and life, positive anxiety reappraisal, and use of various psychological strategies, albeit without being explicitly aware of it. The need for various professional skills (e.g., communication, business, self-management, and organizational skills was emphasized by all participants. Transition into conservatoire was marked by severe psychological challenges, disorders and trauma. Primary sources of support included friends, family and self-help literature. Professional help was predominantly sought for physical problems. The impact of teachers was paramount, yet securing good teachers was considered a matter of “luck.” The most negative aspects recounted included abusive teachers, unsupportive environments, social comparison, competition, and disillusionment after entering the profession. Participants believed that talent could be developed and also valued wellbeing in relation to performance. Positive effects of late specialization on social development and professional
Full Text Available Objective. The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress, measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results. The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β=0.19, anxiety (β=0.25, depression (β=0.15, and their collective profile score (β=0.20, with greater associations in females (β=0.28 than in males (β=0.13 (all P<0.001. In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems.
Background Public health services implement individual, community and population level interventions to change health behaviours, improve healthy life expectancy and reduce health inequalities. Understanding and changing health behaviour is complex. Integrating behaviour change theory and evidence into interventions has the potential to improve services. Methods Health Psychologists apply evidence and theories aimed at understanding and changing health behaviour. A Scottish programme is piloting the training of Health Psychologists within NHS contexts to address prominent public health challenges. Results This article outlines the details of this novel programme. Two projects are examined to illustrate the potential of partnership working between public health and health psychology. Conclusion In order to develop and improve behaviour change interventions and services, public health planners may want to consider developing and using the knowledge and skills of Health Psychologists. Supporting such training within public health contexts is a promising avenue to build critical NHS internal mass to tackle the major public health challenges ahead. PMID:21070643
Full Text Available Violence has probably always been part of the human experience. Its impact can be seen, in various forms, in all parts of the world. In 1996, WHO:s Forty-Ninth World Health Assembly adopted a resolution, declaring violence a major and growing public health problem around the world. Public health work centers around health promotion and disease prevention activities in the population and public health is an expression of the health status of the population taking into account both the level and the distribution of health. Exposure to violence can have many aspects, differing throughout the life course ― deprivation of autonomy, financial exploitation, psychological and physical neglect or abuse — but all types share common characteristics: the use of destructive force to control others by depriving them of safety, freedom, health and, in too many instances, life; the epidemic proportions of the problem, particularly among vulnerable groups; a devastating impact on individuals, families, neighborhoods, communities, and society. There is considerable evidence that stressful early life events influence a variety of physical and/or psychological health problems later in life. Childhood adversity has been linked to elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from number of chronic diseases. A model outlining potential biobehavioural pathways is put forward that may be a potential explanation of how exposure to violence among both men and women work as an important risk factor for ill health and should receive greater attention in public health work.
In the last few years the so-called «Traffic psychology» became a very popular object of research among foreign scientists.Economical and social development of the modern world and substantial affect of technological devices on human behavior, enhanced interest to the problem of subjects’ interaction in societal and «hand-made» environment. One of the subject matters connected with the study of this interaction is a special interest to the problems of road and traffic environment of a contemp...
Peters, G.-J.Y; Dima, A.; Plass, A.M.; Crutzen, R.; Gibbons, C.; Doyle, F.
A recent debate in Health Psychology Review demonstrated the importance of careful attention to measurement and operationalisation of health psychology constructs (Beauchamp, 2016; Brewer, 2016; de Vries, 2016; Schwarzer & McAuley, 2016; Williams & Rhodes, 2016a, 2016b). This need is met by rapid
Reimann, Mareike; Guzy, Jakob
This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB) on employee mental and physical health (SF-12) using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of ...
Bertini, M; Conti, C M; Fulcheri, M
A common clinical observation is the adverse relationship between stress and human diseases. The attention of scientific research on health has been disproportionately focused on risk factors that predict the onset of certain health outcomes, in particular there has been an increasing interest in the role of inflammation as a common mechanism of disease in a number of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the importance of such research being undisputed, it is necessary to emphasize what the protective factors are that promote psychosocial recovery processes and increased survival rates in a biopsychosocial perspective. This article aims to understand the relationship between psychosocial factors and immune system in the interests of health psychology, highlighting the protective factors that promote recovery, resiliency and resistance to disease.
MacDonald, Elaine E.; Hastings, Richard P.; Fitzsimons, Elaine
Background: Previous research with mothers of children with intellectual disabilities has shown that psychological acceptance is related to maternal psychological well-being. The present research extended this line of enquiry to fathers and explored the potential for psychological acceptance to mediate the impact of children's behaviour problems…
Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen
Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Depaoli, Sarah; Rus, Holly M; Clifton, James P; van de Schoot, Rens; Tiemensma, Jitske
The aim of the current article is to provide a brief introduction to Bayesian statistics within the field of health psychology. Bayesian methods are increasing in prevalence in applied fields, and they have been shown in simulation research to improve the estimation accuracy of structural equation models, latent growth curve (and mixture) models, and hierarchical linear models. Likewise, Bayesian methods can be used with small sample sizes since they do not rely on large sample theory. In this article, we discuss several important components of Bayesian statistics as they relate to health-based inquiries. We discuss the incorporation and impact of prior knowledge into the estimation process and the different components of the analysis that should be reported in an article. We present an example implementing Bayesian estimation in the context of blood pressure changes after participants experienced an acute stressor. We conclude with final thoughts on the implementation of Bayesian statistics in health psychology, including suggestions for reviewing Bayesian manuscripts and grant proposals. We have also included an extensive amount of online supplementary material to complement the content presented here, including Bayesian examples using many different software programmes and an extensive sensitivity analysis examining the impact of priors.
Ojike, Nwakile; Sowers, James R; Seixas, Azizi; Ravenell, Joseph; Rodriguez-Figueroa, G; Awadallah, M; Zizi, F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I
.... We used data from the National Health Interview Survey for 2004-2013. Hypertension was self-reported and the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess psychological distress (a score...
Padilla-Moledo, C; Ruiz, J R; Castro-Piñero, J
Interest on the impact of socioeconomic differences on youth's health is growing. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of parental educational level with psychological positive health and health complaints in Spanish children and adolescents. Parental educational level, psychological positive health indicators (perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships and academic performance) and health complaint index (headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, feeling dizzy) were self-reported using the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire in 685 (366 boys and 319 girls) children and adolescents. Children reporting parents with non-university studies (father, mother or both) had significantly higher odd ratio of having lower academic performance, lower life satisfaction, perceiving their health status as otherwise (vs. excellent) and having health complaints sometime than their counterparts reporting parents with university studies (father, mother or both). Current results provide evidence that children having parents with a university degree (father, mother or both) are more likely to have higher psychological positive health and lower health complaints than children reporting parents with non-university studies. This is particularly important for the welfare policy that must pay attention for implementing programs for helping population to access to university studies by their impact on youth health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Situm, Mirna; Kolić, Maja; Redzepi, Gzim; Antolić, Slavko
Chronic wounds represent a significant burden to patients, health care professionals and the entire health care system. Regarding the healing process, wounds can be classified as acute or chronic wounds. A wound is considered chronic if healing does not occur within the expected period according to the wound etiology and localization. Chronic wounds can be classified as typical and atypical. The majority of wounds (95 percent) are typical ones, which include ischemic, neurotrophic and hypostatic ulcers and two separate entities: diabetic foot and decubital ulcers. Eighty percent of chronic wounds localized on lower leg are the result of chronic venous insufficiency, in 5-10 percent the cause is of arterial etiology, whereas the rest are mostly neuropathic ulcers. Chronic wounds significantly decrease the quality of life of patients by requiring continuous topical treatment, causing immobility and pain in a high percentage of patients. Chronic wounds affect elderly population. Chronic leg ulcers affect 0.6-3 percent of those aged over 60, increasing to over 5 percent of those aged over 80. Emergence of chronic wounds is a substantial socioeconomic problem as 1-2 percent of western population will suffer from it. This estimate is expected to rise due to the increasing proportion of elderly population along with the diabetic and obesity epidemic. It has been proved that chronic wounds account for the large proportion of costs in the health care system, even in rich societies. Socioeconomically, the management of chronic wounds reaches a total of 2-4 percent of the health budget in western countries. Treatment costs for some other diseases are not irrelevant, nor are the method and materials used for treating these wounds. Considering etiologic factors, a chronic wound demands a multidisciplinary approach with great efforts of health care professionals to treat it more efficiently, more simply and more painlessly for the patient, as well as more inexpensively for
In responding to Upton's discourse arguing for reform of undergraduate health profession curricula to maximise the inclusion of health psychology, it is first important to concede the enormity of the task. After all, psychologists are inherently biased towards their subject, quite simply due to their immersion within it which convinces them of its…
Sheeran, Paschal; Bosch, Jos A; Crombez, Geert; Hall, Peter A; Harris, Jennifer L; Papies, Esther K; Wiers, Reinout W
Implicit processes refer to cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that influence health decisions and behavior without the person intending that influence. This special issue aims to increase appreciation of the diverse and promising research on implicit processes in health psychology, and to promote discussion about how this research improves understanding of health behavior change and can be harnessed to meet public health mandates. The articles included in the special issue showcase this diversity and promise, and present not only new findings, but also new theories, new measures, and state-of-the- art summaries of progress. The research demonstrates the added value of considering implicit processes for understanding health behaviors, their interactions with explicit processes and neural mechanisms, as well as the benefits of targeting implicit processes in health behavior interventions. At the same time, however, the papers in this special issue also point to potential boundary conditions, the importance of good measures and appropriate tests of implicit processes, and the challenges involved in assessing implicit processes' causal role in determining health behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Hui, Tang; Liang, Ma
Mental health education is one of the most important tasks in postgraduate education. Professional master, as a graduate of an emerging group, its mental health education cannot be ignored. This paper focuses on the existence of some mental health problems of Chinese full-time professional master, explores and analyzes their causes and finally…
Boot, Walter R; Simons, Daniel J; Stothart, Cary; Stutts, Cassie
To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to "no-contact" controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so. This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission-it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement. Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.
Xu, Wenxin; Ceng, Mengjuan; Yao, Jiwei; Chen, Longfei
Chinese medical workers suffer from a high incidence of mental health problems, resulting in reduced efficiency, increased medical malpractice, rising medical costs, and other issues. The effective alleviation of mental health problems among medical workers is therefore an important focus of research and social attention. The mental health of 842 medical workers from the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University in Fuzhou, China was evaluated between February 2016 and March 2016. Sixty-two workers with positive SCL-90 screening results were selected as the subjects to be investigated in the intervention experiment, with 31 in the intervention group and 31 in the control group. The control group did not participate in any regular physical exercise activity for the 4-month duration of the study, whereas the exercise-psychology adjustment mode was applied to the intervention group. Medical workers had a higher total SCL-90 score and number of positive items than the national norm (P psychology adjustment is an effective intervention mode for the mental health of medical workers.
Xu, Jiuping; He, Yuan
The powerful earthquake of 12 May 2008 wrought incalculable havoc on lives and properties in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province, China. The catastrophic earthquake not only created tremendous changes in the external environment, but also caused stress and difficulties for the people in the affected areas which were felt long after the event. In this study, we attempt to clarify the correlation between coping strategies and psychological well-being among survivors across sex and levels of exposure. A total of 2080 survivors from 19 counties freely participated in the survey which used self-report psychological questionnaires, the Short Form-12, version 2 Scale and Coping Scales. We estimated regression models to identify the coping factors associated with the presence of mental symptoms after the disaster. Four main factors (middle-age, low educational level, low monthly income, and high exposure) were significantly related to poor health. Highly exposed survivors tended to problem-avoidance, fantasy, self-blame and seeking assistance, which was significantly different to those lowly exposed. Women tended to be more vulnerable than men and exhibited problem-avoidance and self-blame. Six coping styles were significant determinants and predicted 64.2% of health. Post-disaster mental health recovery intervention, including early identification, ongoing monitoring, sustained psychosocial support and more mental health services, are required for the high-risk population, especially for women. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.
