Ploeg, E. van der
The risk of high-risk jobs: Psychological health consequences in forensic doctors and ambulance workers This thesis has shown that forensic physicians and ambulance personnel frequently suffer from psychological complaints as a result of dramatic events and sources of chronic work stress. A
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the short term consequences of job insecurity associated with a newly introduced mobility framework in Greece. In specific, the study examined the impact of job insecurity on anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic and musculoskeletal symptoms, two months after the announcement of the mobility framework. In addition the study also examined the “spill over” effects of job insecurity on employees not directly affected by the mobility framework. Personal interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted for 36 university administrative employees awaiting repositioning, 36 coworkers not at risk, and 28 administrative employees of a local hospital not at risk. Compared to both control groups the employees in the anticipation phase of labor mobility had significantly worse scores for perceived stress, anxiety, depression, positive affect, negative affect, social support, marital discord, common somatic symptoms, and frequency of musculoskeletal pain. This study highlights the immediate detrimental effects of job insecurity on the physical, psychological, and social functioning of employees. There is a need for the development of front line interventions to prevent these effects from developing into chronic conditions with considerable cost for the individual and society in general.
The present study represents an attempt at contributing to literature by addressing an underresearched topic of considerable health concern. The study investigated the psychological consequences of wife abuse in three high density residential areas in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Ibadan. Four hundred and ...
Rijnsburger, A. J.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; van As, E.; Cockburn, J.; de Koning, H. J.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of a Dutch adaptation of an originally Australian instrument measuring the psychological impact of breast cancer screening. METHODS: The three subscales (emotional, physical, social) of the Psychological Consequences Questionnaire (PCQ) underwent
Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Krissi, Haim; Levy, Sigal; Freund, Yael; Carmiel, Naama; Ashwal, Eran; Peled, Yoav
Research of psychological factors associated with imminent preterm labor (PTL) is sparse, compared with considerable research of preterm birth. We explored state and trait psychological variables associated with PTL, both pre- and postpartum. During 2012-2014, 56 women hospitalized due to PTL, and 33 pregnant women without PTL, responded during gestational week 20-33, to a demographic questionnaire, the Big-Five Inventory (BFI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Fear of Childbirth Questionnaire, and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Inventory (MFAS). At 4-6 weeks postpartum, 35 and 23 of the women in the respective groups responded online to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother to Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS). Compared to women without PTL, women with PTL scored higher on neuroticism, openness to experience, and MFAS (p < 0.01 each), scored lower on consciousness and agreeableness (p < 0.01 each), and showed greater fear of childbirth (p < 0.05). Significant differences were not found in the postpartum variables of EPDS and MIBS. In the PTL group, MFAS (β = 0.36, p < 0.01), but not fear of childbirth (β = 0.08, p = NS), remained higher, after controlling for demographic variables and neuroticism. PTL was associated with personality variables, but not with psychological consequences, other than elevated prepartum attachment to the fetus.
Dembo, Robert S; Mitra, Monika; McKee, Michael
People with disabilities experience mental health disparities and higher rates of violence compared to people without disabilities. Few studies have examined the psychological consequences of violence against people with disabilities, and whether they differ from those experienced by people without disabilities. This study compared psychological consequences of violence among men and women with and without disabilities. We analyzed data from the 2008-2014 waves of the National Crime Victimization Survey. Multiple logistic regressions were estimated to compare the psychological impact of violent crime on respondents without disabilities to those with disabilities, who comprised roughly 20% of the sample (n = 8,070). We stratified by gender to compare the effects of violence experienced by men and women. Men with disabilities were more likely than men without disabilities to report severe distress (AOR = 2.07, p disabilities. Men with disabilities had similar odds of adverse psychological outcomes compared to women without disabilities. Women with disabilities had higher odds of severe distress following violence compared to men without disabilities (3.90, p disabilities (1.86, p disabilities had higher odds of anxiety, depression, and anxiety and depression compared to men and women without disabilities. Women with disabilities are at higher risk of negative psychological consequences resulting from violence compared to other gender-disability groups. Men with disabilities also experience worse outcomes relative to men without disabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Jean Rankin,1 Lynsay Matthews,2 Stephen Cobley,3 Ahreum Han,3 Ross Sanders,3 Huw D Wiltshire,4 Julien S Baker5 1Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, 2MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 4Cardiff School of Sport/Ysgol Chwaraeon Caerdydd, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK; 5School of Science and Sport, Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, Scotland Abstract: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW or obese (OB, and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings
Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is necessary to combat this increasing trend which is compromising the health and well-being of the young generation and seriously impinging on resources and economic costs.
This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.
An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...
Juan F. Díaz-Morales
Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the role of circadian preference in psychological functioning of adolescents taking into account their shift to eveningness during this stage of life. After a brief explanation about morningness/eveningness and other terms related, an overview of the changes that occur on three of the most important areas in the adolescent's life is presented: school performance, personality styles, and health. Consequences of evening preference on school achievement are considered from the analysis of the relevance of sleep debt and time-of-day in cognition and mood aspects. In general, students who are able to choose activity times coinciding with their preferred times may have a greater opportunity to optimize their performance. The personality styles and health of morning and evening types are also important factors related to school and family adaptation. At last, some recommendations and conclusions in order to promote a healthy psychological functioning are described.
Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W
The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Løkkegaard, Thomas; S. Andersen, John; K. Jacobsen, Rikke
Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...
... Consequences of Drug Misuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/health-consequences-drug-misuse. March 23, 2017. press ctrl+c to copy Other Articles of Interest NIDA Notes Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids May Damage the Heart and Arteries Substance Use ...
Goldmann, Emily; Galea, Sandro
We present in this review the current state of disaster mental health research. In particular, we provide an overview of research on the presentation, burden, correlates, and treatment of mental disorders following disasters. We also describe challenges to studying the mental health consequences of disasters and discuss the limitations in current methodologies. Finally, we offer directions for future disaster mental health research.
The Consequence Deafness has on the Psychological and Academic Development of deaf students. The case of Alpha special school for the deaf in Addis Ababa, Hermata and Mendera Junior School at Jimma Town.
Llosa Augusto E
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition of the psychological impact of adversity associated with armed conflict on exposed civilian populations. Yet there is a paucity of evidence on the value of mental health programs in these contexts, and of the chronology of psychological sequelae, especially in prolonged conflicts with repeated cycles of extreme violence. Here, we describe changes in the psychological profile of new patients in a mental health program after the military offensive Cast Lead, in the context of the prolonged armed conflict involving the Gaza Strip. Methods This study analyses routinely collected program data from a Médecins Sans Frontières mental health program in the Gaza Strip spanning 2007–2011. Data consist of socio-demographic as well as clinical baseline and follow-up data on new patients entering the program. Comparisons were made through Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests, univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regression. Results PTSD, depression and other anxiety disorders were the most frequent psychopathologies, with 21% having multiple diagnoses. With a median of nine sessions, clinical improvement was recorded for 83% (1122/1357, and more common for those with separation anxiety, acute and posttraumatic disorders as principal diagnosis (855/1005, compared to depression (141/183, p Conclusion Evolving changes in patient volume, diagnoses and recall period to triggering events suggest a lengthy and durable effect of an intensified exposure to violence in a context of prolonged conflict. Our findings suggest that mental health related humanitarian relief in protracted conflicts might need to prepare for an increase in patients with changing profiles over an extended period following an acute flare-up in violence.
Moreno-Villanueva, M; Bürkle, A
Psychological stress has often been described as a feeling of being overwhelmed by the necessity of constant adjustment to an individual's changing environment. Stress affects people of all ages, but the lives of the elderly may particularly be affected. Major changes can cause anxiety leading to feelings of insecurity and/or loss of self-esteem and depression. The cellular mechanisms underlying psychological stress are poorly understood. This review focuses on the physical and molecular consequences of psychological stress linked to aging processes and, in particular, how molecular changes induced by psychological stress can compromise healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olsen, J.; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten
Abstract. A pregnancy requires a reasonably good health and may have positive as well as negative health consequences for the woman. Part of these health effects may depend on the immune response to the exchange of fetal cells (microchimerism). The number of biological fathers to a woman’s children...... one partner had a higher relative mortality rate, which was even higher if she had more than two partners. This finding persisted after excluding unnatural deaths and did not depend on time from exposure. Although some of the findings were adjusted for parity, age and social factors, it is highly...
Will, R; Hintz, E; Blättner, B
Life time prevalence of stalking is about 12-20%, while females are more often affected than male. Stalking is a statutory offense. However, it is not an assault of victims' law. For the purpose of health consequences for stalking victims, research in following database were conducted: EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. English and German published studies of the years 2002-2010 were included. 17 primary studies and 2 meta-analyses were identified. Direct physiological consequences are relatively rare; however stalking victims report a poorer physiological health status. Almost every second stalking victim shows impairments on his/her psychical well-being. Impairments of social well-being are common, too. As a result, there is still a lot of research, especially in long-term studies, required. Socio-legal reassessment of stalking will probably benefit only a few of the affected people. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available "nObjective: abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. "n Method: 278 women of reproductive age (15-49 interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. "nResults: The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. "nConclusion: Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health.
Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.
With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and
Sydor, G; Philippot, P
A research program on the prevalence of reactions of posttraumatic stress is described in this article. The program is specifically centered on the psychological consequences of the April 1994 events in Rwanda and the genocide that followed. It includes three psycho-epidemiologic studies: 1) a study of non-accompanied Rwandan children; 2) a study of a small group of belgian cooperants; and 3) a study of an important sample of belgian civilians and militaries having been through the rwandan events. The psychological impact of the rwandan events is described in terms of prevalence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress.
Northouse, L L; Cracchiolo-Caraway, A; Appel, C P
Breast cancer can have psychologic consequences not only for patients but also for the entire family system. Research indicates a major impact on the husband, the marital relationship, the children, and family roles and responsibilities. Greater attention needs to be given to the family members to ensure that they get the support they need, and to enable them to maintain their supportive roles with the patient.
Rajecki, D W; Borden, Victor M H
Psychology is a very popular undergraduate major. Examining wage data from a range of degree holders reveals much about the expected career trajectories of those with psychology degrees. First, regarding baccalaureates, psychology and other liberal arts graduates-compared with those from certain preprofessional and technical undergraduate programs-generally fall in relatively low tiers of salary levels at both starting and later career points. Salary levels among baccalaureate alumni groups correlate with averaged measures of salary satisfaction, repeated job seeking, and perceptions of underemployment. These patterns seem to stem from the specific occupational categories (job titles) entered by graduates in psychology compared with other graduates, calling into question the employability advantage of so-called generic liberal arts skills. Second, psychology master's degree holders also generally fall in a low tier of salary among their science, engineering, and health counterparts. Third, psychology college faculty (including instructors) fall in low tiers of salary compared with their colleagues from other academic fields. Such broadly based indications of the relative economic disadvantages of psychology degrees have implications for career counseling in the field. © The Author(s) 2011.
Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.
Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.
Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093
Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes
Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment. PMID:28977041
Denise Albieri Jodas Salvagioni
Full Text Available Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers' well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment.
Salvagioni, Denise Albieri Jodas; Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes; Andrade, Selma Maffei de
Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers' well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment.
Vassard, Ditte; Olsen, Maja Halgren; Zinckernagel, Line
BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective cohort study of women attending a rehabilitation course at the Dallund Rehabilitation Centre was to explore the emotional and psychological aspects of living with lymphoedema, expressed as psychological distress, poorer quality of life and poorer self...... with lymphoedema had a 14% higher risk for scoring one level higher on the POMS-SF test, a 9% higher probability of scoring one point lower on the quality of life scale and a 29% higher likelihood of reporting poorer or bad health than women without lymphoedema. These findings were seen at all three measurement...
Malina, Alicja; Pooley, Julie Ann
Due to the reported efficacy of in vitro fertilization (IVF) this method of dealing with infertility is increasing being used. Experiencing IVF can be a source of psychological and emotional difficulties for couples trying to have a child. A systematic review was performed to discuss IVF as a psychological issue that impacts on the functioning of individuals, couples and families. Ebsco, Science Direct and PsycARTICLES databases were searched using the keywords: IVF fertilization, IVF psychology, infertility, and IVF consequences, using published peer reviewed articles from 2006 onwards. Studies in the English and Polish languages, peer reviewed and investigating general IVF and infertility psychological issues were included. Data was collected by the authors between June 2015-January 2016. Studies indicate that partners going through IVF may not have enough support from their closest social environments. It is argued that these unsupportive social interactions affect the well-being of couples, can hinder conception, and therefore are one of the reasons for attrition from IVF, the most effective assisted reproduction method. There is a need to conduct studies on the effect of supportive social interactions for the functioning of couples undergoing IVF.
Full Text Available This article describes the meaning of the terms „aggression“, „aggressive“ and „aggressive behavior“. It specifies the nature and basic principles of psychological counseling. It aims to present techniques and best practices for overcoming the consequences of aggressive behavior. It describes a number intervention methods such as separation of the role functions from the personal reactions; progressive muscle relaxation, pragmatism to the manifestations of undesirable behavior, breathing techniques, visualization of positive images, method of biological feedback, meditation, neuro-linguistic programming, realistic approach to events, situations and persons involved in them, clear definition of their capabilities and competencies. These ways of influence are illustrated by describing two specific cases. They are suitable for both individual and group counseling. An examination of the symptoms and consequences of the aggressive behavior provides essential information on the experiences of the counselor’s clients as well as their relationship to the past, present and future.
Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G
AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support in the assoc......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...
Friedman, Howard S; Silver, Roxane Cohen
... and Effective Treatment 9 Adjustment to Chronic Disease: Progress and Promise in Research Annette L. Stanton and Tracey A. Revenson 203 10 Aging and Health 234 Karen S. Rook, Susan T. Charles, and...
Mitsi, C; Efthimiou, K
Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term, however other causes can be found in both sexes. The diagnosis of infertility and the concurrent medical treatment are rather stressful events for the couple and can provoke a number of negative symptoms such as depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms which may interfere with the medical therapeutic procedures especially with the in-vitro fertilisation technique. The relationship between infertility and psychological factors has not been explored fully and are still under research. However current findings can be summarized in three basic hypotheses; namely, the effect of psychological factors on the appearance of infertility, the psychological consequences of infertility at the couple, and the reciprocal relation of psychological factors and infertility. Stress and anxiety activate the hypothalamic-adrenal axis (HPA), and this activation can disturb the hormones of fertility. The presence of depressive/anxiety symptoms seems to have a negative impact on the treatment of infertility and sometimes can be a risk factor for lower pregnancy rate. There is a possibility that psychological complaints could develop, prior, during and after the diagnosis of infertility and may interfere with the fertilisation therapy. Should such psychological complaints develop it is suggested that psychotherapeutic treatment is used in conjunction with the treatment approach of infertility, e.g. IVF. The above mentioned suggestion is supported by a large number of researchers and current research efforts focus on different psychotherapeutic interventions such as Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has shown during research its superiority compared to other psychotherapeutic interventions and that could be an effective way to decrease the depressive
Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of violence against women prevalence in Serbia and worldwide, as well as its influences on health, is given. Apart from causing physical injuries, violence against women is a risk factor for developing different health problems. Violence effects on health are cumulative, and its consequences remain even after quitting violence. Most frequent health disorders related to violence are expressed as so called "functional" disorders, such as: diverse chronicle pain syndromes, gastrointestinal disorders, irritable bowel syndrome etc. Also, violence consequences could be sexual transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancy followed by complication and low birth weight, as well as various psychological disorders - depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress syndrome, etc. Substance and alcohol abuse, and suicidal tendencies, are also related to violence. Risk for illness is increasing when woman is exposed to both physical and sexual violence at the same time. In certain number of cases, violence against women is causing death of victim. While working with women, health professionals should approach in an appropriate way and ask questions regarding violence. .
Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.
Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…
Full Text Available Through this research, I intended to point out the particular characteristics of prisoners, by trying to define a more comprehensive image of the prisoner's personality, as well as understanding these phenomena by developing a socio-psychological profile of the individuals through theoretical information. The need for an extensive work must approach with priority this type of issues, with such extremely complex, but in the same time controversial consequences, based on a series of questions that appear in the literature, seeking urgent for answers. To achieve this objective, I used a methodology based on documentary research in order to explain a set of concepts and specific terms for this subject, which become an area of interest for specialists who investigate the causes, motivation and personality of prisoners. Thus, my purpose was to identify, emphasize certain personality characteristics present with prisoners through answers, information provided by them, but also by other subjects included in this research.
Ziello, Antonio Rosario; Degli Angioli, Rolando; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria; Amenta, Francesco
Maritime piracy is a worrying phenomenon. Its recurrence in the last few years iscausing several problems to the safety of maritime routes. In spite of the number of seafarers kidnappedand maintained in captivity, psychological/mental disorders developed in victims of these criminal actshave not been investigated. This study has assessed psychological consequences of kidnapping in a groupof Italian seafarers held in captivity from 7 to 10 months. Four Italian seafarers were examined at the 5th month after release. An initial, semi-structured interview was followed by 2 structured clinical evaluations for assessing the possible presence of psychopathological disorders. Instruments used were the Cognitive Behavioural Assessment (CBA 2.0) and the Clinician-Administered Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Scale (CAPS-DX). All victims showed high scores of state anxiety (56.00 ± 3.36) and social adjustment disorder (12.75 ± 2.21) to CBA 2.0. Moreover, 3 of them revealed traits of anxiety (58.75 ± 8.50) and emotionalinstability (8.25 ± 2.50). Two of them had somatic disorders (63.25 ± 15.94), depression (17.25 ± 4.78) and phobic problems (91.00 ± 7.02). In 3 of 4 victims examined, a PTSD diagnosis was made. Symptomsof recall resulted in higher CAPS-DX (13.00 ± 4.05) scores. Traumatic experiences such as being kept in captivity by pirates could entail relevant psychopathological disorders in victims and their families. Quality care interventions, aimed to develop paradigms for resilience training, represent a priority. An international partnerships and collaboration between institutions, clinicians and seafarer organisations can be useful to evaluate psychological conditions of these workers.
Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)
This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.
Shultz, James M; Besser, Avi; Kelly, Fiona; Allen, Andrea; Schmitz, Susan; Hausmann, Vicky; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Neria, Yuval
Few studies have focused on the mental health consequences of indirect exposure to disasters caused by naturally occurring hazards. The present study assessed indirect exposure to the 2010 earthquake in Haiti among Haitian-Americans now living in Miami; these subjects had no direct exposure to the earthquake, but retained their cultural identity, language, and connection to family and friends in Haiti. Two months following the earthquake a sample of Haitian-Americans was surveyed inquiring about: (1) their psychological reactions to the quake; (2) types of exposures experienced by their family members and friends in Haiti; and (3) symptom levels of (a) major depression, (b) generalized anxiety disorder, (c) complicated grief, (d) mental health status, and (e) physical health status. Haitian-Americans living in Miami experienced a broad spectrum of indirect exposures to the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. These exposures were strongly associated with psychological distress, trauma-related mental health consequences, and diminished health status. Most notable was the multiplicity of indirect exposures to the on-scene experiences of multiple family members and friends in Haiti. Consideration should be given to the psychological impact and needs for support among indirectly-exposed populations with strong affiliation to directly-impacted victims.
Full Text Available Research into the psychosocial consequences of war and political violence on children’s and adolescent’s developmental wellbeing has shown a steady increase over the last decades. Numerous studies, from differing cultures in different war zones around the world, have documented the effect on children of exposure to war atrocities. The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH 1992-1995, at the end of 20th century found the citizens of BH and the world mental health professionals and scientists unprepared to deal with the adverse consequences for the entire BH population and especially for its most vulnerable part, children and adolescents, to be able to take adequate measures of sufficient mental health care to prevent devastating consequences of severe multiple traumas. Only a few research studies were done during and after this war in BH, the United States, Sweden, Norway, the UK and Germany focusing on the relationship between war trauma, Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, suicidal thoughts, acculturation, repatriation, poverty, behavioral problems, school adjustment, relational problems of children and their mothers after deployment of war PTSD veterans and war prisoners, and treatment of psychological consequences in examined children and adolescents from BH. The major part of this paper reviewed available literature on Medline that reported national and international studies which investigated the psychological consequences of war on BH children and adolescents and several papers about children and adolescents from Srebrenica, that were not indexed on Medline, but showed very crucial results for the issue described.
Sanford, M N; Mullen, P E
The impact of unemployment on the physical and mental health of adolescents is one of the critical medical and social issues of our age. This paper reviews recent studies examining the link between youth unemployment and physical and mental ill-health. The evidence suggests that youth unemployment is associated with an increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder. It is more firmly established that unemployment influences the course and prognosis of those with preexisting psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorder itself can also lead to reduced employability, particularly during periods of economic adversity. Fruitful areas of further study are identified.
Bernaldo-De-Quirós, Mónica; Piccini, Ana T; Gómez, M Mar; Cerdeira, Jose C
Pre-hospital emergency care is a particularly vulnerable setting for workplace violence. However, there is no literature available to date on the psychological consequences of violence in pre-hospital emergency care. To evaluate the psychological consequences of exposure to workplace violence from patients and those accompanying them in pre-hospital emergency care. A retrospective cross-sectional study. 70 pre-hospital emergency care services located in Madrid region. A randomized sample of 441 health care workers (135 physicians, 127 nurses and 179 emergency care assistants). Data were collected from February to May 2012. The survey was divided into four sections: demographic/professional information, level of burnout determined by Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), mental health status using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and frequency and type of violent behaviour experienced by staff members. The health care professionals who had been exposed to physical and verbal violence presented a significantly higher percentage of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and burnout syndrome compared with those who had not been subjected to any aggression. Frequency of verbal violence (more than five times) was related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Type of violence (i.e. physical aggression) is especially related to high anxiety levels and frequency of verbal aggression is associated with burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). Psychological counselling should be made available to professional staff who have been subjected to physical aggression or frequent verbal violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Habel, Ute; Wagels, Lisa; Ellendt, Sinika; Scheller, Maryse; Evler, Aynur; Bergs, René; Clemens, Benjamin; Pütz, Annette; Kohn, Nils; Schneider, Frank
Violence has many faces and often results in a variety of consequences. Some studies indicated different types of violence and health consequences in men and women. However, it is still unclear whether this is reflected in clinical context, for example in a patient sample of a German university hospital. The primary goal of the present study was to analyze associations of violence with health, gender and social, economic, job-related, psychological and physical consequences. In addition, the effects of psychological treatment were examined. One line of research refers to the survey of more than 5000 patients of the university hospital Aachen, evaluating violence experience and several health complaints anonymously. Another line of research deals with detailed interviews with victims of violence and their experienced consequences. A final data source stems from the evaluation of psychological counseling of patients with prior experience of violence. Changes in subjectively perceived depressive symptoms and acceptance of the treatment are evaluated. Experience of violence increases the risk for several health problems, especially the experience of multiple types of violence. The interviews showed that more than 60% of the victims had a clinical diagnosis--independent of sex. The risk for a clinical diagnosis increased with multiple violence experiences during childhood. Patients with a clinical diagnosis indicated more subjective consequences of violence, and consequences of violence were more pronounced in patients that experienced multiple types of violence. The good acceptance as well as the effects on symptomatology and other relevant therapeutic variables provides a first indication for a successful treatment of victims of violence in a clinical context.
The social-psychological consequences of hiv/aids stigmatization on social Relations ... questions about the Social-Psychological effects of the pandemic affecting ... People's behavioural response to the disease and relationship with victims is ...
Yablokov, Alexey V
Problems complicating a full assessment of the effects from Chernobyl included official secrecy and falsification of medical records by the USSR for the first 3.5 years after the catastrophe and the lack of reliable medical statistics in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. Official data concerning the thousands of cleanup workers (Chernobyl liquidators) who worked to control the emissions are especially difficult to reconstruct. Using criteria demanded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) resulted in marked underestimates of the number of fatalities and the extent and degree of sickness among those exposed to radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. Data on exposures were absent or grossly inadequate, while mounting indications of adverse effects became more and more apparent. Using objective information collected by scientists in the affected areas--comparisons of morbidity and mortality in territories characterized by identical physiography, demography, and economy, which differed only in the levels and spectra of radioactive contamination--revealed significant abnormalities associated with irradiation, unrelated to age or sex (e.g., stable chromosomal aberrations), as well as other genetic and nongenetic pathologies.
Judd, Lewis L; Schettler, Pamela J; Brown, E Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Sternberg, Esther M; Bender, Bruce G; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A; de Kloet, E Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y M; McEwen, Bruce S; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep
Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as ways to prevent and treat these disturbances. An illustrative case vignette is presented describing a patient's experience of cycles of manic-like behavior and depression while on high-dosage prednisone, with long-term cognitive disorganization, vulnerability to stress, and personality changes. Severe neuropsychiatric consequences (including suicide, suicide attempt, psychosis, mania, depression, panic disorder, and delirium, confusion, or disorientation) have been reported to occur in 15.7 per 100 person-years at risk for all glucocorticoid courses, and 22.2 per 100 person-years at risk for first courses. The majority of patients experience less severe but distressing and possibly persistent changes in mood, cognition, memory, or behavior during glucocorticoid treatment or withdrawal. Although prediction of such effects is difficult, risks vary with age, gender, dosage, prior psychiatric history, and several biological markers. Key mechanisms thought to underlie these risk factors are briefly described. Recommendations are given for identifying individual risk factors and for monitoring and managing adverse neuropsychiatric effects of glucocorticoids.
Hall, Julie H; Fincham, Frank D
Research on infidelity-related distress has focused on victims with little attention to perpetrators. Two studies therefore explore the psychological functioning of individuals who have engaged in dating infidelity. Study 1 showed that, compared to faithful partners, individuals who had engaged in infidelity showed more psychological distress. Study 2 investigated the interrelationships among infidelity, psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction over time. Results suggested that initial levels of psychological distress predicted later infidelity but infidelity did not predict subsequent psychological distress. Findings are interpreted in light of the broader infidelity literature, potential mechanisms are suggested, and avenues for future research are recommended.
Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro
Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Sherman, Amanda E.; Stuart, Gregory L.
Psychological aggression is the most prevalent form of aggression in dating relationships, with women perpetrating as much, if not more, psychological aggression than men. Researchers have advocated for an examination of the consequences that follow psychological aggression for the perpetrator, in hopes that this will lead to innovative…
Tejeda, Silvia; Stolley, Melinda R; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Campbell, Richard T; Estwing Ferrans, Carol; Warnecke, Richard B; Rauscher, Garth H
Breast cancer has psychological consequences that impact quality of life. We examined factors associated with negative psychological consequences of a breast cancer diagnosis, in a diverse sample of 910 recently diagnosed patients (378 African American, 372 white, and 160 Latina). Patients completed an in-person interview as part of the Breast Cancer Care in Chicago study within an average of 4 months from diagnosis. The Cockburn negative psychological consequences of breast cancer screening scale was revised to focus on a breast cancer diagnosis. Path analysis assessed predictors of psychological consequences and potential mediators between race/ethnicity and psychological consequences. Compared to white counterparts, bivariate analysis showed African American (β = 1.4, P psychological consequences. Strongest predictors (P psychological consequences was unmet social support. African American and Latina women reported greater psychological consequences related to their breast cancer diagnosis; this disparity was mediated by differences in unmet social support. Social support represents a promising point of intervention. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This commentary asks the question of whether positive psychology represents an egoistic pursuit of happiness, which is in conflict with basic values within health promotion. A look at key concepts and research findings within positive psychology reveals common ground with health promotion. Similarities are evident in conceptualization of health, resource focus, value focus and consequences for policy. Some influences of happiness on health and functioning are described.
Bromet, E J; Havenaar, J M; Guey, L T
The Chernobyl Forum Report from the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster concluded that mental health effects were the most significant public health consequence of the accident. This paper provides an updated review of research on the psychological impact of the accident during the 25 year period since the catastrophe began. First responders and clean-up workers had the greatest exposure to radiation. Recent studies show that their rates of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder remain elevated two decades later. Very young children and those in utero who lived near the plant when it exploded or in severely contaminated areas have been the subject of considerable research, but the findings are inconsistent. Recent studies of prenatally exposed children conducted in Kiev, Norway and Finland point to specific neuropsychological and psychological impairments associated with radiation exposure, whereas other studies found no significant cognitive or mental health effects in exposed children grown up. General population studies report increased rates of poor self-rated health as well as clinical and subclinical depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Mothers of young children exposed to the disaster remain a high-risk group for these conditions, primarily due to lingering worries about the adverse health effects on their families. Thus, long-term mental health consequences continue to be a concern. The unmet need for mental health care in affected regions remains an important public health challenge 25 years later. Future research is needed that combines physical and mental health outcome measures to complete the clinical picture. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michelozzi, Paola; de' Donato, Francesca
In the European Region, floods are the most common natural disaster, causing extensive damage and disruption. In Italy, it has been estimated that over 68% of municipalities are at high hydrogeological risk and with the recent intense rainfall events local populations have been facing severe disruptions. The health consequences of floods are wide ranging and are dependent upon the vulnerability of the environment and the local population. Health effects can be a direct or indirect consequence of flooding. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, heart attacks, injuries and hypothermia. The indirect effects include, injuries and infections, water-borne infectious disease, mental health problems, respiratory disease and allergies in both the medium and long term after a flood. Future efforts should be addressed to integrate health preparedness and prevention measures into emergency flood plans and hydrological warning systems.
Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Addabbo, Tindara
The Great Recession has caused worldwide tangible costs in terms of cuts in employment and income, which have been widely recognised also as major social determinants of mental health. Italy has not been spared from the financial crisis with severe societal and mental health consequences. In addition, a strong earthquake hit the province of Modena, Italy, in 2012, that is, amid the crisis. In this study, we explored and investigated the possible additional impact of concurrent events such as economic crisis and a natural disaster. Our analysis elaborated data from two local surveys, ICESmo2 (2006) and ICESmo3 (2012), and a national survey carried out in 2013 by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT)). A regression model was adopted to distinguish the effect of the crisis and the earthquake. Our analysis confirmed the negative effect of the economic crisis on psychological wellbeing, but within the province of Modena such an effect resulted as even stronger compared with the rest of Italy, particularly within those areas struck by the earthquake. Being hit by a combination of two major negative events might have a significantly increased negative effect on psychological health. The higher repercussion observed is not only attributable to the occurrence of a natural disaster but can be reasonably related to the additional effect of unemployment on psychological dimensions. © The Author(s) 2016.
Shultz, James M; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Madanes, Sharon B; Espinel, Zelde; Neria, Yuval
The 2010 Haiti earthquake was one of the most catastrophic episodes in history, leaving 5% of the nation's population killed or injured, and 19% internally displaced. The distinctive combination of earthquake hazards and vulnerabilities, extreme loss of life, and paralyzing damage to infrastructure, predicts population-wide psychological distress, debilitating psychopathology, and pervasive traumatic grief. However, mental health was not referenced in the national recovery plan. The limited MHPSS services provided in the first eight months generally lacked coordination and empirical basis.There is a need to customize and coordinate disaster mental health assessments, interventions, and prevention efforts around the novel stressors and consequences of each traumatic event. An analysis of the key features of the 2010 Haiti earthquake was conducted, defining its "Trauma Signature" based on a synthesis of early disaster situation reports to identify the unique assortment of risk factors for post-disaster mental health consequences. This assessment suggests that multiple psychological risk factors were prominent features of the earthquake in Haiti. For rapid-onset disasters, Trauma Signature (TSIG) analysis can be performed during the post-impact/pre-deployment phase to target the MHPSS response in a manner that is evidence-based and tailored to the event-specific exposures and experiences of disaster survivors. Formalization of tools to perform TSIG analysis is needed to enhance the timeliness and accuracy of these assessments and to extend this approach to human-generated disasters and humanitarian crises.
The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as...
Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.
Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as
Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep
Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as
Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the physical health consequences of intimate partner violence against women and the coping mechanisms in Agaro town, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: - This community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 510 ever-partnered women in. Agaro town from ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Results Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8% of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9% with healthy babies (p = Conclusions This study highlights the greatly increased vulnerability of women with perinatal death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.
Full Text Available Psychological and physiological characteristics were assessed in thirteen students aged 19-23 who are smokers for more than a year. Psychological status was studied with the use of the Spilberger-Khanin inventory of reactive and personality anxiety; physiological status was assessed through the analysis of cardio-rhythm. Fagerstrom tobacco dependence and Horn smoking motivation questionnaires were used as well. Study participants demonstrated high levels of personal anxiety, while changes in physiological and psychological characteristics after smoking were insignificant. Most common motivation to smoke was associated with desire to relax and cope with anxiety. Author concludes that smoking inhibits physiological functions but does not influence emotional status significantly. (Full text is in Russian
Johnson, Norine G.
Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…
Martin, Roy P; Dombrowski, Stefan C
..., psychology, medicine, developmental biology) have attempted to determine the causes of these disabilities. Many factors have been isolated including genetics, nutrition, pollutants, inadequate caretaking and social factors linked to poverty. It is the belief of the authors of this book that one set of factors, those that alter the neurological developme...