This study examined mother–adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among these variables during a developmental period when children and parents experience significant psychosocial changes. Three years of self-report data were collected from 168 mother–adolescent dyads, beginning when the adolescents (55.4% girls) were in 6th grade. Models were tested using longitudinal path analysis. Results indicated that the connection between adolescent aggression (and depressive symptoms) and maternal psychological control was best characterized as adolescent-driven, indirect, and mediated by mother–adolescent conflict; there were no indications of parent-driven indirect effects. That is, prior adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms were associated with increased conflict. In turn, conflict was associated with increased psychological control. Within our mediation models, reciprocal direct effects between both problem behaviors and conflict and between conflict and psychological control were also found. Additionally, exploratory analyses regarding the role of adolescent gender as a moderator of variable relations were conducted. These analyses revealed no gender-related patterns of moderation, whether moderated mediation or specific path tests for moderation were considered. This study corroborates prior research finding support for child effects on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. PMID:22612432
Pike, Andrew; Hearn, Leslie; Williams, Amanda C de C
Psychological interventions for chronic pain and its consequences have been shown to improve mood, disability, pain, and catastrophic thinking, but there has been no systematic review specifically of their effects on health care use or time lost from work as treatment outcomes in mixed chronic pain. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies for chronic pain (excluding headache) in adults for these outcomes. We used searches from 2 previous systematic reviews and updated them. Eighteen randomized controlled trials were found that reported health care use (15 studies) and work loss (9 studies) as outcomes. Fourteen studies provided data for meta-analysis. There were moderate effects for psychological interventions compared with active controls, treatment as usual and waiting list controls in reducing health care use, with confidence in the findings. No benefits were found for medication reduction, but with less confidence in this result. Analysis of work loss showed no significant effects of psychological interventions over comparisons, but the use of many different metrics necessitated fragmenting the planned analyses, making summary difficult. The results are encouraging for the potential of routine psychological intervention to reduce posttreatment health care use, with associated cost savings, but it is likely that the range and complexity of problems affecting work necessitate additional intervention over standard group psychological intervention.
Saper, Z; Forest, J J
Information in self-help books is typically presented in one of three formats: didactic information, examples, or practice problems. The present study examined the effects of information format on the solution of personal problems. Four test problems were given to 200 subjects recruited from introductory psychology classes. Each of ten groups received a different type of information immediately prior to solving each test problem. Three of the groups received information in Didactic (D), Example (E), and Practice Problem (P) formats, respectively, while a control group received no information (NI). Six other groups (DD, DE, DP, EE, EP, and PP) received combinations of two sets of information prior to each test problem. The letters that designate each of these groups represent the formats in which the two sets of information were presented. A Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple-range analysis indicated that groups EE, DP, EP, and DE obtained significantly higher scores than NI. Examples were effective as instructional material when presented with other information and when presented in pairs. Practice problems were effective when combined with other types of information but not when presented with other practice problems.
Sylvia, Louisa G; Bui, Eric; Baier, Allison L; Mehta, Darshan H; Denninger, John W; Fricchione, Gregory L; Casey, Aggie; Kagan, Leslee; Park, Elyse R; Simon, Naomi M
Many veterans deployed after 9/11/2001 are impacted by subthreshold levels of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, or other psychological health problems that may interfere with successful reintegration. Conventional treatments, including medication and trauma-focused individual psychotherapies, may not be optimally adapted, accepted, or effective to treat these subsyndromal symptoms. We developed "Resilient Warrior," a 4-session, group-based, mind-body stress-management and resilience program targeted to build skills and assessed whether its format was accessible and acceptable, and potentially efficacious, to support resilience among service members. From April 2014 to October 2014, 15 participants (53.3% women; mean age=36.6 y; SD=6.2) were surveyed for program acceptability and feasibility and completed self-reported psychological health outcomes before and after program participation. The majority (71.4%) of participants reported that the program included the right number of sessions, and all of them reported that it was helpful and relevant and that they would recommend it to others. While changes in self-reported resilience were only marginal, participation was associated with improvements in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, and general sense of self efficacy. These pilot data provide preliminary support that "Resilient Warrior," a group-based, stress reduction and resilience program, may improve psychological health in service members even when delivered in community settings. Randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish efficacy and effectiveness for this program.
Chuang, Shu Ping; Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Wang, Chien Shu; Pan, Li Hsiang
We investigated the associations among health-promoting behaviors, psychological distress, and well-being among community residents. Well-being measurement was examined through health-promoting behaviors and psychological distress. From March 1 to October 31, 2016, a total of 383 community residents were assessed in their health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), psychological distress (K10) and wellbeing (SWLS and PWB). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that interpersonal relations, physical activity, and psychological distress accounted for 21% of the variance in life satisfaction (SWLS). Interpersonal relations, nutrition, stress management, spiritual growth and psychological distress accounted for 53% of the variance in psychological well-being (PWB). Findings may assist mental health professionals in enhancing health-promoting behaviors and reduce the psychological distress of community residents to improve well-being.
Park, Crystal L
Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.
Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, Allard J; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex
This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation was used (N=8411). Using three annual online questionnaires, we assessed the presence of seven chronic health problems, work ability (scale 0-10), and productivity at work (scale 0-10). Three linear regression generalized estimating equations were used. The time-lag model analyzed the relation of health problems with work ability and productivity at work after one year; the autoregressive model adjusted for work ability and productivity in the preceding year; and the third model assessed the relation of incidence and recovery with changes in work ability and productivity at work within the same year. Workers with health problems had lower work ability at one-year follow-up than workers without these health problems, varying from a 2.0% reduction with diabetes mellitus to a 9.5% reduction with psychological health problems relative to the overall mean (time-lag). Work ability of persons with health problems decreased slightly more during one-year follow-up than that of persons without these health problems, ranging from 1.4% with circulatory to 5.9% with psychological health problems (autoregressive). Incidence related to larger decreases in work ability, from 0.6% with diabetes mellitus to 19.0% with psychological health problems, than recovery related to changes in work ability, from a 1.8% decrease with circulatory to an 8.5% increase with psychological health problems (incidence-recovery). Only workers with musculoskeletal and psychological health problems had lower productivity at work at one-year follow-up than workers without those health problems (1.2% and 5.6%, respectively, time-lag). All methodological approaches indicated that chronic
Ployhart, Robert E; Schmitt, Neal; Tippins, Nancy T
This article reviews 100 years of research on recruitment and selection published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Recruitment and selection research has been present in the Journal from the very first issue, where Hall (1917) suggested that the challenge of recruitment and selection was the Supreme Problem facing the field of applied psychology. As this article shows, the various topics related to recruitment and selection have ebbed and flowed over the years in response to business, legal, and societal changes, but this Supreme Problem has captivated the attention of scientist-practitioners for a century. Our review starts by identifying the practical challenges and macro forces that shaped the sciences of recruitment and selection and helped to define the research questions the field has addressed. We then describe the evolution of recruitment and selection research and the ways the resulting scientific advancements have contributed to staffing practices. We conclude with speculations on how recruitment and selection research may proceed in the future. Supplemental material posted online provides additional depth by including a summary of practice challenges and scientific advancements that affected the direction of selection and recruitment research and an outline of seminal articles published in the Journal and corresponding time line. The 100-year anniversary of the Journal of Applied Psychology is very much the celebration of recruitment and selection research, although predictions about the future suggest there is still much exciting work to be done. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Оксана Владимировна Пионтковская
Full Text Available Aim – analysis of the problem of psychological and psychiatrical aspects of impact of cancer disease on child and its parents for detection of the main directions of medical and psychological help to this contingent.Results. In the younger age group the most stress factors that provoke the development of psychogenic fears, anxiety states and the derivative mood disorders are the “hospital routine” – limitation of activity (playing, motor, subjectively heavy procedures and manipulations, pain. In the group of elder children and teenagers the main stress stimulus is connected with a fear of social consequences of disease and the fact of mortally dangerous disease is interpreted in mind as a threat to the successful social functioning as something that spread its negative impact on the future life. Reactively caused mood disorders prevail in this age group over the other psychogenic formations. Behavior reactions in these cases are the secondary ones relating to the mood disorders – to the acceptance or rejection the situation of disease (as an anxious hypochondriacal fixation or as an emotional denial and ignoring the possible grave effects of cancer process.Conclusion. The diversity of problems in child psycho-oncology causes the multilevelness and versatility of medical, psychological and psychosocial help and psycho rehabilitation of children and their parents
Full Text Available Research suggesting the beneficial effects of yoga on myriad aspects of psychological health has proliferated in recent years, yet there is currently no overarching framework by which to understand yoga's potential beneficial effects. Here we provide a theoretical framework and systems-based network model of yoga that focuses on integration of top-down and bottom-up forms of self-regulation. We begin by contextualizing yoga in historical and contemporary settings, and then detail how specific components of yoga practice may affect cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and autonomic output under stress through an emphasis on interoception and bottom-up input, resulting in physical and psychological health. The model describes yoga practice as a comprehensive skillset of synergistic process tools that facilitate bidirectional feedback and integration between high- and low-level brain networks, and afferent and re-afferent input from interoceptive processes (somatosensory, viscerosensory, chemosensory. From a predictive coding perspective we propose a shift to perceptual inference for stress modulation and optimal self-regulation. We describe how the processes that sub-serve self-regulation become more automatized and efficient over time and practice, requiring less effort to initiate when necessary and terminate more rapidly when no longer needed. To support our proposed model, we present the available evidence for yoga affecting self-regulatory pathways, integrating existing constructs from behavior theory and cognitive neuroscience with emerging yoga and meditation research. This paper is intended to guide future basic and clinical research, specifically targeting areas of development in the treatment of stress-mediated psychological disorders.
Full Text Available Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004. Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.
Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB on employee mental and physical health (SF-12 using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of PCB on physical health. Also, the findings of this study show that the relative importance of obligations not met by employers differs according to the specific contents of the psychological contract. In conclusion, the results of this study support the idea that PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that represents a crucial risk to employee health.
Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne
Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.
Full Text Available We discuss the possibilities of solving the key problems of psychology of self-identity (its psychological nature and mechanisms by the means of cultural-historical methodology. Through the category of "culture", the essence of self-development as a process of culture adequate self-transformation is revealed, carried out with the help of specifically human higher mental functions and having the attributes of arbitrariness, sociality, mediation, and awareness. We denoted the line of personal development as a process of cultural production of the means by which a person will change, create, cultivate environment: external and internal. We reveal the mechanism of ontogenetic transition from development to self-development as the history of the transition from the position of culture agent to the creativity and self-creation of the personality. We show the role of the personality as an organizing, managing, directing functional center, providing self-determined nature of self-development.
Larisa Valentinovna Shipova
Full Text Available The review of psychology and pedagogical researches of the mentally retarded children devoted to studying of a problem of emotional development in foreign science and practice is presented in article. Various approaches to an assessment of the importance of violations of the emotional sphere of the personality at mentally retarded children for all mental development of the child are considered, need of the accounting of emotional frustration of mentally retarded children for their education and education, and also social adaptation and integration into sociocultural and educational space is discussed. Research of emotional development of mentally retarded children in the course of training is important for development of programs of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics and correction of emotional violations at this category of school students, formation of their self-control, development of the emotional relations.
"Health psychology" is a newer sub-discipline whose research methodologies, theories, and practices were borrowed from diverse areas of psychology. It appeared later in France than in the United States or United Kingdom., In 1966, I adopted a perspective between anthropology and psycho-sociology of medicine. I never have self-identified as a "Health Psychologist", continuing to work outside of disciplinary boundary constraints, but studied health questions moving first from psychology (and anthropology), through social psychology to sociology. By the 1980s, I adopted an even broader multi-disciplinary approach to health, as the HIV/AIDS epidemic urgently challenedg health researchers/practitioners, in France and worldwide.
Ratcliffe, Denise; Ellison, Nell
Obese individuals frequently experience weight stigma and this is associated with psychological distress and difficulties. The process of external devaluation can lead to negative self-perception and evaluation and some obese individuals develop "internalized weight stigma". The prevalence of weight stigma is well established but there is a lack of information about the interplay between external and internal weight stigma. To synthesize the literature on the psychological effects of weight stigma into a formulation model that addresses the maintenance of internalized weight stigma. Current research on the psychological impact of weight stigma was reviewed. We identify cognitive, behavioural and attentional processes that maintain psychological conditions where self-evaluation plays a central role. A model was developed based on clinical utility. The model focuses on identifying factors that influence and maintain internalized weight stigma. We highlight the impact of negative societal and interpersonal experiences of weight stigma on how individuals view themselves as an obese person. Processing the self as a stigmatized individual is at the core of the model. Maintenance factors include negative self-judgements about the meaning of being an obese individual, attentional and mood shifts, and avoidance and safety behaviours. In addition, eating and weight management behaviours become deregulated and maintain both obesity and weight stigma. As obesity increases, weight stigma and the associated psychological effects are likely to increase. We provide a framework for formulating and intervening with internalized weight stigma as well as making therapists aware of the applicability and transferability of strategies that they may already use with other presenting problems.
Stone, L.L.; Otten, R.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Soenens, B.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Parental psychological control has been linked to symptoms of psychopathology in adolescence, yet less is known about its correlates in childhood. The current study is among the first to address whether psychological control is related to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood.
Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Soenens, Bart; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Parental psychological control has been linked to symptoms of psychopathology in adolescence, yet less is known about its correlates in childhood. The current study is among the first to address whether psychological control is related to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood. A community sample of 298 children aged 7.04…
Nguyen, Amanda J; Feo, Concetta; Idrisov, Kyuri; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Lenglet, Annick; Tsatsaeva, Zalina; Bolton, Paul; Bass, Judith
A decade of conflict in Chechnya destroyed infrastructure and resulted in widespread exposure to violence. Amidst substantial reconstruction, periodic violence has contributed to an ongoing atmosphere of insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the mental health and psychosocial problems affecting adult Chechens in this context to inform development of assessment tools for an evaluation study related to individual counseling. Data were collected in July 2014. A convenience sample of 59 Chechen adults was asked to Free List all problems affecting people in the area. Four problems were explored further in 19 Key Interviewee (KI) interviews, with respondents identified using snowball sampling. Data analysis was conducted in Russian by the Chechen interviewers. Multiple mental health and psychosocial problems emerged, including 'bad psychological health', 'depression', 'stress and nervous people', and 'problems in the family'. Aggression, 'emotional blowing', and 'not adequate' behavior were frequently reported indicators of these problems, with negative effects on the whole family. Chechens reported seeking help through informal social networks, psychiatric and psychological services, and Islamic Centers. Chechens reported mental health and psychosocial problems similar to those experienced in other post-conflict settings. The description of 'emotional blowing' mirrored prior findings in Chechen asylum seekers and fits within a cluster of cultural concepts of distress featuring anger that has been identified in other conflict-affected populations. Further exploration of the nature and prevalence of this construct, as well as evaluations of interventions aimed at reducing these symptoms, is warranted.
Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika; Amazue, Lawrence O; Ekeh, Okechukwu Hope
Although research evidence indicates that loneliness is detrimental to mental health in diverse populations, impact of loneliness on psychological distress of orthopaedic patients' caregivers has been given little research attention. The present study examined the association of loneliness with psychological health, and explored gender differences in the loneliness and psychological health association among orthopaedic patients' caregivers. Participants were 250 patients' caregivers drawn from a national orthopaedic hospital in eastern Nigeria. Data was collected by means of self-report measures translated into the local dialect of the caregivers. Multiple regression results showed that loneliness positively predicted psychological distress in the total sample. Loneliness did not predict psychological distress of male caregivers, but it positively predicted psychological distress of female caregivers. In order to promote orthopaedic patients caregivers' mental health, gender-based differentials in the link between loneliness and psychological distress should be addressed by researchers and healthcare practitioners.
Pâmela Câmpelo Paiva
Full Text Available The user in psychological distress needs a service that provides a targeted assistance, that welcomes when required, acting as originator care device to the user on the network of health care. This study aimed to describe how people in psychological distress are perceived by the community in the voice of the community health worker. It is a qualitative research conducted with eighteen Community Health Agents, a Primary Care Unit Health (UAP located in BE IV, in Fortaleza, Ceará. We used a semi-structured and individual interview. Data processing was due to the content analysis. Ethical and legal aspects on the advice No. 957,595. Through the speeches of ACS, it describes how the community perceives the person in psychic suffering and how it positions itself in the face of your everyday problems, as regards the rejection, prejudice, discrimination ne loss of identity. However it is emphasized that, because of being inserted in the community, the community health worker realizes more accurate way in which this social group is the person in mental distress. The rejection of the person who became ill is seen as a fairly common reaction, accompanied by prejudice and discrimination, marginalizing her from society.
Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao
.... Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored...
Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David
Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies.
Sánchez-Cárdenas, Ana Gabriela; Navarro-Gerrard, Christian; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Halabe-Cherem, José
The magnitude which sleep has on personal well-being is similar to the effects of diet and exercise. Sleep deprivation has severe negative effects on an individual's overall health, and this is usually overseen. From 30 to 40 % of the population has presented insomnia at a certain moment of life and from 9 to 15 % have evolved into a chronic and severe insomnia. Recent investigations have related sleep deprivation with obesity, metabolic disorders, heart disease, mental health problems and dementia. Recently, more investigations have focused on the multiple alterations suffered by the immune system in cases of sleep deprivation. In order to make an opportune diagnosis of insomnia, it is vital to obtain a detailed history of the patients' sleep habits. In the physical exam one must search for signs and symptoms which might suggest an organic cause that generates the patient's insomnia. One of the pillars in treatment of these patients consists in acquiring an adequate sleep hygiene based on the optimization of the environment and the behavior that are associated with sleep.
Bhuvaneswari, Mohanraj; Immanuel Selvaraj, Chinnadurai; Selvaraj, Balakrishnan; Srinivasan, Thiruvengadam
Background: Visual impairment tends to evoke more discomfiture than any other disability. Primarily, the biggest issue may be that blindness is visible. Furthermore, visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economic problems. Objectives: The focus of the current study was to investigate the psychological and psycho physiological problems of visually impaired adolescent students. Patients and Methods: Purposive sampling was adopted to select 150 visually impaired students (71 males and 72 females) from five schools in Coimbatore city of the Tamil Nadu state, India. Anxiety, frustration, aggression and social and personal adjustment levels of the visually impaired students were measured in this study using Taylor’s manifest anxiety scale, frustration test, aggression scale and the adolescent adjustment inventory, respectively. Results: Anxiety (χ2 = 185.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (χ2 = 167.23, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression (χ2 = 57.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01) were significantly related to adjustment among visually impaired students. The adjustment score had a significant positive correlation with anxiety (r = 0.919, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (r = 0.887, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.664, P = 0 at P < 0.01), anxiety was significantly correlated with frustration (r = 0. 961, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.727, P < 0.01) and frustration was significantly correlated with aggression level (r = 0. 637, P = 0 at P < 0.01) of visually impaired adolescents. There was a positive relationship between psycho-physiological disorders and anxiety frustration, aggression and adjustment among visually impaired students. Conclusions: Visually impaired students exhibited significant levels of psychological and psycho-physiological problems. PMID:27284280
Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviours have also been linked with viewing of associated web-content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviours and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The curr...
Gidding, Luc G; Spigt, Mark G; Dinant, Geert-Jan
Recognizing patients with psychological problems can be difficult for general practitioners (GPs). Use of information collected in electronic medical records (EMR) could facilitate recognition. To assess relevant EMR parameters in the decade before patients present with psychological problems. Exploratory case-control study assessing EMR parameters of 58 228 patients recorded between 2013 and 2015 by 54 GPs. We compared EMR parameters recorded before 2014 of patients who presented with psychological problems in 2014 with those who did not. In 2014, 2406 patients presented with psychological problems. Logistic regression analyses indicated that having registrations of the following statistically significant parameters increased the chances of presenting with psychological problems in 2014: prior administration of a depression severity questionnaire (odds ratio (OR): 3.3); fatigue/sleeping (OR: 1.6), neurological (OR: 1.5), rheumatic (OR: 1.5) and substance abuse problems (OR: 1.5); prescriptions of opioids (OR: 1.3), antimigraine preparations (OR: 1.5), antipsychotics (OR: 1.7), anxiolytics (OR: 1.4), hypnotics and sedatives (OR: 1.4), antidepressants (OR: 1.7), and antidementia drugs (OR: 2.1); treatment with minimal interventions (OR: 2.2) and physical exercise (OR: 3.3), referrals to psychology (OR: 1.5), psychiatry (OR: 1.6), and psychosocial care (OR: 2.1); double consultations (OR: 1.2), telephone consultations (OR: 1.1), and home visits (OR: 1.1). This study demonstrates that possible indications of psychological problems can be identified in EMR. Many EMR parameters of patients presenting with psychological problems were different compared with patients who did not.
Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Green, Kerry M.
Parental psychological distress, parental alcohol involvement, and child/adolescent behavior problems frequently occur together with deleterious effects on individuals and families. Extant evidence suggests that parental and child problems are related; however, less is known about the patterns and directions of their relationships over time, particularly among African Americans. This study examined mutual influences between parental psychological distress and alcohol use, and child/adolescent...
Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.
Objective: This study examined associations between profiles of physical and psychological violence in childhood from parents and two dimensions of mental health in adulthood (negative affect and psychological well-being). Profiles were distinguished by the types of violence retrospectively self-reported (only physical, only psychological, or both…
Full Text Available First and foremost, this paper provides a short historical reminder of the emergence of the field of psychology of development of moral reasoning. In the second part of the paper, the author offers a problem-oriented overview of the field, that is, one possible classification of particular groups of problems for empirical research. This overview does not only point out to the problems that were more and that were less studied (e.g.. evaluative moral judgment and reasoning, distinguishing between moral and extra-moral rules and norms and to those that were relatively neglected (i.e. understanding moral situations, but also to the problems that psychologists did not even recognize as research problems. Such are the problems of development of moral concepts, meaning of moral words etc. Finally, the author also points out to the fact that this classification could be taken as one way to define the field, that is, the way to determine the boundaries of its subject of studying.