Bromet, Evelyn J
The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental
MCCormick, Lisa C; Tajeu, Gabriel S; Klapow, Joshua
This article reviews the literature pertaining to psychological impacts in the aftermath of technological disasters, focusing on the immediate psychological and mental health consequences emergency department physicians and first responders may encounter in the aftermath of such disasters. First receivers see a wide spectrum of psychological distress, including acute onset of psychiatric disorders, the exacerbation of existing psychological and psychiatric conditions, and widespread symptomatology even in the absence of a diagnosable disorder. The informal community support systems that exist after a natural disaster may not be available to communities affected by a technological disaster leading to a need for more formal mental health supportive services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yen, Jeffery; Vaccarino, Oriana
In contrast to the institutionalization of health psychology in North America and Europe, much psychological work on health issues in South Africa emerged as part of a critical revitalization of South African psychology as a whole, coinciding with the dismantling of Apartheid and global shifts in health discourse. The field's development reflects attempts to engage with urgent health problems in the context of rapid sociopolitical changes that followed democratic transition in the 1990s, and under new conditions of knowledge production. We provide an account of these issues, as well as reflections on the field's future, as inflected through the experiences of 12 South African psychologists whose careers span the emergence of health-related psychology to the present day.
Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.
Ana Estevez; Irache Urbiola; Itziar Iruarrizaga; Jaione Onaindia
.... The present study was carried out with a sample of 535 young university students in order to analyze emotional dependency in dating relationships and the psychological consequences of Internet and mobile use...
Full Text Available The present study deals with an important problem that currently affects scientists and society, namely, the falsification and manipulation of research and researchers' CVs, which has considerably increased in recent years. This is shown by some studies, the authors of which have found high percentages of researchers who falsify their CV or manipulate data. We analyze the system used to evaluate science and researchers, which is almost exclusively based on the impact factor. We review the main critiques on the inappropriate use of the impact factor to assess researchers and argue that this has generated a new style of thinking in which the only goal is to obtain publications with an impact factor. Over the last few years, the pressure to publish has led to an obsession among researchers to disseminate the multiple indicators of their scientific publications over the Internet, to the extent that such initiatives look like marketing campaigns where researchers advertise themselves. For all these reasons, we propose that this may be a new psychological disorder, given that several criteria indicating maladaptation are clearly met: falsification and/or manipulation of data, falsification of publication indicators, distortion of reality, belief in manipulated data, and an obsession to conduct marketing campaigns of oneself. We address the important ethical and legal implications of such falsifications. Finally, we discuss the need to change the system used to evaluate science and researchers, which undoubtedly promotes these dishonest behaviors or this psychological dysfunction.
Thrall, James H
Unintended consequences of health care legislation threaten the financial and social well-being of the United States. Examples of major legislation resulting in unintended and unforeseen consequences include the Social Security Amendments Acts of 1989 and 1993 (the Stark laws), the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, and the Social Security Amendments Act of 1965 (Medicare and Medicaid). Each of these has had unintended financial and social outcomes. Spending for Medicare and Medicaid now equals an unsustainable 23% of the federal budget. Major reasons for unintended consequences include failure to appreciate the complexity of the issues, the open-ended nature of medical advances with attendant increases in costs, the inducement of change in behaviors in response to legislation, and the moral hazard of people spending other people's money. Actions that should be considered to avoid unintended consequences include more involvement of health professionals in the design of legislation, the inclusion of triggers to target review of legislatively defined programs, and the setting of time limits for sun-setting legislation. The ACR has played an important advocacy role and should continue to offer input to legislators, federal policymakers, and other stakeholders. Many opportunities exist to address the current financial situation by reducing the amount of unnecessary care delivered. Both major US political parties need to find the political will to compromise to chart the way forward. Some level of sacrifice is likely to be necessary from patients and providers and other stakeholders. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...
Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W
The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.
RANKIN, JEAN; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S
Jean Rankin,1 Lynsay Matthews,2 Stephen Cobley,3 Ahreum Han,3 Ross Sanders,3 Huw D Wiltshire,4 Julien S Baker5 1Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, 2MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 4Cardiff School of Sport/Ysgol Chwaraeon Caerdydd, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardi...
In this paper, an overview of violence against women prevalence in Serbia and worldwide, as well as its influences on health, is given. Apart from causing physical injuries, violence against women is a risk factor for developing different health problems. Violence effects on health are cumulative, and its consequences remain even after quitting violence. Most frequent health disorders related to violence are expressed as so called "functional" disorders, such as: diverse chronicle pain syndro...
Religion encompasses behavioural, attitudinal, public and private activities, all of which potentially involve different antecedent factors and consequences for health outcomes. There is increasing research evidence that religious involvement is associated both cross-sectionally and prospectively with better physical health, ...
Frahm-Falkenberg, S.; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, J.
Background and purpose: Dementia causes morbidity, disability and mortality, and as the population ages the societal burden will grow. The direct health costs and indirect costs of lost productivity and social welfare of dementia were estimated compared with matched controls in a national register...... based cohort study. Methods: Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997–2009) all patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or dementia not otherwise specified and their partners were identified and compared with randomly chosen controls matched for age...... of diagnosis. Conclusions: Dementias cause significant morbidity and mortality, consequently generating significant socioeconomic costs....
During space travel, astronauts are exposed to energetic particles of a complex composition and energy distribution. For the same amount of absorbed dose, these particles can be much more effective than X- or gamma rays in the induction of biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts, and cancer induction. Several of the biological consequences of space radiation exposure have already been observed in astronauts. This presentation will introduce the space radiation environment and discuss its associated health risks. Accurate assessment of the radiation risks and development of respective countermeasures are essential for the success of future exploration missions to the Moon and Mars.
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as the type and duration of the abuse. Intensity and expressiveness of post-traumatic response as well as coverage of personality spheres increase with aging. The data on the gender specificity of the sexual abuse effects suggest that girls more demonstrate internal forms, while external manifestations dominate in boys. The type and duration of sexual abuse determine a wide range of possible psychological consequences. It is noted that the severity of the psychological effects of sexual abuse in victims with mental disorders associated with the trauma is higher than in victims qualified to be mentally sane or having a mental illness, non-associated with psychologically traumatic situations. Psychological consequences exhibited by mentally sane victims show a decrease in their quality of life.
Full Text Available The results of the joint psychiatric-psychological examination of 175 victims of child sexual abuse (CSA are presented. A complex of methods and techniques was used, including semi-structured interview for detection of posttraumatic stress in children, inventories for quality of life and maladjustment assessment, a battery of methods applied in the forensic psychiatric-psychological expertise, statistical methods. In the framework of the clinical and psychological (non-clinical levels psychological consequences of CSA in accordance with the psychic state of victims were revealed. 4 groups of consequences with different intensity are described: psychogenic state in form of disorder (1 and psychogenic state in form of reaction (2 (clinical level; unfavorable psychological state (3 and minimally unfavorable state (4 (psychological level. It was stated that the more severe is the victim’s psychic disturbance, from minimally unfavorable to psychic disorder, the broader is the range of psychological, personality spheres involved the bigger is the number and the intensity of symptoms of posttraumatic reactions. Psychological consequences displayed by mentally healthy victims of CSA indicate, though, their quality of life impairment.
role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan ...
Kristensen, Kasper Andreas
This contribution explores the connection between health and subjectivity. Up until recently a marginally discussed topic in health theories, recent critical research in health psychology introduces notions of subjectivity to theories of health. These notions can be linked to phenomenology....... Hence, I will argue for the concept of conduct of life as an important concept for health psychology. The concept of conduct of life enables an analysis of how people conduct their activities and of their access to life possibilities, within social settings and societal power systems. The concept can...
Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten
Hypersomnia causes significant socioeconomic burden, but there is insufficient information about the time course and the effect on the partner. The aim of this study was to estimate the factual direct and productivity costs of hypersomnia in a controlled study including all national patients and ...... present in all age groups and in both genders. On the basis of this retrospective controlled study in the Danish population, symptoms and findings of hypersomnia are associated with major socioeconomic consequences for patients, their partners and society....... and their partners. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997-2009), we identified all patients with a diagnosis of hypersomnia and compared these patients and their partners with randomly chosen controls matched for age, gender, geographic area and marital status. Direct and productivity costs...... was 3,498 for patients with hypersomnia and 3,851 for their partners. The social and health-related consequences could be identified up to 11 years before the first diagnosis among both the patients and their partners and became more pronounced as the disease advanced. The health effects were...
Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Derks, Daantje
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the emerging concept of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP). We discuss the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs in order to understand the path to health and well-being at work. We describe research findings on several POHP topics, including engagement, psychological capital, and job crafting. Additionally, we review the first positive interventions in this field and conclude by identifying some specific questions for future research.
Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct and indirect factual costs of polyneuropathy in a national sample of patients and their spouses based on a national register-based cohort study with matched controls. METHODS: Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997-2009) all patients with ...... diagnosis, particularly for those with the highest costs. The health effects were present in all age groups and in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a diagnosis of polyneuropathy experience increased mortality, morbidity and socioeconomic consequences....... with a diagnosis of polyneuropathy and their partners were identified and compared with randomly chosen controls matched for age, gender, geographic area and civil status. Direct costs included frequencies of primary and secondary sector contacts and procedures, and medication. Indirect costs included the effect...
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients...
Aug 3, 2012 ... patients. The role of behaviour and lifestyle in the causation of cancer and hypertension has been studied extensively and can be used to illustrate how health psychology interventions could be applied to control these diseases. Health psychology interventions could close the widening communication gap.
Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D.; Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.
Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understand...
Kaslow, Nadine J; Graves, Chanda C; Smith, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku
This article begins by contextualizing specialization and board certification of psychologists, with attention paid to relevant definitions and expectations of other health care professionals. A brief history of specialization and board certification in professional psychology is offered. The benefits of board certification through the American Board of Professional Psychology are highlighted. Consideration is then given to the primary reasons for psychologists working in academic health sciences centers to specialize in the current health care climate and to obtain board certification as a mark of such specialization.
There has been substantial empirical research on the health benefits of expressive writing. However, there has been less psychological research on the broader nature of writing and its relationship with health. The aim of this special section is to promote a more extensive engagement between health psychology and writing. It includes three articles on the value of investigating more established forms of writing, the nature of creative writing and the value of an intensive analysis of written accounts of illness. This article introduces this special section.
Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…
The aim of this paper is to outline the contribution of two strands of discursive research, glossed as 'macro' and 'micro,' to the field of health psychology. A further goal is to highlight some contemporary debates in methodology associated with the use of interview data versus more naturalistic data in qualitative health research. Discursive approaches provide a way of analyzing talk as a social practice that considers how descriptions are put together and what actions they achieve. A selection of recent examples of discursive research from one applied area of health psychology, studies of diet and obesity, are drawn upon in order to illustrate the specifics of both strands. 'Macro' discourse work in psychology incorporates a Foucauldian focus on the way that discourses regulate subjectivities, whereas the concept of interpretative repertoires affords more agency to the individual: both are useful for identifying the cultural context of talk. Both 'macro' and 'micro' strands focus on accountability to varying degrees. 'Micro' Discursive Psychology, however, pays closer attention to the sequential organization of constructions and focuses on naturalistic settings that allow for the inclusion of an analysis of the health professional. Diets are typically depicted as an individual responsibility in mainstream health psychology, but discursive research highlights how discourses are collectively produced and bound up with social practices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider technology-related changes in psychological needs and boundaries that affect one’s personal adaptation to the info-communication society, as well as how they relate to problematic or excessive technology use. Based on the psychological model of the consequences of technology use, we’ve picked two forms of technology use (one related to mobile phones and the other related to the Internet from a revised version of our Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire. The new version includes nine questions: two assessing the excessive use of technology (the inability to resist using technology and subjective dependence, four assessing changes in psychological boundaries (boundaries extension and violation, easiness-related and opportunity-related preference for technology and the other three measuring technology-related needs (functionality, convenience and image making. In the normative sample (N=132, appropriate reliability, factor validity and convergent validity were demonstrated in comparisons to the picture measure of the technology-related boundaries change. Based on hierarchical regression and moderator analysis, it was shown that changes in psychological boundaries affect the excessive use of technology (explaining an additional 17-27% of the variance after adjusting for frequency of use and age group. The extension of boundaries and ease-of-use-related preference for mobile phones versus the Internet predicted satisfaction with life after adjusting for frequency of use, age group, inability to resist and subjective dependency respectively; however, the figures were not statistically significant. Thus, our data supports the hypothesis that there are different kinds of technology-related changes in psychological boundaries that manifest themselves in the subjective feeling of dependence on technology and the feeling that it is impossible to do without technology, which might in some cases
Pirard, Ph.; Brenot, J.; Verger, P. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire
Technological disasters bring about psychological effects in exposed populations of various durability and intensity. This article reviews the epidemiological studies which assess psychological and psychiatric consequences of the Three Mile Island, Goieanna and Chernobyl accidents. It shows, in different accidental and cultural contexts, a statistically significant and durable increase of psychological symptoms in various exposed population groups, which points out an actual psychological distress. Diagnosed psychiatric effects are less constant, but much less studied. Most affected groups are mothers of young children, relocated persons, persons with less social support or in financial trouble. The psychological distress can further psychiatric disorders and give rise to behavioural changes towards health. More research is necessary to delineate the nature and the determinants of the observed symptoms and disorders. It implies to design better tools for the assessment of individual exposure and the diagnosis of mental health effects. (authors)
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients. Consideration of a patient's psychological health is therefore important for all nurses providing holistic care. Awareness of the symptoms of psychological distress, good communication skills and simple screening instruments can be used by nurses to assess patients' mental health. The cognitive and behavioural risk factors associated with depression and anxiety are also explored, as an understanding of these can help nurses to provide appropriate care.
Sools, Anna Maria; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what
In this dissertation, we focused on the psychological consequences of pediatric burns on children and parents, relationships within the family (parent-child, mother-father subsystems), and potential benefits from burn camp participation. Results of a literature review study showed that many children
Background: Psychological violence has emerged as a priority concern in all workplaces because of its adverse consequences on victims' health. So far, limited research has been conducted on the effect of psychological violence on the five interrelated contexts of human existence. Objectives: This qualitative study ...
Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of health psychology it considers how the field is represented in a selection of popular textbooks. It concludes by considering the growth of some critical approaches within health psychology.
Lutgendorf, Susan K; Costanzo, Erin S
The biopsychosocial model describes interactions between psychosocial and biological factors in the etiology and progression of disease. How an individual interprets and responds to the environment determines responses to stress, influences health behaviors, contributes to the neuroendocrine and immune response, and may ultimately affect health outcomes. Health psychology interventions are designed to modulate the stress response and improve health behaviors by teaching individuals more adaptive methods of interpreting life challenges and more effective coping responses. These interactions are discussed in the context of aging.
Mathers, C D; Schofield, D J
Mathers and Schofield, from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, review recent studies, including Australian research, on the health effects of unemployment and the mechanisms by which unemployment causes adverse health outcomes. The relationship is complex: ill-health also causes unemployment, and confounding factors include socioeconomic status and lifestyle. However, longitudinal studies with a range of designs provide reasonably good evidence that unemployment itself is detrimental to health and has an impact on health outcomes--increasing mortality rates, causing physical and mental ill-health and greater use of health services.
Rich, Grant Jewell
Presents an interview with Shelley Taylor, a professor of Psychology at the University of California in Los Angles (California). Addresses topics such as how she became interested in psychology, the importance of health psychology in the curriculum, the ideal training for students in health psychology, and her work with "positive illusions." (CMK)
As part of a growing literature on the histories of psychology in the Global South, this article outlines some historical developments in South African psychologists' engagement with the problem of "health." Alongside movements to formalize and professionalize a U.S.-style "health psychology" in the 1990s, there arose a parallel, eclectic, and more or less critical psychology that contested the meaning and determinants of health, transgressed disciplinary boundaries, and opposed the responsibilization of illness implicit in much health psychological theorizing and neoliberal discourse. This disciplinary bifurcation characterized South African work well into the postapartheid era, but ideological distinctions have receded in recent years under a new regime of knowledge production in thrall to the demands of the global market. The article outlines some of the historical-political roots of key trends in psychologists' work on health in South Africa, examining the conditions that have impinged on its directions and priorities. It raises questions about the future trajectories of psychological research on health after 20 years of democracy, and argues that there currently is no "health psychology" in South Africa, and that the discipline is the better for it. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Rozensky, Ronald H
This article is based on the opening presentation by the author to the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers' 5th National Conference, "Preparing Psychologists for a Rapidly Changing Healthcare Environment" held in March, 2011. Reviewing the patient protection and affordable care act (ACA), that presentation was designed to set the stage for several days of symposia and discussions anticipating upcoming changes to the healthcare system. This article reviews the ACA; general trends that have impacted healthcare reform; the implications of the Act for psychology's workforce including the growing focus on interprofessional education, training, and practice, challenges to address in order to prepare for psychology's future; and recommendations for advocating for psychology's future as a healthcare profession.
Sools, Anneke M; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben J
In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what are the most important features of the proposed approach and how they are relevant. We illustrate each positioning with the scope and diversity of narrative health psychology brought together in this special issue. Finally, we reflect on where narrative health psychology is now and how it could develop in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gracia, Francisco Javier; Silla, Inmaculada; Peiró, José María; Fortes-Ferreira, Lina
In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.
Full Text Available There are very limited studies examining the relationships between work stress and psychological consequences of the teachers, especially elementary school teachers. Therefore, the primary purpose of conducting this research is to understand the correlation between teachers work stress, and burnout and job satisfaction. It also aims to understand sources and levels of teachers work stress. The findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between teachers work stress and burnout, and between teachers work stress and job satisfaction
Arismunandar Arismunandar; Nuri Emmiyati
There are very limited studies examining the relationships between work stress and psychological consequences of the teachers, especially elementary school teachers. Therefore, the primary purpose of conducting this research is to understand the correlation between teachers work stress, and burnout and job satisfaction. It also aims to understand sources and levels of teachers work stress. The findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between teachers work stress and burnout,...
Dubé, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine
Casual sexual relationships and experiences (CSREs) are still considered to be detrimental to the psychological well-being of youth even though findings remain inconclusive. Most studies have focused on emerging adulthood. Using a prospective design based on a representative sample of high school students in the province of Québec, we measured sexually active adolescents’ (N = 2,304) psychological well-being six months after engaging in these relationships while controlling for prior well-being. We analyzed two forms of CSREs, friends with benefits (FWB) and one-night stand (ONS) relationships, as well as levels of sexual intimacy. The results show that CSREs had a small impact (small effect sizes) on subsequent psychological well-being, especially among girls; FWB relationships involving penetrative contact increased girls’ psychological distress and both their alcohol and drug consumption. ONSs including sexual touching increased girls’ psychological distress and their drug use. None of the CSREs influenced boys’ psychological well-being. The findings underscored the importance of using caution when arguing that CSREs are detrimental or harmless to the psychological well-being of adolescents. The results also highlight the importance of taking into account gender and forms of CSREs in prevention and health interventions. PMID:28010123
The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational
James, L C; Folen, R A; Porter, R I; Kellar, M A
The military patient population, the demanding environment in which medical services are provided, and the rigors of the operational environment create a unique challenge for service members as well as military health care providers. Within the military medical system, the subspecialty of clinical health psychology may provide patient care and consultation interventions necessary to meet the demands of the unique Army medical and military communities. As funding and other resources decrease, military health psychologists can provide high-quality care to difficult-to-manage patients while increasing outcome efficacy and decreasing costs to the hospital. This paper provides a definition of clinical health psychology and a description of its unique interventions and applications and how these unique skills augment medical services. Moreover, we offer a conceptual model for an innovative health psychology program that will assist other military treatment facilities in designing programs to increase outcome efficacy and concurrently reduce costs and utilization of services.
Health psychology as a field of research and practice formally developed 30 years ago but it was prefigured by sustained debate within social and applied psychology about the nature of psychology and its role in society. This article considers this pre-history of health psychology and how the field has subsequently developed. It considers how its character is shaped by dominant ideas within psychology and is also enmeshed in broader social relations. To illustrate the changing character of he...
Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D; Hooper, Ann E Caldwell
Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of "health," as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory). We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research.
Joshua M. Tybur
Full Text Available Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of “health,” as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory. We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research.
Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina
According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)-hypothesis, conditions early in life may have life-long consequences. In a series of epidemiological birth cohort and clinical studies and natural experiments, we have had the chance to test the extent to which this hypothesis is useful in understanding individual differences in psychological development and mental health. Our findings have provided evidence that individual differences in cognitive, social and emotional development and in mental health may lie in early life circumstances, and add significantly to the literature by pointing out which periods of early growth are the most critical. These findings are also important in translating pre-clinical evidence to humans. What remains less clear, however, is what the mechanisms of programming are. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms before information on the early life origins of health and disease can be used in designing prevention and intervention programs.
Adebäck, Petra; Schulman, Abbe; Nilsson, Doris
There is a need for studies that follow up children and adolescents for many years post disaster since earlier studies have shown that exposure during natural disasters constitutes a risk factor for poor psychological health. The main aim was to examine whether there was an association between severity of exposures during a natural disaster experienced in childhood or adolescence and posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, self-rated health, diagnosis of depression, anxiety or worry, thoughts about or attempted suicide, physical symptoms or daily functioning eight years later in young adulthood. A second aim was to compare psychological distress and self-rated health of exposed young adults with a matched population-based sample. Young adults, who experienced the 2004 tsunami as children between 10 and 15 years of age, responded to a questionnaire eight years post disaster. The results were compared to a matched population sample. The results showed that the likelihood for negative psychological outcomes was higher for those who had been exposed to several types of exposures during this natural disaster. The negative psychological impact on children and adolescents can still be present eight years post-disaster and seems to have association with the type of exposure; loss, physical presence and subjective experience. It is important for clinicians, who meet young adults seeking help, to be conscious about the impact as long as eight years post disaster and to be aware of possible clinical implications associated with severity of exposures.
Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali
Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady).
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz
Background: The workplace environment has a great influence on employees’ health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees’ psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological...
This study compared the knowledge differences related to specific health concerns of middle school students (N=841) who had never tried, who had tried, and who were regular users of smokeless tobacco. (IAH)
Harlow, Siobán D
This commentary discusses the intersection of human ovarian and somatic aging. It argues for re-contextualizing estrogen's role in and impact on ovarian aging and, more broadly, on women's health, considering in particular the importance of timing, dose, and the broader endocrine milieu. Distinguishing between current clinical needs and optimizing women's future options, the paper outlines an approach to broadening the research agenda to better understand the role of ovarian aging in supporting the metabolic demands of longevity. Three overarching issues important to consider explicitly as we pursue research on the health correlates of reproductive aging are discussed, including implications of a lifespan approach, population diversity, and selection bias.
Nour, Nawal M
Despite international agreements and national laws, marriage of girls Child marriage is a human rights violation that prevents girls from obtaining an education, enjoying optimal health, bonding with others their own age, maturing, and ultimately choosing their own life partners. Child marriage is driven by poverty and has many effects on girls' health: increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, cervical cancer, malaria, death during childbirth, and obstetric fistulas. Girls' offspring are at increased risk for premature birth and death as neonates, infants, or children. To stop child marriage, policies and programs must educate communities, raise awareness, engage local and religious leaders, involve parents, and empower girls through education and employment.
The lifetime prevalence of infertility in representative population-based studies from industrialised countries is 17-28%, and on average, 56% of individuals affected seek medical advice. Infertility, as well as being a medical condition, has a social dimension; it is a poorly-controlled, chronic stressor with severe long-lasting negative social and psychological consequences. Although infertility can lead to severe strain in a couples' relationship, it can also have a potentially positive effect. Appraisal-oriented coping strategies including emotional coping are associated with reduced stress in infertility. Long-term studies of involuntary childless women following unsuccessful treatment show that although most adjust well psychologically, their childlessness is a major theme of their lives. Most studies are based on cross-sectional studies among couples seeking fertility treatment and focus on individual characteristics, for example, stress level, anxiety and symptoms of depression. There is a lack of studies investigating the impact of infertility and its treatment on social relations and of studies which have used the couple as the unit of analysis. More large-scale, long-term prospective cohort studies which address the social as well as psychological consequences of infertility are needed.
Full Text Available The diagnosis of gynecological cancer and the following consequences of the treatment radically change the lives of cancer patients and their partners. Women experience negative consequences in terms of sexual, psychological and social functioning. Surgical treatment may result in a decrease in sexual pleasure and pain during intercourse. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause a loss of libido and negatively affect the capacity to experience pleasure or orgasm. Treatment-related changes may include the occurrence of body image disorders, decreased quality of life as well as depressive and anxiety disorders among patients. Furthermore, a negative influence on the relationship between the affected women and their partners, as well as an adverse effect on the social activity, can be observed. Cancer is not an individual experience. It also affects partners of the sick women in terms of psychological and sexual functioning. This article depicts possible problems encountered by cancer patients and their partners from the psychological and sexual perspective. The emphasis is put on understanding sexuality not only in the context of sexual performance, but also in a wider perspective.
Iżycki, Dariusz; Woźniak, Katarzyna; Iżycka, Natalia
The diagnosis of gynecological cancer and the following consequences of the treatment radically change the lives of cancer patients and their partners. Women experience negative consequences in terms of sexual, psychological and social functioning. Surgical treatment may result in a decrease in sexual pleasure and pain during intercourse. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause a loss of libido and negatively affect the capacity to experience pleasure or orgasm. Treatment-related changes may include the occurrence of body image disorders, decreased quality of life as well as depressive and anxiety disorders among patients. Furthermore, a negative influence on the relationship between the affected women and their partners, as well as an adverse effect on the social activity, can be observed. Cancer is not an individual experience. It also affects partners of the sick women in terms of psychological and sexual functioning. This article depicts possible problems encountered by cancer patients and their partners from the psychological and sexual perspective. The emphasis is put on understanding sexuality not only in the context of sexual performance, but also in a wider perspective.
Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T
The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Full Text Available Orientation: This study examines the beneficial aspects of the interface between work and family and its relationships with psychological health from a positive psychology perspective.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work-family enrichment helps to predict psychological health, specifically increased subjective well-being and decreased feelings of emotional exhaustion and depression.Motivation for the study: The burgeoning literature on the work-family interface contains little on the potentially positive benefits of maintaining work and family roles.Research approach, design and method: The authors used a descriptive research design. Employees in two national organisations in the financial retail and logistics industries completed a self-administered survey questionnaire. The authors analysed responses from those who reported both family and work responsibilities (N = 160.Main findings: Consistent with previous research, factor analysis revealed two distinct directions of work-family enrichment: from work to family (W2FE and from family to work (F2WE. Multiple regression analysis showed that F2WE explained a significant proportion of the variance in subjective wellbeing, whilst W2FE explained a significant proportion of the variance in depression and emotional exhaustion.Practical/managerial implications: The findings of this study revealed the individual and organisational benefits of fostering work-family enrichment. Contributions/value add: This study presents empirical evidence for the need to focus on the positive aspects of the work-family interface, provides further support for a positive organisational psychology perspective in organisations and hopefully will encourage further research on interventions in organisations and families.
Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo
This article introduces the monographic section on Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP), presenting eight theoretical and empirical papers about diverse topics. Traditionally, research on occupational health has mainly been focused on causes of diseases and on identifying and preventing work factors related to worker's impaired health. However, this biased view may not provide a complete understanding of the mechanisms that lead to employee well-being and performance. We discuss the differences of POHP with similar constructs, and review reasons for its importance in the development of this field. Overall, the studies included in the monographic section show the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs, and present ideas and questions that we hope may help to further our progress in the field of POHP.
Park, Crystal L; Grant, Christoffer
To examine the influence of alcohol consumption, gender, and psychological risk and protective factors on college students' experiences of negative and positive consequences, the present study of 181 students assessed frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, negative and positive consequences of alcohol use, positive alcohol expectancies, constructive thinking, and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that men and women differed in their experience of some consequences and that while alcohol consumption was generally more strongly related to consequences for women than for men, it was unrelated to most consequences. Further, when controlling for alcohol consumption, positive alcohol expectancies and negative affect were positively related to experiencing positive and negative consequences while constructive thinking was related to fewer positive and fewer negative consequences. Results indicate that consequences are much more strongly related to psychological risk and protective factors than to alcohol consumption. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for intervention efforts.
Bosman A; Mulder YM; Leeuw JRJ de; Meijer A; Du Ry van Beest Holle M; Kamst RA; Velden PG van der; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Koopmans MPG; Ruijten MWMM; Instituut voor Psychotrauma; CIE; MGO; LIS
Executive summary Avian flu epidemic 2003: public health consequences.Risk factors, health, well-being, health care needs and preventive measures during the H7N7 avian flu outbreak control in the Netherlands.An estimated thousand people, possibly more have been infected with avian flu during the
Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.
The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…
During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and
Franzén-Dahlin, Asa; Larson, Jenny; Murray, Veronica; Wredling, Regina; Billing, Ewa
To identify predictors of psychological health and examine if these predictors change over time in spouses of stroke patients during the first year after stroke. A second aim was to identify gender differences in psychological health among the spouses. The impact of burden in long-term caregivers may result in psychological consequences for the spouse. The rehabilitation process for the patient can be negatively affected by a stressed caregiver and result in long-term hospitalization. To identify spouses at risk for physical and psychological distress is, therefore, essential to support those in need. Longitudinal, comparative study. One hundred spouses of stroke patients were assessed at baseline, as well as after six and 12 months, regarding psychological health, well-being, own illness, need of assistance from general practitioner and/or district nurse, social network and knowledge about stroke. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted for baseline, six- and 12-month assessments, respectively, with psychological health as the dependent variable. General well-being and presence of illness in spouse were the most prominent predictors of psychological health, throughout the first year. Enhancing psychological health and preventing medical problems in the caregiver are essential considerations to enable patients with stroke-related disabilities to continue to live at home. Evaluating the situation for spouses of stroke patients is an important component when planning for the future care of the patient.
Kingsbury, John H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg
people is influenced by social factors (e.g., perceived social consequences). However, little is known about framing effects for social consequences of heavy drinking. What does this study add? This study builds on previous research by demonstrating that a loss frame is more effective than a gain frame when highlighting the social consequences of health risk behaviour. Framing effects are strongest for those with more previous drinking experience. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Bilgiç, Reyhan; Yılmaz, Nilgün
The purpose of this study is to examine the major determinants of psychological health during unemployment. With this in mind, 438 (17% female and 83% male) unemployed individuals were contacted through Turkey's State Employment Office. It was expected that the relationship between duration of unemployment and psychological wellbeing would be nonlinear. Additionally it was hypothesized that perceived social support would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. Further, we suggested that self-esteem would be related to psychological health and moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. The results supported the curvilinearity hypothesis of the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health as measured by General Health Questionnaire. However, social support was not found to moderate the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological distress was not supported, although self-esteem was a strong negative determinant of psychological distress during unemployment. Regression analysis showed that the best predictors of psychological health were self-esteem, perceived social support and perceived adequacy of financial aid received from relatives. Interestingly, perceived adequacy of the financial aid was negatively related to psychological health. This result was contradictory with the previous literature pointing out that financial aid reduces the effects of poverty due to unemployment. The findings of this study are important since the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health was nonlinear, indicating that relevant services should be especially careful to intervene to increase social support and self-esteem during these critical times. The other results and limitations are discussed.
Current research is classified into different theoretical approaches, mainly economic deprivation theories, stress-related theories, gender theories and different psychological and sociological theories. The correlations between unemployment and ill-health are explained as a result of both selection and exposure. The societal consequences of youth unemployment have been studied in aggregate studies. The familial consequences is a neglected area, but there is evidence of increased illness as well as battering of wives and children. Almost all research has been focused on the individual and mainly on the psychological consequences. Consistent relationships are found between unemployment and minor psychological disorders. Few studies have included somatic health but the results indicate increased physiological illness, especially among unemployed girls. Increased health care consumption has been documented. There are evidence that unemployment is a risk indicator for both increasing alcohol consumption, particularly in young men. Unemployment is also associated with increased tobacco consumption, increased use of illicit drugs as well as deteriorated health behaviour. The mortality rate is significantly higher among unemployed young men and women, especially in suicides and accidents. Social consequences include increased risk of alienation, lack of financial resources, criminality and future exclusion from the labour market. As mediating factors social support, high employment rate, negative attitudes towards work and high possibility of control have been documented to have a protective effect on health. Research should now be directed towards more qualitative methods, based on theoretical models, in order to search for deeper mechanisms, mediating factors and explanatory theories of the unevenly distributed health in society, in which unemployment has been proved to be one important factor.