Bauger, Lars; Bongaardt, Rob
In response to the ever-increasing longevity in Western societies, old age has been divided into two different periods, labelled the third and fourth age. Where the third age, with its onset at retirement, mostly involves positive aspects of growing old, the fourth age involves functional decline and increased morbidity. This article focuses on the entry to the third age and its potential for health promotion initiatives. Well-being is an important factor to emphasize in such health promotion, and this article views the lifestyle of third agers as essential for their well-being. The structural developmental theory of Robert Kegan delineates how a person's way of knowing develops throughout the life course. This theory is an untapped and salient perspective for health promotion initiatives in the third age. This article outlines Kegan's approach as a tool for developing psychologically spacious health promotion, and suggests future directions for research on the topic. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Nojopranoto, Widyasita
Marital separation and divorce are associated with increased risk for early death, and the magnitude of this association rivals that of many well-established public health factors. In the case of divorce, however, the mechanisms explaining precisely why and how some people are at risk for early death remain unclear. This paper reviews what is known about the association between divorce and risk for all-cause mortality, then discusses four emerging themes in this area of research: the biological intermediaries linking divorce to pathophysiology and disease onset, moving beyond the statistical mean, focusing research on the diathesis-stress model, and studying how opportunity foreclosures may place people on a trajectory toward poor distal health outcomes. These ideas are grounded in a set of public lay commentaries about the association between divorce and death; in this way, the paper seeks to integrate current research ideas with how the general public thinks about divorce and its correlates. Although this paper focuses on divorce, many of the emerging themes are applicable to the study of psychosocial stress and health more generally. Therefore, the study of divorce and death provides a good case study for health psychology and considers new questions that can be pursued in a variety of research areas. PMID:23284588
Y. V. Zheleznyakova
The analysis of the research ?ndings of the contemporary Russian and Ukrainian authors shows that there is no consensus in interpreting the nature of loneliness, its origin, speci?c aspects of manifestation in the publications of foreign and native scholars. This allows to outline the problem ?eld of the investigation of loneliness as a social and psychological phenomenon. A teenager acquires social experience in the course of establishing various social relations. The devel...
Sbarra, David A; Law, Rita W; Portley, Robert M
Divorce is a relatively common stressful life event that is purported to increase risk for all-cause mortality. One problem in the literature on divorce and health is that it is fragmented and spread across many disciplines; most prospective studies of mortality are based in epidemiology and sociology, whereas most mechanistic studies are based in psychology. This review integrates research on divorce and death via meta-analysis and outlines a research agenda for better understanding the potential mechanisms linking marital dissolution and risk for all-cause mortality. Random effects meta-analysis with a sample of 32 prospective studies (involving more than 6.5 million people, 160,000 deaths, and over 755,000 divorces in 11 different countries) revealed a significant increase in risk for early death among separated/divorced adults in comparison to their married counterparts. Men and younger adults evidenced significantly greater risk for early death following marital separation/divorce than did women and older adults. Quantification of the overall effect size linking marital separation/divorce to risk for early death reveals a number of important research questions, and this article discusses what remains to be learned about four plausible mechanisms of action: social selection, resource disruptions, changes in health behaviors, and chronic psychological distress. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Hamilton, H A
Previous research has suggested an association between the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and mental health problems such as psychological distress, suicidal ideation and attempts in adolescents. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. The present study examined the link between the use of social networking sites and psychological distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and tested the mediating role of cyberbullying victimization on these associations in adolescents. The sample consisted of a group of 11-to-20-year-old individuals (n=5126, 48% females; mean±SD age: 15.2±1.9 years) who completed the mental health portion of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) in 2013. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to test the mediation models. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, subjective socioeconomic status (SES), and parental education, use of SNSs was associated with psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval=2.03, 1.22-3.37), suicidal ideation (3.44, 1.54-7.66) and attempts (5.10, 1.45-17.88). Cyberbullying victimization was found to fully mediate the relationships between the use of SNSs with psychological distress and attempts; whereas, it partially mediated the link between the use of SNSs and suicidal ideation. Findings provide supporting evidence that addressing cyberbullying victimization and the use of SNSs among adolescents may help reduce the risk of mental health problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Provides an overview of meaningful moments of discussion that took place at the round table "Patristic psychology – the basis of self-Orthodox civilization" – the scientific and practical measures aimed at deepening the discussion of the methodological foundations of the analysis of the psychological aspects of the patristic heritage as an important factor in the formation of moral-oriented tendencies of modern psychology and teaching practice, jointly prepared by the staff of the Psychological Institute of RAO and the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education
Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; King, Jessica; Ragan, Kathleen; Buchanan Lunsford, Natasha
Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults. Mental health problems were associated with white race; less than a high school education; lower income; being out of work or unable to work; being uninsured (for men only); poor health; previous diagnosis of asthma, skin cancer, or diabetes; and not having a recent checkup. After controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status, mental health problems among young adults were associated with smoking, binge drinking, inadequate sleep, having no leisure time physical activity, and being overweight or obese (among women only). Cervical cancer screening was not associated with mental health problems after controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status. Mental health problems in young adulthood were associated with potentially modifiable factors and behaviors that increase risk for cancer. Efforts to prevent cancer and promote health must attend to mental health disparities to meet the needs of young adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.
reflected in their health status. Objective: To determine health problems encountered and associated factors; problems of access to health care and ..... According to the FGD, some of CWDs were homeless and passed nights outside under ..... women's self-reported reproductive health after spinal cord injury," Archives of ...
Van Droogenbroeck, Filip; Spruyt, Bram; Keppens, Gil
To investigate how social support relates to mental health problems for Belgian late adolescents and young adults 15-25 years of age. Additionally, we examine changes in mental health problems between 2008 and 2013 and investigate gender differences. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to investigate (1) psychological distress, (2) anxiety and (3) depression among 713 boys and 720 girls taken from two successive waves (2008 and 2013) of a representative sample of the Belgian population (Belgian Health Interview survey). Psychological distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, anxiety and depression by the Symptom Check-List-90-Revised. Gender differences were found for psychological distress, anxiety and depression with girls reporting significantly higher scores than boys. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that adolescents who are dissatisfied with their social contacts and experience poor social support reported more psychological distress, anxiety and depression. In addition, young adult boys (20-25 years of age) were more likely to experience psychological distress when compared to late adolescent boys (15-19 years of age). Finally, the prevalence of anxiety and depression increased substantially between 2008 and 2013 for girls and to a lesser extent for boys. Especially girls and young people with poor social support experience mental health problems more frequently than boys and those with strong social support. Improving social support among young people may serve as a protective buffer to mental health problems.
Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R
The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.
Tahmineh Dadkhah Tehrani; Nafiseh Habibian; Reza Ahmadi
Background and Objectives: Nurses are the most important group who provide health system services. They may face with various stresses related to their job that may cause physiological problems. Many factors can influence their psychological health. With this in mind, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between religious attitude with psychological well-being in nurses working in Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: The data were collected by means of three questionnai...
Kölch, Michael; Nolkemper, Daria
School Attendance of Children with Mental Health Problems School can support a child's resilience as well as be a risk to the child's mental health. However school is an indicator of social participation, an aspect that flourished especially in the debate about inclusion. In this paper assistance opportunities are being discussed that are established to support children with a psychological disease in school. Three of the different concepts of funding priorities for special educational needs in the German system will be presented: "Förderschwerpunkt emotionale und soziale Entwicklung" (special needs in emotional and social development), "besonderer Förderbedarf "(special needs) and "Schulbegleitung" (school assistants). Also, the conditions for students of schools in hospitals and clinics will be analyzed and the reintegration process back to home school will be considered. It becomes unequivocal that there is little data about special assistance opportunities and that law structures in the federal states of Germany differ from each other and are partly unclear. The involvement of the three systems school, child and youth welfare service and child and youth psychiatry demands solid structures of communication and cooperation and a common continuous work across systems' borders during the child's school years.
Slobodchikov, Viktor Ivanovich
This article deals with the place of Christian psychology in the system of psychological knowledge. The author points to the need to distinguish between the two systems of knowledge: the psychology of the mind and the psychology of the person. The psychology of the mind is the science devoted to the process of the formation of a particular mental…
Conclusions: We recommend the provision of screening programs and health education programs, including dietary programs and physical and exercise programs, by the occupational health nursing (OHN program, to prevent and reduce health problems in the agricultural sector.
Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; McGuire, Lynanne; Robles, Theodore F; Glaser, Ronald
This review focuses on human psychoneuroimmunology studies published in the past decade. Issues discussed include the routes through which psychological factors influence immune function, how a stressor's duration may influence the changes observed, individual difference variables, the ability of interventions to modulate immune function, and the health consequences of psychosocially mediated immune dysregulation. The importance of negative affect and supportive personal relationships are highlighted. Recent data suggest that immune dysregulation may be one core mechanism for a spectrum of conditions associated with aging, including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, arthritis, Type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and frailty and functional decline; production of proinflammatory cytokines that influence these and other conditions can be stimulated directly by negative emotions and indirectly by prolonged infection.
Korporaal, Marga; Broese van Groenou, Marjolein I; van Tilburg, Theo G
Older couples are likely to be confronted with health problems of both spouses and these health problems may negatively influence their marital satisfaction. The present study examined these possible negative effects using a dyadic perspective. Data from 78 independently living older couples were analyzed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). Health problems were modeled as a latent factor of functional disability, the number of chronic diseases, and self-rated health. The couple's health context, that is, similarity or dissimilarity, was examined with an actor-partner interaction variable. For wives, spousal health problems were negatively associated with their marital satisfaction, but only under the condition that their own health was relatively good. For husbands, neither own nor spousal health problems were associated with their marital satisfaction. Future research focusing on older couples needs to consider the couple's health context next to health at the individual level.
Full Text Available Psychological reactions, risk health behavior and cardiac parameters can influence rehospitalization after acute myocardial infarction.The aim of the paper was to determine the presence of psychological reactions and risk health behavior in patients with acute myocardial infarction on admission as well as the differences after six months.The research included thirty-trhee patients of both sexes, who were consecutively hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction. A prospective clinical investigation involved the following: semi-structured interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I for pcychiatric disorders, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI for measuring the severity of anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for measuring the severity of depression, KON-6 sigma test for aggression, Holms-Rahe Scale (H-R for exposure to stressful events, and Health Behavior Questionnaire: alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, lack of physical activity. Measurement of the same parameters was done on admission and after six months. The differences were assessed using the t-test and chi-square test for p<0.05.On admission, anxiety (BAI=8.15±4.37 and depression (BDI=8.67±3.94 were mild without significant difference after six months in the group of examinees. Aggression was elevated and significantly lowered after six monts (KON-6 sigma =53,26±9, 58:41,42±7.67, t=2,13 for p<0.05. Exposure to stressful events in this period decreased (H-R=113.19±67.37:91,65±63,81, t=3,14 for p<0.05; distribution of physical activity was significantly higher compared to admission values (54.83%: 84.84%. χ2=5.07 for p<0.01.In the group of examinees with acute myocardial infarction in the period of six months, anxiety and depression remained mildly icreased, while the levels of aggression and exposure to stressful events were lowered. Risk health behavior was maintained, except for the improvement in physical activity. In the integrative therapy and
Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition...... that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) years were randomized into a group...... were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social...... capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....
Leijten, Fenna R M; de Wind, Astrid; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, Allard J; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex
With an ageing society and increasing retirement ages, it is important to understand how employability can be promoted in older workers with health problems. The current study aimed to determine whether (1) different chronic health problems predict transitions from paid employment to disability benefits, unemployment and early retirement, and (2) how work-related factors modify these associations. Self-report questionnaire data was used from the Dutch longitudinal Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation with 3 years of follow-up (2010-2013), among employees aged 45-64 years (N=8149). The influence of baseline chronic health problems and work-related factors on transitions from paid employment to disability benefits, unemployment and early retirement during follow-up was estimated in a competing risks proportional hazards model. Relative excess risk of transitions due to the interaction between chronic health problems and work-related factors was assessed. Severe headache, diabetes mellitus and musculoskeletal, respiratory, digestive and psychological health problems predicted an increased risk of disability benefits (HR range 1.78-2.79). Circulatory (HR=1.35) and psychological health problems (HR=2.58) predicted unemployment, and musculoskeletal (HR=1.23) and psychological health problems (HR=1.57) predicted early retirement. Work-related factors did not modify the influence of health problems on unemployment or early retirement. Psychosocial work-related factors, especially autonomy, modified the influence of health problems on disability benefits. Specifically, among workers with health problems, higher autonomy, higher support and lower psychological job demands reduced the risk of disability benefits by 82%, 49%, and 11%, respectively. All health problems affected disability benefits to a similar extent, but psychological health problems especially predicted unemployment and early retirement. For older workers with health problems
Brown, Tony N
The sociology of mental health focuses on the epidemiology, etiology, correlates, and consequences of mental health (i.e., psychiatric disorder and symptoms, psychological distress, and subjective well-being) in an attempt to describe and explain how social structure influences an individual's psychological health. Critical race theory describes and explains iterative ways in which race is socially constructed across micro- and macro-levels, and how it determines life chances implicating the mundane and extraordinary in the continuance of racial stratification (i.e., racism). This paper invoked critical race theory to inform the sociology of mental health's approach to studying race and mental health by conceptualizing five hypothetical mental health problems that could exist because of racial stratification. These problems were: (1) nihilistic tendencies, (2) anti-self issues, (3) suppressed anger expression, (4) delusional denial tendencies, and (5) extreme racial paranoia. Mental health problems such as these and undocumented others can only be recognized given awareness of the social and personal implications of racial stratification.
Vincent, Charles; Wearden, Alison; French, David P
While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. As patients, we should be told of the risks of specific treatments but we are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. We suggest that, while there are many examples of individual health psychologists who have made important contributions, this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. Health psychologists have devoted much more attention to patients and devoted much less attention to the potentially huge impact of studying and intervening with staff, clinical practice, and organizations. We believe that there are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety and, more importantly, that this would be of great benefit to both patients and staff. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. Patients are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. Studies using review of medical records in many countries have found that between 8% and 12% of patients in hospital suffer an unintended harm due to health care. What does this study add? There are many examples of individual psychologists who have made important contributions, but this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. There are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety. These include health behaviour change, teamwork, communication after medical error, diagnosis and decision making, organisational culture, and improving compliance with rules and standards. Psychologists providing a clinical service to specialist services in any area could expand their remit from supporting patients to a more general support and engagement with safety and quality initiatives. Health psychologists have models to understand the behaviour of people
von Lengerke, Thomas
Hepworth's assessment of critical health psychology's capacity to contribute to public health promotion (this issue) is commented on and supplemented by selected issues relevant to Hepworth's timely call for interdisciplinary research and action in this context. Drawing on eco-epidemiology, multilevel research strategies are suggested that comprehensively account for individual/psychological and population/sociological factors. It is delineated how health promotion policies may be backed by psychologically informed policy analysis. Regarding health, it is argued to keep scrutinizing ill-health and to resist simplistic notions of quality of life or wellness but also to enhance these by incorporating concepts from positive psychology. Finally, it is considered whether trans disciplinarity may be in aid of fully realizing the potentials of blending the merits of health psychology and public health.
Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration o...
Decaluwé, V; Braet, C; Moens, E; Van Vlierberghe, L
The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent parental psychological characteristics and parental behavior are related to psychological problems in obese youngsters. Data were collected from 196 families having an overweight youngster (range 10-16 years old) (mean body mass index (BMI)=31.2; s.d.=5.3) seeking weight-loss treatment and compared with data from normal weight samples. Behavior problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist; the Child version of the Eating Disorder Examination was used to assess eating disorder psychopathology. Parental psychopathology was measured using the Symptom Checklist-90; parenting behavior was assessed with the Ghent Parental Behavior Scale. Parental psychopathology was prevalent in 59.6% of mothers and 35.7% of fathers. Youngsters exceeding the cutoff for problem behavior ranged between 41.4 and 53.1%. Children's problem behavior was most associated with psychopathology in the mother (r=0.40 for Internalizing and r=0.37 for Externalizing; both Pdiscipline, although the effect was stronger for Externalizing behavior (explained variance: 10%) than for Internalizing behavior (explained variance: 4%). No evidence was found for a mediator effect from parenting behavior on the eating disorder symptoms of the obese youngsters. However, several direct relations emerged, suggesting a negative association between a child's eating disorder symptoms and Positive parenting behavior by the mother (r= -0.20 for Eating concern; r= -0.18 for Restraint eating; r= -0.16 for Shape concern; all Pstyle, namely inconsistent discipline on the part of the mother. Pediatric obesity treatments should focus more on parenting behaviors and parental characteristics.
Brunelle, Natacha; Bertrand, Karine; Beaudoin, Isabelle; Ledoux, Cinthia; Gendron, Annie; Arseneault, Catherine
Previous research has documented associations of addiction with delinquency and psychological problems. However, few studies have evaluated their influence on adolescent's drug use trajectories. The current study aims to examine the influence of these factors on the recovery trajectories of 199 youths aged 15.6 years on average admitted to inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment centers, followed up three and six months later. Results indicate that youth who show higher severity of drug abuse exhibit greater improvement than youth with a lower severity of drug abuse at the onset of treatment. Although psychological problems were associated with baseline drug use, they did not influence drug use trajectory over time. Only delinquency influenced the recovery trajectories of these youth. Results suggest that a high level of delinquency can have a significant effect on the drug recovery process of adolescents and that interventions should attempt to reduce both drug use and delinquency. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akram, Bushra; Munawar, Asima
To find bullying victimisation as a predictor of physical and psychological health problems among school-going children with hearing impairment. The co-relational cross-sectional study was conducted in Gujrat district of Pakistan's Punjab province from August 2014 to January 2015, and comprised adolescents with hearing impairment. The subjects were selected through multi-stage stratified proportionate sampling from the local schools. Two standardised instruments were administered to assess the relationship between bullying and health problems. Multidimensional Peer Victimisation Scale was used for measuring bullying behaviour, while the Health Questionnaire was used to assess physical and psychological health problems. Both scales were translated into Urdu using lexicon equivalence method of translation. Of the 286 subjects, 183(64%) were boys. A significant positive relationship was found between the four components of bullying and health problems (p0.05). Children with hearing impairment experienced bullying just like those without such an impairment. Bullying needs to be considered a significant public health issue and should be dealt with effectively.
Vriezekolk, J.; Eijsbouts, A.; Evers, A.W.M.; Stenger, A.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van
PURPOSE: To examine psychological health status among patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (i.e. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis) and osteoarthritis in multidisciplinary rehabilitation, and to describe changes in psychological distress, illness
This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality-health link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these within evolutionary cost-benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels. PMID:23772230
Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael
Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy...... challenge and elucidate the need for health promotion initiatives targeted at problem gamblers. Furthermore, more research is needed in order to understand the underlying social mechanism of the association between problem gamblers and unhealthy behaviour.......Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...
Bromet, Evelyn J; Havenaar, Johan M
The mental health impact of Chernobyl is regarded by many experts as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. This paper reviews findings reported during the 20-y period after the accident regarding stress-related symptoms, effects on the developing brain, and cognitive and psychological impairments among highly exposed cleanup workers. With respect to stress-related symptoms, the rates of depressive, anxiety (especially post-traumatic stress symptoms), and medically unexplained physical symptoms are two to four times higher in Chernobyl-exposed populations compared to controls, although rates of diagnosable psychiatric disorders do not appear to be elevated. The symptom elevations were found as late as 11 y after the accident. Severity of symptomatology is significantly related to risk perceptions and being diagnosed with a Chernobyl-related health problem. In general, the morbidity patterns are consistent with the psychological impairments documented after other toxic events, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Three Mile Island accident, and Bhopal. With respect to the developing brain of exposed children who were in utero or very young when the accident occurred, the World Health Organization as well as American and Israeli researchers have found no significant associations of radiation exposure with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments in highly exposed cleanup workers have been reported by Ukrainian researchers, but these findings have not been independently confirmed. A seminal study found a significant excess death rate from suicide in cleanup workers, suggesting a sizable emotional toll. Given the magnitude and persistence of the adverse mental health effects on the general population, long-term educational and psychosocial interventions should be initiated that target primary care physicians, local researchers, and high risk populations, including participants in ongoing cohort studies.
Skaal, Linda; Sinclair, Heidi; Stein, Dan J; Myers, Bronwyn
Little is known about the mental health correlates of problem gambling in low- and-middle-income countries such as South Africa and whether these correlates vary by urbanicity. To address this gap, we examined mental health factors associated with problem gambling among gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa disaggregated by rural, peri-urban and urban location. A survey of gambling behaviour and mental health was conducted among 900 gamblers. Overall, 28.3 % were at high risk and 38.1 % were at moderate risk for problem gambling. For the entire sample, hazardous/harmful alcohol use was associated with almost twofold increased chance of being at moderate risk (AOR 1.83; 95 % CI 1.08, 3.11) and almost sevenfold greater odds (AOR 6.93; 95 % CI 4.03-11.93) of being at high risk for problem gambling. Psychological distress was associated with being at high risk for problem gambling only (AOR 1.18; 95 % CI 1.14-1.22). After stratifying by urbanicity, hazardous/harmful alcohol use and psychological distress remained associated with high risk gambling across all locations. We found little knowledge of a free gambling helpline and other gambling services-particularly in less urbanised environments [χ(2) (2), 900 = 40.4; p gamblers and to ensure gambling services include screening and treatment for common mental disorders.
Susana Sofia Pereira da Silva
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Morbid obesity has multiple implications for psychological and physical health. Bariatric surgery has been selected as the treatment of choice for this chronic disease, despite the controversial impact of the surgery on psychosocial health. The objective of this study was to describe candidates for bariatric surgery and analyze changes in weight, psychopathology, personality, and health problems and complaints at 6- and 12- month follow-up assessments. METHODS: Thirty obese patients (20 women and 10 men with a mean age of 39.17±8.81 years were evaluated in different dimensions before surgery and 6 and 12 months after the procedure. RESULTS: Six and 12 months after bariatric surgery, patients reported significant weight loss and a significant reduction in the number of health problems and complaints. The rates of self-reported psychopathology were low before surgery, and there were no statistically significant changes over time. The conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness dimensions increased, but neuroticism and openness remained unchanged. All changes had a medium effect size. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients experience significant health improvements and some positive personality changes after bariatric surgery. Even though these findings underscore the role of bariatric surgery as a relevant treatment for morbid obesity, more in-depth longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the evolution of patients after the procedure.