Xu, Yao; Herrman, Helen; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Fisher, Jane
Exposure to natural and human-made disasters is associated with long-term health consequences, including for mental health. Parents who have lost children, particularly their only children, in any circumstances are also at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence about the psychological and social consequences for parents who had faced these circumstances simultaneously through losing children in a disaster. Systematic searching of the English and Chinese language literatures about the psychological and social functioning of bereaved parents after disasters revealed that a small number of studies met inclusion criteria. The results showed that bereaved parents had more mental health problems than bereaved spouses and non-bereaved parents, and mothers appeared to be more vulnerable to mental health problems than fathers. Potential protective factors for bereaved parents' mental health included having psychological interventions, having adequate social support, seeing their children's bodies and having a subsequent baby. Although the literature was modest and methodologically diverse, there was a consistent finding that parents who have lost children in disasters were at high risk of suffering mental health problems, especially bereaved mothers. As there was little evidence, further studies are needed to understand the best advice and interventions to offer bereaved parents and provide enhanced mental health care of such bereaved populations after disasters. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Hegarty, Peter; Walton, Zoe
An academic journal's impact factor (hereafter JIF) is an average measure of the citation count of individual articles published in that journal. JIF is used to assess merit, predict impact, and allocate resources, but the actual number of citations to individual articles is only modestly correlated with the JIFs of the journals in which they are published. We counted PsycInfo citations to 1,133 articles published in nine leading psychology journals (1996-2005). Both article length (r =.31) and reference list length (r = .41) predicted log-transformed citation counts better than JIF (r = .27). Articles with fewer graphs and more structural equation models were more frequently cited. Citation count was better predicted by a model based on article length and citation count rather than JIF. When JIF was used to predict citation count, the impact of women authors and social science research was underestimated. These findings distinguish impact in science, as measured by JIF, from actual impact in psychology, and they show the unintended consequences of using a measure of the former to predict the latter. © Association for Psychological Science 2012.
King, S A
Two areas of Internet behavior, gambling and pornography distribution, are examined for what they reveal about the profound social and psychological changes caused by recent advances in communication technology. The overview of these domains clearly shows that there will be an expected increase in people presenting for treatment with Internet behavior related difficulties, and that their treatment will be, at present, uninformed by any specific empirical research. These two domains are used as examples to illustrate how the Internet is creating a paradigm shift in the basic nature of an individual's relationships to local, state, and federal governments. It is no longer possible for people, even minors, to be fully protected by their governments from material deemed harmful by the community one lives in. This is demonstrated by a review of the current availability, in millions of homes nationwide, of the opportunity to experience Internet casino gambling and to acquire pornographic material not sold in United States adult bookstores. The psychological effect of the increased need for individual responsibility in the access to potentially harmful domains is not well understood at this time. This article is a call for the kind of basic research that will delineate the base rates for pathological involvement in online gambling and pornography, as a means of discovering the potential negative psychological consequences of the inability to regulate Internet content.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Torture for political reasons is an extreme violence in interpersonal relations resulting in not only acute psychiatric disorders but also very often in very severe and far reaching negative consequences for the overall psychosocial functioning of a victim. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in types of torture and psychological consequences in subjects who experienced war torture. Methods. A sample (410 men and 76 women included clients of 'Centre for rehabilitation of torture victims - IAN, Belgrade' who experienced torture in prisons and concentration camps during civil wars in ex-Yugoslavia 1991-1995 and 1999. Types of Torture Questionnaire with 81 items was used for collecting data about forms of torture. Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90- R was used for assessing type and intensity of psychological symptoms, and Impact of Event Scale (IES was used to estimate posttraumatic complaints. Results. A gender difference was found for 33 types of torture: 28 more frequent in men, and 5 in women. Factor analysis of torture types revealed three factors explaining 29% of variance: 'common torture', 'sadistic torture', and 'sexual torture'. Discriminant analysis revealed significant gender difference concerning the factors. 'Common torture' and 'sadistic torture' were more prominent in men, and 'sexual torture' was more present in women. Higher scores on depression, anxiety, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and obsessive-compulsive dimensions on SCL-90-R were found in women. General score and scores of subscales (intrusion and avoidance on IES were significantly higher in women. Conclusion. Women exposed to war torture experienced less torture techniques and shorter imprisonment than men, but had more frequent and severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychological symptoms. Gender differences in posttraumatic symptomatology can not be explained exclusively by gender differences
Finnell, Julie E; Lombard, Calliandra M; Padi, Akhila R; Moffitt, Casey M; Wilson, L Britt; Wood, Christopher S; Wood, Susan K
Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular
Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.
Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…
This paper constitutes a comparative and longitudinal investigation of physical exercise and psychological wellness in a sample of health club members in Zululand, South Africa. The research was contextualized within a public health and community psychological model of mental health promotion. Physical exercise was ...
Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health concern especially in developed countries and where legal measures take unprecedented time. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of different forms of CSA, and the perceived health consequences among secondary school students in ...
von Wagner, Christian; Steptoe, Andrew; Wolf, Michael S.; Wardle, Jane
The association between performance on health literacy measures and health outcomes is well established. The next step is to understand the processes through which health literacy affects health. This review introduces a framework drawing on ideas from health psychology and proposing that associations between health literacy and health outcomes…
The task of studying the impact of social class on physical and mental health involves, among other things, the use of a conceptual toolbox that defines what social class is, establishes how to measure it, and sets criteria that help distinguish it from closely related concepts. One field that has recently witnessed a wealth of theoretical and conceptual research on social class is psychology, but geographers' and sociologists' attitude of diffidence toward this "positivistic" discipline has prevented them from taking advantage of this body of scholarship. This paper aims to highlight some of the most important developments in the psychological study of social class and social mobility that speak to the long-standing concerns of health geographers and sociologists with how social position, perceptions, social comparisons, and class-based identities impact health and well-being. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Pedersen, Stephen Wørlich
and the consequences for spouses. We aimed to estimate the factual direct and indirect costs of ALS in a national sample. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2009), 2,394 patients with ALS were identified and subsequently compared with 9,575 randomly chosen control subjects matched for age....... However, spouses showed no excess health usage; in fact, their employment and income rates were higher, and the net cost was reduced by -3,420. We conclude that ALS has serious mortality, health and socioeconomic consequences for patients. However, the consequences for spouses are complex; they tend...... to compensate for the social consequences to patients by increasing their net income after ALS diagnosis....
Prazak, Michael; Critelli, Joseph; Martin, Luci; Miranda, Vanessa; Purdum, Michael; Powers, Catherine
This study examined the relationships of mindfulness, a form of focused self-awareness, with physical and psychological health. Mindfulness was measured in terms of four stable forms of awareness: Observe, an awareness of internal and external stimuli; Describe, an ability to verbally express thoughts clearly and easily; Act with Awareness, the tendency to focus on present tasks with undivided attention; and Accept without Judgment, the tendency to take a nonjudgmental attitude toward one's own thoughts and emotions. These aspects of mindfulness were explored in relation to both physical health, which consisted of heart rate variability, a measure of overall cardiovascular health, and psychological health, which consisted of flourishing, existential well-being, negative affect, and social well-being in a sample of 506 undergraduate students. Individuals high in mindfulness showed better cardiovascular health and psychological health. © 2011 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2011 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Luis A. Oblitas
Full Text Available Studies on the scientific background of Health Psychology are discussed, including the conceptual definition, as well as the bio-psycho-social model that characterizes it. The relation between health and behavior is described in order to have a better understanding of health and illness, as well as about the pathogenic and immunology issues related to behavior. The main contributions of Health Psychology to improve life quality and health are described. Moreover, medical psychology, psychosocial coping of illness, as well as intervention strategies, are discussed. Health Psychology becomes a good alternative for the understanding of health and illness mechanisms, as well as for the prevention process and illness treatment related to psychological components.
Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation
E. M. Manoshkina
Full Text Available Aim. To study psychological status and influence of antihypertensive therapy (AHT on it in Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP accident consequences liquidators, who suffer arterial hyper-tension (AH, with controlled treatment compared to the standard treatment in out-patient clinic. Material and methods. 81 liquidators with AH (all men were included into open compara-tive randomized study. Study duration was 12 months. Patients were randomized into main group (MG and control group (CG. Patients of MG received strictly regulated stepped AHT based on ACE inhibitor spirapril 6 mg daily (Quadropril®, Pliva-AVD, hypothiazide was added if necessary (12.5-25 mg daily and afterwards – atenolol (12.5-100 mg daily. In CG AHT and its correction was set by physician in polyclinic. Brief multifactor questionnaire for personality analysis was used to study psychological status. Results. 57 patients completed the study, 28 in MG and 29 in CG. In MG target blood pres-sure (BP levels were reached in 22 (78.6% patients, in CG – in 11 (38% patients (p<0.01. The main feature of psychological status of liquidators with AH was hypochondriac, depressive and anxious disorders. Controlled AHT made it possible to reach improvement in psychological status, i.e. growth of optimism and activity of patients, more often, than standard treatment in out-patient clinics. Increase in number of patients with pronounced anxious changes was observed in CG. Effi-ciency of AHT in liquidators with AH is connected with severity of depressive disturbances: in subgroups with inefficient treatment patients had the highest level of depression. In liquidators with AH, possessing neurotic disturbances, spirapril was efficient both as monotherapy, and in combina-tion with diuretic hydrochlorothiazide and beta-blocker atenolol. Conclusion. Controlled AHT in liquidators with AH has advantages over standard treatment in out-patient clinic and results in more frequent target BP level
Maynard, Nancy G.
The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.
Rozensky, Ronald H
This article is based on the invited presentation by the author at the American Psychological Association's Annual Convention, August 4-7, 2011, upon his receipt of the Joseph D. Matarazzo Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in Academic Health Centers presented by the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers. This article relates the history, roles, and responsibilities of psychologists in academic health centers to the ultimate survival and success of professional psychology. It describes implications of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) on the institutional practice of psychology including how psychology's place in academic health centers positions the field well for the future of healthcare reform. The article provides several recommendations to help professional psychology prepare for that future of integrated, interprofessional healthcare.
Darnall, Beth D; Stacey, Brett R; Chou, Roger
Long-term opioid use has increased substantially over the past decade for U.S. women. Women are more likely than men to have a chronic pain condition, to be treated with opioids, and may receive higher doses. Prescribing trends persist despite limited evidence to support the long-term benefit of this pain treatment approach. To review the medical and psychological risks and consequences of long-term opioid therapy in women. Scientific literature containing relevant keywords and content were reviewed. Long-term opioid use exposes women to unique risks, including endocrinopathy, reduced fertility, neonatal risks, as well as greater risk for polypharmacy, cardiac risks, poisoning and unintentional overdose, among other risks. Risks for women appear to vary by age and psychosocial factors may be bidirectionally related to opioid use. Gaps in understanding and priorities for future research are highlighted. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Coiera, E; Ash, J; Berg, M
The introduction of health information technology into clinical settings is associated with unintended negative consequences, some with the potential to lead to error and patient harm. As adoption rates soar, the impact of these hazards will increase. Over the last decade, unintended consequences have received great attention in the medical informatics literature, and this paper seeks to identify the major themes that have emerged. Rich typologies of the causes of unintended consequences have been developed, along with a number of explanatory frameworks based on socio-technical systems theory. We however still have only limited data on the frequency and impact of these events, as most studies rely on data sets from incident reporting or patient chart reviews, rather than undertaking detailed observational studies. Such data are increasingly needed as more organizations implement health information technologies. When outcome studies have been done in different organizations, they reveal different outcomes for identical systems. From a theoretical perspective, recent advances in the emerging discipline of implementation science have much to offer in explaining the origin, and variability, of unintended consequences. The dynamic nature of health care service organizations, and the rapid development and adoption of health information technologies means that unintended consequences are unlikely to disappear, and we therefore must commit to developing robust systems to detect and manage them.
Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; McGuire, Lynanne; Robles, Theodore F; Glaser, Ronald
This review focuses on human psychoneuroimmunology studies published in the past decade. Issues discussed include the routes through which psychological factors influence immune function, how a stressor's duration may influence the changes observed, individual difference variables, the ability of interventions to modulate immune function, and the health consequences of psychosocially mediated immune dysregulation. The importance of negative affect and supportive personal relationships are highlighted. Recent data suggest that immune dysregulation may be one core mechanism for a spectrum of conditions associated with aging, including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, arthritis, Type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and frailty and functional decline; production of proinflammatory cytokines that influence these and other conditions can be stimulated directly by negative emotions and indirectly by prolonged infection.
Klarić, Miro; Klarić, Branka; Stevanovic, Aleksandra; Grković, Jasna; Jonovska, Suzana
Aim To assess the consequences of psychotrauma in civilian women in Herzegovina who were exposed to prolonged and repetitive traumatic war events and postwar social stressors. Methods The study included a cluster sample of 367 adult women, divided into two groups. One group (n = 187) comprised women from West Mostar who were exposed to serious war and posttraumatic war events. The other group (n = 180) comprised women from urban areas in Western Herzegovina who were not directly exposed to war destruction and material losses, but experienced war indirectly, through military drafting of their family members and friends. Demographic data on the women were collected by a questionnaire created for the purpose of this study. Data on trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were collected by Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) – Bosnia-Herzegovina version. General psychological symptoms were determined with Symptom Check List-90-revised (SCL-90-R). Data on postwar stressors were collected by a separate questionnaire. Results In comparison with the control group, women from Western Mostar experienced significantly more traumatic events (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 3.3 ± 3.2 vs 10.1 ± 4.9, respectively, t = 15.91; Ppsychological symptoms measured with SCL-90 questionnaire, independently from the number of experienced traumatic war events. Conclusion Long-term exposure to war and postwar stressors caused serious psychological consequences in civilian women, with PTSD being only one of the disorders in the wide spectrum of posttraumatic reactions. Postwar stressors did not influence the prevalence of PTSD but they did contribute to the intensity and number of posttraumatic symptoms. PMID:17436381
Melwani, Shimul; Barsade, Sigal G
Guided by a social function of emotions perspective, the authors examined a model of the psychological, interpersonal, and performance consequences of contempt in a series of 3 experiments that tested the outcomes of being a recipient of contempt in the work domain. In these experiments, participants engaged in a business strategy simulation with a virtual partner-a computer programmed to give contemptuous and other types of feedback. In Study 1, which examined the task performance and interpersonal outcomes of contempt, recipients of contempt had significantly better task performance but also significantly more interpersonal aggressiveness toward their virtual partners compared with recipients of failure, angry, or neutral feedback. Study 2 examined 3 psychological outcomes mediating the contempt-task performance/aggression relationship: self-esteem, returned feelings of contempt, and activation levels. Lowered levels of implicit self-esteem and greater levels of activation significantly mediated the relationship between receiving contempt and task performance, whereas the contempt-aggression relationship was mediated by lowered implicit self-esteem and increased feelings of returned contempt. Study 3 examined status as a moderator of these relationships. Low-status recipients had significantly better task performance than did equal-status recipients, who performed significantly better than did the high-status recipients of contempt. In addition, low-status recipients displayed significantly lower levels of aggression in response to contempt than did equal-status and high-status recipients. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew
Balanced assessment of mental health involves assessing well-being and strengths as well as psychopathology. The character strengths of curiosity, gratitude, hope, optimism and forgiveness are assessed in 214 new undergraduates and their relationships to mental health, subjective well-being and self-esteem explored. Scoring the mental health scale…
Miloseva, Lence; Milosev, Vladimir
The main aim of this paper is to present a new model and approach in Health and Clinical practice – Applied Positive Psychology. Through discussion about the roots of Positive Psychology and interest in what is good about humans and their lives and in optimal human functioning we will try to introduce a new model of Positive Health and Clinical Psychology. From Aristotle’s treatises on eudemonia, through Aquinas’ writings about virtue during the Renaissance, to the inquires of modern psycholo...
Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter
Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.
The study examined the traumatic experiences and psychological health of women working in male-dominated professions. Their reported traumatic experiences and psychological health were compared with those of women working in female-dominated professions and men in male dominated processions. Samples of ...
Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…
The literature on suicide among the Chinese indicates that younger individuals from rural areas are at higher risk of suicide than their urban counterparts. While earlier studies have investigated the relationship between psychological health and major demographic variables, the relationship of psychological health as it ...
Background: Satisfied employees tend to be healthier and more productive. There is no known study on the overall job satisfaction and psychological health of bank employees in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological health among bank employees in a southern city of ...
Panjwani, Aliza A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Revenson, Tracey A.
We conducted an online national survey to examine how undergraduate health psychology is taught, offer information about course design and content, and provide a needs analysis. Health psychology instructors (N = 126) answered questions about course format, teaching tools, importance of covering specific topics, and needed resources. A principal…
Brack, Amy Badura; Kesitilwe, Kutlo; Ware, Mark E.
We conducted a random national survey of 100 doctoral, 100 comprehensive, and 100 baccalaureate institutions to determine the current state of the undergraduate health psychology course. We found clear evidence of a maturing course with much greater commonality in name (health psychology), theoretical foundation (the biopsychosocial model), and…
Larsen, Anne Konring; Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen
of the workplace as an arena for improving health literacy has developed emphasizing the organizational responsibility in facilitating and supporting that employees obtain basic knowledge and information needed to understand and take action on individual and occupational health concerns. The literature about...... workplace health literacy is very limited but points at the importance of educating employees to be able to access, appraise and apply health information and of organizing the infrastructure and communication in the organization. This study suggests a concrete operationalization of health literacy...... and effect of workplace health initiatives might be due to the fact that pain and the consequences of pain are affected by various individual, interpersonal and organizational factors in a complex interaction. Recent health literacy models pursue an integrated approach to understanding health behavior...
Sheeran, Paschal; Bosch, Jos A; Crombez, Geert; Hall, Peter A; Harris, Jennifer L; Papies, Esther K; Wiers, Reinout W
Implicit processes refer to cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that influence health decisions and behavior without the person intending that influence. This special issue aims to increase appreciation of the diverse and promising research on implicit processes in health psychology,
Schui, Gabriel; Fell, Clemens; Krampen, Günter
Positive Psychology (PP) is a relatively new school of thought in Psychology, focusing on human strengths and virtues, and on improving well-being and quality of life. In its aim and scope, it bears special relation to the fields of Behavioral Medicine (BM) and Health Psychology (HP). Building upon a recent bibliometric analysis (Schui & Krampen, 2010), we trace the impact, PP had on these larger fields by evaluating the corresponding literature found in the PsycINFO-database.
Paula Orchiucci Miura
Full Text Available Adolescence pregnancy is a complex issue that must be studied, considering the social, economic, family and the psychological aspects of each adolescent. There is more complexity when these adolescents have suffered domestic violence. Domestic violence is a serious public health problem because affects the physical and psychological integrity of the victims. Many women who become pregnant have been victims of some form of domestic violence by their partners along the married life. This paper paper presents data of research as is part of a larger project entitled ´Domestic Violence Study against Adolescents Pregnant Attended at the University Hospital of São Paulo: Basis for Intervention´. The objectives are to identify the accumulated incidence and the experience of pregnant adolescents in face of domestic violence, in special he psychosocial vulnerability, understanding and comparing the lived experience on the pregnant adolescents victims and not victims of domestic violence. Forty pregnant adolescents have participated in this study, being 20 victims of domestic violence (Group 1 and 20 non-victims (Group 2 attending the University Hospital of São Paulo and another institutions partner of Psychology Institute of USP. This is an exploratory and descriptive research, quantitative and qualitative. The instruments used were: a form to characterize the profile of production and social reproduction, semi-structured interview. The qualitative data analysis was performed according to Bardin proposal (2013. How results were found: In the group 1 drug use during pregnancy, and lack of trust in health professionals. The showed lack of confidence and support of family, partner abandonment and violence, insecurity, low self esteem and hopelessness. In the group 2 were found: high self-esteem; confidence and family support; security in the relationship with the partner; good prospects for the future; some unfavorable aspects were found in group 2 that
Dana Goldman; Pierre-Carl Michaud; Darius Lakdawalla; Yuhui Zheng; Adam Gailey; Igor Vaynman
... revenues, and government expenditures. We find that the trends in obesity and smoking have different fiscal consequences and that, because of its more profound effects on morbidity and health care expenditures, obesity represents a larger immediate risk from a fiscal perspective. Uncertainty in residual mortality improvements represents by far the largest risk.
The aim of this study is to explore or elicit the experiences of battered women, their mental health consequences and their attempts to deal with their battering in Namibia. The sample consisted of 60 battered women who were seen at the Woman and Protection Units. Results indicate that women had experienced financial ...
Objectives: The central question in this study is to examine the health consequences of early motherhood on the mother and child in Eritrea, and the social and demographic context in which it occurs. It also sheds some light on the level and trend of teenage childbearing in Eritrea. Methods: The data for this study are mainly ...
S.M.S. Santos (Susana)
markdownabstractObesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have several consequences for both mother and child. Infancy also seems to be critical for the development of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. In this thesis, we examined the adiposity and cardiovascular health related
Larsen, Anne Konring; Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen
and effect of workplace health initiatives might be due to the fact that pain and the consequences of pain are affected by various individual, interpersonal and organizational factors in a complex interaction. Recent health literacy models pursue an integrated approach to understanding health behavior...... and have been suggested as a suitable framework for addressing individual, organizational and interpersonal factors concomitantly. Therefore, the aim of the trial is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention to improve health literacy (building knowledge, competences and structures for communication...... workplace health literacy is very limited but points at the importance of educating employees to be able to access, appraise and apply health information and of organizing the infrastructure and communication in the organization. This study suggests a concrete operationalization of health literacy...
Iannotti, Ronald J; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto
To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and Life Satisfaction were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences.
Medic, Goran; Wille, Micheline; Hemels, Michiel Eh
Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep). Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with underlying medical conditions, sleep disruption may diminish the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents and may worsen the severity of common gastrointestinal disorders. As a result of the potential consequences of sleep disruption, health care
College students were administered a series of questionnaires designed to determine the association between psychological health, involvement in a romantic relationship, and the quality of love in a relationship. As predicted, subjects who had been involved in at least one love relationship scored significantly higher on a measure of self-actualization than individuals who had never been in love. In addition, it was found that level of self-actualization directly correlated with the degree of healthy love (Maslow's B-love) among individuals who had been involved in a romantic relationship. Among individuals who had terminated their relationship, those who demonstrated higher levels of self-actualization felt less resentment toward their ex-lover. Furthermore it was discovered that females show a higher level of B-love than males, but contrary to predictions the length of a romantic relationship did not influence B-love. It is concluded that the results of this study are essentially consistent with Maslow's theories about self-actualization, hierarchy of needs, and healthy love.
Antonova, Liudmila; Bucher-Koenen, Tabea; Mazzonna, Fabrizio
Economic crises may have severe consequences for population health. We investigate the long-term effects of macroeconomic crises experienced during prime working age (20-50) on health outcomes later in life using SHARE data (Survey of Health Aging and Retirement in Europe) from eleven European countries. Analyses are based on the first two waves of SHARE data collected in 2004 and 2006 (N = 22,886) and retrospective life history data from SHARELIFE collected in 2008 (N = 13,732). Experiencing a severe crisis in which GDP dropped by at least 1% significantly reduces health later in life. Specifically, respondents hit by such a shock rate their subjective health as worse, are more likely to suffer from chronic diseases and mobility limitations, and have lower grip strength. The effects are twice as large among low-educated respondents. A deeper analysis of critical periods in life reveals that respondents' health is more affected by crises experienced later in the career (between age 41 and 50). The labor market patterns show that these people drop out of the labor force. While men retire early, women are more likely to become home makers. In line with the literature on the negative consequences of retirement on health, this suggests that early retirement in times of economic crises might be detrimental to health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Foshee, Vangie Ann; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Chang, Ling-Yin; Ennett, Susan T
It is widely held that being victimized by a dating partner during adolescence has negative consequences, yet few longitudinal studies have examined those consequences. This longitudinal study examined the effects of psychological and physical (including sexual) dating abuse victimization on internalizing symptoms, substance use, academic aspirations and grades, and relationships with friends and family. This four-wave longitudinal study (N = 3,328), conducted in two rural North Carolina counties, spanned grades 8 to 12. Random coefficient analyses were used to examine prospective lagged effects of each type of dating abuse on each outcome and to examine sex and grade as moderators of lagged effects. Consequences varied by type of dating abuse experienced and sex. For both boys and girls, psychological victimization predicted increased alcohol use and physical victimization predicted increased cigarette use. For girls, physical victimization predicted increased marijuana use, and psychological victimization predicted increased internalizing symptoms; the latter effect was only marginally significant for boys. Physical victimization marginally predicted decreases in the number of close friends for boys. Neither type of victimization predicted increased family conflict or decreased academic aspirations or grades, nor was there evidence that consequences varied by grade. Although causation cannot be concluded with longitudinal designs, our findings suggest that being victimized by a dating partner may result in detrimental consequences for adolescents. The findings demonstrate the importance of identifying and implementing evidence-based interventions for preventing dating abuse, including efforts to prevent psychological abuse specifically. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boman, U W; Bryman, I; Halling, K; Möller, A
Psychological well-being, self-rated health and social situation were investigated in a cross-sectional multidisciplinary study of 63 women with Turner syndrome (TS; mean age 31.5 years, range 18-59 years). The psychological examination included a semi-structured interview, and use of two standardized self-rating scales, the Psychological General Well-being Index (PGWB) and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Psychological well-being and self-rated health were similar in the women with TS and Swedish female normative data, matched for age. However, the women with TS reported more social isolation than the normative group. Within the TS group, the oldest women reported more psychological distress and poorer health than the youngest. Those with impaired self-rated health reported more emotional distress. The women with TS were studying or in employment to the same degree as the general population, although fewer were cohabiting. In the interview, both negative and positive consequences of TS were reported. This study did not find any evidence for impaired psychological well-being, although it did indicate that women with TS experience more difficulties in the area of social and partner relationships.
Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut
Little attention has been given to psychological factors as correlates of health care use, which could be an important key to manage it. We analyzed the association of psychological factors with health care use. Primary data were obtained from three follow-ups (2002, 2008, and 2011) of a large population-based study with participants aged 40+. Using a longitudinal observational study, we analyzed the psychological factors of negative and positive affect (affective well-being), life satisfaction (cognitive well-being), self-efficacy, loneliness, self-esteem, optimism, and flexible goal adjustment using fixed-effects regressions. The participants provided data on health care use (visits to general practitioners [GPs] and specialists as well as hospitalization) and psychological factors via self-administered questionnaires and personal interviews (7,116 observations). The sample was drawn using national probability sampling. Controlling for self-rated health, chronic diseases and sociodemographics, increases in affective well-being, and optimism decreased health care use of GPs, specialists, and hospital treatment. Increases in cognitive well-being decreased health care use of GPs and specialists. Increases in self-efficacy decreased hospitalization. The study underlines the influence of psychological factors on health care use. Thus, whenever possible, future studies of health care use should include psychological factors, and efforts to reduce health care use might focus on such factors. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Rozensky, Ronald H
Implications for the future of professional psychology are discussed and related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, patient-centered health care homes and accountable care organizations, and the growing importance of interprofessional competencies in health care. The need for increased information about the psychology workforce is related to the history of the institutional practice of psychology and how that data must be used to plan for the supply of psychologists required to meet the service demands of the changing health care system. Several challenges to the field of psychology are offered, along with steps that must be taken by the profession to prepare for increased institutionally based health care services in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M
AbstractMoney is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world - improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth.
Mack, Diane E; Meldrum, Lindsay S; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M
The role of psychological need satisfaction in terms of understanding the mechanisms through which leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with psychological health in breast cancer survivors who have recently completed treatment was examined. Adopting a longitudinal two-wave design, female breast cancer survivors (N = 144) completed self-report instruments of LTPA, psychological need satisfaction, and psychological health at two points separated by 3 months. The first test administration period was 6 months following the completion of primary treatment. Change score analyses demonstrated that greater LTPA across the 3-month period was associated with greater perceptions of well-being (rs ranged from .17 to .20) and lower ill-being (rs ranged from -.06 to -.21). Results of multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological need fulfillment underpinned the LTPA-well-being relationship only. Collectively these findings indicate that increased engagement in LTPA represents one factor associated with greater psychological health in breast cancer survivors, with fulfilling the psychological need for relatedness most salient in understanding this relationship. Continued investigation into the mechanisms associated with reductions in ill-being in breast cancer survivors appear justified. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Chen, Ying; Singh, Ankura; Okereke, Olivia I; Kubzansky, Laura D
To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) on factors that influence mental and physical health. Narrative review of all published articles using data from the NHS, the NHS II, and the Growing Up Today Study focusing on mental health conditions (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety) and psychosocial resources and stressors (e.g., job strain, interpersonal violence, social relationships, sexual orientation) between 1990 and 2016. Studies have considered a broad array of determinants (e.g., genes, biomarkers, air pollution) and consequent behavioral and disease-related outcomes (e.g., body weight, smoking, cardiometabolic diseases, cancer, autism). Findings suggest anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, childhood violence, caregiver burden, and job insecurity may increase the risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes, whereas findings with cancer are mixed. This work directly affects public health actions, as demonstrated by recent inclusion of a gender expression measure in state surveys. The NHS cohorts have produced novel and influential research on the interplay of psychological and social factors with health. Psychological and social variables are important contributors to the maintenance or decline of physical and mental health.
Simpson, Jane; Thomas, Carol
Clinical psychology and disability studies have traditionally occupied very different academic, philosophical and political spaces. However, this paper aims to illustrate the positive consequences and implications of attempts to understand and bridge this disciplinary divide. A narrative review format was used with evidence selected pragmatically as opposed to systematically. The construction of the argument determined the evidence selected. The concept of psycho-emotional disablism, which originated within disability studies, is argued to be a useful concept to bridge the divide between understandings of distress from both disability studies and clinical psychology perspectives. However, this can be usefully augmented by psychological research on the mechanisms through which disablism can affect individuals. Perspectives from both disability studies and clinical psychology can be usefully combined to bring important new perspectives; combined, these perspectives should help - on theoretical, service and social levels - to improve the mental health of disabled people. Implications for Rehabilitation Mental health is an important determinant of overall health-related quality of life and psychological therapy should be available for those disabled people who would value it. Psychological therapists working with disabled people should be more aware of the challenging social context in which disabled people live. Understandings of distress should not just include individual factors but also incorporate the psychological impact of stresses caused by societal barriers preventing inclusion. Psychologists should be more willing to work and engage at a societal and political level to influence change.
Rakesh Kumar Soni
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to measure the daily routine preference, daytime sleepiness, and psychological distress experiences, because of split shift system job in a sample in traffic police personnel of Raipur city, India. To measure such parameters we used the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (OPSQ, General Health Questionnaire and the Distress. To evaluate differences between age, body mass index, period of service length and drug / alcohol use for all the subjects (traffic police personnel the t-test and chi-square test were used. Total Hundred male traffic police personnel participated and out of which most of them were found to belong in the evening active category. This study also indicates increased prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and (EDS high level of psychological distress as measured by the GHQ-12 among few police workers. Moreover, a number of participants reported significant distress levels, when measured with distress thermometer. In nutshell, the study sample suggests adaptive coping strategies of traffic police personnel working in split shift system profession can be attributed to their evening (E-type circadian preferences.
Chamberlain, Kerry; Lyons, Antonia C; Stephens, Christine
We examine how critical health psychology developed in New Zealand, taking an historical perspective to document important influences. We discuss how academic appointments created a confluence of critical researchers at Massey University, how interest in health psychology arose and expanded, how the critical turn eventuated and how connections, both local and international, were important in building and sustaining these developments. We discuss the evolution of teaching a critical health psychology training programme, describe the research agendas and professional activities of academic staff involved and how this sustains the critical agenda. We close with some reflections on progress and attainment.
This paper focuses on widening participation and accessibility in relation to mental health issues and undergraduate psychology students. Sections 1 and 2 set the context and outline the scope and aims of this paper. Section 3 presents evidence of the student experience from the Improving Provisions for Disabled Psychology Students (IPDPS)…
Upton, Dominic; Mansell, Hayley
Psychology is taught on a range of vocational courses including such training for professions as nurses, medics, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and other health care professionals. However, what is uncertain is what psychology is taught, who it is taught by and how it is taught. This project aims to address these unresolved questions…
Jun 1, 2013 ... mainly due to poor working conditions and poor infrastructural ... The questionnaire contained three sections: 1) respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and work history;. 2) respondents' job satisfaction and. 3) psychological health ..... level and psychological well being of healthcare providers in a ...
Background: Employees should be happy at their work, considering the amount of time they devote to it throughout their working life. There is paucity of data on the job satisfaction and psychological health of medical doctors in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological ...
Worldwide the greatest effects on the health of individuals and populations results from environmental degradation and social injustice, operating in consort. This paper describes the national and global causes and health consequences of these phenomena. Causes include overpopulation, pollution, deforestation, global warming, unsustainable agricultural and fishing practices, overconsumption, maldistribution of wealth, the rise of the corporation, the Third World debt crisis, and militarization and wars. Consequences include increased poverty, overcrowding, famine, weather extremes, species loss, acute and chronic medical illnesses, war and human rights abuses, and an increasingly unstable global situation that portends Malthusian chaos and disaster. Because of their scientific training, and due to their privileged socioeconomic status, physicians are in a unique position to recognize these phenomena and to act at all levels, from interactions with their patients, to volunteerism, to service and intervention in areas of great need, to direct political activism and involvement. Specific suggestions for action are discussed.
Juhee Vajracharya Suwal
Immigrant family caregivers were three times more likely than non-immigrants to report a health consequence. Reciprocity played a big role in this outcome. Given the fact that an increasing number of culturally diverse immigrants enter Canada every year and that the immigrant population is aging, more caregivers will be in demand. Policy makers need to find ways to keep immigrant caregivers healthy so that quality care can be given to immigrant older adults and also for maintaining an overall healthy Canada.