Full Text Available Lucia Margari,1 Floriana Pinto,1 Maria Elena Lafortezza,1 Paola Alessandra Lecce,1 Francesco Craig,1 Ignazio Grattagliano,2 Giuseppina Zagaria,1 Francesco Margari31Unit of Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of "Aldo Moro," Bari, Italy; 2Department of Criminology, University of "Aldo Moro," Bari, Italy; 3Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of "Aldo Moro," Bari, ItalyAbstract: The migration process is a cause of physical and social stressors that may lead to mental health problems, particularly in children. In Italy, there are few studies about migrant children's mental health; thus, the aim of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of emotional and behavioral problems in migrant schoolchildren to those of native Italian children. The research involved migrant (first- and second-generation and native schoolchildren attending kindergarten, primary, and secondary school. A questionnaire was administered to parents to collect information about the sociodemographic characteristics of the children. All teachers filled in the Teacher's Report Form for migrant and native children. The findings show that teachers detect academic and adaptive problems more easily in migrant schoolchildren, but they are probably less aware of the children's psychological problems. The observations made in this study provide a starting point in understanding the psychological status and main problems noted among migrant children.Keywords: migrant children, mental health, teacher report, adaptive troubles, emotional problems
van Dijk, Inge; Lucassen, Peter L B J; van Weel, Chris; Speckens, Anne E M
Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called 'positive mental health'. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory), positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF), dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory) and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables) and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors). Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89%) completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were 'acting with awareness' (negative) and 'worrying' (positive). Strongest predictors of positive mental health were 'problem avoidance' (negative) and 'emotional irresponsibility' (negative). The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support conclusions of previous research that psychological distress and positive mental
Santiago-Delefosse, Marie; Del Rio Carral, Maria
This article traces the historical evolution of ongoing theoretical debates in psychology in France from the 1940s until today. Its aim is to show how the conjunction of certain conditions was determinant for a rapid expansion of American-derived mainstream health psychology during the 1980s. The authors describe the French context in the post-World War II period that made possible the introduction of psychology courses at the university, which included the tensions between two epistemological orientations: experimental psychology and clinical psychology, the latter partly inspired by Politzer's concrete psychology. We also outline the process that led to the implementation of 'clinical psychology in health settings' in the 1950s, under the influence of Daniel Lagache. Furthermore, the strong critiques that were made to the new psychology profession in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s are examined against oppositions among psychologists, psychiatrists, philosophers and psychoanalysts. Moreover, we discuss how under turbulent conditions, a pragmatic-oriented psychology arriving from the United States was smoothly and rapidly introduced in France during the 1980s, promoting a socio-cognitive framework and offering new career perspectives. But the French dissension to this new sub-discipline will also be considered. Finally, our conclusion reflects upon future implications of ongoing rivalries between different approaches to psychology. It underlines a growing interest in critical perspectives developed in Anglo-Saxon cultures which are being applied, by French academics and practitioners who work in psychology in health settings.
Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L
When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…
and Psychological Health in OIF/OEF Veterans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charles W. Wilkinson, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Seattle...COVERED 15 March 2011 - 14 April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Blast Concussion mTBI, Hypopituitarism, and Psychological Health...isolation, and decreased quality of life, as well as muscular weakness, erectile dysfunction, infertility , and diminished cardiovascular function
Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…
Margison, Judith A.; Shore, Bruce M.
Calls for increased collaborative practices in school psychology parallel similar advances in the realm of health care. This article overviews the concepts associated with collaborative practice in school psychology and in health care (e.g., interaction, teamwork, and collaboration) and discusses how the literature emerging from interprofessional…
van Leeuwen, C.M.; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Peter, Claudio; Post, MWM; Stiggelbout, A.M.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the course of mental health and psychological factors over time in persons with a recent spinal cord injury and to determine whether change in psychological factors is associated with change in mental health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands with 3
Minnesota's urban and rural Indian communities today face a similar set of complex and daunting health problems. No one overriding issue exists, nor does an overall solution. While staff shortages, a dire lack of Indian health professionals, and inadequate financial resources play a role, poverty, racism, lifestyle, alcoholism, and cultural change and conflict all further complicate health problems for Indian people.
Marken, Richard S; Carey, Timothy A
A review of the literature on psychotherapy suggests that improvements in effectiveness, efficiency and accessibility have been hampered by a lack of understanding of how psychotherapy works. Central to gaining such understanding is an accurate description of the change process that occurs when someone solves a psychological problem. We describe the Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) model of human functioning, which can be used to understand the nature of psychological problems and how they are solved. PCT suggests that problems can be broadly grouped into two categories: those that can be solved using existing skills and those that require the generation of new skills. In general, psychological problems belong in the second category. PCT describes a fundamental form of learning in which existing structures and systems are reorganized to create new skills, perspective and insights. Psychotherapy based on PCT is aimed at directing reorganization to the source of the problem. Understanding the phenomenon of control is central to understanding how psychotherapy works. Conflict could be considered a general formulation for psychological distress. Therapy will be efficient when the reorganization process is focused at the right level of the client's control hierarchy. Therapy will be effective only when the client's reorganization system-not the therapist-has managed to come up with a solution to the client's problem. What the client says about the nature and reason for their problem is less important than the point of view from which these problems are being discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Blank, Cornelia; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Leichtfried, Veronika; Duschek, Stefan
Background Doping is a highly relevant problem in sport, even in adolescent athletes. Knowledge of the psychological factors that influence doping susceptibility in young elite athletes remains sparse. Objectives This study investigated the predictive potential of different health-psychological constructs and well-being on doping susceptibility. The main hypotheses to be tested were positive associations of fear of failure, external locus of control, and ego-oriented goal orientation as well as negative associations of confidence of success, task orientation, internal locus of control, and performance motivation with doping susceptibility. Low levels of well-being are furthermore expected to be associated with doping susceptibility. Methods Within this cross-sectional study, 1,265 Austrian junior athletes aged between 14 and 19 years responded to a paper-pencil questionnaire. Results Performance motivation was a negative, while depressive mood, self-esteem, fear of failure and ego-oriented goal orientation were positive predictors of doping susceptibility. In addition, participants who were offered performance enhancing substances in the past were particularly susceptible to doping. Conclusions The study corroborates the predictive value of classical psychological constructs in doping research, initially analyzed in view of adult athletes, also for adolescents’ doping susceptibility. PMID:28144408
Blank, Cornelia; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Leichtfried, Veronika; Duschek, Stefan
Doping is a highly relevant problem in sport, even in adolescent athletes. Knowledge of the psychological factors that influence doping susceptibility in young elite athletes remains sparse. This study investigated the predictive potential of different health-psychological constructs and well-being on doping susceptibility. The main hypotheses to be tested were positive associations of fear of failure, external locus of control, and ego-oriented goal orientation as well as negative associations of confidence of success, task orientation, internal locus of control, and performance motivation with doping susceptibility. Low levels of well-being are furthermore expected to be associated with doping susceptibility. Within this cross-sectional study, 1,265 Austrian junior athletes aged between 14 and 19 years responded to a paper-pencil questionnaire. Performance motivation was a negative, while depressive mood, self-esteem, fear of failure and ego-oriented goal orientation were positive predictors of doping susceptibility. In addition, participants who were offered performance enhancing substances in the past were particularly susceptible to doping. The study corroborates the predictive value of classical psychological constructs in doping research, initially analyzed in view of adult athletes, also for adolescents' doping susceptibility.
Compen, F R; Adang, E M M; Bisseling, E M; Van der Lee, M L; Speckens, A E M
The mental burden of cancer might elicit additional health care utilization. However, it is unclear how psychiatric disorder and psychological distress relate to health care utilization. Therefore, this study explores associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization. It was hypothesized that presence of psychiatric disorder and psychological distress was associated with increased health care utilization and costs. The current study consisted of secondary analyses of baseline data of a larger randomized controlled trial. Two hundred forty-five mixed-cancer patients with at least mild symptoms of psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-T ≥ 11) were mainly recruited via online media, participating centers and patient associations. Patients were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) for depressive, anxiety, and/or adjustment disorder. Psychological distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Retrospective self-reported health care utilization in the past 3 months was collected. Associations between predictors and health care utilization in terms of incidence rate ratios (IRR) and costs per category (mental, primary, somatic, and complementary) were assessed by negative binomial, logistic, and gamma regression. Eighty-nine (36.3%) patients suffered from psychiatric disorder, which was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.63) and costs (OR = 3.11). We observed a nonsignificant trend of somatic health care utilization in patients with psychiatric disorder. Psychological distress was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.09) and costs (OR = 1.09). Psychological distress was also associated with complementary health care utilization (IRR = 1.03). Psychiatric disorder and psychological distress were associated with mental health care use and costs. Psychological distress was associated
Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.
Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…
Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G; Christodoulaki, A G; Karkanias, A P
Cancer may be localized in a variety of areas in the human body. This localization is associated with significant issues concerning not only therapy and prognosis but also psychological and psychiatric problems that the patient may be confronted with. The psychic impact on the patient is determined to a significant degree by the symbolism the affected organ carries. The symbolic significance of a sick body area triggers emotions and sets in motion self-defence mechanisms. In this way, patients deal with the new psychic reality that cancer creates. Therapeutic choices may include interventions, involving mutilation, which cause disfigurement and major consequences in the body image which result in narcissistic injuries. The phenomenology of anxiety and depressive disorders is connected to the affected body area. The appearance of cancer not only in sexual organs but also in other body areas, may disturb sexual function and therefore lead to sexual disorders. Especially, head and neck are connected with vital functions. This area of the body has had a major impact on psychic reality since early life. Complicated psychic functions have developed in relation to organs of the head and neck. Therefore, localization of cancer in this area leads to individual psychological and psychiatric problems, since eating and breathing are harmed, verbal communication becomes difficult and body image alters. Also, increased incidence of alcohol and nicotine abuse in these patients reflects special aspects of psychic structure and personality. Because of severe somatic symptoms and poor prognosis, lung cancer patients feel hopelessness and helplessness. Patients with gynaecological cancer are confronted with a disease that affects organs like breast and internal female sexual organs associated with femininity, attractiveness and fertility. Dietary habits are often a source of guilt for patients who suffer from cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, stomas, as colostomy
Kreuter, Marshall W; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H; Baldwin, Grant T
Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have conflicting interpretations of the problem and the science behind it, as well as different values, goals, and life experiences. Accordingly, policy makers, public health professionals, and other stakeholders who grapple with these problems cannot expect to effectively resolve them by relying solely on expert-driven approaches to problem solving. Rather, they need to acknowledge that wicked environmental health problems are most likely to yield to (1) the application of effective community health promotion skills, (2) a sustained commitment to sound toxicological and epidemiological science, (3) the application of systems thinking, and (4) transparent communication among all stakeholders.
Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria
Background and Aims The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Results Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. Conclusions This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes. PMID:26690623
Leider, Jonathon P
Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to
Pietrzak, Robert H; Cook, Joan M
Although a large body of empirical research has examined negative psychological outcomes in older veterans, relatively little is known about the prevalence and determinants of psychological resilience in this population. A nationally representative sample of 2,025 U.S. veterans aged 60 and older (mean = 71.0, standard deviation = 7.1, range = 60-96) completed a web-based survey as part of the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Cluster analysis of measures of lifetime potentially traumatic events, and current PTSD, major depression, and generalized anxiety symptoms was used to classify psychological outcomes. A three-group solution best fit the data: Control (low number of lifetime traumas, low current psychological distress; 60.4%); Resilient (high number of lifetime traumas, low current psychological distress; 27.5%); and distressed (high number of lifetime traumas, high current psychological distress; 12.1%). Among older veterans with a high number of traumas, 69.5% were in the Resilient group. Compared to the Distressed group, the Resilient group was more likely to have college or higher level of education, and to be married or living with a partner. They also scored higher on measures of emotional stability, social connectedness (i.e., secure attachment style, social support), protective psychosocial characteristics (e.g., community integration, purpose in life), and positive perceptions of the military's effect on one's life; and lower on measures of physical health difficulties and psychiatric problems, and openness to experiences. Among older U.S. veterans who have endured a high number of traumas in their lifetimes, nearly 70% are psychologically resilient in later life. Prevention efforts targeted toward bolstering social connectedness, community integration, and purpose in life may help promote psychological resilience in older veterans who endured a significant number of traumas in their lives. Published 2013. This article is a U
Inge van Dijk
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called ‘positive mental health’. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Methods Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF, dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors. Results Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89% completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were ‘acting with awareness’ (negative and ‘worrying’ (positive. Strongest predictors of positive mental health were ‘problem avoidance’ (negative and ‘emotional irresponsibility’ (negative. Conclusions The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support
Bower, Peter; Knowles, Sarah; Coventry, Peter A; Rowland, Nancy
The prevalence of mental health and psychosocial problems in primary care is high. Counselling is a potential treatment for these patients, but there is a lack of consensus over the effectiveness of this treatment in primary care. To assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of counselling for patients with mental health and psychosocial problems in primary care. To update the review, the following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis (CCDAN) trials registers (to December 2010), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (to May 2011). Randomised controlled trials of counselling for mental health and psychosocial problems in primary care. Data were extracted using a standardised data extraction sheet by two reviewers. Trials were rated for quality by two reviewers using Cochrane risk of bias criteria, to assess the extent to which their design and conduct were likely to have prevented systematic error. Continuous measures of outcome were combined using standardised mean differences. An overall effect size was calculated for each outcome with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Continuous data from different measuring instruments were transformed into a standard effect size by dividing mean values by standard deviations. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to test the robustness of the results. Economic analyses were summarised in narrative form. There was no assessment of adverse events. Nine trials were included in the review, involving 1384 randomised participants. Studies varied in risk of bias, although two studies were identified as being at high risk of selection bias because of problems with concealment of allocation. All studies were from primary care in the United Kingdom and thus comparability was high. The analysis found significantly greater clinical effectiveness in the counselling group compared with usual care in terms of mental health outcomes in the
Kadayam G. Gomathi; Soofia Ahmed; Jayadevan Sreedharan
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. Methods: All first-year students (N = 125) of the Gulf Medical University (GMU) in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire...
Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Cattaneo Della Volta, Maria Francesca; Vallone, Federica
To investigate the influence of individual characteristics (age, gender, educational level, coping strategies), perceived couple's Dyadic Adjustment, type of diagnosis and duration of infertility on self-reported quality of life (QoL) and psychological health in infertile couples, examining the potential moderating role of duration of infertility. A questionnaire composed by socio-demographics, Coping Orientations to Problem Experienced, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, FertiQoL, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Edinburgh Depression Scale was submitted to 206 couples undergoing infertility treatments. Female patients perceived significantly lower levels of QoL and higher levels of Anxiety and Depression. High Educational level and Social Support Coping strategy were associated with higher QoL and psychological health only in female patients. Problem Solving Coping strategy was associated with higher QoL and psychological health only in male patients. Positive Attitude and Avoidance/Distancing Coping strategies and perceived couple's Dyadic Adjustment were associated with higher QoL and psychological health in both male and female patients. Duration of infertility > 3 years was associated with a reduction of protective effects of all coping strategies but did not affect protective effects of Educational level and couple's Dyadic Adjustment. Both positive/active and avoiding/distancing coping strategies are effective to promote QoL and psychological health in infertile couples, but they are all compromised by a long duration of infertility. Conversely, positive effects of educational level and couple's Dyadic Adjustment persist and should be emphasised in the definition of interventions to promote well-being in couples undergoing long-term treatments.
Uzma Zaidi; Lina Fahmi Hammad; Salwa Saad Awad; Hind Diouri Qasem; Nada Ahmed Al-Mahdi
Psychological perspective determines how people will intervene into problems, issue, cases and define their reasoning. It became more essential to study the psychological perspectives of medical students because they have to deal with human beings. In learning process, a teacher takes part in the learning process as a role model and becomes the greatest source of inspiration. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychological viewpoints of teachers on H...
van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.
This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the
Bui, Eric; Baier, Allison L.; Mehta, Darshan H.; Denninger, John W.; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Casey, Aggie; Kagan, Leslee; Park, Elyse R.; Simon, Naomi M.
Background: Many veterans deployed after 9/11/2001 are impacted by subthreshold levels of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, or other psychological health problems that may interfere with successful reintegration. Conventional treatments, including medication and trauma-focused individual psychotherapies, may not be optimally adapted, accepted, or effective to treat these subsyndromal symptoms. Methods: We developed “Resilient Warrior,” a 4-session, group-based, mind-body stress-management and resilience program targeted to build skills and assessed whether its format was accessible and acceptable, and potentially efficacious, to support resilience among service members. Results: From April 2014 to October 2014, 15 participants (53.3% women; mean age=36.6 y; SD=6.2) were surveyed for program acceptability and feasibility and completed self-reported psychological health outcomes before and after program participation. The majority (71.4%) of participants reported that the program included the right number of sessions, and all of them reported that it was helpful and relevant and that they would recommend it to others. While changes in self-reported resilience were only marginal, participation was associated with improvements in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, and general sense of self efficacy. Conclusion: These pilot data provide preliminary support that “Resilient Warrior,” a group-based, stress reduction and resilience program, may improve psychological health in service members even when delivered in community settings. Randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish efficacy and effectiveness for this program. PMID:26665021
Full Text Available We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollability. Behavior of adolescents on the Internet depends on the social and cultural context in which they live. The emergence of the Internet makes new demands on media competence of the teenager and his environment. Adolescents face online with a variety of risks. An essential resource for successful adolescent development is the presence of a person whom he trusts, with whom he can consult in difficult situations. The research plan involves the creation of Internet resources, contributing to the solution of teenagers’ problems age, as well as the mapping of the Internet in terms of its developmental potential.
O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A; Ferraro, Anthony J; Ross, D Bruce
In addition to facing stressors that are typical of life course development (e.g., marital struggles, balancing work/family demands), military families face additional stress attributed to their military context (e.g., deployments, relocations). Using a systems framework and stress process perspective, this study examined military couples' relational health, as a gauge for how couples collectively cope and address challenges as a united front and how their relational health influences crucial health behaviors (sleeping and eating) through the promotion or erosion of psychological resources (N = 236 couples). This study evaluated a latent variable structural equation dyadic model whereby each partner's perspective of their family's relational health was hypothesized to influence their own eating and sleeping behaviors (actor effects), as well as the eating and sleeping behaviors of their spouse (partner effects). The role of psychological resources (high self-efficacy, few depressive symptoms, and minimal anxiety) as a mechanism linking family functioning to health behaviors was also examined. Overall, the findings supported the hypothesized model, particularly for actor (intraindividual) effects. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers, including the importance of improving, or maintaining, family relational health, as a means for encouraging positive health behaviors among active duty military members and their spouses. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
van der Molen, E; Vermeiren, R R J M; Krabbendam, A A; Beekman, A T F; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C
Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 (SD=0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age=20.0, SD=1.4) on mental health and adjustment outcomes. Associations between these outcomes and detained females' behavior problems and offense history were examined. In the total sample, 59.0% had one or more mental health problems at follow-up, whereas 96.2% were facing at least one adjustment problem. Subjects with a personality disorder (PD) reported more adjustment problems compared to subjects without PD. Mental health and adjustment problems in young adulthood were predicted by detained adolescent females' behavior problems and offense history. Detained adolescent females suffered from multiple mental health and adjustment problems in young adulthood. Females who developed PD were most impaired. Results of this study underline the compelling need for continued and gender-specific interventions. The identification of predictors during detention for poor adult outcomes can serve as targets for intervention. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Yu, Mi; Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun
Menstrual cycle irregularity is common among adolescents and can induce mental health problems such as stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. We examined the association between mental health problems and menstrual cycle irregularity among adolescent Korean girls. This population-based cross-sectional study was on 808 female adolescents (12-18 years of age) participating in the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Psychological stress, depressive mood, suicidal ideations, suicide attempts, and psychological counseling were assessed through questionnaires and surveys, and hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. The risk of menstrual cycle irregularity tended to increase, as the number of mental health problems increased (P for trend=0.016). High stress levels, depressive mood, and psychological counseling were associated with increased risks of menstrual cycle irregularity (odd ratio [95% confidence interval]=1.88 [1.1-3.21], 2.01 [1.01-4.03], and 2.92 [1.16-7.34], respectively) even after adjusting for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, hemoglobin level, monthly household income, weight loss attempts, age at menarche, and sleep duration. Suicidal ideation was not significantly associated with menstrual cycle irregularity. Menstrual irregularity was evaluated based solely on subjects' self-reports, which are subject to their subjective perceptions and appraisal. Cross-sectional design and retrospective data could not draw causal relationship. Positive associations were observed between mental health problems and menstrual cycle irregularity among adolescent Korean girls. More attention should be paid towards mental health, to improve menstrual cycle regularity and help prevent related chronic diseases later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bach Flower Remedies are thought to help balance emotional state and are commonly recommended by practitioners for psychological problems and pain. We assessed whether Bach Flower Remedies (BFRs are safe and efficacious for these indications by performing a systematic review of the literature. Methods We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, AMED, and the Cochrane Library from inception until June 2008 and performed a hand-search of references from relevant key articles. For efficacy, we included all prospective studies with a control group. For safety, we also included retrospective, observational studies with more than 30 subjects. Two authors abstracted data and determined risk of bias using a recognised rating system of trial quality. Results Four randomised controlled trials (RCTs and two additional retrospective, observational studies were identified and included in the review. Three RCTs of BFRs for students with examination anxiety, and one RCT of BFRs for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD showed no overall benefit in comparison to placebo. Due to the number and quality of the studies the strength of the evidence is low or very low. We did not find any controlled prospective studies regarding the efficacy of BFRs for pain. Only four of the six studies included for safety explicitly reported adverse events. Conclusion Most of the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of BFRs has a high risk of bias. We conclude that, based on the reported adverse events in these six trials, BFRs are probably safe. Few controlled prospective trials of BFRs for psychological problems and pain exist. Our analysis of the four controlled trials of BFRs for examination anxiety and ADHD indicates that there is no evidence of benefit compared with a placebo intervention.
Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Wichainprasast, Pongdej; Tantawichien, Terapong
The number of Thai tourists visiting India is increasing each year. Most studies investigating health problems among international travellers to India have focused on travellers from Europe or North America, and the applicability of these studies to Asian travellers is unknown. This cross-sectional study used data collected from Thai tourists who had recently completed a trip to India. A questionnaire on demographic data, travel characteristics, pre-travel health preparation, and health problems during the trip to India was administered. All participants were also invited to answer a follow-up questionnaire 15 days after their arrival. The study included 1,304 Thai tourists returning from India between October 2014 and March 2015. Sixty-two percent were female. Overall median age was 49 years, and the median length of stay was 10.6 days. Most were package tourists, and 52% (675) reported health problems during their trip. Common health problems were cough, runny nose, and sore throat (31.1%), followed by musculoskeletal problems (21.7%), fever (12.7%), diarrhea (9.8%) and skin problems (6.6%). Other reported problems were related to the eyes/ears (2.1%), animal exposure (1.9%) and accidents (0.8%). We found that several factors may be associated with the incidence of health problems among these tourists, including travelling style and travel health preparation. In the follow-up questionnaire, 16.8% of the participants reported new or additional symptoms that developed after their return to Thailand. Respiratory symptoms were still the most common health problems during this 15-day period. Over half (52%) of Thai tourists experienced health problems during their trip to India. The most common health problem was not travellers' diarrhoea, as would be expected from published studies. Rather, respiratory and musculoskeletal problems were common symptoms. This information will be useful in pre-travel assessment and care. Our findings may indicate that health risks among
da Silva, Juliana Amaral Medeiros; Siegmund, Gerson; Bredemeier, Juliana
.... Psychological crises, such as suicide attempts, represent a growing problem in mental health. When faced with such scenarios, specific strategies of crisis intervention are both appropriate and necessary...