Full Text Available Goran Medic,1,2 Micheline Wille,1 Michiel EH Hemels1 1Market Access, Horizon Pharma B.V., Utrecht, 2Unit of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Abstract: Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep. Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with
Full Text Available The world is currently facing an unrecognized and untreated pandemic of Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD1. VDD is a significant public health problem in both developed and developing countries, including India2. It is highly prevalent across all age groups. Vitamin D (VD is a prehormone that humans obtain from foods and dietary supplements and by endogenous skin synthesis from7-dehydrocholesterol with sunlight exposure3. The present article reviews the etiology of VDD, physiological functions, sources, health consequences and prevalence of VDD in different regions of India.
Santander, Jaime T; Pinedo, José P; Repetto, Paula L
Physicians should be exposed, during their training to basic concepts in psychology. To describe the current status of the formal teaching of health psychology or medical psychology in Chilean medical schools. We reviewed the programs of the courses including topics of Medical Psychology, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine at 18 medical schools in Chile, using a focused coding method. The contents and the time spent on these courses were considered and analyzed. Eighty three percent of medical schools have a Medical Psychology or related program, 56.3% are carried out during the first year of medical School teaching and the weekly load has an average of 4 hours. The contents are mixed and predominantly concerning general and developmental psychology, but also address specific issues of Medical Psychology in most cases. There is little clarity about the training issues to be addressed in medical psychology for medical students in Chile. It is necessary to define the minimum content that all medical graduates should learn.
Derickson, Ryan; Fishman, Jonathan; Osatuke, Katerine; Teclaw, Robert; Ramsel, Dee
In psychologically safe workplaces, employees feel comfortable taking interpersonal risks, such as pointing out errors. Previous research suggested that psychologically safe climate optimizes organizational outcomes. We evaluated psychological safety levels in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals and assessed their relationship to employee willingness of reporting medical errors. We conducted an ANOVA on psychological safety scores from a VHA employees census survey (n = 185,879), assessing variability of means across racial and supervisory levels. We examined organizational climate assessment interviews (n = 374) evaluating how many employees asserted willingness to report errors (or not) and their stated reasons. Finally, based on survey data, we identified 2 (psychologically safe versus unsafe) hospitals and compared their number of employees who would be willing/unwilling to report an error. Psychological safety increased with supervisory level (P report an error; retaliation fear was the most commonly mentioned deterrent. Furthermore, employees at the psychologically unsafe hospital (71% would report, 13% would not) were less willing to report an error than at the psychologically safe hospital (91% would, 0% would not). A substantial minority would not report an error and were willing to admit so in a private interview setting. Their stated reasons as well as higher psychological safety means for supervisory employees both suggest power as an important determinant. Intentions to report were associated with psychological safety, strongly suggesting this climate aspect as instrumental to improving patient safety and reducing costs.
Scheepers, Renée A.
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be
Fajardo, Renato Salviato [UNESP; Zavanelli, Adriana Cristina; Botasim, Eliene Ferreira; Barboza, Glaucia de Souza
To improve mental health services, the World Health Organization proposes an epidemiological approach" based on the constant screening of existing research, and aimed at continuous improvement of psychological treatment rather than strict application of prescribed techniques. This study provides an epidemiological survey conducted at the psychology ward of the municipal Ambulatório de Saúde Mental in Birigui, São Paulo, Brazil. Data from 180 patients in psychotherapeutic care were collected, ...
Case, Anne; Paxson, Christina
We examine the consequences of child health for economic and health outcomes in adulthood, using height as a marker of childhood health. After reviewing previous evidence, we present a conceptual framework that highlights data limitations and methodological problems that complicate the study of this topic. We then present estimates of the associations between height and a range of outcomes--including schooling, employment, earnings, health, and cognitive ability--measured in five data sets from early to late adulthood. These results indicate that, on average, taller individuals attain higher levels of education. Height is also positively associated with better economic, health, and cognitive outcomes. These associations are only partially explained by the higher average educational attainment of taller individuals. We then use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults survey to document the associations between health, cognitive development, and growth in childhood. Even among children with the same mother, taller siblings score better on cognitive tests and progress through school more quickly. Part of the differences found between siblings arises from differences in their birth weights and lengths attributable to mother's behaviors while pregnant. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that childhood health influences health and economic status throughout adulthood.
Jeremy F. Kubik
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient’s sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.
Full Text Available Historically speaking, psychology and religion have worked separately toward the goal of improving mental health among the people. Can psychology and religion work together and reap better results for the client? How important is religion for the people and how important are religious values for psychologists? What is the relationship between religion and mental health? How today's schools of psychology deal with the religious client? How is religion integrated in psychotherapy? These and other related issues are addressed in this paper. It is concluded that psychologists are obligated to work within the value system of the client and that this approach would achieve a more positive therapeutic outcome.
Shivakumar, Prafulla; Sadanand, Shilpa; Bharath, Srikala; Girish, N; Philip, Mariamma; Varghese, Mathew
Psychological distress in the elderly with various illness conditions often goes unrecognized. Since psychological distress is treatable, it is important to recognize it at the earliest to enhance recovery. This is an interim analysis of screening data of the elderly seeking health care in a hospital in India, with a focus on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), a screening instrument for psychological distress and a rationale for a higher cutoff score in help seeking elderly. A retrospective analysis of screening data of psychological distress using GHQ-12 in the elderly seeking care for neuropsychiatric conditions was carried out. Traditionally, ≥2 is considered positive for distress by GHQ-12. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define new cutoff points for psychological distress. At ≥2, 2443 (50%) of the elderly screened were recognized to be psychologically distressed. Using an ROC and optimum sensitivity and specificity measures, a cutoff score of ≥4 was observed to detect 30% of the elderly who had diagnosable mental health disorders. Female sex, illiteracy, and multiple co-morbidities were the factors that were associated with higher cutoff scores on GHQ-12 proposed here and psychiatric morbidity thereof. There is greater psychological distress among the elderly seeking health care. Hence, it is important to screen them and identify those at higher risk. Using a higher cutoff score with a standardized instrument like GHQ-12 indicated that it was statistically valid to identify those elderly with higher distress in a busy out-patient setting.
Suzuki, Yuriko; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi
To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Out of the 180,604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59,807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42-1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32-1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94-2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Job loss is a discrete life event, with multiple adverse consequences for physical and mental health and implications for agency. Our research explores the consequences of job loss for retrenched workers’ mental health by examining the interplay between their agency and the structures shaping their job loss experiences. Methods We conducted two waves of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a sample of 33 of the more than 1000 workers who lost their jobs at Mitsubishi Motors in South Australia during 2004 and 2005 as a result of industry restructuring. Interviews capturing the mental health consequences of job loss were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed to determine the health consequences of the job loss and the impact of structural factors. Results Main themes that emerged from the qualitative exploration of the psychological distress of job loss included stress, changes to perceived control, loss of self-esteem, shame and loss of status, experiencing a grieving process, and financial strain. Drawing on two models of agency we identified the different ways workers employed their agency, and how their agency was enabled, but mainly constrained, when dealing with job loss consequences. Conclusions Respondents’ accounts support the literature on the moderating effects of economic resources such as redundancy packages. The results suggest the need for policies to put more focus on social, emotional and financial investment to mediate the structural constraints of job loss. Our study also suggests that human agency must be understood within an individual’s whole of life circumstances, including structural and material constraints, and the personal or interior factors that shape these circumstances.
Anaf, Julia; Baum, Frances; Newman, Lareen; Ziersch, Anna; Jolley, Gwyneth
Job loss is a discrete life event, with multiple adverse consequences for physical and mental health and implications for agency. Our research explores the consequences of job loss for retrenched workers' mental health by examining the interplay between their agency and the structures shaping their job loss experiences. We conducted two waves of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a sample of 33 of the more than 1000 workers who lost their jobs at Mitsubishi Motors in South Australia during 2004 and 2005 as a result of industry restructuring. Interviews capturing the mental health consequences of job loss were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed to determine the health consequences of the job loss and the impact of structural factors. Main themes that emerged from the qualitative exploration of the psychological distress of job loss included stress, changes to perceived control, loss of self-esteem, shame and loss of status, experiencing a grieving process, and financial strain. Drawing on two models of agency we identified the different ways workers employed their agency, and how their agency was enabled, but mainly constrained, when dealing with job loss consequences. Respondents' accounts support the literature on the moderating effects of economic resources such as redundancy packages. The results suggest the need for policies to put more focus on social, emotional and financial investment to mediate the structural constraints of job loss. Our study also suggests that human agency must be understood within an individual's whole of life circumstances, including structural and material constraints, and the personal or interior factors that shape these circumstances.
Lovell, Brian; Moss, Mark; Wetherell, Mark A.
Elevated psychological distress and concomitant dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated as one pathway that links the stress of caregiving with adverse health outcomes. This study assessed whether perceived social support might mitigate the psychological, endocrine and health consequences of caregiver…
Brown, David B.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Roos, Corey R.
There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one’s thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students (N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness. PMID:26504498
Brown, David B; Bravo, Adrian J; Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R
There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one's thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students ( N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness.
Quick, J C
Occupational health psychology (OHP) is a term first coined by Jonathan Raymond in 1990, yet OHP has historical, international roots dating at least to the early decades of the twentieth century. It involves research and practice to create healthy workplaces. This article has 4 sections. The 1st section discusses psychology's long history of concern for occupational health in industrial organizations, beginning with Hugo Münsterberg's study of industrial accidents and human safety in the late 1800s. The 2nd section focuses on OHP's movement from the convergence of public health and preventive medicine with health and clinical psychology in an industrial/organizational context. The 3rd section addresses the central issues of organizational and individual health through the framework of preventive management. The article concludes with OHP case examples drawn from the Chaparral Steel Company, the U.S. Air Force, and Johnson & Johnson.
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Lemmon, Keith M; Bodzy, Mary; Swenson, Rebecca R; Spirito, Anthony
The United States military force includes over 2.2 million volunteer service members. Three out of five service members who are deployed or are preparing for deployment have spouses and/or children. Stressors associated with the deployment cycle can lead to depression, anxiety, and behavior problems in children, as well as psychological distress in the military spouse. Further, the emotional and behavioral health of family members can affect the psychological functioning of the military service member during the deployment and reintegration periods. Despite widespread acknowledgment of the need for emotional and behavioral health services for youth from military families, many professionals in a position to serve them struggle with how to best respond and select appropriate interventions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirically based and theoretically informed review to guide service provision and the development of evidence based treatments for military youth in particular. This review includes an overview of stressors associated with the deployment cycle, emotional and behavioral health consequences of deployment on youth and their caretaking parent, and existing preventative and treatment services for youth from military families. It concludes with treatment recommendations for older children and adolescents experiencing emotional and behavioral health symptoms associated with the deployment cycle.
Ball, Hannah; Goodboy, Alan K.
Psychological reactance theory (PRT) is largely understudied in the classroom context. In this experiment, we manipulated instructors' use of clarity and forceful language as antecedents of psychological reactance and examined student communication outcomes (i.e., instructional dissent and challenge behavior) as ways in which students restore…
Martín-Baena, David; Montero-Piñar, Isabel; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Vives-Cases, Carmen
There are a significant number of studies assessing the negative health consequences of violence against women. However, a limited number of studies analyse the health consequences of violence committed against young women by different types of aggressors. The goal of this study is to assess the prevalence of interpersonal violence against young women in Spain and analyse its impact on the physical and mental health of the victims. A total of 1076 women aged 18-25 years attending Spanish primary care services were selected. We estimated the prevalence of interpersonal violence and compared the health data and demographic characteristics of abused and non-abused young women, multi-logistic regression models were fitted. The Wald test was used to assess whether there were differences in the negative health consequences of intimate partner (IPV) versus non-IPV. As many as 27.6% young women reported a history of abuse, of whom 42.7% had been assaulted by their partner, 41.1% by someone other than their partner and 16.2% both by their partner and another person. The distribution of social and demographic characteristics was similar for IPV and non-IPV victims. Young abused women were three times more likely to suffer psychological distress and have somatic complaints, and they were four times more likely to use medication as compared to non-abused women. Our results suggest that all forms of violence compromise young women's health seriously. Including patients' history of abuse in their health record may help make more informed clinical decisions and provide a more integrated care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Davidsen, Annette Sofie
a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis...... and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice....
Nilay Pekel Uludagli
Full Text Available In the transition from adolescence to adulthood, individuals are expected to undertake a variety of role transitions. The adult roles and their contents have begun to change for both genders as a part of social, economic and cultural changes in the world. As women began to join to the work force more, mens involvement in family life and childcare increased. Although having multiple roles causes conflict between the roles for both genders nowadays, being married and having children still seem to be related to better psychological health for todays early adults. However, these positive effects of marriage disappear in conflicting and unhappy marriages; and these marriages, on the contrary, damage the health of individuals. In addition to the content, the timing of the roles is also related to the psychological health of individuals. As adults who undertake the roles early have a disadvantaged position in terms of psychological health, marital and family relations, on the other hand, adults who undertake these roles on-time and lately have better psychological health and life conditions. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of undertaking adult roles and its timing on individuals psychological health in todays societies. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 263-283
This paper describes health care work in the context of the service sector and the current production restructuring process occurring in the world. It shows that the intensive use of high-end technological equipment and outsourcing are the main features of this process in the health area and that there are few innovations in terms of organization and work management. Concerning the impacts of the implantation of the production process in this area, it shows that, although unemployment is one of the most negative impacts, it has not yet affected the health sector. The paper also deals with the effects of production restructuring on work conditions, on the outcome of this work and on workers' health conditions. It indicates that this process does not result from economic determinism and that organized action among different social groups can influence the consequences for workers and users of the health care services. Finally, the paper concludes that there is a need for further studies on this area in order to achieve a better understanding of this process.
Yanchus, Nancy J; Derickson, Ryan; Moore, Scott C; Bologna, Daniele; Osatuke, Katerine
The purpose of this paper is to explore employee perceptions of communication in psychologically safe and unsafe clinical care environments. Clinical providers at the USA Veterans Health Administration were interviewed as part of planning organizational interventions. They discussed strengths, weaknesses, and desired changes in their workplaces. A subset of respondents also discussed workplace psychological safety (i.e. employee perceptions of being able to speak up or report errors without retaliation or ostracism--Edmondson, 1999). Two trained coders analysed the interview data using a grounded theory-based method. They excerpted passages that discussed job-related communication and summarized specific themes. Subsequent analyses compared frequencies of themes across workgroups defined as having psychologically safe vs unsafe climate based upon an independently administered employee survey. Perceptions of work-related communication differed across clinical provider groups with high vs low psychological safety. The differences in frequencies of communication-related themes across the compared groups matched the expected pattern of problem-laden communication characterizing psychologically unsafe workplaces. Previous research implied the existence of a connection between communication and psychological safety whereas this study offers substantive evidence of it. The paper summarized the differences in perceptions of communication in high vs low psychological safety environments drawing from qualitative data that reflected clinical providers' direct experience on the job. The paper also illustrated the conclusions with multiple specific examples. The findings are informative to health care providers seeking to improve communication within care delivery teams.
Oti-Boadi, Mabel; Oppong Asante, Kwaku
Infertility has been shown to have considerable psychological effects on the well-being of couples, especially women. Religion has been found as a resource used by infertile women to cope with their distress. Little research has examined the influence of religious coping on psychological distress among infertile women in Ghana. This study examines the relationship between positive and negative religious coping and psychological health for women with infertility problems in Ghana. One hundred and fifty married women who were receiving assisted reproduction care in two specialized clinics were recruited for this study. Participants were administered with the Brief Symptom Inventory and Brief Religious Coping Scale to assess psychological health associated with infertility and religious coping respectively. A hierarchical regression was performed to examine the relative contribution of the domains of psychological health (i.e. somatization, anxiety and depression) in predicting negative religious coping and positive religious. The results showed that negative religious coping was significant and positively correlated with somatization, depression and anxiety. Furthermore, a positive relationship also existed between positive religious coping and somatization and anxiety but not depression. After controlling for age and duration of infertility, somatization and anxiety predicted positive religious coping whilst all the domains of psychological health (somatization, anxiety and depression) precited negative religious coping. This study expanded on the existing literature by examining positive and negative religious coping with psychological distress associated with infertility for women. These results underscore the need for health professionals providing therapies for women with infertility to acknowledge and consider their religious beliefs as this influences their mental health.
Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F
This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Hinkle, J. Scott
Discusses the effect of aerobic running on psychological functioning and its adjunctive use in mental health counseling. Concludes that mental health counselors can provide more comprehensive services if they expand the psychoeducational model to include physiological parameters such as aerobic running that are associated with optimum mental…
This paper considers teacher resilience from the viewpoint of a discipline concerned with the interactions between work design, management style and employee health and well-being: occupational health psychology. It will be suggested that there are strong parallels between interventions designed to promote resilience and those designed to reduce…
This cross-sectional analytical study was designed to assess the level of and factors affecting job satisfaction and psychological health among long distance drivers in Benin City, Edo, Nigeria. A 21-item Job satisfaction questionnaire and the Golberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) were used for data collection ...
Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Dovidio, John F.
Objective This article considers how the social psychology of intergroup processes helps to explain the presence and persistence of health disparities between members of socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Method Social psychological theory and research on intergroup relations, including prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping, stigma, prejudice concerns, social identity threat, and the dynamics of intergroup interactions, is reviewed and applied to understand group disparities in health and health care. Potential directions for future research are considered. Results Key features of group relations and dynamics, including social categorization, social hierarchy, and the structural positions of groups along dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, influence how members of high status groups perceive, feel about, and behave toward members of low status groups, how members of low status groups construe and cope with their situation, and how members of high and low status groups interact with each other. These intergroup processes, in turn, contribute to health disparities by leading to differential exposure to and experiences of chronic and acute stress, different health behaviors, and different quality of health care experienced by members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Within each of these pathways, social psychological theory and research identifies mediating mechanisms, moderating factors, and individual differences that can affect health. Conclusions A social psychological perspective illuminates the intergroup, interpersonal, and intrapersonal processes by which structural circumstances which differ between groups for historical, political, and economic reasons can lead to group differences in health. PMID:23646834
Hopp, Henrik; Troy, Allison S.; Mauss, Iris B.
Because of the central involvement of emotion regulation in psychological health and the role that implicit (largely unconscious) processes appear to play in emotion regulation, implicit emotion-regulatory processes should play a vital role in psychological health. We hypothesised that implicitly valuing emotion regulation translates into better psychological health in individuals who use adaptive emotion-regulation strategies. A community sample of 222 individuals (56% women) who had recently experienced a stressful life event completed an implicit measure of emotion regulation valuing (ER-IAT) and reported on their habitual use of an important adaptive emotion-regulation strategy: cognitive reappraisal. We measured three domains of psychological health: well-being, depressive symptoms, and social adjustment. As hypothesised, individuals who implicitly valued emotion regulation exhibited greater levels of psychological health, but only when they were high in cognitive reappraisal use. These findings suggest that salutary effects of unconscious emotion-regulation processes depend on its interplay with conscious emotion-regulation processes. PMID:21432692
Psychological effects of the pandemic affecting social relationship and networks have become pronounced. People's behavioural response to the disease and relationship with victims is often shaped by their beliefs, values and social ...
Bowman, Sarah; Eiserman, Julie; Beletsky, Leo; Stancliff, Sharon; Bruce, R Douglas
Addiction to prescription opioids is prevalent in primary care settings. Increasing prescription opioid use is largely responsible for a parallel increase in overdose nationally. Many patients most at risk for addiction and overdose come into regular contact with primary care providers. Lack of routine addiction screening results in missed treatment opportunities in this setting. We reviewed the literature on screening and brief interventions for addictive disorders in primary care settings, focusing on opioid addiction. Screening and brief interventions can improve health outcomes for chronic illnesses including diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. Similarly, through the use of screening and brief interventions, patients with addiction can achieve improved health outcome. A spectrum of low-threshold care options can reduce the negative health consequences among individuals with opioid addiction. Screening in primary care coupled with short interventions, including motivational interviewing, syringe distribution, naloxone prescription for overdose prevention, and buprenorphine treatment are effective ways to manage addiction and its associated risks and improve health outcomes for individuals with opioid addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weiser, E B
Although the Internet has spawned significant changes in communication and interpersonal behavior, the data concerning the social and psychological effects of its use are equivocal. Drawing on the uses and gratifications model of communications media, it was hypothesized that the social and psychological effects of Internet use depend primarily on the user's reasons and goals for using the technology. That is, the Internet's social and psychological effects depend upon the functions it serves for users. A theoretical model involving the functions of Internet use, dimensions of social integration, and dimensions of psychological well-being was examined. In study 1, participants indicated the primary reasons for which they use the Internet. Principle components analyses indicated that these reasons fell under two empirically robust dimensions accounting for about half of the total variance in Internet use. These dimensions, or functions, were labeled Socio-Affective Regulation (SAR) and Goods-and-Information Acquisition (GIA); SAR may be conceptualized as a social or an affiliative orientation toward Internet use, whereas GIA may be conceptualized as a utilitarian or practical orientation toward Internet use. In study 2, structural equation modeling revealed that Internet use driven by SAR negatively influences psychological well-being by first reducing social integration. However, Internet use motivated principally by GIA appears to have a favorable effect on psychological well-being by first increasing social integration. Implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.
Tanaka, Eizaburo; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Kawakami, Norito; Kameoka, Satomi; Kato, Hiroshi; You, Yongheng
Most epidemiological studies on adolescent survivors' mental health have been conducted within 2 years after the disaster. Longer-term psychological consequences remain unclear. This study explored psychological symptoms in secondary school students who were living in Sichuan province 6 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. A secondary data analysis was performed on data from a final survey of survivors conducted 6 years after the Wenchuan earthquake as part of the five-year mental health and psychosocial support project. A total of 2641 participants were divided into three groups, according to the level of traumatic experience exposure during the earthquake (0, 1, and 2 or more). ANCOVA was used to compare the mean scores of the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) among the three groups, adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, ethnicity, having a sibling, parents' divorce, and socio-economic status. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify relationships between the traumatic experiences and suicidality after the disaster. Having two or more kinds of traumatic experiences was associated with higher psychological symptom scores on the SCL-90 (Cohen's d=0.23-0.33) and suicidal ideation (OR 1.98, 95% CIs:1.35-2.89) and attempts (OR 3.32, 95% CIs:1.65-6.68), as compared with having no traumatic experience. Causality cannot be inferred from this cross-sectional survey, and results may not generalize to other populations due to convenience sampling. Severely traumatized adolescent survivors of the earthquake may suffer from psychological symptoms even 6 years after the disaster. Long-term psychological support will be needed for these individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.
Eskenazi, Brenda; Chevrier, Jonathan; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Anderson, Henry A.; Bornman, Maria S.; Bouwman, Henk; Chen, Aimin; Cohn, Barbara A.; de Jager, Christiaan; Henshel, Diane S.; Leipzig, Felicia; Leipzig, John S.; Lorenz, Edward C.; Snedeker, Suzanne M.; Stapleton, Darwin
Objectives Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used worldwide until the 1970s, when concerns about its toxic effects, its environmental persistence, and its concentration in the food supply led to use restrictions and prohibitions. In 2001, more than 100 countries signed the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), committing to eliminate the use of 12 POPs of greatest concern. However, DDT use was allowed for disease vector control. In 2006, the World Health Organization and the U.S. Agency for International Development endorsed indoor DDT spraying to control malaria. To better inform current policy, we reviewed epidemiologic studies published from 2003 to 2008 that investigated the human health consequences of DDT and/or DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) exposure. Data sources and extraction We conducted a PubMed search in October 2008 and retrieved 494 studies. Data synthesis Use restrictions have been successful in lowering human exposure to DDT, but blood concentrations of DDT and DDE are high in countries where DDT is currently being used or was more recently restricted. The recent literature shows a growing body of evidence that exposure to DDT and its breakdown product DDE may be associated with adverse health outcomes such as breast cancer, diabetes, decreased semen quality, spontaneous abortion, and impaired neurodevelopment in children. Conclusions Although we provide evidence to suggest that DDT and DDE may pose a risk to human health, we also highlight the lack of knowledge about human exposure and health effects in communities where DDT is currently being sprayed for malaria control. We recommend research to address this gap and to develop safe and effective alternatives to DDT. PMID:19750098
Kecklund, Göran; Axelsson, John
This review summarises the literature on shift work and its relation to insufficient sleep, chronic diseases, and accidents. It is based on 38 meta-analyses and 24 systematic reviews, with additional narrative reviews and articles used for outlining possible mechanisms by which shift work may cause accidents and adverse health. Evidence shows that the effect of shift work on sleep mainly concerns acute sleep loss in connection with night shifts and early morning shifts. A link also exists between shift work and accidents, type 2 diabetes (relative risk range 1.09-1.40), weight gain, coronary heart disease (relative risk 1.23), stroke (relative risk 1.05), and cancer (relative risk range 1.01-1.32), although the original studies showed mixed results. The relations of shift work to cardiometabolic diseases and accidents mimic those with insufficient sleep. Laboratory studies indicate that cardiometabolic stress and cognitive impairments are increased by shift work, as well as by sleep loss. Given that the health and safety consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep are very similar, they are likely to share common mechanisms. However, additional research is needed to determine whether insufficient sleep is a causal pathway for the adverse health effects associated with shift work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Walter, Garry; Ross, Sharon; Bloch, Yuval
Our aim was to study the mental health consequences of Israeli adolescents' 8-day "Holocaust memorial journey" to Poland. A survey to ascertain the experience of Israeli child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents in the specialty was conducted. Participants were asked about referrals regarding the memorial journey, and to compare these cases with referrals for other potentially traumatic events, including school "sleep-out" trips. Fifty child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents participated. According to their collective experience, the adolescents' memorial journey triggered a variety of mental health problems, including psychosis, but only one case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Judging by the number of referrals, there was a higher rate of mental health problems following the memorial journey than after the annual sleep-out school trip. Although it may seldom lead to PTSD, the Holocaust memorial journey can be a major stressor for some participating teenagers. Evaluating "high risk" adolescents prior to their planned exposure to likely stressors and conducting large, prospective studies that examine the impact of pre-planned stressors on the lives of adolescents are warranted. Providing support to all adolescents before, during and after exposure to anticipated stressors is important.
Traub, Michael L; Santoro, Nanette
Reproductive aging coincides with endocrine changes that are not solely reproductive in nature and culminates in hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and amenorrhea. These changes are identifiable biochemically regardless of clinical manifestations. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis are associated with changes in other hormonal axes, specifically the adrenal androgen and the somatotropic axis. A large body of literature indicates that reproductive aging is associated with a decline in the somatotropic axis. The interactions between reproductive aging and changes in the adrenal androgen axis are more complex and complicated by age-related declines in the adrenal axis early in the reproductive years. These changes may play an important role in overall health maintenance. Attempts to ameliorate hormonal declines with exogenous hormonal therapy have produced mixed results. Finally, the age-specific timing as well as the rapidity of the changes that occur with reproductive aging seems to have important consequences on metabolism, cardiovascular risk, cognition, bone density, and even mortality.
Martin, Michael S; Hynes, Katie; Hatcher, Simon; Colman, Ian
While they have important implications for inmates and resourcing of correctional institutions, diagnostic errors are rarely discussed in correctional mental health research. This review seeks to estimate the prevalence of diagnostic errors in prisons and jails and explores potential causes and consequences. Diagnostic errors are defined as discrepancies in an inmate's diagnostic status depending on who is responsible for conducting the assessment and/or the methods used. It is estimated that at least 10% to 15% of all inmates may be incorrectly classified in terms of the presence or absence of a mental illness. Inmate characteristics, relationships with staff, and cognitive errors stemming from the use of heuristics when faced with time constraints are discussed as possible sources of error. A policy example of screening for mental illness at intake to prison is used to illustrate when the risk of diagnostic error might be increased and to explore strategies to mitigate this risk. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A
This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.
Although an association between childhood adversity and psychiatric disorder has been documented, most research has centered upon those living in developed countries and the types of adversities those populations experience. Most of the world's youth, however, live in the poorest countries and face additional types of adversity for which limited data are available. The aim of this review is to synthesize recently published research and policy documents regarding the prevalence, characteristics, and mental health consequences of childhood adversity in low-income countries. Many youth in low-income countries are exposed to war-related violence, are orphaned by AIDS, work long hours in dangerous conditions, and, among girls in Africa, undergo female genital mutilation. These children have more posttraumatic stress disorder and depression than unexposed youth. Family violence, discrimination, and poverty may exacerbate the effects of war-related trauma and AIDS orphanhood upon mental health. Research on the psychological consequences of childhood adversity in low-income countries is increasing, but is limited by the range of mental health outcomes evaluated and by small nonrepresentative samples. Further research is warranted to inform child advocacy and to guide public policy and the actions of nongovernmental agencies involved in the protection and welfare of children.
Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mcnamara, Patricia Mannix
Poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors for chronic disease and premature mortality. These behaviours are of concern among higher education students and may be linked to psychological distress which is problematic particularly for students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teaching. Understanding how risk behaviours aggregate and relate to psychological distress and coping among this population is important for health promotion. This research examined, via a comprehensive survey undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students' (n = 1557) lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire), self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). The results showed that health- risk behaviours were common, including alcohol consumption (93.2%), unhealthy diet (26.3%), physical inactivity (26%), tobacco smoking (17%), cannabis use (11.6%) and high levels of stress (41.9%). Students tended to cluster into two groups: those with risk behaviours (n = 733) and those with positive health behaviours (n = 379). The group with risk behaviours had high psychological distress and used mostly passive coping strategies such as escape avoidance. The potential impact on student health and academic achievement is of concern and suggests the need for comprehensive health promotion programmes to tackle multiple behaviours. As these students are the nurses and teachers of the future, their risk behaviours, elevated psychological distress and poor coping also raise concerns regarding their roles as future health educators/promoters. Attention to promotion of health and well-being among this population is essential. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz
The workplace environment has a great influence on employees' health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees' psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological health and somatic complaints (i.e., sleep disorders, headache, gastro-intestinal and respiratory problems). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women working in the public sector. Data collection was conducted using a series of self-administered questionnaires. The results of this study show that there is a link between job satisfaction and psychological distress as well as four somatic complaints. Satisfaction with the nature of work was the strongest predictor for psychological distress, sleep disorders, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems. From the results of this study, we conclude that there is a link between job satisfaction and the health status of employees. In addition, job satisfaction levels vary across different dimensions and can even differ from an individual's feelings of global job satisfaction. Policies and practices should focus on improving working conditions to enhance the fit of the job and the employee.
Arvidsdotter, Tina; Marklund, Bertil; Kylén, Sven; Taft, Charles; Ekman, Inger
The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences of persons living with psychological distress who seek help in primary care. Psychological distress is a state of emotional suffering associated with stressors and demands that are difficult to cope with in daily life. The lack of effective care for and difficulty in identifying psychological distress is frustrating for patients and health professionals alike. The aim was therefore to gain more knowledge about the experience of living with psychological distress. Twelve persons (nine women and three men) aged 23-51 years were interviewed. Analyses were based on a phenomenological hermeneutic method and indicated that psychological distress may be seen as an imbalance (incongruence) between the self and the ideal self, which slowly breaks down a person's self-esteem. This imbalance was described in three dimensions: Struggling to cope with everyday life, Feeling inferior to others and Losing one's grip on life. It seems to be associated with a gradual depletion of existential capacities and lead to dissatisfaction, suffering, poor self-esteem and lack of control. As psychological distress may be a forerunner to mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, there is a need to initiate preventive or early interventions to avoid mental, physical and emotional chaos in such patients. Patients' with psychological distress need to be involved in a person-centred salutogenic dialogue with health professionals to become aware of and strengthen their own capacities to regain health and well-being. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.
Schmitt, Michael T.; Branscombe, Nyla R.; Postmes, Tom; Garcia, Amber
In 2 meta-analyses, we examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being and tested a number of moderators of that relationship. In Meta-Analysis 1 (328 independent effect sizes, N = 144,246), we examined correlational data measuring both perceived
van der Sluis, C.K.; Eisma, W.H.; Groothoff, J.W.; Ten Duis, H.J.
This 6 year follow-up study was designed to evaluate the long-term physical, psychological and social outcomes of severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16). Patients were treated at the University Hospital Groningen, the Netherlands, between January 1989 and
Timmerman, Lotte; Timman, Reinier; Laging, Mirjam; Zuidema, Willij C; Beck, Denise K; IJzermans, Jan N M; Busschbach, Jan J V; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K
Living donor kidney transplantation offers advantages to the patient, however involves risks to the donor. To optimize donors' mental health after donation, we studied the influence of psychological factors on this outcome. Potential predictors were based on models of Lazarus () and Ursin and Eriksen () that describe predictors of mental health mediated by stress. Prospective design. Living kidney donors (n = 151) were interviewed before donation and completed questionnaires 2.5 months before and 3 and 12 months post-donation. Using multilevel regression models, we examined whether appraisals, expectations, knowledge, social support, coping, life events, and sociodemographic characteristics predicted psychological symptoms and well-being and whether these relationships were mediated by stress. A greater increase in psychological symptoms over time was found among donors without a partner. Younger age, lack of social support, expectations of interpersonal benefit, lower appraisals of manageability, and an avoidant coping style were related to more psychological symptoms at all time points. The latter three were mediated by stress. No religious affiliation, unemployment, history of psychological problems, less social support, expectations of negative health consequences, and less positive appraisals were related to lower well-being at all time points. This study identified indicators of a lower mental health status among living kidney donors. Professionals should examine this profile before donation and the need for extra psychological support in relation to the number and magnitude of the identified indicators. Interventions should be focused on the changeable factors (e.g., expectations), decreasing stress/psychological symptoms, and/or increasing well-being. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Until now, research on psychological outcomes after living kidney donation revealed that mental health remained the same for the majority of
The aim of this study was to record experiences of three meditation conditions: Ratio Breathing, Transcendental Meditation and Zazen, with special reference to sport, health, neuro-physiology and sense of coherence. The participants (N=9), seven males and two females were all British, actively competing across a range of ...