Zeynep Belma Gölge
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological and social problems faced by female victims after rape and additionally the impact of also being a victim of childhood sexual abuse in Turkey, where opportunity of getting medical and psychological support for sexual assault for victims is limited and legal process lasts for years. Method: Participants consisted of 93 female rape victims who were examined by the Second Specialization Board of State Council of Forensic Medicine. An interview form, which is developed in order to investigate socio-demographic features, assault charactersitics, psychological and social problems of victim, Post Traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were applied for the investigation. Results: 61.3 % of victims were diagnosed with post traumatic stres disorder (PTSD and 54.8% of victims had sexual dysfunctions caused by the sexual assault. 68.8 % of victims reported that they were exposed to negative social reactions. 70,3% of victims who were exposed to negative social reactions met diagnostic criteria for PTSD while only 41,4% of people who were not exposed to negative social reactions met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Difference between groups was analyzed with chi squre method and there is significant difference between them ( X2:7.04, df:1, p<0.01. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts were high in victims of adult rape who were also sexually abused in childhood. Discussion: Considering duration between the sexual assault and interview, in our research findings the ratio of the people who have PTSD and sexual issues, is more than the other studies consequences. On the other hand, the victims which reported that incident occured more than three years ago, are fitted to the diagnosis criterias of PTSD, with the ratio of 58.8%. It’s been thought that, studying with the victims who has been sent for physical examination and the continuation of judicial
... doesn't fracture. Conditions that can involve your penis include: Erection or ejaculation problems. These might include the inability ... the penis, might result in bent or painful erections. Penile cancer — which might begin as a blister on ...
O’Neal, Catherine W; Wickrama, K. A. S; Ralston, Penny A; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Harris, Cynthia M; Coccia, Catherine; Young-Clark, Iris; Lemacks, Jennifer
The current study examined the influence of health insurance, psychological processes (i.e. psychological competency and vulnerability), and the interaction of these two constructs on older African Americans’ utilization of five preventive care services (e.g. cholesterol screening and mammogram/prostate examination) using data from 211 older African Americans (median age = 60). In addition to direct effects, the influence of health insurance sometimes varied depending on respondents’ psychological competency and/or vulnerability. Policies and interventions to increase older African Americans’ use of preventive health services should consider structural (e.g. health insurance) and psychological (e.g. psychological competency and vulnerability) factors along with the interaction between these factors. PMID:23456216
Jobeir, Houssine; Peton, Gabrielle; Brigand, Alain; Chatain, Carine; Sass, Catherine; Moulin, Jean-Jacques
Social vulnerability often leads to the expression of psychological distress. The Health Examination Center of Côtes d'Armor, in Quimper, experimented with the development and implementation of psychological counseling for a highly socio-economically vulnerable population. As part of a periodic health examination, the center offers psychological counseling to patients with pathological sleep disorders and who lack sufficient psychological support. The Health Examination Center's framework and the context of the periodic health examination have facilitated the establishment of a tailored non-stigmatizing intervention well-embedded within the institutional environment. Marginalized people in situations of psychological distress are offered an opportunity to be listened to, and to receive counseling, appropriate prevention services and access to care.
Jones, Cynthia M
Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis.
Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Sicilia, Álvaro; Burgueño, Rafael
This study aimed to determine the usefulness of integrating basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) and relational frames theory (RFT) in order to explain the effects of social physique anxiety (SPA) - in the context of exercise - on exercisers' mental health. A total of 296 recreational cyclists and triathletes (100% males) aged 18 to 60 years old (M age = 35.65, SD = 9.49) completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing the target variables. Two models of structural equations with multiple mediators were tested using 5000 bootstrap samples. While the BPNT-based model explained 20% of variance in satisfaction with life (SWL) and 25% of variance in mental health (MH), the model that also incorporated RFT explained 43% of variance in both of those variables. Results showed that SPA negatively impacted exercisers' mental health via two different mechanisms: a) through a decrease in perceived satisfaction of basic psychological needs (β = -.05, p = .045 for SWL; β = -.07, p = .002 for MH); b) through an increase in psychological inflexibility, generated directly by SPA (β = -.24, p < .001 for SWL; β = -.20, p < .001 for MH) and also mediated by basic psychological need thwarting (β = -.09, p < .001 for SWL; β = -.08, p = .002 for MH). Results supported integrating the two theories, elucidating the processes by which a controlling social factor like SPA can affect the potential benefits of exercise.
Choi, Jiyeon; Donahoe, Michael P; Hoffman, Leslie A
This article provides an overview of current knowledge on the impact of caregiving on the psychological and physical health of family caregivers of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and suggestions for future research. Review of selected papers published in English between January 2000 and October 2015 reporting psychological and physical health outcomes in family caregivers of ICU survivors. In family caregivers of ICU survivors followed up to five years after patients' discharge from an ICU, psychological symptoms, manifested as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, were highly prevalent. Poor self-care, sleep disturbances and fatigue were identified as common physical health problems in family caregivers. Studies to date are mainly descriptive; few interventions have targeted family caregivers. Further, studies that elicit unique needs of families from diverse cultures are lacking. Studies to date have described the impact of caregiving on the psychological and physical health in family caregivers of ICU survivors. Few studies have tested interventions to support unique needs in this population. Therefore, evidence for best strategies is lacking. Future research is needed to identify ICU caregivers at greatest risk for distress, time points to target interventions with maximal efficacy, needs of those from diverse cultures and test interventions to mitigate family caregivers' burden.
Campos, Belinda; Ullman, Jodie B; Aguilera, Adrian; Dunkel Schetter, Christine
Familism, a cultural value that emphasizes warm, close, supportive family relationships and that family be prioritized over self, has been associated with psychological health. The goal of this work was to fill a gap in the literature on how familism contributes to psychological health. Drawing from conceptual links between familism and close relationship processes, we hypothesized that familism contributes to better psychological health by facilitating closeness and social support. A university sample of U.S. women and men of Latino (n = 173), European (n = 257), and Asian (n = 642) cultural backgrounds completed measures of familism, closeness to family members, general perceived social support, and psychological health as indexed by perceived stress, general mental health, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation multiple-group modeling analyses found direct effects of familism on closeness to family members and perceived social support and an indirect effect of familism on better psychological health via greater closeness to family members and greater perceived social support. These effects did not differ by cultural background. Consistent with previous research, however, Latinos reported the highest levels of familism of the three cultural groups, and women reported higher familism and support as well as poorer psychological health than men. Discussion is focused on the implications of these findings for understanding the association of familism with psychological health and the relevance of the familism construct for diverse U.S. groups.
Mohiuddin, Ahmed; Boisvert, Charles M.
In our clinical practice, we have attempted to use a positive psychology approach in working with people with schizophrenia and youths with behavioral disorders. We present three clinical applications that use a positive psychology approach with these populations: group treatment with persons with schizophrenia; individual cognitive stimulation…
Bruffaerts, Ronny; Mortier, Philippe; Kiekens, Glenn; Auerbach, Randy P; Cuijpers, Pim; Demyttenaere, Koen; Green, Jennifer G; Nock, Matthew K; Kessler, Ronald C
Mental health problems in college and their associations with academic performance are not well understood. The main aim of this study was to investigate to what extent mental health problems are associated with academic functioning. As part of the World Mental Health Surveys International College Student project, 12-month mental health problems among freshmen (N = 4921) was assessed in an e-survey of students at KU Leuven University in Leuven, Belgium. The associations of mental health problems with academic functioning (expressed in terms of academic year percentage [or AYP] and grade point average [GPA]) were examined across academic departments. Approximately one in three freshman reports mental health problems in the past year, with internalizing and externalizing problems both associated with reduced academic functioning (2.9-4.7% AYP reduction, corresponding to 0.2-0.3 GPA reduction). The association of externalizing problems with individual-level academic functioning was significantly higher in academic departments with comparatively low average academic functioning. Limited sample size precluded further investigation of interactions between department-level and student-level variables. No information was available on freshman secondary school academic performance. Mental health problems are common in college freshman, and clearly associated with lower academic functioning. Additional research is needed to examine the potentially causal nature of this association, and, if so, whether interventions aimed at treating mental health problems might improve academic performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ohira, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Chikako; Imano, Hironori; Okada, Takeo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yuko; Sato, Shinichi; Nakamura, Masakazu; Naito, Yoshihiko; Kurokawa, Michinori; Nakashita, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Masayo; Kamei, Kazuyo; Horii, Yuko; Shimamoto, Takashi
We sought to examine relationships of lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol consumption and smoking, with perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Between 2001 and 2002, 7,947 men and women (mean 52.4 years) took part in examinations at the Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion. Lifestyle factors were determined by structured interview or by self-administered questionnaire. Associations of life style factors with perceived stress and depressive symptoms were tested by stepwise logistic regression analyses. Higher proportions of persons with depressive symptoms tended to be associated with higher proportions of persons with perceived stress. Among both men and women, low physical activity, lack of regular physical exercise, short sleeping time, to skip breakfast frequently, and having dinner within a couple of hours before going to bed were associated with both perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Men reporting between-meal or midnight snacks and having eating until they were full had higher odds ratios for perceived stress, while men conducting regular physical exercise and consuming 3 or more dishes of vegetables per day had lower odds ratios for depressive symptoms. For women, high odds ratios for depressive symptoms and perceived stress were observed among those who tended to have salty foods (or frequent use of soy sauce) and a lower odds ratio for perceived stress was noted among persons who had soy products every day. Lifestyle facets such as skipping breakfast, low physical activity, and short sleeping time, appear to be associated with psychological health status of Japanese men and women.
Scheepers, Renée A
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be facilitated by work engagement and how work engagement is facilitated by job resources and personality traits. First, we conducted a systematic review on the impact of physician work engagement and related constructs (e. g. job satisfaction) on physicians' performance in patient care. We additionally investigated physician work engagement and job resources in relation to patient care experience with physicians' performance at ten outpatient clinics covering two hospitals. In a following multicentre survey involving 61 residency training programs of 18 hospitals, we studied associations between physician work engagement and personality traits with resident evaluations of physicians' teaching performance. The findings showed that physician work engagement was associated with fewer reported medical errors and that job satisfaction was associated with better communication and patient satisfaction. Autonomy and learning opportunities were positively associated with physician work engagement. Work engagement was positively associated with teaching performance. In addition, physician work engagement was most likely supported by personality trait conscientiousness (e. g. responsibility). Given the reported associations of physician work engagement with aspects of their professional performance, hospitals could support physician work engagement in service of optimal performance in residency training and patient care. This could be facilitated by worker health surveillance, peer support or promoting job crafting at the individual or team level.
Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Chen, Ying; Singh, Ankura; Okereke, Olivia I; Kubzansky, Laura D
To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) on factors that influence mental and physical health. Narrative review of all published articles using data from the NHS, the NHS II, and the Growing Up Today Study focusing on mental health conditions (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety) and psychosocial resources and stressors (e.g., job strain, interpersonal violence, social relationships, sexual orientation) between 1990 and 2016. Studies have considered a broad array of determinants (e.g., genes, biomarkers, air pollution) and consequent behavioral and disease-related outcomes (e.g., body weight, smoking, cardiometabolic diseases, cancer, autism). Findings suggest anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, childhood violence, caregiver burden, and job insecurity may increase the risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes, whereas findings with cancer are mixed. This work directly affects public health actions, as demonstrated by recent inclusion of a gender expression measure in state surveys. The NHS cohorts have produced novel and influential research on the interplay of psychological and social factors with health. Psychological and social variables are important contributors to the maintenance or decline of physical and mental health.
Mohammad reza khodabakhsh
Full Text Available Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls of Boukan's high schools. The participants were asked to complete psychological well-being inventory and mental health parenting style questionnaire. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results showed that psychological well-being and authoritative parenting styles were significantly related with mental health; also, Permissive parenting styles has significant positive relationship with mental health. The regression analysis indicated that mental health is predictable by psychological well-being and parenting styles. Conclusion: The knowledge of parenting styles and psychological well-being and their relationships with general well-being can provide the significant implications on the provision of students' health. Parenting styles and psychological well-being, as significant variables in general well-being, needs more clinical research.