The study investigated stress events, perceived stress and social support in relation to various common health behaviours among black South African students. The sample included 624 students: 314 Grade 12 Secondary school students and 310 third year social science university students in South Africa. The study found ...
Chung, He Len; Docherty, Meagan
Objective: To examine relations between neighborhood characteristics and psychological health, specifically whether neighborhood trust and cooperation buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on depression and aggressive behavior. Methods: The sample was composed of 127 urban, African American young adults from Trenton, NJ. Results: The…
Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.
This article introduces the Major Contribution on integrating health and vocational psychology, using persons with HIV who have work-related concerns as an example. The authors describe the demographics associated with HIV disease and new treatments that have allowed people with HIV to remain healthy and continue working, or consider returning to…
Upton, Dominic; Cooper, Carol
On-line teaching material in health psychology was developed which ensured a range of students could access appropriate material for their course and level of study. This material has been developed around the concept of smaller "content chunks" which can be combined into whole units of learning (topics), and ultimately, a module. On the…
Jun 1, 2013 ... Request for reprints to: S . Bello, Department of Community Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, P.O.Box. 1750 .... between job satisfaction and psychological health was calculated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS. A total of 215 questionnaires were distributed and.
Spink, Mary-Jane P; Brigagão, Jacqueline M; Menegon, Vera M; Vicentin, Maria-Cristina G
Considering the diversity of theoretical approaches and settings for psychological practice, this editorial provides a background for the articles that have been included in this special issue concerning health psychology in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude). We addressed issues concerning the national curricular outline for undergraduate training in psychology and historical data on the social movements that led to the creation of the Sistema Unico de Saude and the Psychiatric Reform which created an important area for psychological work absorbing a considerable number of psychologists. © The Author(s) 2016.
Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery
While health impact assessment (HIA) has typically been applied to projects, plans or policies, it has significant potential with regard to strategic considerations of major health issues facing society such as climate change. Given the complexity of climate change, assessing health impacts presents new challenges that may require different approaches compared to traditional applications of HIA. This research focuses on the development of health consequence scales suited to assessing and comparing health effects associated with climate change and applied within a HIA framework. This assists in setting priorities for adaptation plans to minimize the public health impacts of climate change. The scales presented in this paper were initially developed for a HIA of climate change in Perth in 2050, but they can be applied across spatial and temporal scales. The design is based on a health effects pyramid with health measures expressed in orders of magnitude and linked to baseline population and health data. The health consequence measures are combined with a measure of likelihood to determine the level of risk associated with each health potential health impact. In addition, a simple visual framework that can be used to collate, compare and communicate the level of health risks associated with climate change has been developed.
Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery
While health impact assessment (HIA) has typically been applied to projects, plans or policies, it has significant potential with regard to strategic considerations of major health issues facing society such as climate change. Given the complexity of climate change, assessing health impacts presents new challenges that may require different approaches compared to traditional applications of HIA. This research focuses on the development of health consequence scales suited to assessing and comparing health effects associated with climate change and applied within a HIA framework. This assists in setting priorities for adaptation plans to minimize the public health impacts of climate change. The scales presented in this paper were initially developed for a HIA of climate change in Perth in 2050, but they can be applied across spatial and temporal scales. The design is based on a health effects pyramid with health measures expressed in orders of magnitude and linked to baseline population and health data. The health consequence measures are combined with a measure of likelihood to determine the level of risk associated with each health potential health impact. In addition, a simple visual framework that can be used to collate, compare and communicate the level of health risks associated with climate change has been developed. PMID:25229697
Seligman, Martin E.P.; Peterson, Christopher; Diener, Ed; Zack, Matthew M.; Chapman, Daniel; Thompson, William
Positive psychology is the study of what is “right” about people—their positive attributes, psychological assets, and strengths. Its aim is to understand and foster the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to thrive. Cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal research demonstrates that positive emotions are associated with numerous benefits related to health, work, family, and economic status. Growing biomedical research supports the view that positive emotions are not merely the opposite of negative emotions but may be independent dimensions of mental affect. The asset-based paradigms of positive psychology offer new approaches for bolstering psychological resilience and promoting mental health. Ultimately, greater synergy between positive psychology and public health might help promote mental health in innovative ways. PMID:21680918
Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Ben C P; Hui, Bryant P H; Ng, Jacky C K; Mak, Winnie W S; Guan, Yanjun; Buchtel, Emma E; Tang, Willie C S; Lau, Victor C Y
The influences of globalization have permeated various aspects of life in contemporary society, from technical innovations, economic development, and lifestyles, to communication patterns. The present research proposed a construct termed global orientation to denote individual differences in the psychological processes of acculturating to the globalizing world. It encompasses multicultural acquisition as a proactive response and ethnic protection as a defensive response to globalization. Ten studies examined the applicability of global orientations among majority and minority groups, including immigrants and sojourners, in multicultural and relatively monocultural contexts, and across Eastern and Western cultures. Multicultural acquisition is positively correlated with both independent and interdependent self-construals, bilingual proficiency and usage, and dual cultural identifications. Multicultural acquisition is promotion-focused, while ethnic protection is prevention-focused and related to acculturative stress. Global orientations affect individuating and modest behavior over and above multicultural ideology, predict overlap with outgroups over and above political orientation, and predict psychological adaptation, sociocultural competence, tolerance, and attitudes toward ethnocultural groups over and above acculturation expectations/strategies. Global orientations also predict English and Chinese oral presentation performance in multilevel analyses and the frequency and pleasantness of intercultural contact in cross-lagged panel models. We discuss how the psychological study of global orientations contributes to theory and research on acculturation, cultural identity, and intergroup relations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Landrigan, Philip J; Lioy, Paul J; Thurston, George; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Chen, L C; Chillrud, Steven N; Gavett, Stephen H; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Geyh, Alison S; Levin, Stephen; Perera, Frederica; Rappaport, Stephen M; Small, Christopher
The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyses of outdoor and indoor settled dust; high-altitude imaging and modeling of the atmospheric plume; inhalation studies of WTC dust in mice; and clinical examinations, community surveys, and prospective epidemiologic studies of exposed populations. WTC dust was found to consist predominantly (95%) of coarse particles and contained pulverized cement, glass fibers, asbestos, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated furans and dioxins. Airborne particulate levels were highest immediately after the attack and declined thereafter. Particulate levels decreased sharply with distance from the WTC. Dust pH was highly alkaline (pH 9.0-11.0). Mice exposed to WTC dust showed only moderate pulmonary inflammation but marked bronchial hyperreactivity. Evaluation of 10,116 firefighters showed exposure-related increases in cough and bronchial hyperreactivity. Evaluation of 183 cleanup workers showed new-onset cough (33%), wheeze (18%), and phlegm production (24%). Increased frequency of new-onset cough, wheeze, and shortness of breath were also observed in community residents. Follow-up of 182 pregnant women who were either inside or near the WTC on 11 September showed a 2-fold increase in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. In summary, environmental exposures after the WTC disaster were associated with significant adverse effects on health. The high alkalinity of WTC dust produced bronchial hyperreactivity, persistent cough, and increased risk of asthma. Plausible causes of the observed increase in SGA infants include maternal exposures to PAH and particulates. Future risk of mesothelioma may be increased, particularly among workers and
Maeda, Masaharu; Oe, Misari
The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear power plant accident caused multidimensional and long-term effects on the mental health condition of people living in Fukushima. In this article, focusing on the influence of the nuclear disaster, we present an overview of studies regarding the psychosocial consequences of people in Fukushima. Studies revealed that the experiences of the explosions at the plant as well as the tsunami are deeply embedded in their memory, leading to posttraumatic responses. Chronic physical diseases, worries about livelihood, lost jobs, lost social ties, and concerns about compensation were also associated with posttraumatic responses. Furthermore, the radioactive fallout brought chronic anxiety regarding physical risks of radiation exposure to people, especially young mothers. People often have different opinions about the radiation risk and their own future plans, resulting in a reduction in the resilience that communities and families had before the disaster. In addition, such weakened community resilience may produce a significant increase in disaster-related suicide in Fukushima. Specific social issues, such as "radiation stigma" among the public and self-stigma among evacuees, that are never seen with other natural disasters also increased in Fukushima.
Tschoppe, Peter; Wolgin, Michael; Pischon, Nicole; Kielbassa, Andrej M
Hyposalivation is represented by a reduced salivary flow rate and can be caused by etiologic factors such as systemic diseases and intake of various medications or by radiotherapy following head and neck cancer. The aim of this review was to compile data about the qualitative and quantitative changes of salivary components during hyposalivation, and to summarize their consequences for oral health. A Medline/PubMed/Scopus search was conducted to identify and summarize articles published in English and German that reported on etiology of hyposalivation and changes in the salivary composition due to hyposalivation of different origins. The search revealed 94 articles, 71 of which were original articles. Apart from the reduction of the salivary flow rate, the quality of saliva is strongly altered because of systemic diseases, medications, and radiotherapy, including increased viscosity and pH shift to more acidic values and changes in salivary protein compositions. Furthermore, hyposalivation may be accompanied by pronounced shifts in specific microbial components, in particular toward a highly acidogenic microflora. Moreover, therapy of hyposalivation is often restricted to palliative treatment (ie, saliva substitutes or gels). To prevent tooth tissue demineralization, clinicians should consider saliva substitutes that are supersaturated with calcium and phosphates and contain fluoride.
Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Fuertes, Antonio
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine three aspects of romantic relationships of Spanish adolescents: the prevalence of verbal-emotional and physical aggressive behaviors, correlates of dating violence perpetration (both verbal-emotional and physical aggression), and consequences of violence for victims' well-being. Method: A…
van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Wentzel, M.J.; Sieverink, Floor; Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Kelders, Saskia Marion
Introduction: eHealth is gaining more and more ground in health psychology and behavioural medicine to support wellbeing, a healthier lifestyle or adherence to medications. Despite the large number of eHealth projects to date, the actual use of eHealth interventions is lower than expected. Many
Hongsheng Chen PhD
Full Text Available This study analyzed the health of migrants in 4 types of neighborhood in the city of Guangzhou in China. The research shows that the health of internal migrants in urban villages and private housing neighborhoods is much better than those living in older inner city neighborhoods (which are known as jiefang shequ and unit neighborhoods (which are known as danwei. The reasons behind this are the facts that the migrants in urban villages tend to be relatively young and there tend to be better social and economic conditions in the private housing neighborhood. Moreover, among the 4 kinds of neighborhood, the gap between psychological health and physical health is the largest in urban villages. In addition, migrants who are younger, have better working conditions, and have higher levels of education have better health scores, and they tend to have more friends in the city, larger houses, better insurance, and more satisfaction with their neighborhood relationships, and they tend to be better adapted to urban life. As for the determinants of health, individual characteristics, community factors, and insurance are the most important factors. Specifically, individual age and age of housing have negative influences on physical health while insurance has a positive effect. This study shows that the type of neighborhood that migrants live in has a great impact on their psychological health, which can be improved by promoting neighborhood environments. Last, we propose that it is necessary to implement different strategies in different communities.
Omigbodun, Olayinka O; Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O; Yusuf, O Bidemi; Bella, Tolulope T; Olayemi, Oladopo
Studies suggest that high levels of stress and psychological morbidity occur in health care profession students. This study investigates stressors and psychological morbidity in students of medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy and nursing at the University of Ibadan. The students completed a questionnaire about their socio-demographic characteristics, perceived stressors and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Qualitative methods were used initially to categorise stressors. Data was then analysed using univariate and logistic regression to determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Medical and dental students were more likely to cite as stressors, overcrowding, strikes, excessive school work and lack of holidays while physiotherapy and nursing students focused on noisy environments, security and transportation. Medical and dental students (1.66; SD: 2.22) had significantly higher GHQ scores than the physiotherapy and nursing students (1.22; SD: 1.87) (t = 2.3; P = 0.022). Socio-demographic factors associated with psychological morbidity after logistic regression include being in a transition year of study, reporting financial distress and not being a 'Pentecostal Christian'. Although males were more likely to perceive financial and lecturer problems as stressors and females to perceive faculty strikes and overcrowding as source of stress, gender did not have any significant effect on psychological morbidity. Stressors associated with psychological distress in the students include excessive school work, congested classrooms, strikes by faculty, lack of laboratory equipment, family problems, insecurity, financial and health problems. Several identified stressors such as financial problems, academic pressures and their consequent effect on social life have an adverse effect on the mental health of students in this environment especially for students of medicine and dentistry. While stressors outside the reach of the school authorities are difficult to
Palafox, Neal A; Riklon, Sheldon; Alik, Wilfred; Hixon, Allen L
Between 1946 and 1958, the United States detonated 67 thermonuclear devices in the Pacific as part of their U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program (USNWTP). The aggregate explosive power was equal to 7,200 Hiroshima atomic bombs. Recent documents released by the U.S. government suggest that the deleterious effects of the nuclear testing were greater and extended farther than previously known. The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government and affected communities have sought refress through diplomatic routes with the U.S. government, however, existing medical programs and financial reparations have not adequately addressed many of the health consequences of the USNWTP. Since radiation-induced cancers may have a long latency, a healthcare infrastructure is needed to address both cancer and related health issues. This article reviews the health consequences of the Pacific USNWTP and the current health systems ability to respond.
Maercker, Andreas; Hecker, Tobias
This paper addresses consequences of exposure to violence and trauma. Traumata are defined as events with an extraordinary threat or catastrophic extent. Beside Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), affected people may develop Complex PTSD, Prolonged Grief Disorder or Adjustment Disorder as direct consequences of exposure with extreme stress. Indirect trauma-related disorders are amongst others Major Depression, Substance Dependency and Personality Disorders. These disorders develop often comorbid to PTSD. The likelihood to develop a PTSD at one point during the life course is 1-4% in Germany. A PTSD is diagnosed if for any length of time the traumatic situation is re-experienced (e.g. in pictures or nightmares), potential triggers are avoided, emotional reactivity is numb and a permanent hyperarousal is experienced. The intensity, the duration and the frequency of traumatic experiences as well as the lack of social support after the trauma are important risk factors for the development of a PTSD. In the last two decades successful treatment approaches for PTSD have been developed. The main focus of all evidence-based treatment approaches is the exposure in sensu of the traumatic experiences. Behavioral therapy approaches have shown to be most effective in the treatment of PTSD. A better understanding of the consequences of exposure to violence and trauma may help us to identify people at risk for developing trauma-related disorders already at an early stage.
Estevez, Ana; Herrero-Fernández, David; Sarabia, Izaskun; Jauregui, Paula
Pathological gambling has severe consequences for adolescents and their families and friends. Despite its high prevalence, pathological gambling in adolescents has been insufficiently studied. Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two variables that are related to the appearance and maintenance of pathological gambling. However, few studies have determined the role these variables play in the development of the dysfunctional symptomatology of gambling behavior in adolescents and young adults. The aims of this study were to analyze the consequences of gambling in young adults and adolescents, and to evaluate the roles of sensation seeking and impulsivity in the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology. The sample consisted of 1,241 young adults and adolescents recruited from scholar centers and free-time groups, as well as 71 subjects from associations that assist pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling, impulsive behavior, dysfunctional symptomatology and sensation seeking were assessed. The results confirmed that young adults and adolescents who gamble pathologically have more dysfunctional symptomatology related to anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsive behavior and somatization, as well as sensation seeking, impulsivity and addictive behavior. Moreover, the results showed that sensation seeking did not mediate the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology and that impulsivity partially mediated the appearance of anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression and psychosis and perfectly mediated somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation and hostility. These results have consequences for the development of treatment and prevention programs for adolescent pathological gambling.
McTavish, Fr James
Sex trafficking has devastating consequences on the physical and mental well-being of millions of women around the world. These trafficking victims often come in contact with medical personnel, and these encounters with suitably prepared staff can be a step toward healing of the victims. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, is making strenuous efforts to curb the spread of sex trafficking. Same-sex feelings and behavior may arise post-trafficking in individuals, although this does not appear to be mentioned thus far in the literature. Here, we are most likely dealing with a type of "pseudo-lesbianism" post-trauma. The trafficking survivor can be helped to understand some of the likely roots of her feelings such as anti-male sentiments following abuse. She needs to be patiently, and expertly, accompanied to process the trauma she has experienced, and learn how to meet her genuine needs for female affection and affirmation in healthy, chaste, and non-erotic ways. Around the world, millions of female victims of human trafficking are forced into sex "work," often resulting in serious physical and mental-health problems. Healthcare staff should be alert to spot victims of sex trafficking and be ready to assist them. The Catholic Church, especially through Pope Francis, has been vocal in denouncing this form of modern slavery. Some female victims of sex trafficking may experience same-sex feelings afterward. Healing for such young women involves helping them to process their traumatic experiences, as well as patiently accompanying them as they seek to develop healthy, chaste friendships with other females and males.
During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA
Suwal, Juhee Varacharya
Full Text Available AbstractThis study revisited the “double jeopardy” hypothesis in terms of the health ofimmigrant family caregivers. It also investigated the effect of “reciprocity”(feeling of giving back something on the health of family caregivers. TheGeneral Social Survey 2002 Cycle 16 data were analyzed using χ2-test andLogistic regressions. About 16% of immigrants and 13.6% of non-immigrantssaid that their health was negatively affected as a result of caregiving.Immigrant family caregivers were three times more likely than non-immigrantsto report a health consequence. Reciprocity played a big role in this outcome.Given the fact that an increasing number of culturally diverse immigrants enterCanada every year and that the immigrant population is aging, more caregiverswill be in demand. Policy makers need to find ways to keep immigrantcaregivers healthy so that quality care can be given to immigrant older adultsand also for maintaining an overall healthy Canada.RésuméCette étude réexamine l'hypothèse de «non bis in idem» dans le contexte de lasanté des aidantes et aidants membres de familles immigrantes. Elle étudie aussil'effet de «réciprocité» (le sentiment de rendre quelque chose sur la santé desaidantes et aidants membres de la famille. Les données de l'Enquête socialegénérale 2002, cycle 16 ont été analysées à l'aide du test du χ² et de régressionslogistiques. À peu près 16% des immigrants et 13.6% des non-immigrantes ontreporté que leur santé avait été négativement affectée par leur dispensation desoins. Les aidantes et aidants membres de familles immigrantes avaient troisfois plus de chance de reporter une conséquence sur leur santé que ceux desfamilles non-immigrantes. La réciprocité jouait un rôle important dans cerésultat. Quand on considère qu'un nombre croissant d'immigrants issus decultures diverses entre au Canada chaque année et que la populationimmigrante vieillit, il est clair que plus en plus
Large collectives (e.g., organizations, political parties, nations) are seldom unitary players. Rather, they consist of different subgroups that often have conflicting interests. Nonetheless, negotiation research consistently regards negotiating teams, who represent these collectives, as monolithic parties with uniform interests. This article integrates concepts from social psychology, management, political science, and behavioral game theory to explore the effects of subgroup conflict on team negotiation. Specifically, the present research introduced a conflict of interests within negotiating teams and investigated how this internal conflict affects the outcome of the negotiation between teams. An experiment with 80 four-person teams found that conflict between subgroups had a detrimental effect on the performance of negotiating teams. This research also employed a recent model of motivated information processing in groups to investigate possible processes underlying the effect of subgroup conflict on team negotiation.
Abedini, Roghayeh; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Faghih, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Heidar; Kamalinia, Mojtaba; Mohraz, Majid Habibi; Arassi, Maziyar; Veyseh, Peyman Piran; Aghaei, Hamed; Hosseini, Seyed Younes
Shift-work, which is an ergonomics issue in workplaces, can negatively affect workers. The security personnel of medical centers in Iran have multiple responsibilities and consequently are exposed to such unwanted situations as observing patients, disputing with patient's attendants, unwanted shift schedules, and being away from family for long periods. This study assessed health problems of Iranian hospital security personnel (shift-worker personnel) using the Survey of Shift-workers (SOS) questionnaire (Persian version). This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven medical centers (4 hospitals and 3 clinics). A total of 416 workers were surveyed: shift-workers (exposed group) (n=209) and non-shift-workers (unexposed group) (n=207). The prevalence of adverse health effects was higher in shift-workers than day-workers. The level of education and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) in shift-workers were significantly higher compared with day-workers. The prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders, cardiovascular and psychological problems were also significantly higher in shift-workers compared with day-workers. Overall, the prevalence of health problems among the security personnel of medical centers was high. Hence, it is recommended that personnel be put under periodic monitoring and receive medical counseling and treatment if there is any disorder.
Background In 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan, China. Following this disaster, several studies were conducted which assessed the degree of mental disorders in the affected population, but very few considered that several disorders may occur at the same time. This paper aims to investigate the psychological effects and risk factors among adult survivors one-year after the earthquake event. Methods 2080 adult earthquake survivors from 19 counties in the affected areas were interviewed. A stratified sampling strategy was used to collect the information. Earthquake survivors completed self-report questionnaires, which included a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist, a self-rating depression scale and a self-rating anxiety scale. Results Fifty nine percent of the participants were male. The prevalence of probable PTSD in the sample was 40.1% (based on the DSM-IV criteria). Significant differences in the demographic variables were found in the levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Anxiety levels were found to be positively correlated with depression (r = 0.438, p < 0.01) and PTSD (r = 0.322, p < 0.01). Risk factors for each symptom were also identified. Being female, having a low income level and having a low perceived level of social support were found to be the risk factors associated with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. There appeared to be no obvious relationship between the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake event and the severity of the psychological problems. Conclusions PTSD, anxiety, and depression were prevalent among the survivors. Most findings on the predictors were found to be consistent with current research. Positive adjustment and social support were found to be needed for the highest-risk population. PMID:24779914
Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J; Graña, Jose Luis; O’Leary, K. Daniel; González, M. Pilar
... that violence usually starts in younger couples [3,4] , where both verbal and physical aggression are part of the interpersonal relations [5–8] . Unfortunately, in many cases, these behaviors are considered a “normal” practice within the couple  . Most of the studies carried out to date are from American samples and generally show that psycholog...
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Marmash, Lily R
Assessment of individuals' psychological well-being and mental health is an important aspect of health promotion. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of psychological well-being and general health report among Jordanian university students. A total of 1108 students from six universities in Jordan were surveyed regarding psychological well-being and general health. The results showed that students perceived their psychological well-being as moderate. Psychological wellbeing subscales were negatively correlated with reports of physical pain, chronic infections, and previous or current treatment of a psychiatric illness. Male and female university students were similar in their perceptions of psychological well-being; however, they differed in their general health report. Perception of psychological well-being is an important component of university students' health. The importance of psychological well-being is highlighted, and implications for mental health nurses are presented.
Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Keating, Xiaofen D; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José
Psychological positive health and health complaints have long been ignored scientifically. Sleep plays a critical role in children and adolescents development. We aimed at studying the association of sleep duration and quality with psychological positive health and health complaints in children and adolescents from southern Spain. A randomly selected two-phase sample of 380 healthy Caucasian children (6-11.9 years) and 304 adolescents (12-17.9 years) participated in the study. Sleep duration (total sleep time), perceived sleep quality (morning tiredness and sleep latency), psychological positive health and health complaints were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children questionnaire. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) reported sleep time for children and adolescents was 9.6 (0.6) and 8.8 (0.6) h/day, respectively. Sleep time ≥10 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of reporting no health complaints (OR 2.3; P = 0.005) in children, whereas sleep time ≥9 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of overall psychological positive health and no health complaints indicators (OR ~ 2; all P adolescents. Reporting better sleep quality was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting excellent psychological positive health (ORs between 1.5 and 2.6; all P adolescents with no difficulty falling asleep were more likely to report no health complaints (OR ~ 3.5; all P sleep duration and poor perceived quality of sleep might directly impact quality of life in children, decreasing general levels of psychological positive health and increasing the frequency of having health complaints.
Løkkegaard, Thomas; Andersen, John S; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Badsberg, Jens H; Jørgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta
Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD), have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on self-reports from participants. To investigate if risk factor screening in healthy adults leads to mental distress in the study population, independent of participation. The Inter99 study (1999 - 2006) was a randomised intervention in the general population, aiming to prevent IHD by a healthier lifestyle. We included the whole study population, independent of participation (n = 60,915). We merged data with information on the use of psychotropic medication and/or hospitalisation due to psychiatric diagnoses, as retrieved from national registers in Denmark, 4 years before and 5 years after the study began. We conducted analyses using generalised estimating equations. There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in their use of antipsychotics, hypnotics/sedatives, antidepressants or anxiolytics. As regards admission to the hospital with mental disorders, no significant difference was seen. These findings were true based on a yearly basis, and when investigating both short-term and a long-term effects of the intervention. There was no interaction with socioeconomic status. Of the 918 persons with a psychiatric diagnosis before the study start, 303 (33%) were re-admitted in the intervention period. Pre-screening of psychological status did not influence the psychological impact of screening. This large, randomised intervention study supports that screening for risk factors to IHD does not increase mental distress, not even in the mentally or socioeconomically most vulnerable persons. This study included the whole Inter99 study population not only study participants. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Pike, Andrew; Hearn, Leslie; Williams, Amanda C de C
Psychological interventions for chronic pain and its consequences have been shown to improve mood, disability, pain, and catastrophic thinking, but there has been no systematic review specifically of their effects on health care use or time lost from work as treatment outcomes in mixed chronic pain. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies for chronic pain (excluding headache) in adults for these outcomes. We used searches from 2 previous systematic reviews and updated them. Eighteen randomized controlled trials were found that reported health care use (15 studies) and work loss (9 studies) as outcomes. Fourteen studies provided data for meta-analysis. There were moderate effects for psychological interventions compared with active controls, treatment as usual and waiting list controls in reducing health care use, with confidence in the findings. No benefits were found for medication reduction, but with less confidence in this result. Analysis of work loss showed no significant effects of psychological interventions over comparisons, but the use of many different metrics necessitated fragmenting the planned analyses, making summary difficult. The results are encouraging for the potential of routine psychological intervention to reduce posttreatment health care use, with associated cost savings, but it is likely that the range and complexity of problems affecting work necessitate additional intervention over standard group psychological intervention.
Sumner, Kenneth E.; Lampmann, Jodi L.
This article describes a project to reinforce learning in an undergraduate health psychology seminar. The project required students to (a) profile the physical and mental health status of at least 15 family members, (b) identify trends or patterns related to health and illness in their families, and (c) develop an action plan for maintaining good…
Easpaig, Bróna R Nic Giolla; Fryer, David M; Linn, Seònaid E; Humphrey, Rhianna H
Queer-theoretical resources offer ways of productively rethinking how central concepts such as 'person-context', 'identity' and 'difference' may be understood for community health psychologists. This would require going beyond consideration of the problems with which queer theory is popularly associated to cautiously engage with the aspects of this work relevant to the promotion of collective practice and engaging with processes of marginalisation. In this article, we will draw upon and illustrate the queer-theoretical concepts of 'performativity' and 'cultural intelligibility' before moving towards a preliminary mapping of what a queer-informed approach to community health psychology might involve.
Full Text Available In 90-ies years of last century in our country happened the crash of the system of values with transition to the standards of capitalistic society, and it lead to the formation of chronicle psychosocial stress of high and medium levels. Medics of all directions started to face functional psychosomatic diseases. Raised the necessity in grounding of health manpower in discipline of clinical psychology, with the learning of psychophisiological bases of diseases and possibilities if their correction. This direction of development of soviet medical education and health service in general seems progressive and prospective.
Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora
This special issue celebrates and maps out the 'coming of age' of community health psychology, demonstrating its confident and productive expansion beyond its roots in the theory and practice of small-scale collective action in local settings. Articles demonstrate the field's engagement with the growing complexity of local and global inequalities, contemporary forms of collective social protest and developments in critical social science. These open up novel problem spaces for the application and extension of its theories and methods, deepening our understandings of power, identity, community, knowledge and social change - in the context of evolving understandings of the spatial, embodied, relational, collaborative and historical dimensions of health.
Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
BACKGROUND: Improvement of mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important success criterion for bariatric surgery. In general, mental health and HRQOL improve after surgery, but some patients experience negative psychological reactions postoperatively and the influence...... investigating psychological predictors of either mental health or HRQOL after bariatric surgery. Original prospective studies published between 2003 and 2012 with a sample size >30 and a minimum of 1 year follow-up were included. RESULTS: Only 10 eligible studies were identified. The findings suggest......, psychiatric symptoms that persist after surgery and inappropriate eating behaviour postoperatively are likely to contribute to poor health-related quality of life outcome. CONCLUSION: Certain psychological factors appear to be important for mental health and HRQOL after bariatric surgery. However...
Fernández-Fuertes, Andres A; Fuertes, Antonio
The purpose of the study was to examine three aspects of romantic relationships of Spanish adolescents: the prevalence of verbal-emotional and physical aggressive behaviors, correlates of dating violence perpetration (both verbal-emotional and physical aggression), and consequences of violence for victims' well-being. A convenience sample of 567 participants (15-19 years old) who voluntarily completed anonymous, self-report questionnaires was used. All were students from 5 public high schools in Salamanca, Spain. Females reported having perpetrated significantly more aggressive acts in their intimate relationships than males did, although the magnitude of differences between both groups was small; in contrast, no sex differences were noted in the frequency of aggressions suffered by adolescents. A strong relationship was observed between the perpetration and victimization of both verbal-emotional and physical aggression across genders. A strong link was observed between jealousy and aggression perpetration (both verbal-emotional and physical). Finally, verbal-emotional aggression represented the most common form of aggressive behavior used at these ages, and relationship deterioration was the most frequent consequence of arguments. These results demonstrate that the use of abusive behaviors in adolescent dating relationships is prevalent in Spain. Sex differences were evident in the perpetration of aggression, as well as some of the motivations for, and the effects of, dating violence. The present study underlines the need for early intervention programs aimed at decreasing any tolerance for the use of violence in dating relationships of Spanish adolescents. Such programs should include both victimization-based and perpetration-based activities, since the evidence on the relatively mutual nature of dating violence in adolescence points in this direction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Penner, Louis A; Blair, Irene V; Albrecht, Terrance L; Dovidio, John F
Large health disparities persist between Black and White Americans. The social psychology of intergroup relations suggests some solutions to health care disparities due to racial bias. Three paths can lead from racial bias to poorer health among Black Americans. First is the already well-documented physical and psychological toll of being a target of persistent discrimination. Second, implicit bias can affect physicians' perceptions and decisions, creating racial disparities in medical treatments, although evidence is mixed. The third path describes a less direct route: Physicians' implicit racial bias negatively affects communication and the patient-provider relationship, resulting in racial disparities in the outcomes of medical interactions. Strong evidence shows that physician implicit bias negatively affects Black patients' reactions to medical interactions, and there is good circumstantial evidence that these reactions affect health outcomes of the interactions. Solutions focused on the physician, the patient, and the health care delivery system; all agree that trying to ignore patients' race or to change physicians' implicit racial attitudes will not be effective and may actually be counterproductive. Instead, solutions can minimize the impact of racial bias on medical decisions and on patient-provider relationships.
Hanoch, Yaniv; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew
Introduces the special issue of Health Psychology, entitled Health Psychology Meets Behavioral Economics. Psychologists have long been interested in understanding the processes that underlie health behaviors and, based on health behavior models that they have developed, have devised a spectrum of effective prevention and treatment programs. More recently, behavioral economists have also provided evidence of effective behavior change strategies through nonprice mechanisms in a variety of contexts, including smoking cessation, weight loss, and illicit drug use. Yet, although all are addressing similar issues, surprisingly little cross-fertilization has taken place between traditional economists, behavioral economists, and psychologists. This special issue is rooted in the assumption that collaboration between economists and psychologists can promote the development of new methodologies and encourage exploration of novel solutions to enduring health problems. The hope is that readers will be intrigued and inspired by the methodologies used in the different articles and will explore whether they might be applicable to the problems they are addressing. Collaborative efforts, although challenging and at times risky, are a promising way to produce more innovative studies, results, and interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Adedeji, A. [Agence pour la Protection de l' Environnement de l' Etat de Lagos, Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency - Lasepa (Nigeria)
This article treats of the urbanization process in Africa and of the direct impact of urban pollution on people's health. After a description of the spectacular growth of urban populations in Africa since 1970, the author focusses on the experience of Nigeria and on the city of Lagos: urbanization causes, demographic growth, origins of urban pollution (road traffic, uncontrolled wastes tipping, sanitary conditions) and different types of pollution (atmospheric, hydric, domestic wastes, noise, heat..). The second part of the article deals with the impact of this urban pollution on the public health in conditions of overpopulation: domestic environment, diseases linked with water quality, diseases transmission, accidents, occupational diseases. This analysis stresses on the lack of urban management and development policies in Nigeria, and on the lack of a representative, liable and competent public authority. (J.S.)
Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Beckmann, Suzanne C.
This study develops and empirically tests a model for understanding food consumers' health information seeking behaviour. Data were collected from 504 food consumers using a nationally representative consumer panel. The obtained Lisrel results suggest that consumers' product-specific health...... information seeking is positively affected by general food involvement and by usability of product-specific health information. Moreover, product-specific health information seeking and product-specific health information complexity are both positively related to post-purchase health-related dissonance...
Maria de las Mercedes Pretel Olite
Full Text Available Alcoholism is a complex biopsychosocial disorder that requires a specialised and multidisciplinary approach focusing on both the patient and the family. Alcohol consumption is the most important addiction worldwide due to its prevalence and impact. Therefore, the main objective of a primary care physician should be to facilitate the referral of patients and their families to a structured treatment, support and guidance program during the whole detoxification process. In every health area in Cienfuegos, there are community mental health centers with a staff trained to deal with these disorders in addicts and their family. A literature review was conducted to establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and its harmful effects on health, family and society, using an approach based on Health Psychology.
Globalization, outsourcing, subcontracting, downsizing and economic recession have collectively conspired to increase the number of employees experiencing persistent job insecurity in Nigeria. The consequences of such a situation are numerous. Millions of employees are constantly passing through sleepless nights and ...
Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie
Persuasive health messages can be presented through an auditory channel, thereby enhancing the salience of the source, making it fundamentally different from written or pictorial information. We focused on the determinants of perceived source reliability in auditory health persuasion by
teenagers' physiological and social immaturity and their lack of ... impact of early childbearing on the health risks of the mothers and ... the health problems associated with it. It can also .... age 19 were either mothers or pregnant with their first.
Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz
Full Text Available The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01 and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01. Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.
This document outlines guidelines for supervision of students in health service psychology education and training programs. The goal was to capture optimal performance expectations for psychologists who supervise. It is based on the premises that supervisors (a) strive to achieve competence in the provision of supervision and (b) employ a competency-based, meta-theoretical approach to the supervision process. The Guidelines on Supervision were developed as a resource to inform education and training regarding the implementation of competency-based supervision. The Guidelines on Supervision build on the robust literatures on competency-based education and clinical supervision. They are organized around seven domains: supervisor competence; diversity; relationships; professionalism; assessment/evaluation/feedback; problems of professional competence, and ethical, legal, and regulatory considerations. The Guidelines on Supervision represent the collective effort of a task force convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The magnitude and impact of mental disorders does not correspond to the resources devoted to research and attention. Although we have made significant progress in their understanding and the efficacy of the psychological treatments, we are still far from an optimal situation. This paper focuses on one of the major issues which we consider fundamental challenges and needs in this area, the increase in research focusing on psychopathology, especially on the mechanisms and processes that explain and maintain mental disorders, as a key point for the design and development of new psychological interventions for the prevention, treatment, and promotion of mental health. The aim is to promote discussion among all stakeholders and debate on those lines we think as a priority.
Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.
Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…
Horick, Nora K; Manful, Adoma; Lowery, Jan; Domchek, Susan; Moorman, Patricia; Griffin, Constance; Visvanathan, Kala; Isaacs, Claudine; Kinney, Anita Y; Finkelstein, Dianne M
Registries provide a unique tool for tracking quality of life in rare cancer survivors, whose survivorship experience is less known than for common cancers. This paper reports on these outcomes in 321 patients enrolled in the Rare Cancer Genetics Registry diagnosed with rare gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, head/neck, or hematologic cancers. Four outcomes were assessed, reflecting registrants' self-reported physical and mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness. Combining all patients into a single analysis, regression was used to evaluate the association between outcomes and socio-demographic and clinical factors. Median time since diagnosis was 3 years (range 0-9); 69 % were no longer in treatment. Poorer physical health was reported in registrants who were older at diagnosis, unmarried, and still in treatment. Poorer mental status was associated with younger diagnosis age and unmarried status. Psychological distress varied by cancer type and was higher among currently treated and unmarried registrants. Greater loneliness was reported in registrants with gynecological cancers, and those who were less educated or unmarried. The physical and mental health profile of rare cancer survivors is similar to what is reported for common cancers. Unmarried participants reported poorer outcomes on all measures of quality of life. Furthermore, physical and mental health were not significantly different by cancer type after adjustment for diagnosis age, whether currently in treatment and marital status. Thus, the combined analysis performed here is a useful way to analyze outcomes in less common diseases. Our findings could be valuable in guiding evaluation and intervention for issues impacting quality of life. Rare cancer survivors, particularly those without spousal support, should be monitored for challenges to the physical as well as psychological aspects of quality of life.
Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Blomkvist, Klas; Wide Boman, Ulla
Severe dental anxiety (DA) is associated with both oral health and psychosocial consequences in what has been described as a vicious circle of DA. The aim of this study was to investigate self-rated orofacial esthetics in patients with DA and its relationship to psychological and oral health. A consecutive sample of 152 adult patients who were referred or self-referred to a specialized dental anxiety clinic filled out the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) as well as measurements on DA, self-rated oral health and general anxiety and depression. Clinical measures of dental status were also obtained. Compared with the general population, patients with DA had lower ratings of satisfaction on all aspects of their orofacial esthetics, which included the teeth, gingiva, mouth and face, as well as a global orofacial assessment. Furthermore, the perception of the orofacial appearance was related both to dental status and self-rated oral health, as well as to general anxiety and depression. The level of dissatisfaction with the orofacial appearance was similar for both genders, but women reported more regular dental care and better dental status. The results of this study clearly show less satisfaction with dental and facial appearance in patients with DA, and that the self-rating of orofacial esthetics is related to both oral and psychological health. The OES can be used to assess orofacial esthetics in patients with DA.
Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye
This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379
Full Text Available S Riva,1 S Del Sordo,2,3 U Genovese,1,3 G Pravettoni1 1Department of Oncology and Hemato-oncology, University of Milan, Italy; 2FOLSATEC (Foundations & Ethics of the Life Sciences PhD School, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 3Healthcare Accountability Lab, University of Milan, Milan, Italy Aims: The overall goal of this article is to make a scientific comment about the psycho-social consequences of hemophilia patients affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV and to point out the related medicolegal issues. Methods: This commentary takes into account some published evidences about the current scenario of hemophilia patients infected by HIV and/or HCV who received contaminated blood products in the late 1970s through 1985. Results: Several psychological and medicolegal consequences are related with HIV and HCV contamination of blood products. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to treat all the difficulties experienced by these patients and to ensure good clinical decisions in medical practice. Conclusion: The literature on the psychosocial functioning of hemophilia patients with human HIV and HCV infection offers a number of implications, including medicolegal issues, that can be discussed for guaranteeing a good level of care and safeguard of this group of patients. Keywords: hemophilia, viral contaminated blood products, monetary compensation, medico-legal issues, medical decision making
Berth, H; Förster, P; Brähler, E
Negative consequences of unemployment have been known for a long time. This study concerns the effect of unemployment and job insecurity in a large sample of young adults because little is known about this special age group. Methods : 420 persons (46.8% males, 52.2% females, mean age 29 years) were polled in the 16(th) wave of the Sächsische Längsschnittstudie in 2002. This longitudinal study accompanies an East German sample since 1987 i.e. some time before German reunification. We used standardised psychological questionnaires to assess the state of health (SCL-9, HADS, GBB, SWE). 120 (29%) persons were repeatedly unemployed, 143 (34%) once, and only 157 (37%) have never been unemployed. The period of unemployment lasted 1 to 76 months. According to the experience with unemployment we found differences in subgroups: persons having more experience with unemployment report on higher global distress, more anxiety and depression, feel less efficacious and are in a subjectively poorer state of health. Nearly one-third of the participants think they have an insecure job. Persons who perceive an insecure job feel significantly greater anxiety, depression, body complaints, mental distress and feel less efficacious. Unemployment is a big social problem for young and well-qualified persons. The experience of unemployment decreases the identification with the current social system and has a strong negative influence on the state of health. Specific offers of medical and psychosocial support are required. Even the feeling of job insecurity has explicitly negative effects on health. Further longitudinal research is necessary.
The literature review and focus group findings that compose the Major Contribution illustrate how counseling psychologists can integrate expertise from various subdisciplines (vocational psychology, health psychology, multicultural psychology) to effectively address the needs of those living with HIV. Given changes in the nature of health problems…
Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; Crutzen, Rik
Health psychology developed a plethora of theories to explain and change a wide variety of behaviours. Several attempts have been undertaken to build integrative theories, some even striving for a Theory of Everything. We argue against these efforts, arguing that instead a 'pragmatic nihilism' perspective may be more fruitful to understand and change health behaviours. The first tenet of pragmatic nihilism is that psychological variables are usefully considered as metaphors rather than referring to entities that exist in the mind. As a consequence, the second tenet emphasizes theories' definitions and guidelines for the operationalisation of those variables. The third tenet of pragmatic nihilism is that each operationalisation represents an intersection of a variety of dimensions, such as behavioural specificity and duration, and most importantly, psychological aggregation level. Any operationalisation thus represents a number of choices regarding these dimensions. Pragmatic nihilism has two implications. First, it provides a foundation that enables integrating theories in a more flexible and accurate manner than made possible by integrative theories. Second, it emphasizes the importance of operationalisations, underlining the importance of investing in the careful development of measurement instruments, thorough reporting of measurement instruments' specifics and performance, and full disclosure of the instruments themselves.
Background Public health services implement individual, community and population level interventions to change health behaviours, improve healthy life expectancy and reduce health inequalities. Understanding and changing health behaviour is complex. Integrating behaviour change theory and evidence into interventions has the potential to improve services. Methods Health Psychologists apply evidence and theories aimed at understanding and changing health behaviour. A Scottish programme is piloting the training of Health Psychologists within NHS contexts to address prominent public health challenges. Results This article outlines the details of this novel programme. Two projects are examined to illustrate the potential of partnership working between public health and health psychology. Conclusion In order to develop and improve behaviour change interventions and services, public health planners may want to consider developing and using the knowledge and skills of Health Psychologists. Supporting such training within public health contexts is a promising avenue to build critical NHS internal mass to tackle the major public health challenges ahead. PMID:21070643
Peters, G.-J.Y; Dima, A.; Plass, A.M.; Crutzen, R.; Gibbons, C.; Doyle, F.
A recent debate in Health Psychology Review demonstrated the importance of careful attention to measurement and operationalisation of health psychology constructs (Beauchamp, 2016; Brewer, 2016; de Vries, 2016; Schwarzer & McAuley, 2016; Williams & Rhodes, 2016a, 2016b). This need is met by rapid
Reimann, Mareike; Guzy, Jakob
This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB) on employee mental and physical health (SF-12) using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of ...
Bertini, M; Conti, C M; Fulcheri, M
A common clinical observation is the adverse relationship between stress and human diseases. The attention of scientific research on health has been disproportionately focused on risk factors that predict the onset of certain health outcomes, in particular there has been an increasing interest in the role of inflammation as a common mechanism of disease in a number of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the importance of such research being undisputed, it is necessary to emphasize what the protective factors are that promote psychosocial recovery processes and increased survival rates in a biopsychosocial perspective. This article aims to understand the relationship between psychosocial factors and immune system in the interests of health psychology, highlighting the protective factors that promote recovery, resiliency and resistance to disease.
Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve
Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.
Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen
Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Depaoli, Sarah; Rus, Holly M; Clifton, James P; van de Schoot, Rens; Tiemensma, Jitske
The aim of the current article is to provide a brief introduction to Bayesian statistics within the field of health psychology. Bayesian methods are increasing in prevalence in applied fields, and they have been shown in simulation research to improve the estimation accuracy of structural equation models, latent growth curve (and mixture) models, and hierarchical linear models. Likewise, Bayesian methods can be used with small sample sizes since they do not rely on large sample theory. In this article, we discuss several important components of Bayesian statistics as they relate to health-based inquiries. We discuss the incorporation and impact of prior knowledge into the estimation process and the different components of the analysis that should be reported in an article. We present an example implementing Bayesian estimation in the context of blood pressure changes after participants experienced an acute stressor. We conclude with final thoughts on the implementation of Bayesian statistics in health psychology, including suggestions for reviewing Bayesian manuscripts and grant proposals. We have also included an extensive amount of online supplementary material to complement the content presented here, including Bayesian examples using many different software programmes and an extensive sensitivity analysis examining the impact of priors.
Weinstein, A.A.; Koehmstedt, C.; Kop, W.J.
Objective A sedentary lifestyle has been associated with mental health disorders. Many medical conditions result in the cessation of exercise, which may increase the risk of developing mental health problems. The purpose of this article is to systematically review the literature examining the
Ojike, Nwakile; Sowers, James R; Seixas, Azizi; Ravenell, Joseph; Rodriguez-Figueroa, G; Awadallah, M; Zizi, F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I
.... We used data from the National Health Interview Survey for 2004-2013. Hypertension was self-reported and the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess psychological distress (a score...
Padilla-Moledo, C; Ruiz, J R; Castro-Piñero, J
Interest on the impact of socioeconomic differences on youth's health is growing. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of parental educational level with psychological positive health and health complaints in Spanish children and adolescents. Parental educational level, psychological positive health indicators (perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships and academic performance) and health complaint index (headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, feeling dizzy) were self-reported using the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire in 685 (366 boys and 319 girls) children and adolescents. Children reporting parents with non-university studies (father, mother or both) had significantly higher odd ratio of having lower academic performance, lower life satisfaction, perceiving their health status as otherwise (vs. excellent) and having health complaints sometime than their counterparts reporting parents with university studies (father, mother or both). Current results provide evidence that children having parents with a university degree (father, mother or both) are more likely to have higher psychological positive health and lower health complaints than children reporting parents with non-university studies. This is particularly important for the welfare policy that must pay attention for implementing programs for helping population to access to university studies by their impact on youth health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In responding to Upton's discourse arguing for reform of undergraduate health profession curricula to maximise the inclusion of health psychology, it is first important to concede the enormity of the task. After all, psychologists are inherently biased towards their subject, quite simply due to their immersion within it which convinces them of its…
Elisardo Becoña Iglesias
Full Text Available The addiction subject is nowadays a valid one, as well as in the past century. Not only because of the increase of people that are addict, but also because of the important effects that cause on people and their environments. There are many theoretical perspectives to approach the addiction problem, but the most convenient because of its therapeutic results is the one that issupported by the psychology of health. lt is based on the integral approach to the person. This paper describes a general therapeutic scheme to work with addicts from the cognitive behaviora lperspective.
Sheeran, Paschal; Bosch, Jos A; Crombez, Geert; Hall, Peter A; Harris, Jennifer L; Papies, Esther K; Wiers, Reinout W
Implicit processes refer to cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that influence health decisions and behavior without the person intending that influence. This special issue aims to increase appreciation of the diverse and promising research on implicit processes in health psychology, and to promote discussion about how this research improves understanding of health behavior change and can be harnessed to meet public health mandates. The articles included in the special issue showcase this diversity and promise, and present not only new findings, but also new theories, new measures, and state-of-the- art summaries of progress. The research demonstrates the added value of considering implicit processes for understanding health behaviors, their interactions with explicit processes and neural mechanisms, as well as the benefits of targeting implicit processes in health behavior interventions. At the same time, however, the papers in this special issue also point to potential boundary conditions, the importance of good measures and appropriate tests of implicit processes, and the challenges involved in assessing implicit processes' causal role in determining health behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hyldgård, Vibe Bolvig; Jensen, Pernille Tine
and August 2013 in public hospitals in Denmark. The interventions in the study were total and radical hysterectomy performed robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH), total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH), or open abdominal hysterectomy (OAH). Service use in the healthcare sector was evaluated 1...... to OAH. Cost consequences were primarily due to differences in the use of inpatient service. There is a cost argument for using robot technology in patients with benign disease. In patients with malignant disease, the cost argument is dependent on comparator....
Bradford, Natalie Katrina; Chan, Raymond Javan
The effects of cancer and treatment have severe and long lasting negative impacts on quality of life. Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) have high survival rates but may not reach their full life potential because of these consequences. This review aims to identify, appraise and synthesise the effects of health promotion and psychological interventions for AYA after cancer treatment. The review was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Included studies were identified though a range of electronic databases through to May 2016. Studies were critically appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Seventeen studies, comprising a total of 2314 participants aged 13-39years were included in this review. Participants in 15 studies were survivors of childhood cancer, with only two studies specifically recruiting survivors of cancer diagnosed during young adulthood. Ten studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs); the remaining seven were before and after studies. The quality of studies was variable across all appraised domains; risk of bias was evident in regards to recruitment, measures of exposure and outcomes, confounding factors, attrition and lost-to follow-up. Studies evaluated a range of health promotion and psychological interventions to improve health related and process outcomes. Eleven studies reported modest positive outcomes, with psychological and physical activity interventions achieving greater success compared to general health promotion interventions. This review highlights the lack of high-quality studies for optimising the health and well-being of AYA cancer survivors. No conclusive evidence favouring specific interventions were identified, although recommendations for future studies are made. Interventions delivered face-to-face and those that facilitate peer-to-peer support hold promise. Harnessing social media and technology to deliver interventions is likely to increase and these
Kruse, Marie; Sætterstrøm, Bjørn; Bønløkke, Jakob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan
.... Reduced emissions of particulate matter ( [subscript]PM2.5[/subscript] ) may reduce the incidence of diseases related to air pollution and potentially increase productivity as a result of better health...
Patel, Nimisha; Kellezi, Blerina; Williams, Amanda C de C
Torture is widespread, with potentially broad and long-lasting impact across physical, psychological, social and other areas of life. Its complex and diverse effects interact with ethnicity, gender, and refugee experience. Health and welfare agencies offer varied rehabilitation services, from conventional mental health treatment to eclectic or needs-based interventions. This review is needed because relatively little outcome research has been done in this field, and no previous systematic review has been conducted. Resources are scarce, and the challenges of providing services can be considerable. To assess beneficial and adverse effects of psychological, social and welfare interventions for torture survivors, and to compare these effects with those reported by active and inactive controls. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through a search of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS), the Open System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenSIGLE), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and Published International Literature On Traumatic Stress (PILOTS) all years to 11 April 2013; searches of Cochrane resources, international trial registries and the main biomedical databases were updated on 20 June 2014. We also searched the Online Library of Dignity (Danish Institute against Torture), reference lists of reviews and included studies and the most frequently cited journals, up to April 2013 but not repeated for 2014. Investigators were contacted to provide updates or details as necessary. Full publications of RCTs or quasi-RCTs of psychological, social or welfare interventions for survivors of
Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani PhD, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza
Disasters do not affect people equally; the impact of disasters on the lives of women is different from other groups of a community. Women's fundamental rights to health and safety are violated after disasters. The authors of this study aimed to explore various factors of women's health with reference to previous natural disasters in Iran. A qualitative approach using in-depth unstructured interviews and field observations was employed to explore women's health factors in the affected regions. A total of 22 participants affected by disasters, as well as key informants, were interviewed applying the purposeful sampling method. Data were collected in 2014 in three provinces, including East Azerbaijan, Bushehr, and Mazandaran. A content analysis using the Graneheim approach was performed for analyzing the transcribed interviews. Two themes and four categories were extracted from the data. The themes that emerged included psycho-physical effects and women's health status. Physical and psycho-emotional effects and reproductive and environmental health effects were the four emergent categories. The findings implied that managing women's health challenges may result in reducing the distressing effects of disaster. These findings support identification and application of the mechanisms by which women's well-being in physical, mental, reproductive, and environmental aspects can be protected after disasters.
Chuang, Shu Ping; Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Wang, Chien Shu; Pan, Li Hsiang
We investigated the associations among health-promoting behaviors, psychological distress, and well-being among community residents. Well-being measurement was examined through health-promoting behaviors and psychological distress. From March 1 to October 31, 2016, a total of 383 community residents were assessed in their health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), psychological distress (K10) and wellbeing (SWLS and PWB). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that interpersonal relations, physical activity, and psychological distress accounted for 21% of the variance in life satisfaction (SWLS). Interpersonal relations, nutrition, stress management, spiritual growth and psychological distress accounted for 53% of the variance in psychological well-being (PWB). Findings may assist mental health professionals in enhancing health-promoting behaviors and reduce the psychological distress of community residents to improve well-being.
Park, Crystal L
Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.
Full Text Available Research suggesting the beneficial effects of yoga on myriad aspects of psychological health has proliferated in recent years, yet there is currently no overarching framework by which to understand yoga's potential beneficial effects. Here we provide a theoretical framework and systems-based network model of yoga that focuses on integration of top-down and bottom-up forms of self-regulation. We begin by contextualizing yoga in historical and contemporary settings, and then detail how specific components of yoga practice may affect cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and autonomic output under stress through an emphasis on interoception and bottom-up input, resulting in physical and psychological health. The model describes yoga practice as a comprehensive skillset of synergistic process tools that facilitate bidirectional feedback and integration between high- and low-level brain networks, and afferent and re-afferent input from interoceptive processes (somatosensory, viscerosensory, chemosensory. From a predictive coding perspective we propose a shift to perceptual inference for stress modulation and optimal self-regulation. We describe how the processes that sub-serve self-regulation become more automatized and efficient over time and practice, requiring less effort to initiate when necessary and terminate more rapidly when no longer needed. To support our proposed model, we present the available evidence for yoga affecting self-regulatory pathways, integrating existing constructs from behavior theory and cognitive neuroscience with emerging yoga and meditation research. This paper is intended to guide future basic and clinical research, specifically targeting areas of development in the treatment of stress-mediated psychological disorders.
Full Text Available Background: Approximately 99% of pregnancy-related deaths in developing countries are due to preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth which signifies that around 800 women die every day due to such causes. Major causes that lead to maternal deaths are post-partum hemorrhage, infections, high blood pressure and unsafe abortion. There are several facilities being provided for pregnant mothers yet the quality of care needs to be analyzed. Objectives: To understand the quality perspective of maternal health services and to review available evidence for strengthening maternal health services. Material & Methods: Research studies published between 2006 and 2016 were selected by specific inclusion criteria. Pub Med and Google Scholar were used to search studies on the topic, and few articles were identified through references and citations. Results: The result of the review highlighted the evidence of pitfalls, gaps in quality care, and need for interventions and approaches to improve the quality of maternal health care. Conclusion: Quality care encompasses various elements which stride towards improving the health of women and the interventions are to be scaled up to improve the quality of care. Generation of public health evidence and uniformity in quality assessments can help interventions to achieve desirable standards.
Recent climate change is a consequence of the greenhouse effect and human activity, and is directly responsible for extreme events such as heatwaves (see report of the French Académie des Sciences). Human thermoregulation depends more on behavior than on biology Air conditioning and building structure play an essential role. The 2003 heatwave was not a unique event. Preventive measures reduced mortality during subsequent heatwaves. Most deaths were due to heat stroke associated with dehydration. During strenuous exercise, especially during military training, heat stroke requires specific treatment. Temperature/ global mortality and temperature/cardiovascular mortality curves are both U-shaped. Usually, global mortality increases winter and is linked to temperature. During summer, global mortality increases only when heatwaves occur. Climate change participates in the spread of infectious diseases. Nevertheless, in continental France, for the moment, climate change is not a major factor in the incidence of infectious diseases, despite the fact that several bacteria, viruses and vectors are temperature-sensitive. The situation in Reunion, French Polynesia and French Departments of America is more complicated, due to their geographic heterogeneity. Some areas are more exposed to the climatic risk and could act as a gateway for new infections and mutations. The dramatic loss of biodiversity is partly a consequence of climate change. It increases the transmissibility of some pathogens and can also potentially lead to an increase in autoimmune diseases and obesity. Climate change plays a important role in allergic diseases, through changes in the diffusion and composition of pollens. These modifications are being monitored by several observatories. Six different veterinary diseases, including several zoonoses, are of particular concern.
Mohamed Kouni Chahed
Full Text Available The incidence of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL makes it the most widespread parasitic disease in Tunisia and the Arab world. Yet, few studies have addressed its psychological and psychosocial effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial impact of ZCL scars among Tunisian women.We conducted an exploratory study, we administered Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R, World Health Organization Quality Of Life-26 (WHOQOL-26 and Psoriasis Life Stress Inventory (PLSI to a group of girls and women with ZCL scar in the region of Sidi Bouzid. This group was randomly selected from volunteers who came to primary health care facilities to seek for treatment for any pathology.Descriptive statistics showed that the collected scores from the three scales exhibit heterogeneous distributions: IPQ-R (M = 63.6, SD = 15.6, PSLI (M = 9.5, SD = 6.7, WHOQOL-Physical (M = 63, SD = 12.9, WHOQOL-Psychological (M = 52.6, SD = 11.1, WHOQOL-Social (M = 61.8, SD = 17.5, and WHOQOL-Environmental (M = 47.8, SD = 13.3. The correlation analyses performed on Inter and intra-subscales showed that the emotional representations associated with ZCL were correlated with the loss of self-esteem and feelings of inferiority (r = 0.77, p<0.05. In addition, high education level and the knowledge about ZCL are positively correlated with cognitive and emotional representation in the IPQ-R (r = 0.33, p<0.05. "Rejection experiences" and the "anticipation and avoidance of stress" were respectively negatively correlated with age (r = -0.33, p<0.05 and r = -0.31, p<0.05. Correlations between the scores on IPQ-R domains and PLSI factors were significant. The results showed that anticipation of rejection and avoidance of stress are strongly correlated with a negative perception of ZCL. Quality of life scores were not correlated with either age, education level, time of illness, or the number of facial or body scars. However, the correlations between quality
Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB on employee mental and physical health (SF-12 using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of PCB on physical health. Also, the findings of this study show that the relative importance of obligations not met by employers differs according to the specific contents of the psychological contract. In conclusion, the results of this study support the idea that PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that represents a crucial risk to employee health.
Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne
Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Lemmon, Keith M.; Bodzy, Mary; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Spirito, Anthony
The United States military force includes over 2.2 million volunteer service members. Three out of five service members who are deployed or are preparing for deployment have spouses and/or children. Stressors associated with the deployment cycle can lead to depression, anxiety, and behavior problems in children, as well as psychological distress in the military spouse. Further, the emotional and behavioral health of family members can affect the psychological functioning of the military servi...
"Health psychology" is a newer sub-discipline whose research methodologies, theories, and practices were borrowed from diverse areas of psychology. It appeared later in France than in the United States or United Kingdom., In 1966, I adopted a perspective between anthropology and psycho-sociology of medicine. I never have self-identified as a "Health Psychologist", continuing to work outside of disciplinary boundary constraints, but studied health questions moving first from psychology (and anthropology), through social psychology to sociology. By the 1980s, I adopted an even broader multi-disciplinary approach to health, as the HIV/AIDS epidemic urgently challenedg health researchers/practitioners, in France and worldwide.
Poston, Lucilla; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Cnattingius, Sven; Corvalán, Camila; Uauy, Ricardo; Herring, Sharron; Gillman, Matthew W
Obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in prevelance worldwide. Obesity reduces fertility and increases time taken to conceive, and obesity-related comorbidities (such as type 2 diabetes and chronic hypertension) heighten the risk of adverse outcomes for mother and child if the woman becomes pregnant. Pregnant women who are obese are more likely to have early pregnancy loss, and have increased risk of congenital fetal malformations, delivery of large for gestational age infants, shoulder dystocia, spontaneous and medically indicated premature birth, and stillbirth. Late pregnancy complications include gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, both of which are associated with long-term morbidities post partum. Women with obesity can also experience difficulties during labour and delivery, and are more at risk of post-partum haemorrhage. Long-term health risks are associated with weight retention after delivery, and inherent complications for the next pregnancy. The wellbeing of the next generation is also compromised. All these health issues could be avoided by prevention of obesity among women of reproductive age, which should be viewed as a global public health priority. For women who are already obese, renewed efforts should be made towards improved management during pregnancy, especially of blood glucose, and increased attention to post-partum weight management. Effective interventions, tailored to ethnicity and culture, are needed at each of these stages to improve the health of women and their children in the context of the global obesity epidemic. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Torres, Luis R; Kaplan, Charles; Valdez, Avelardo
Research on the health consequences of long-term injection drug use (IDU) is limited. This article examines these consequences among aging, male Mexican American injecting heroin users. Concern for this group is crucial, given its health disparities and the association of IDU with disease transmission. Aging, male Mexican American IDUs (N = 227) were recruited through intensive outreach. Participants self-reported health status, medical and substance use history, and completed behavioral and psychometric health scales. Results: Participants had significantly poorer self-rated health and negative health conditions. Selected medical conditions not associated with the heroin-use lifestyle (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, arthritis) were lower relative to the comparison samples. This population has a complex profile of health consequences linked to a heroin-using lifestyle. The study concludes that routine screening of infectious diseases and medical and behavioral conditions among aging substance using populations may contribute to reducing Hispanic health disparities.
Wahlqvist, Mark L
Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage
Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika; Amazue, Lawrence O; Ekeh, Okechukwu Hope
Although research evidence indicates that loneliness is detrimental to mental health in diverse populations, impact of loneliness on psychological distress of orthopaedic patients' caregivers has been given little research attention. The present study examined the association of loneliness with psychological health, and explored gender differences in the loneliness and psychological health association among orthopaedic patients' caregivers. Participants were 250 patients' caregivers drawn from a national orthopaedic hospital in eastern Nigeria. Data was collected by means of self-report measures translated into the local dialect of the caregivers. Multiple regression results showed that loneliness positively predicted psychological distress in the total sample. Loneliness did not predict psychological distress of male caregivers, but it positively predicted psychological distress of female caregivers. In order to promote orthopaedic patients caregivers' mental health, gender-based differentials in the link between loneliness and psychological distress should be addressed by researchers and healthcare practitioners.
Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Shi, Xiaoming; Yin, Zhaoxue; Yang, Ze; Gu, Jun; Blazer, Dan
A comparative analysis between centenarians' children and neighborhood controls is an efficient approach to learn how familial longevity influence and its interaction with environmental factors affect healthy aging. Yet, there are few extant studies that inform this topic; this study expands this literature. We analyze data from 417 children of centenarians and 560 neighborhood controls without family history of longevity in China (all participants aged 60-80) using ordered logit regression models. We found that, compared to the neighborhood controls and adjusted for various potentially confounding factors, centenarians' children had significantly better instrumental activities of daily living function(p anxiety and loneliness(p affect health outcomes at old ages (p affect health in old age.
Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.
in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...... industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in this area of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health....
Atmospheric composition and climate conditions are of great importance for health. Increasing consumption of fossil fuels ever since the industrial revolution has resulted in higher contents of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Primarily, this will increase the global temperature. Secondarily, it may change the patterns of precipitation and droughts. Higher extreme temperatures will have a negative effect on health. Climate changes can also change the living conditions of undesirable insects and microbes. The ozone gas in the atmosphere acts as a shield against the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Chlorofluorocarbons contribute to reduction of the ozone layer and increase ultraviolet radiation. Increased exposure of the skin to this radiation may cause damage such as sunburn and skin cancer. In order to avoid damage, it is of importance to wear protective clothing or use effective sunshades.
Kozenko, M; Chudley, A E
It has been almost 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine. We review relevant data derived from published reports originating in the Former Soviet Union. We cite census data from Ukraine and research studies from Western Europe that analyzed the effect of radiation on genetics and health outcome in the exposed populations. We also present philatelic materials that pictorially captured that fateful event in history.
the real causes of the injury to the health professionals. More than half of the victims were not satisfied with the responses .... cause physical harm to a woman. It includes pinching, slapping, kicking with legs, biting or using .... Cuts, punctures 44.6 Hospital 43.3. Sprain/dislocation 18.5 Police 26.7. Eye/ear injury 12.3 Women ...
Tang, Helen H Y; Richardson, Rick
Social exclusion can have devastating personal, social, and clinical consequences, but several recent studies have identified factors that can reduce its aversive impact (e.g., distraction from rumination, control over a noise). In this study, we continued to explore possible strategies for reducing the aversive experiences of being excluded. Three experiments investigated whether an experience of inclusion reduced the impact of exclusion. Specifically, participants engaged in two rounds of a computer ball toss game (Cyberball) in which they were either included or excluded. Participants were told either that they played the two games with the same two sources (Experiment 1), with a different pair of sources (Experiment 2), or with people and then computer controlled sources (Experiment 3). We measured the impact of exclusion and inclusion on the psychological states of belonging, control, self esteem, meaningful existence, hurt feelings, anger, and affect. Across all three experiments, if inclusion occurred after exclusion then it was found to have an ameliorative benefit. However, if inclusion occurred before exclusion there was no protective benefit. Finally, we compared the ratings following one versus two experiences of exclusion, with no additive impact found. Taken together, the results indicate that inclusion can reduce the impact of exclusion, but only if it occurs after exclusion. Further, inclusion is ameliorative even when it is by a different group or a computer program. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Ku, Leighton; Steinmetz, Erika; Brantley, Erin; Bruen, Brian
Issue: The incoming Trump administration and Republicans in Congress are seeking to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA), likely beginning with the law’s insurance premium tax credits and expansion of Medicaid eligibility. Research shows that the loss of these two provisions would lead to a doubling of the number of uninsured, higher uncompensated care costs for providers, and higher taxes for low-income Americans. Goal: To determine the state-by-state effect of repeal on employment and economic activity. Methods: A multistate economic forecasting model (PI+ from Regional Economic Models, Inc.) was used to quantify for each state the effects of the federal spending cuts. Findings and Conclusions: Repeal results in a $140 billion loss in federal funding for health care in 2019, leading to the loss of 2.6 million jobs (mostly in the private sector) that year across all states. A third of lost jobs are in health care, with the majority in other industries. If replacement policies are not in place, there will be a cumulative $1.5 trillion loss in gross state products and a $2.6 trillion reduction in business output from 2019 to 2023. States and health care providers will be particularly hard hit by the funding cuts.
Full Text Available There are various cases and impacts of child labour and it has been a universal problem and remains as one of polemical challenge faced by the world. The problem of child labour not only causes to damage their physical and mental health but also their education right freedom development of childhood etc. Both developing countries and developed countries are faced to the phenomenon of child labour. 28 of Working children have faced injuries or fallen ill at least once in a year due to work in Sri Lanka. The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of child labours on their health. 200 primary data were collected in Peta Sri Lanka using simple random sampling method. Binary Logistic regression was employed to identify the health effects of child labour. According to the study child labors have faced some illnesses or injuries due to employment. Hours of working carrying of heavy loads operate heavy machines and equipment place of work and expose to things were highly correlated with physical harm of child labors. Carrying heavy load operate heavy machines and equipment and working place highly affected to physical harm of child labor. Many of them are employed on the street as street vendors construction sites factory and hotel and restaurant. Injuries and physical harms are highly related to the working place. Therefor the study recommends to empower the families provide the better formal education and vocational training to overcome this issue.
Oosterhoff, Pauline; White, Joanna; Nguyen, Thi Huong
Southeast Asian governments implement ambitious programmes to reduce population growth and maternal mortality in areas with large minority ethnic populations. Although some of these programmes introduce new social and health practices that meet their broader aims, they may pay inadequate attention to the protective and medically beneficial aspects of traditional practices. This study examined the decline of temporary matrilocality (zu kuay) among the Black Thai in Dien Bien, Vietnam, as a response to policies adopted under the government programme of Doi Moi ('modernisation'). The patrilocal, patrilinear cultural norms of the majority ethnic Kinh people were promoted and zu kuay discouraged at a time when heroin availability increased dramatically but harm reduction programmes were not yet in place. This historical coincidence appears to have heightened certain Thai women's vulnerability to marriages with HIV-positive injecting drug users. Policies and guidelines on marriage and reproductive health should take into account the role of minority ethnic traditions, as well as local health-seeking practices, in order not only to improve reproductive programmes but also to reduce HIV vulnerability.
Dar-Odeh, N S; Abu-Hammad, O A
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a world health problem with approximately 50% of patients having a 5-year survival rate. A change in the demographics of the disease is now being recognised, particularly in Europe, where it is increasingly being seen in young males. While a variety of risk factors are important in OSCC, it is tobacco that plays a central part in the pathogenesis of the disease. Narghile is an old form of tobacco use but in the past decade, there has been a resurgence in this form of smoking. The practice is particularly common in young males and females from the Middle East but with the advent of immigration and globalisation, its use is becoming more widespread. It is now not uncommon to see narghile smoking in western countries such as the UK and USA. Studies describing the oral effects of narghile are unfortunately scarce. While adverse effects such as periodontal bone loss and dry socket have been described, its association with OSCC cannot be excluded. Variation in the type of narghile, the type of tobacco and the presence of co-factors such as cigarette smoking may all influence clinical outcome. In the present study, the practice of narghile smoking is reviewed in terms of its effect on health, particularly oral health. The association of narghile smoking and adverse effects on the orofacial region will be outlined, namely, periodontal disease, potentially malignant lesions and oral cancer.
Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao
.... Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored...
Full Text Available Dorota Szostak-WegierekDepartment of Human Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. Keywords: maternal
Zuskin, Eugenija; Sarić, Marko; Vadić, Vladimira; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Doko-Jelinic, Jagoda; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Milosević, Milan
Environmental disasters are common phenomena caused by human factors. Disaster episodes may be the result of climatic changes such as global warming, which can lead to floods or drought. Greenhouse gases, and especially the ozone, represent a special problem. Atmospheric pollutions are the result of fire, storm dusts, winds, acid rain, etc. Underwater earthquakes very often end in tsunami with waves of up to 30 meters. Disasters described in the territory of Croatia include atmospheric pollutions, fires, floods, and droughts. All disasters affect the health of the population, particularly of the elderly. This most often includes the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, allergic reactions, and carcinogenic effects, resulting in increased mortality.
Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.
Objective: This study examined associations between profiles of physical and psychological violence in childhood from parents and two dimensions of mental health in adulthood (negative affect and psychological well-being). Profiles were distinguished by the types of violence retrospectively self-reported (only physical, only psychological, or both…
Psychological maltreatment is an important social and public health problem and associated with a wide range of short and long-term outcomes in childhood to adulthood. Given the importance of investigating mitigating factors on its effect, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health- internalizing and externalizing- problems in adolescents. Participants of the study consisted of 783 adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M=15.57, SD=0.88), with 52.9% female and 47.1% male. Several structural equation models were conducted to investigate the mediating role of coping strategies on the effect of psychological maltreatment on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Findings from mediation analyses demonstrated the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health problems. The outcomes support adolescents use more avoidant coping strategies and fewer active coping strategies in the face of psychological maltreatment experiences, and this affects their mental health. Taken together, these results should contribute to the design of prevention and intervention services in order to promote mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bauger, Lars; Bongaardt, Rob
In response to the ever-increasing longevity in Western societies, old age has been divided into two different periods, labelled the third and fourth age. Where the third age, with its onset at retirement, mostly involves positive aspects of growing old, the fourth age involves functional decline and increased morbidity. This article focuses on the entry to the third age and its potential for health promotion initiatives. Well-being is an important factor to emphasize in such health promotion, and this article views the lifestyle of third agers as essential for their well-being. The structural developmental theory of Robert Kegan delineates how a person's way of knowing develops throughout the life course. This theory is an untapped and salient perspective for health promotion initiatives in the third age. This article outlines Kegan's approach as a tool for developing psychologically spacious health promotion, and suggests future directions for research on the topic. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Nojopranoto, Widyasita
Marital separation and divorce are associated with increased risk for early death, and the magnitude of this association rivals that of many well-established public health factors. In the case of divorce, however, the mechanisms explaining precisely why and how some people are at risk for early death remain unclear. This paper reviews what is known about the association between divorce and risk for all-cause mortality, then discusses four emerging themes in this area of research: the biological intermediaries linking divorce to pathophysiology and disease onset, moving beyond the statistical mean, focusing research on the diathesis-stress model, and studying how opportunity foreclosures may place people on a trajectory toward poor distal health outcomes. These ideas are grounded in a set of public lay commentaries about the association between divorce and death; in this way, the paper seeks to integrate current research ideas with how the general public thinks about divorce and its correlates. Although this paper focuses on divorce, many of the emerging themes are applicable to the study of psychosocial stress and health more generally. Therefore, the study of divorce and death provides a good case study for health psychology and considers new questions that can be pursued in a variety of research areas. PMID:23284588
Full Text Available Lorena M Amaral, Mark W Cunningham Jr, Denise C Cornelius, Babbette LaMarca Department of Pharmacology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Abstract: Preeclampsia (PE is a pregnancy-specific syndrome and one of the leading causes of preterm birth, neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. This disease is characterized by new onset hypertension usually in the third trimester of pregnancy and is sometimes associated with proteinuria, although proteinuria is not a requirement for the diagnosis of PE. In developing countries, women have a higher risk of death due to PE than more affluent countries and one of the most frequent causes of death is high blood pressure and stroke. Although PE only affects approximately 2%–8% of pregnancies worldwide it is associated with severe complications such as eclampsia, hemorrhagic stroke, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP syndrome, renal failure and pulmonary edema. Importantly, there is no “cure” for the disease except for early delivery of the baby and placenta, leaving PE a health care risk for babies born from PE moms. In addition, PE is linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and stroke in women after reproductive age, leaving PE a risk factor for long-term health in women. This review will highlight factors implicated in the pathophysiology of PE that may contribute to long-term effects in women with preeclamptic pregnancies. Keywords: preeclampsia, endothelial dysfunction, AT1-AA, CD4+ T helper cells
Ottesen, P S; Lassen, J
In the year 2100 a global mean temperature increase of 2 degrees C, and a 50 cm rise in sea level are expected. An escalation in the intensity and duration of heat waves will increase mortality, whilst higher temperatures in cold regions may reduce it. On a global scale, vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and some types of viral encephalitis are likely to increase. 50 to 80 million more cases of malaria could occur annually. Elevated temperatures and more frequent floods could cause an increase in salmonellosis, cholera and giardiasis. Indirectly, shortages of freshwater and foods may cause serious health problems. The world may see more environmental refugees. For Norway a temperature increase of 3-4 degrees C during winter and 2 degrees C in summer is expected, with more precipitation, especially in western parts. The possibility of the Gulf Stream turning at 40 degrees N and causing a temperature decrease of 10 degrees C, is not very likely. Malaria could reestablish itself in Europe, but hardly in Norway. The most harmful arthropod vector in Norway, the tick Ixodes ricinus, might extend its range into the most populated parts of the country. Marine algal blooms might increase the risk of cholera. Health problems caused by greater floods, poisonous algae and certain freshwater cercaria might increase.
Amaral, Lorena M; Cunningham, Mark W; Cornelius, Denise C; LaMarca, Babbette
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome and one of the leading causes of preterm birth, neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. This disease is characterized by new onset hypertension usually in the third trimester of pregnancy and is sometimes associated with proteinuria, although proteinuria is not a requirement for the diagnosis of PE. In developing countries, women have a higher risk of death due to PE than more affluent countries and one of the most frequent causes of death is high blood pressure and stroke. Although PE only affects approximately 2%-8% of pregnancies worldwide it is associated with severe complications such as eclampsia, hemorrhagic stroke, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP syndrome), renal failure and pulmonary edema. Importantly, there is no "cure" for the disease except for early delivery of the baby and placenta, leaving PE a health care risk for babies born from PE moms. In addition, PE is linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and stroke in women after reproductive age, leaving PE a risk factor for long-term health in women. This review will highlight factors implicated in the pathophysiology of PE that may contribute to long-term effects in women with preeclamptic pregnancies.
Perera, Bilesha; Torabi, Mohammad; Kay, Noy S
This study examined the prevalence of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, psychological distress, anxiety and depression mood and the relationship between these variables in a sample of 534 college students in the USA. In college men, 91% were current alcohol users (those who use alcohol at least once a month) and in college women 80% were current alcohol users (p alcohol use. Beer was more popular among moderate users than heavy users in both sexes. Over 90% of both moderate and heavy users in both men and women had used hard liquor in the 30-day period preceding the survey. College men had more alcohol-related problems than did college women. Blackouts, getting into fights and not being able to meet school responsibilities were the common alcohol-related adverse outcomes reported by the participants. No associations were found between alcohol use and distress and between alcohol use and depressive mood. Mean values of the anxiety scores, however, were higher in moderate users in the male sample compared to that of the female sample. The findings have implications for theories of alcohol-related psychological health in college students.
Full Text Available The problem of saving and improving psychological health of educational relations' participants can be considered crucial. This article looked at several approaches to systemic analysis of various factors influencing psychological health of educational relations' participants in a negative way. We identified these factors by the levels they emerge at, namely: the level of learner himself/herself, the level of his/her social environment (teachers and parents, as well as educational institution, municipality and region. It is only possible to save and improve psychological health of educational relations' participants if systemic risk factors are eliminated at every level. Unsolved contradictions of the higher level "descend" to lower levels and require additional efforts to eliminate their effect. The article introduces the notion of learners’ “psychological health standards” that implies a system of socio-psychological, pedagogical, administrative, and technical conditions for saving and improving psychological health.
Menatti, Laura; Casado da Rocha, Antonio
In this paper we address a frontier topic in the humanities, namely how the cultural and natural construction that we call landscape affects well-being and health. Following an updated review of evidence-based literature in the fields of medicine, psychology, and architecture, we propose a new theoretical framework called “processual landscape,” which is able to explain both the health-landscape and the medical agency-structure binomial pairs. We provide a twofold analysis of landscape, from both the cultural and naturalist points of view: in order to take into account its relationship with health, the definition of landscape as a cultural product needs to be broadened through naturalization, grounding it in the scientific domain. Landscape cannot be distinguished from the ecological environment. For this reason, we naturalize the idea of landscape through the notion of affordance and Gibson’s ecological psychology. In doing so, we stress the role of agency in the theory of perception and the health-landscape relationship. Since it is the result of continuous and co-creational interaction between the cultural agent, the biological agent and the affordances offered to the landscape perceiver, the processual landscape is, in our opinion, the most comprehensive framework for explaining the health-landscape relationship. The consequences of our framework are not only theoretical, but ethical also: insofar as health is greatly affected by landscape, this construction represents something more than just part of our heritage or a place to be preserved for the aesthetic pleasure it provides. Rather, we can talk about the right to landscape as something intrinsically linked to the well-being of present and future generations. PMID:27199808
Menatti, Laura; Casado da Rocha, Antonio
In this paper we address a frontier topic in the humanities, namely how the cultural and natural construction that we call landscape affects well-being and health. Following an updated review of evidence-based literature in the fields of medicine, psychology, and architecture, we propose a new theoretical framework called "processual landscape," which is able to explain both the health-landscape and the medical agency-structure binomial pairs. We provide a twofold analysis of landscape, from both the cultural and naturalist points of view: in order to take into account its relationship with health, the definition of landscape as a cultural product needs to be broadened through naturalization, grounding it in the scientific domain. Landscape cannot be distinguished from the ecological environment. For this reason, we naturalize the idea of landscape through the notion of affordance and Gibson's ecological psychology. In doing so, we stress the role of agency in the theory of perception and the health-landscape relationship. Since it is the result of continuous and co-creational interaction between the cultural agent, the biological agent and the affordances offered to the landscape perceiver, the processual landscape is, in our opinion, the most comprehensive framework for explaining the health-landscape relationship. The consequences of our framework are not only theoretical, but ethical also: insofar as health is greatly affected by landscape, this construction represents something more than just part of our heritage or a place to be preserved for the aesthetic pleasure it provides. Rather, we can talk about the right to landscape as something intrinsically linked to the well-being of present and future generations.
Dionne, Frédérick; Ngô, Thanh-Lan; Blais, Marie-Claude
This paper presents a vision of mental health using the model of psychological flexibility of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). ACT is a representative approach of the third wave of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). This article first describes the theoretical and practical aspects of ACT and, in a second part, reviews some of the empirical data supporting its clinical use. Due to the high rate of comorbidity in mental health settings, transdiagnostic approaches in CBT, such as ACT, have recently become popular and particularly appealing to various clinical settings. The theoretical aspects underlying ACT, as well as its clinical components in the treatment of psychopathology were described based on major books in this area, such as Hayes, Strosahl and Wilson (2012). A descriptive literature review was undertaken to explore the data on the efficacy of ACT for the treatment of mental health problems. Psycinfo and Medline, as well as the Association for Contextual Science website were analyzed for relevant articles. The key search terms were: "Acceptance and Commitment therapy" or "ACT" or "acceptance" or "mindfulness" or "defusion." The reference lists of the articles retrieved were also analyzed. The articles that were not in English or French were excluded. Data suggest that ACT is particularly effective for stress, anxiety disorders, depression, substance abuse and various chronic medical conditions. The six processes of the model of psychological flexibility have been validated based on the results of correlational and meditational studies. More than seventy randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis including 18 randomized control trials conclude that ACT is more effective than waiting list, placebo and treatment as usual control conditions. ACT is a promising and evidence-based approach in mental health for the treatment of anxiety and depression as well as for complex and chronic conditions. More research is needed to further validate its
Full Text Available Psychological reactions, risk health behavior and cardiac parameters can influence rehospitalization after acute myocardial infarction.The aim of the paper was to determine the presence of psychological reactions and risk health behavior in patients with acute myocardial infarction on admission as well as the differences after six months.The research included thirty-trhee patients of both sexes, who were consecutively hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction. A prospective clinical investigation involved the following: semi-structured interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I for pcychiatric disorders, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI for measuring the severity of anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for measuring the severity of depression, KON-6 sigma test for aggression, Holms-Rahe Scale (H-R for exposure to stressful events, and Health Behavior Questionnaire: alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, lack of physical activity. Measurement of the same parameters was done on admission and after six months. The differences were assessed using the t-test and chi-square test for p<0.05.On admission, anxiety (BAI=8.15±4.37 and depression (BDI=8.67±3.94 were mild without significant difference after six months in the group of examinees. Aggression was elevated and significantly lowered after six monts (KON-6 sigma =53,26±9, 58:41,42±7.67, t=2,13 for p<0.05. Exposure to stressful events in this period decreased (H-R=113.19±67.37:91,65±63,81, t=3,14 for p<0.05; distribution of physical activity was significantly higher compared to admission values (54.83%: 84.84%. χ2=5.07 for p<0.01.In the group of examinees with acute myocardial infarction in the period of six months, anxiety and depression remained mildly icreased, while the levels of aggression and exposure to stressful events were lowered. Risk health behavior was maintained, except for the improvement in physical activity. In the integrative therapy and
The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of intimate partner violence and health consequences in civilian and active duty military women in the same geographic area using telephone survey and a case...
Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition...... that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) years were randomized into a group...... were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social...... capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....
Aisling T. O'Donnell
Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the unemployed suffer increased psychological and physical health problems compared to their employed counterparts. Further, unemployment leads to an unwanted new social identity that is stigmatizing, and stigma is known to be a stressor causing psychological and physical health problems. However, it is not yet known whether being stigmatized as an unemployed group member is associated with psychological and physical health in this group. The current study tested the impact of anticipated stigma on psychological distress and physical health problems, operationalized as somatic symptoms, in a volunteer sample of unemployed people. Results revealed that anticipated stigma had a direct effect on both psychological distress and somatic symptoms, such that greater anticipated stigma significantly predicted higher levels of both. Moreover, the direct effect on somatic symptoms became non-significant when psychological distress was taken into account. Thus, to the extent that unemployed participants anticipated experiencing greater stigma, they also reported increased psychological distress, and this psychological distress predicted increased somatic symptoms. Our findings complement and extend the existing literature on the relationships between stigmatized identities, psychological distress and physical health problems, particularly in relation to the unemployed group. This group is important to consider both theoretically, given the unwanted and transient nature of the identity compared to other stigmatized identities, but also practically, as the findings indicate a need to orient to the perceived valence of the unemployed identity and its effects on psychological and physical health.
Kozieł, Sławomir; Lopuszańska, Monika; Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna
In the 1990s Poland began to make a transition to a free-market economy: a transition accompanied by a variety of negative socio-economic developments, most notably a rise in unemployment. The aim of this study is to shed light on the relationship between occupational status (including unemployment) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), by examining the experience of 542 men and 572 women between the ages of 40 and 50 of the town of Wroclaw in 2006. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which uses certain health and life-style parameters to predict the risk of major coronary problems over a 10-year period, was calculated, and the effect of occupational status on the FRS was assessed. The results showed that the FRS varied according to sex and to occupational status, with the highest FRS rating among unemployed men. Thus governmental policies to counter the adverse effects of unemployment should be developed to remedy the problem. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Medical and scientific studies have proven that the body's metabolic programming can be influenced by diet and nutrition from early infancy. As a result, the incidence and outcome of several metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders have been found to be associated with birth weight, growth and feeding patterns, and the body composition in early childhood. Exclusive or partial breast feeding for at least 6 months is recommended by the World Health Organization, while the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recommends the introduction of complementary foods at 4–6 months of age. The fat content of the diet should not be below 25% of the energy intake in order to maintain ideal growth while dietary proteins above 15% of the energy intake is related to future obesity. Long term benefits of breast feeding include a more ideal serum lipid profile and blood pressure, improved neuro-cognitive scores, and a decreased incidence for atopic dermatitis in children who have family members with atopic diseases. Several studies have also acknowledged the long term benefits for neuro-cognitive development from certain nutrients including long-chain polyunstaturated fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid. Meat intake has proved to be beneficial to psychomotor development. It is suggested that early introduction for complementary foods before 4 months of age is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis; while no strong evidence showed delaying weaning foods can decrease the risk for allergic diseases.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the productivity cost savings associated with mitigation of particulate emissions, as an input to a cost-benefit analysis. Reduced emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5 may reduce the incidence of diseases related to air pollution and potentially increase productivity as a result of better health. Based on data from epidemiological studies, we modelled the impact of air pollution on four different diseases: coronary heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We identified individuals with these diseases and modelled changes in disease incidence as an expression of exposure. The labour market affiliation and development in wages over time for exposed individuals was compared to that of a reference group of individuals matched on a number of sociodemographic variables, comorbidity, and predicted smoking status. We identified a productivity cost of about 1.8 million EURO per 100,000 population aged 50–70 in the first year, following an increase in PM2.5 emissions. We have illustrated how the potential impact of air pollution may influence social production by application of a matched study design that renders a study population similar to that of a trial. The result suggests that there may be a productivity gain associated with mitigation efforts.
Trivedy, C R; Craig, G; Warnakulasuriya, S
Deleterious effects of areca nut on oral soft tissues are published extensively in the dental literature. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal tissues, two major oral diseases, are less well researched. Areca-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa or tongue are reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers a condition known as betel chewer's mucosa, a discoloured areca nut-encrusted change, is often found where the quid particles are retained. Areca nut chewing is implicated in oral leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes in Asian populations. In 1985 the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence to conclude that areca chewing may directly lead to oral cancer. There is, however, new information linking oral cancer to pan chewing without tobacco, suggesting a strong cancer risk associated with this habit. Public health measures to quit areca use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as submucous fibrosis and oral cancer among Asian populations.
Vincent, Charles; Wearden, Alison; French, David P
While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. As patients, we should be told of the risks of specific treatments but we are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. We suggest that, while there are many examples of individual health psychologists who have made important contributions, this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. Health psychologists have devoted much more attention to patients and devoted much less attention to the potentially huge impact of studying and intervening with staff, clinical practice, and organizations. We believe that there are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety and, more importantly, that this would be of great benefit to both patients and staff. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. Patients are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. Studies using review of medical records in many countries have found that between 8% and 12% of patients in hospital suffer an unintended harm due to health care. What does this study add? There are many examples of individual psychologists who have made important contributions, but this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. There are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety. These include health behaviour change, teamwork, communication after medical error, diagnosis and decision making, organisational culture, and improving compliance with rules and standards. Psychologists providing a clinical service to specialist services in any area could expand their remit from supporting patients to a more general support and engagement with safety and quality initiatives. Health psychologists have models to understand the behaviour of people
von Lengerke, Thomas
Hepworth's assessment of critical health psychology's capacity to contribute to public health promotion (this issue) is commented on and supplemented by selected issues relevant to Hepworth's timely call for interdisciplinary research and action in this context. Drawing on eco-epidemiology, multilevel research strategies are suggested that comprehensively account for individual/psychological and population/sociological factors. It is delineated how health promotion policies may be backed by psychologically informed policy analysis. Regarding health, it is argued to keep scrutinizing ill-health and to resist simplistic notions of quality of life or wellness but also to enhance these by incorporating concepts from positive psychology. Finally, it is considered whether trans disciplinarity may be in aid of fully realizing the potentials of blending the merits of health psychology and public health.
Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration o...
Vriezekolk, J.; Eijsbouts, A.; Evers, A.W.M.; Stenger, A.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van
PURPOSE: To examine psychological health status among patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (i.e. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis) and osteoarthritis in multidisciplinary rehabilitation, and to describe changes in psychological distress, illness
This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality-health link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these within evolutionary cost-benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels. PMID:23772230
Mackey, Tim K; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Peace and stability in Eastern Europe is now at a crossroads with the rapidly deteriorating foreign policy crisis continuing to unfold in the Ukraine. However, largely overlooked in the context of other foreign policy and diplomatic priorities are the serious public health consequences for the region following the annexation of Crimea and the subsequent decision to ban opioid substitution therapy in the disputed territory. On 1 May 2014, the Republic of Crimea officially announced it would end access to opioid substitution therapy, an essential harm reduction tool recognized by international organizations and virtually all other European countries. The policy development marks a critical reversal in the region's fight against its growing HIV epidemic and also threatens years of public health gains aimed at providing evidence-based and integrated treatment approaches to combat drug dependence and HIV. Beyond these risks, the Ukrainian conflict could also negatively impact control of other infectious diseases that are converging with HIV and injection drug use, such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus. The continuing conflict is also likely to have a significant negative impact on Ukraine's fragile public health system leading to even worse population health outcomes than currently experienced by the country. In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as amongst other actors. Hence, the Ukraine
LaBrie, Joseph W; Thompson, Alysha D; Ferraiolo, Paul; Garcia, Jonathan A; Huchting, Karie; Shelesky, Kristin
The Relational Health Indices (RHI) is a relatively new measure that assesses the strength of relationships. It has been found that relational health has a protective factor for women, such that it enhances positive experiences and limits negative ones. The current study is the first to use the RHI to examine the effect of relational health on alcohol consumption and alcohol consequences. First year college women were given questionnaires assessing relational health, drinking motives, and alcohol use in their first few months at a mid-sized, private university. Due to the social nature of college settings, it was predicted that relational health would moderate the relationship between motives and alcohol consumption. Further, due to the protective factor of relational health, it was predicted that relational health would attenuate the relationship between drinking and negative consequences. These hypotheses were supported. Relational health, moderated the relationship between both social and coping drinking motives and drinking, such that women with strong relational health towards their peers and community who also had high social and coping motives, drank more than those with weaker relationships. Paradoxically, relational health also moderated the relationship between drinking and consequences such that heavy drinking women with strong relational health experienced fewer negative consequences than women with weaker relational health. Results indicate that although relational health is associated with an increase in alcohol consumption, it may also serve as a protective factor for alcohol-related negative consequences. Future research and interventions may seek to de-link the relational health-drinking connection in the college student environment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent adoption of the UN resolution 1820 (2008 which calls for the cessation of war related sexual violence against civilians in conflict zones, Africa continues to see some of the worst cases of war related sexual violence including the mass sexual abuse of entire rural communities particularly in the Great Lakes region. In addition to calling for a complete halt to this abuse, there is a need for the systematic study of the reproductive, surgical and psychological effects of war related sexual violence in the African socio-cultural setting. This paper examines the specific long term health consequences of war related sexual violence among rural women living in two internally displaced person's camps in Kitgum district in war affected Northern Uganda who accessed the services of an Isis-Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE medical intervention. Methods The study employed a purposive cross-sectional study design where 813 respondents were subjected to a structured interview as part of a screening procedure for an emergency medical intervention to identify respondents who required psychological, gynaecological and surgical treatment. Results Over a quarter (28.6% of the women (n = 573 reported having suffered at least one form of war related sexual violence. About three quarters of the respondents had 'at least one gynaecological complaint' (72.4% and 'at least one surgical complaint' (75.6%, while 69.4% had significant psychological distress scores (scores greater than or equal to 6 on the WHO SRQ-20. The factors that were significantly associated with war related sexual violence were the age group of less than or equal to 44 years, being Catholic, having suffered other war related physical trauma, and having 'at least one gynaecological complaint'. The specific gynaecological complaints significantly associated with war related sexual violence were infertility, chronic lower abdominal pain
Kinyanda, Eugene; Musisi, Seggane; Biryabarema, Christine; Ezati, Isaac; Oboke, Henry; Ojiambo-Ochieng, Ruth; Were-Oguttu, Juliet; Levin, Jonathan; Grosskurth, Heiner; Walugembe, James
Despite the recent adoption of the UN resolution 1820 (2008) which calls for the cessation of war related sexual violence against civilians in conflict zones, Africa continues to see some of the worst cases of war related sexual violence including the mass sexual abuse of entire rural communities particularly in the Great Lakes region. In addition to calling for a complete halt to this abuse, there is a need for the systematic study of the reproductive, surgical and psychological effects of war related sexual violence in the African socio-cultural setting.This paper examines the specific long term health consequences of war related sexual violence among rural women living in two internally displaced person's camps in Kitgum district in war affected Northern Uganda who accessed the services of an Isis-Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE) medical intervention. The study employed a purposive cross-sectional study design where 813 respondents were subjected to a structured interview as part of a screening procedure for an emergency medical intervention to identify respondents who required psychological, gynaecological and surgical treatment. Over a quarter (28.6%) of the women (n = 573) reported having suffered at least one form of war related sexual violence. About three quarters of the respondents had 'at least one gynaecological complaint' (72.4%) and 'at least one surgical complaint' (75.6%), while 69.4% had significant psychological distress scores (scores greater than or equal to 6 on the WHO SRQ-20). The factors that were significantly associated with war related sexual violence were the age group of less than or equal to 44 years, being Catholic, having suffered other war related physical trauma, and having 'at least one gynaecological complaint'. The specific gynaecological complaints significantly associated with war related sexual violence were infertility, chronic lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, and sexual dysfunction
Santiago-Delefosse, Marie; Del Rio Carral, Maria
This article traces the historical evolution of ongoing theoretical debates in psychology in France from the 1940s until today. Its aim is to show how the conjunction of certain conditions was determinant for a rapid expansion of American-derived mainstream health psychology during the 1980s. The authors describe the French context in the post-World War II period that made possible the introduction of psychology courses at the university, which included the tensions between two epistemological orientations: experimental psychology and clinical psychology, the latter partly inspired by Politzer's concrete psychology. We also outline the process that led to the implementation of 'clinical psychology in health settings' in the 1950s, under the influence of Daniel Lagache. Furthermore, the strong critiques that were made to the new psychology profession in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s are examined against oppositions among psychologists, psychiatrists, philosophers and psychoanalysts. Moreover, we discuss how under turbulent conditions, a pragmatic-oriented psychology arriving from the United States was smoothly and rapidly introduced in France during the 1980s, promoting a socio-cognitive framework and offering new career perspectives. But the French dissension to this new sub-discipline will also be considered. Finally, our conclusion reflects upon future implications of ongoing rivalries between different approaches to psychology. It underlines a growing interest in critical perspectives developed in Anglo-Saxon cultures which are being applied, by French academics and practitioners who work in psychology in health settings.
Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L
When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…
and Psychological Health in OIF/OEF Veterans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charles W. Wilkinson, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Seattle...COVERED 15 March 2011 - 14 April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Blast Concussion mTBI, Hypopituitarism, and Psychological Health...isolation, and decreased quality of life, as well as muscular weakness, erectile dysfunction, infertility , and diminished cardiovascular function
Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…
Margison, Judith A.; Shore, Bruce M.
Calls for increased collaborative practices in school psychology parallel similar advances in the realm of health care. This article overviews the concepts associated with collaborative practice in school psychology and in health care (e.g., interaction, teamwork, and collaboration) and discusses how the literature emerging from interprofessional…
van Leeuwen, C.M.; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Peter, Claudio; Post, MWM; Stiggelbout, A.M.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the course of mental health and psychological factors over time in persons with a recent spinal cord injury and to determine whether change in psychological factors is associated with change in mental health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands with 3
M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)
textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.
Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti
Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…
Benedek, David M; Fullerton, Carol; Ursano, Robert J
First responders, including military health care workers, public health service workers, and state, local, and volunteer first responders serve an important role in protecting our nation's citizenry in the aftermath of disaster. Protecting our nation's health is a vital part of preserving national security and the continuity of critical national functions. However, public health and public safety workers experience a broad range of health and mental health consequences as a result of work-related exposures to natural or man-made disasters. This chapter reviews recent epidemiologic studies that broaden our understanding of the range of health and mental health consequences for first responders. Evidence-based psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for posttraumatic distress reactions and psychiatric disorders are outlined. Finally, the application of public health intervention models for the assessment and management of distress responses and mental disorders in first-responder communities is discussed.
Compen, F R; Adang, E M M; Bisseling, E M; Van der Lee, M L; Speckens, A E M
The mental burden of cancer might elicit additional health care utilization. However, it is unclear how psychiatric disorder and psychological distress relate to health care utilization. Therefore, this study explores associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization. It was hypothesized that presence of psychiatric disorder and psychological distress was associated with increased health care utilization and costs. The current study consisted of secondary analyses of baseline data of a larger randomized controlled trial. Two hundred forty-five mixed-cancer patients with at least mild symptoms of psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-T ≥ 11) were mainly recruited via online media, participating centers and patient associations. Patients were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) for depressive, anxiety, and/or adjustment disorder. Psychological distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Retrospective self-reported health care utilization in the past 3 months was collected. Associations between predictors and health care utilization in terms of incidence rate ratios (IRR) and costs per category (mental, primary, somatic, and complementary) were assessed by negative binomial, logistic, and gamma regression. Eighty-nine (36.3%) patients suffered from psychiatric disorder, which was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.63) and costs (OR = 3.11). We observed a nonsignificant trend of somatic health care utilization in patients with psychiatric disorder. Psychological distress was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.09) and costs (OR = 1.09). Psychological distress was also associated with complementary health care utilization (IRR = 1.03). Psychiatric disorder and psychological distress were associated with mental health care use and costs. Psychological distress was associated
Pucci, Silvia Helena Modenesi; Pereira, Maria da Graça
This study examined the mediation role of psychological morbidity, defined in this study as depression/anxiety, in the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, and between sleep habits and health behaviors, in adolescents. A total of 272 students, between 12 and 18 years old, underwent a psychological protocol assessing excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, sleep habits, health behavior, and psychological morbidity. Psychological morbidity was not associated with the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, but was associated, with statistical significance, in the relationship between sleep habits and health behaviors. These results emphasize the role of psychological morbidity in adolescent health behaviors. Analyzing the symptoms of depression and anxiety in pediatric patients may help in a more accurate diagnosis, especially in relation to sleep problems and health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
J. van der Waal (Jeroen); S.B.L. Daenekindt (Stijn); W. de Koster (Willem)
textabstractObjectives: Various studies on the health consequences of socio-economic position address social mobility. They aim to uncover whether health outcomes are affected by: (1) social mobility, besides, (2) social origin, and (3) social destination. Conventional methods do not, however,
M. Quintussi (Marta); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)
textabstractBackground: As compared to other countries in South East Asia, India's health care system is characterized by very high out of pocket payments, and consequently low financial protection and access to care. This paper describes the relative importance of ill-health compared to other
Kadayam G. Gomathi; Soofia Ahmed; Jayadevan Sreedharan
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. Methods: All first-year students (N = 125) of the Gulf Medical University (GMU) in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire...
Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A; Ferraro, Anthony J; Ross, D Bruce
In addition to facing stressors that are typical of life course development (e.g., marital struggles, balancing work/family demands), military families face additional stress attributed to their military context (e.g., deployments, relocations). Using a systems framework and stress process perspective, this study examined military couples' relational health, as a gauge for how couples collectively cope and address challenges as a united front and how their relational health influences crucial health behaviors (sleeping and eating) through the promotion or erosion of psychological resources (N = 236 couples). This study evaluated a latent variable structural equation dyadic model whereby each partner's perspective of their family's relational health was hypothesized to influence their own eating and sleeping behaviors (actor effects), as well as the eating and sleeping behaviors of their spouse (partner effects). The role of psychological resources (high self-efficacy, few depressive symptoms, and minimal anxiety) as a mechanism linking family functioning to health behaviors was also examined. Overall, the findings supported the hypothesized model, particularly for actor (intraindividual) effects. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers, including the importance of improving, or maintaining, family relational health, as a means for encouraging positive health behaviors among active duty military members and their spouses. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Løkke, Anders; Hilberg, Ole; Kjellberg, Jakob
on the economic consequences of COPD patients in Denmark and their spouses as well as displaying the serious health consequences for the individual spouse and society. Second, data shows substantial impact of COPD on income level and health expenses regardless of age and gender. It could be speculated that early......OBJECTIVE: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but longitudinal studies of the economic consequences of COPD are scarce. This study evaluated the economic consequences of COPD patients in Denmark and their spouses...... for age, gender and residence. Direct and indirect costs, including frequency of primary and secondary sector contacts and procedures, medication, unemployment benefits and social transfer payments were extracted from national databases for patients, spouses and controls. RESULTS: COPD patients...
The aims of the thesis were to study relationships between the effects of online gaming and gambling and negative social consequences and ill health among adolescents and to determine whether gaming and gambling activities occur together. The papers in this thesis used epidemiological methods to obtain self-report information from Swedish adolescents aged 13–18 years. Time spent in online gaming was associated with negative social consequences, and this relationship was explained by online ga...
Anna Rosiek; Natalia Frąckowiak Maciejewska; Krzysztof Leksowski; Aleksandra Rosiek-Kryszewska; Łukasz Leksowski
The epidemic nature of obesity in industrialized countries is a serious health and social concern. The number of obese people has significantly increased in the past 20 years. In Poland excess weight and obesity are a serious epidemiological concern. In terms of the number of overweight people, Poland is a leader in Europe. Therefore, indicating many serious health concerns that are the natural consequences of this phenomenon has become important from the point of view of public health. This...
O’Neal, Catherine W; Wickrama, K. A. S; Ralston, Penny A; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Harris, Cynthia M; Coccia, Catherine; Young-Clark, Iris; Lemacks, Jennifer
The current study examined the influence of health insurance, psychological processes (i.e. psychological competency and vulnerability), and the interaction of these two constructs on older African Americans’ utilization of five preventive care services (e.g. cholesterol screening and mammogram/prostate examination) using data from 211 older African Americans (median age = 60). In addition to direct effects, the influence of health insurance sometimes varied depending on respondents’ psychological competency and/or vulnerability. Policies and interventions to increase older African Americans’ use of preventive health services should consider structural (e.g. health insurance) and psychological (e.g. psychological competency and vulnerability) factors along with the interaction between these factors. PMID:23456216
Jobeir, Houssine; Peton, Gabrielle; Brigand, Alain; Chatain, Carine; Sass, Catherine; Moulin, Jean-Jacques
Social vulnerability often leads to the expression of psychological distress. The Health Examination Center of Côtes d'Armor, in Quimper, experimented with the development and implementation of psychological counseling for a highly socio-economically vulnerable population. As part of a periodic health examination, the center offers psychological counseling to patients with pathological sleep disorders and who lack sufficient psychological support. The Health Examination Center's framework and the context of the periodic health examination have facilitated the establishment of a tailored non-stigmatizing intervention well-embedded within the institutional environment. Marginalized people in situations of psychological distress are offered an opportunity to be listened to, and to receive counseling, appropriate prevention services and access to care.
Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Sicilia, Álvaro; Burgueño, Rafael
This study aimed to determine the usefulness of integrating basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) and relational frames theory (RFT) in order to explain the effects of social physique anxiety (SPA) - in the context of exercise - on exercisers' mental health. A total of 296 recreational cyclists and triathletes (100% males) aged 18 to 60 years old (M age = 35.65, SD = 9.49) completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing the target variables. Two models of structural equations with multiple mediators were tested using 5000 bootstrap samples. While the BPNT-based model explained 20% of variance in satisfaction with life (SWL) and 25% of variance in mental health (MH), the model that also incorporated RFT explained 43% of variance in both of those variables. Results showed that SPA negatively impacted exercisers' mental health via two different mechanisms: a) through a decrease in perceived satisfaction of basic psychological needs (β = -.05, p = .045 for SWL; β = -.07, p = .002 for MH); b) through an increase in psychological inflexibility, generated directly by SPA (β = -.24, p < .001 for SWL; β = -.20, p < .001 for MH) and also mediated by basic psychological need thwarting (β = -.09, p < .001 for SWL; β = -.08, p = .002 for MH). Results supported integrating the two theories, elucidating the processes by which a controlling social factor like SPA can affect the potential benefits of exercise.
Campos, Belinda; Ullman, Jodie B; Aguilera, Adrian; Dunkel Schetter, Christine
Familism, a cultural value that emphasizes warm, close, supportive family relationships and that family be prioritized over self, has been associated with psychological health. The goal of this work was to fill a gap in the literature on how familism contributes to psychological health. Drawing from conceptual links between familism and close relationship processes, we hypothesized that familism contributes to better psychological health by facilitating closeness and social support. A university sample of U.S. women and men of Latino (n = 173), European (n = 257), and Asian (n = 642) cultural backgrounds completed measures of familism, closeness to family members, general perceived social support, and psychological health as indexed by perceived stress, general mental health, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation multiple-group modeling analyses found direct effects of familism on closeness to family members and perceived social support and an indirect effect of familism on better psychological health via greater closeness to family members and greater perceived social support. These effects did not differ by cultural background. Consistent with previous research, however, Latinos reported the highest levels of familism of the three cultural groups, and women reported higher familism and support as well as poorer psychological health than men. Discussion is focused on the implications of these findings for understanding the association of familism with psychological health and the relevance of the familism construct for diverse U.S. groups.
Mohiuddin, Ahmed; Boisvert, Charles M.
In our clinical practice, we have attempted to use a positive psychology approach in working with people with schizophrenia and youths with behavioral disorders. We present three clinical applications that use a positive psychology approach with these populations: group treatment with persons with schizophrenia; individual cognitive stimulation…
Ohira, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Chikako; Imano, Hironori; Okada, Takeo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yuko; Sato, Shinichi; Nakamura, Masakazu; Naito, Yoshihiko; Kurokawa, Michinori; Nakashita, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Masayo; Kamei, Kazuyo; Horii, Yuko; Shimamoto, Takashi
We sought to examine relationships of lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol consumption and smoking, with perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Between 2001 and 2002, 7,947 men and women (mean 52.4 years) took part in examinations at the Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion. Lifestyle factors were determined by structured interview or by self-administered questionnaire. Associations of life style factors with perceived stress and depressive symptoms were tested by stepwise logistic regression analyses. Higher proportions of persons with depressive symptoms tended to be associated with higher proportions of persons with perceived stress. Among both men and women, low physical activity, lack of regular physical exercise, short sleeping time, to skip breakfast frequently, and having dinner within a couple of hours before going to bed were associated with both perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Men reporting between-meal or midnight snacks and having eating until they were full had higher odds ratios for perceived stress, while men conducting regular physical exercise and consuming 3 or more dishes of vegetables per day had lower odds ratios for depressive symptoms. For women, high odds ratios for depressive symptoms and perceived stress were observed among those who tended to have salty foods (or frequent use of soy sauce) and a lower odds ratio for perceived stress was noted among persons who had soy products every day. Lifestyle facets such as skipping breakfast, low physical activity, and short sleeping time, appear to be associated with psychological health status of Japanese men and women.
Scheepers, Renée A
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be facilitated by work engagement and how work engagement is facilitated by job resources and personality traits. First, we conducted a systematic review on the impact of physician work engagement and related constructs (e. g. job satisfaction) on physicians' performance in patient care. We additionally investigated physician work engagement and job resources in relation to patient care experience with physicians' performance at ten outpatient clinics covering two hospitals. In a following multicentre survey involving 61 residency training programs of 18 hospitals, we studied associations between physician work engagement and personality traits with resident evaluations of physicians' teaching performance. The findings showed that physician work engagement was associated with fewer reported medical errors and that job satisfaction was associated with better communication and patient satisfaction. Autonomy and learning opportunities were positively associated with physician work engagement. Work engagement was positively associated with teaching performance. In addition, physician work engagement was most likely supported by personality trait conscientiousness (e. g. responsibility). Given the reported associations of physician work engagement with aspects of their professional performance, hospitals could support physician work engagement in service of optimal performance in residency training and patient care. This could be facilitated by worker health surveillance, peer support or promoting job crafting at the individual or team level.
The high prevalence of household firearms in the U.S. has ignited a growing body of research seeking to understand its health consequences. While a large number of studies examine the impact of firearm availability on health risks of gun owners in the household, relatively little attention is given to whether and how in-home firearm access may shape psychological outcomes among children of gun owners. This study examined whether and how in-home firearm access is associated with adolescents' depressive symptoms. Given a strong social/cultural association between masculinity and gun possession as well as stark gender differences in perceptions of safety and attitudes toward firearms, this study also investigated whether this association differs for male and female adolescents. Participants were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) (n = 14,013). This study used random- and fixed-effects regression analyses as well as propensity-score matching models in order to reduce the chances of bias due to individual-level heterogeneity. The present study showed that gaining access to guns at home was significantly related to increased depressive symptoms among children of gun owners, even after accounting for both observed and unobserved individual characteristics. Both fixed-effects and propensity-score matching models yielded consistent results. In addition, the observed association between in-home firearm access and depression was more pronounced for female adolescents. Finally, this study found suggestive evidence that the perceptions of safety, especially about school (but not neighborhood), are an important mechanism linking in-home firearm access to adolescent depression. As a substantial proportion of U.S. adolescents reported in-home firearm access, the findings of this study suggest that scholars and policymakers must seriously consider mental as well as physical health consequences related to household access to
Mohammad reza khodabakhsh
Full Text Available Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls of Boukan's high schools. The participants were asked to complete psychological well-being inventory and mental health parenting style questionnaire. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results showed that psychological well-being and authoritative parenting styles were significantly related with mental health; also, Permissive parenting styles has significant positive relationship with mental health. The regression analysis indicated that mental health is predictable by psychological well-being and parenting styles. Conclusion: The knowledge of parenting styles and psychological well-being and their relationships with general well-being can provide the significant implications on the provision of students' health. Parenting styles and psychological well-being, as significant variables in general well-being, needs more clinical research.
Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José
We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents.
Fottrell, Edward; Kanhonou, Lydie; Goufodji, Sourou; Béhague, Dominique P.; Marshall, Tom; Patel, Vikram; Filippi, Véronique
Background Little is known about the impact of life-threatening obstetric complications (‘near miss’) on women’s mental health in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To examine the relationships between near miss and postpartum psychological distress in the Republic of Benin. Method One-year prospective cohort using epidemiological and ethnographic techniques in a population of women delivering at health facilities. Results In total 694 women contributed to the study. Except when associated with perinatal death, near-miss events were not associated with greater risk of psychological distress in the 12 months postpartum compared with uncomplicated childbirth. Much of the direct effect of near miss with perinatal death on increased risk of psychological distress was shown to be mediated through wider consequences of traumatic childbirth. Conclusions A live baby protects near-miss women from increased vulnerability by giving a positive element in their lives that helps them cope and reduces their risk of psychological distress. Near-miss women with perinatal death should be targeted early postpartum to prevent or treat the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:20044654
Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don
This study examined associations between AIDS-orphanhood status, poverty indicators, and psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, peer problems, delinquency, conduct problems) among children and adolescents in townships surrounding Cape Town, South Africa. One thousand and twenty-five children and adolescents completed standardized and culturally sensitive cross-sectional surveys. Children orphaned by AIDS had more psychological problems including depression, peer problems, post-traumatic stress, and conduct problems. Specific poverty indicators including food security, access to social welfare grants, employment in the household and access to school were associated with better psychological health. Poverty indicators mediated associations of AIDS-orphanhood with psychological problems. Food security showed the most consistent association with reduced psychological problems. Poverty alleviation measures have the potential to improve psychological health for AIDS-orphaned children in South African townships.
Walton-Roberts, Margaret; Runnels, Vivien; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sood, Atul; Nair, Sreelekha; Thomas, Philomina; Packer, Corinne; MacKenzie, Adrian; Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Labonté, Ronald; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn
This study sought to better understand the drivers of skilled health professional migration, its consequences, and the various strategies countries have employed to mitigate its negative impacts. The study was conducted in four countries-Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa-that have historically been "sources" of health workers migrating to other countries. The aim of this paper is to present the findings from the Indian portion of the study. Data were collected using surveys of Indian generalist and specialist physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, dieticians, and other allied health therapists. We also conducted structured interviews with key stakeholders representing government ministries, professional associations, regional health authorities, health care facilities, and educational institutions. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Shortages of health workers are evident in certain parts of India and in certain specialty areas, but the degree and nature of such shortages are difficult to determine due to the lack of evidence and health information. The relationship of such shortages to international migration is not clear. Policy responses to health worker migration are also similarly embedded in wider processes aimed at health workforce management, but overall, there is no clear policy agenda to manage health worker migration. Decision-makers in India present conflicting options about the need or desirability of curtailing migration. Consequences of health work migration on the Indian health care system are not easily discernable from other compounding factors. Research suggests that shortages of skilled health workers in India must be examined in relation to domestic policies on training, recruitment, and retention rather than viewed as a direct consequence of the international migration of health workers.
Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J
The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.
Full Text Available Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration of post-disaster issues can inform government entities and non-government organizations to assist communities and individuals left in the aftermath of natural disasters.
Hasegawa, A; Ohira, T; Maeda, M; Yasumura, S; Tanigawa, K
The Fukushima accident was a compounding disaster following the strong earthquake and huge tsunami. The direct health effects of radiation were relatively well controlled considering the severity of the accident, not only among emergency workers but also residents. Other serious health issues include deaths during evacuation, collapse of the radiation emergency medical system, increased mortality among displaced elderly people and public healthcare issues in Fukushima residents. The Fukushima mental health and lifestyle survey disclosed that the Fukushima accident caused severe psychological distress in the residents from evacuation zones. In addition to psychiatric and mental health problems, there are lifestyle-related problems such as an increase proportion of those overweight, an increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and changes in health-related behaviours among evacuees; all of which may lead to an increased cardiovascular disease risk in the future. The effects of a major nuclear accident on societies are diverse and enduring. The countermeasures should include disaster management, long-term general public health services, mental and psychological care, behavioural and societal support, in addition to efforts to mitigate the health effects attributable to radiation. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kenney, Shannon R; Lac, Andrew; Labrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Pham, Andy
Poor mental health, sleep problems, drinking motivations, and high-risk drinking are prevalent among college students. However, research designed to explicate the interrelationships among these health risk behaviors is lacking. This study was designed to assess the direct and indirect influences of poor mental health (a latent factor consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress) to alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences through the mediators of global sleep quality and drinking motives in a comprehensive model. Participants were 1,044 heavy-drinking college students (66.3% female) who completed online surveys. A hybrid structural equation model tested hypotheses involving relations leading from poor mental health to drinking motives and poorer global sleep quality to drinking outcomes. Results showed that poor mental health significantly predicted all four subscales of drinking motivations (social, coping, conformity, and enhancement) as well as poor sleep. Most of the drinking motives and poor sleep were found to explain alcohol use and negative alcohol consequences. Poor sleep predicted alcohol consequences, even after controlling for all other variables in the model. The hypothesized mediational pathways were examined with tests of indirect effects. This is the first study to assess concomitantly the relationships among three vital health-related domains (mental health, sleep behavior, and alcohol risk) in college students. Findings offer important implications for college personnel and interventionists interested in reducing alcohol risk by focusing on alleviating mental health problems and poor sleep quality.
Knowles, Simon R; Tribbick, Davina; Connell, William R; Castle, David; Salzberg, Michael; Kamm, Michael A
We employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) of illness perceptions to examine the relative contribution of illness perceptions, stoma self-efficacy, and coping strategies in explaining anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with a fecal ostomy. The CSM suggests that the consequences of illness activity, such as psychological distress, are influenced by an individual's illness perceptions as well as what coping strategies they engage in. Descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. One hundred fifty adults with a stoma (54 males, and 96 females; mean age 44 years) completed an online survey. Several instruments were used to measure study outcomes, including the Health Perceptions Questionnaire, Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, Carver Brief Coping Questionnaire, Stoma Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants were advised of the study through online forums containing a link to the survey. Outcome measures used in the current study are valid and reliable and have been extensively used in medically ill patients. Using structural equation modeling, the final model provided an excellent fit to the data (χ23= 16.53, P = .22, χ/N = 1.27, SRMR 0.97, CFI > 0.99). There was a direct pathway from health status to illness perceptions months since surgery directly influenced health status, illness beliefs, and adaptive emotion-focused coping (β= .81, P coping. Maladaptive coping mediated the relationship between illness perceptions and depression and anxiety, and adaptive emotion-focused coping mediated the relationship between illness perception and depression. The final model provided support for the CSM, in that illness perceptions were directly related to illness status, and that both illness perceptions and coping strategies directly influenced anxiety and depression. More specifically, maladaptive coping style (eg, ignore problems) exacerbated depression and anxiety symptoms, while self-efficacy and emotion
sample. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997-2007), 13,400 PD and 647 AP patients were identified and compared with, respectively, 53,600 and 2,588 control cases randomly selected with respect to age, gender, civil status, and geographic location. Direct costs including....../$1,165), respectively. The employment- and health-related consequences could be identified up to 8 years before the first diagnosis and increased with disease advancement. PD and AP have major socioeconomic consequences for patients and society. The health effects are present for up to more than 8 years before...
Robinson, Ora V
Few studies have examined the health consequences of racism experienced by Black nursing professors. A cohort of nine Black nursing professors at various academic ranks responded to a series of questions on racism, coping and intervention strategies to reduce the harmful health consequences. Findings identified behavioral characteristics of racism, resiliency factors of coping, and suggested workshops to minimize the effects of racism within the nursing profession. Implications include workshops on critical self reflection and rules of engagement. A question raised for future research "how to create a racially/ethnic inclusive and psychosocial healthy academic work environment"?
Rook, Karen S.; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H.; Newsom, Jason T.; Krause, Neal
Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults’ physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with fewer ambivalent kin ties and fewer exclusively problematic kin ties. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, as compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults’ lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. PMID:22775360
Rook, Karen S; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H; Newsom, Jason T; Krause, Neal
Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved in negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults' physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with having fewer ambivalent and exclusively problematic kin ties. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults' lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara; Graber, Jessica; Karraker, Amelia
The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) measures seven indicators of quality of life (QoL) and psychological health. The measures used for happiness, self-esteem, depression, and loneliness are well established in the literature. Conversely, measures of anxiety, stress, and self-reported emotional health were modified for their use in this unique project. The purpose of this paper is to provide (a) an overview of NSHAP's QoL assessment and (b) evidence for the adequacy of the modified measures. First, we examined the psychometric properties of the modified measures. Second, the established QoL measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the modified measures. Finally, gender- and age-group differences were examined for each modified measure. The anxiety index exhibited good internal reliability and concurrent validity. Consistent with the literature, a single-factor structure best fit the data. Stress was satisfactory in terms of concurrent validity but with only fair internal consistency. Self-reported emotional health exhibited good concurrent validity and moderate external validity. The modified indices used in NSHAP tended to exhibit good internal reliability and concurrent validity. These measures can confidently be used in the exploration of QoL and psychological health in later life and its many correlates.
Quenzel, Gudrun; Schaeffer, D; Messer, M; Vogt, D
Health literacy is known to influence health. Findings on the unequal distribution of health literacy among less well-educated young people are presented. The influence of socio-demographic factors and the consequences of a low level of health literacy with regard to health-related behaviour are discussed. Data from a survey on the health literacy of young people with a lower level of education, older people and migrants (n = 1,000) were used. Health literacy was measured using the instruments of the European Health Literacy Survey (HLS-EU-Q47). The results demonstrate a lower level of health literacy among young people with less education and especially among young migrants. Explanations for a lower level of health literacy among young people with less well-educated young people were parents' educational background and parents' wealth. Migration-related factors had no influence on young people. Further correlations between health literacy and health behaviour were explored. It is concluded that health literacy is linked to health behaviour and that unequal distributions of health literacy among young people may increase health inequalities.
Wilkinson, Ross B.
This paper presents the results of 3 studies examining the relationships of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-esteem to adolescent psychological health. A model is presented in which parental attachment directly influences both psychological health and self-esteem and the influence of peer attachment on psychological health is totally…
Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the collective psychological empowerment of users of online health communities, which has been often overlooked in literature. Drawing on the theories of empowerment in the context of community psychology, it explores the factors - that are also an important characteristic of online health communities - that are associated with the collective psychological empowerment of online health community users.
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hines, Lisa D
This study explored the racial disparity of substance dependency and psychological health among White, African American, and Hispanic Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients as well as the relationship between substance dependency and psychological health. It analyzed 1,286 TANF recipients from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. Analysis of variance indicated that Whites were experiencing more nicotine and alcohol dependency and psychological distress than others, but African Americans and Hispanics were experiencing more cocaine dependency than Whites. Ordinary least squares regression revealed that nicotine dependency is significantly related to the psychological distress of Whites. Alcohol dependency is significantly associated with the psychological distress of three groups. Culturally competent programs are suggested.
Hilton, Charlotte Emma; Johnston, Lynne Halley
Despite the growth in theoretical understandings of health behaviour and standardised approaches to health interventions (e.g. behaviour change taxonomies), health psychology has paid comparatively less attention to the importance of the implementation processes - 'how to' rather than 'what to' of such interventions. The clinical and interpersonal skills that often reflect these implementation processes are poorly defined within the health psychology literature. The level of proficiency in such skills expected of Health and Care Professions Council registered practitioner health psychologists is unclear and poorly documented within the UK training requirements. This article explores the potential impact of this and offers some pragmatic solutions.
Christensen, Alan J; Nezu, Arthur M
This issue represents the 4th Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology special issue on behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology over the past 4 decades. Recent developments in health care policy, as well as in the maturation of the science, make a special issue in this area particularly timely. This collection includes state of the clinical science reviews, reports of clinical trials, and articles addressing theory and methods in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology. A multilevel, ecological perspective that considers multiple levels of influences (e.g., cultural influences on behavior-health linkages, individual differences) is salient throughout many of the articles. Our hope is that this sampling of this broad field, and coverage of some key issues and areas, will play a role in stimulating the next 10 years of research, practice, and policy implementation in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology.
Porcerelli, John H; Fowler, Shannon L; Klassen, Brian; Murdoch, William; Thakur, Elyse R; Wright, Brandy E; Morris, Pierre
Family medicine residents increasingly work collaboratively with psychology trainees. One type of collaborative experience involves dual interviewing of clinic patients. The goal of this observational study was to provide an initial description of what occurs during dual interviews as it relates to behavioral health assessments and interventions. Psychology trainees provided detailed descriptions of 550 collaborative patient encounters involving 348 patients from the Wayne State University/Crittenton Family Medicine Residency clinic. Psychology trainees coded the frequency of behavioral health assessments and interventions by the resident, psychology trainee, or both. Eighty percent of the encounters contained a behavioral health assessment, and 29% contained a behavioral health intervention. Most of these clinical activities were collaboratively done. Interestingly, residents and psychology trainees tended to provide different behavioral health interventions. Moreover, residents provided different behavioral health interventions in repeat dual interviews (n=202) as opposed to first-time visits (n=348), while psychology trainees did not. Little is known about the process of dual interviewing, and this study is an important first step in describing how residents and psychology trainees actually interact during these encounters. More research is needed about the impact of dual interviewing on residents' behavior.
Yang, Zhihan; Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yonghong
The present study examines the efficacy of expressive writing among Chinese undergraduates. The sample comprised of 74 undergraduates enrolled in a 9-week intervention (35 in experimental class vs. 39 in control class). The writing exercises were well-embedded in an elective course for the two classes. The 46-item simplified Chinese Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale, which assesses psychological, physical and social health, was adopted to measure the outcome of this study. Baseline (second week) and post-test (ninth week) scores were obtained during the classes. After the intervention on the eighth week, the self-reported psychological, social and physical health of the experimental class improved. Psychological health obtained the maximum degree of improvement, followed by social and physical health. Furthermore, female participants gained more psychological improvement than males. These results demonstrated that the expressive writing approach could improve the physical, social and psychological health of Chinese undergraduates, and the method can be applied in university psychological consulting settings in Mainland China. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Jun 1, 2013 ... Satisfied respondents were least likely to have psychological disorder. Conclusion: ... screening instrument designed to detect current diagnosable .... meta-analysis: they reported that correlation between job satisfaction and ...
Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina
Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.
In 2010, an interorganizational effort among the American Psychological Association, the Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology, and the Council of Chairs of Training Councils, known as the Health Service Psychology Education Collaborative (HSPEC), was initiated to address mounting concerns related to education and training for the professional practice of psychology. Given that professional psychology includes diverse areas of practice and the mounting concerns about psychology's role in a reformed health care system, HSPEC chose to focus on preparation of psychologists for the delivery of health care services and made seven recommendations that constitute the core of a blueprint for the future. These recommendations require significant changes in graduate education-changes critical to the future of psychology as a health profession. As part of its work, HSPEC developed a statement of core competencies for the preparation of health service psychologists, integrating feedback solicited through public comment and review by the psychology community, including education and training councils and APA governance groups. The articulation of these competencies serves to inform not only the preparation of health service psychologists but students, employers, regulators, and policymakers as well. It also reflects the discipline's commitment to quality and accountability in the preparation of its workforce. HSPEC recognizes that its recommendations to strengthen the core preparation and identity of health service psychologists will result in some limitations on degrees of freedom at the program level but believes such limitation to be in the service of coherent and uniform standards for education and training. This blueprint supports the evolution and development of the profession within a scientific context. It supports standards as meaningful, versus minimum, indicators as part of the profession's obligation to the public. The blueprint also calls for the profession
Løkke, Anders; Hilberg, Ole; Tønnesen, Philip
national databases. PARTICIPANTS: 131 811 patients with COPD were identified and compared with 131 811 randomly selected controls matched for age, gender, educational level, residence and marital status. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct and indirect economic and health consequences of COPD......OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but longitudinal studies of the economic consequences of COPD are scarce. This Danish study evaluated for the first time ever the economic consequences of COPD of an entire...... and higher socioeconomic costs. The employment and the income rates of employed patients with COPD were significantly lower compared with controls. The annual net costs, including social transfers were €8572 for patients with COPD. These consequences were present up to 11 years before first-time diagnosis...
Parker, Glennys; Lee, Christina
We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General…
Steel, Jennifer L; Dunlavy, Andrea C; Harding, Collette E; Theorell, Töres
Over 50 million people have been displaced, some as a result of conflict, which exposure can lead to psychiatric sequelae. The aims of this study were to provide estimates of pre-emigration trauma, post-migration stress, and psychological sequelae of immigrants and refugees from predominantly Sub-Saharan Africa who immigrated to Sweden. We also examined the predictors of the psychiatric sequelae as well as acculturation within the host country. A total of 420 refugees and immigrants were enrolled using stratified quota sampling. A battery of questionnaires including the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Post-Migration Living Difficulties Scale, the Cultural Lifestyle Questionnaire; and the Hopkins Checklist were administered. Descriptive statistics, Chi square analyses, Pearson correlations, analysis of variance, and logistic and linear regression were performed to test the aims of the study. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported at least one traumatic experience prior to emigration. Forty-seven percent of refugees reported clinically significant PTSD and 20 % reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Males reported a significantly greater number of traumatic events [F(1, 198) = 14.5, p migration stress than females [F(1, 414) = 5.3, p = 0.02], particularly on the financial, discrimination, and healthcare subscales. Females reported a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms when compared to males [F(1, 419) = 3.9, p = 0.05]. Those with a shorter duration in Sweden reported higher rates of PTSD [F(63, 419) = 1.7, p migration stress. Sixty-nine percent of the variance associated with PTSD included education, number of traumatic events, depressive symptoms and post-migration stress. Forty-seven percent of the variance for acculturation was accounted for by a model that included age, education, duration in Sweden, anxiety, depression, and post-migration stress. These predictors were also significant for employment status with the
Hymel, Glenn M; Rich, Grant J
Health psychology represents a context within which massage therapy research, education, and practice can be positioned for the mutual benefit of both. Furthermore, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) more often than not plays a mediating role in relating massage therapy to health psychology. On occasion, though, the linkage between health psychology and massage therapy can be quite direct without the mediating influence of CAM. This paper, accordingly, advances a conceptual model via both flowchart and Venn diagram displays for viewing the health psychology context for massage therapy with the possibility of CAM as a mediating factor. Attention is also given to the broad range of issues constituting contemporary health psychology as well as its correspondence to an equally diverse array of client populations and health conditions addressed in massage therapy research. Future directions in the areas of health psychology, CAM, and massage therapy are proposed with a view toward a mutual and reciprocal benefit accruing to these behavioral and health science arenas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zawadzki, Matthew J
Emotion regulation (ER) strategies are related to psychological health, with most work examining reappraisal and suppression. Yet, emerging findings suggest that rumination may have stronger relationships with psychological health, namely depression, than other ER strategies. This paper replicated and extended this work by testing whether rumination was independently associated with a range of poor psychological health risk indicators and outcomes. In addition, it explored whether the reason why rumination is so deleterious to health is because it underlies the stress-health relationship. Participants (n = 218) completed measures online. Surveys assessed ER strategies (reappraisal, suppression, proactive coping, emotion support seeking, and rumination), health risk indicators (hostility, optimism, self-esteem), health outcomes (depression, poor sleep quality, anxiety) and perceived chronic stress. Multivariate regression analyses revealed rumination as the only ER strategy with a consistent independent effect on all the health risk indicators and outcomes. Bootstrapping analyses revealed indirect effects of perceived chronic stress on all the health variables via rumination. Rumination had a deleterious relationship with psychological health, perhaps because rumination underlies the relationship between stress and psychological health. Results have implications for interventions, particularly emphasizing the need to target ruminative thinking after stressful experiences.
A. K. Gus’kova
Full Text Available Data of researches of the consequences for health after the Chernobyl accident of 1986 are generalized. All these years all over the world and especially in our country the basic parameters were studied describing type and the reason of the accident, doses levels for various groups of persons and a condition of their physical and sincere health. Accumulation of the extensive information allows returning to the initial concepts which have arisen directly after the accident, to estimate critically reliability accepted at that time criteria and adequacy of measures for overcoming and minimization of the consequences of the accident for health. In a basis of an assessment of the exposure levels and possible consequences for health in early timeframes have been put the information on the capacity of doses scale-radiation on various distances from the damaged reactor both total activity and structure of emission of radioactive substances. Three basic groups of the persons involved in the emergency with a various combination of risk factors for their health are allocated: the personnel of emergency changes, participants of liquidation of the accident consequences, the population of emergency emission zones. Consequences for health for these groups and principles of the further supervision over them are estimated. The increase of leukemia among the reasons for death (5 of 21 attracts attention. The group of patients transferred acute radiation syndrome in connection with the Chernobyl accident differs for the reasons for death in the remote timeframes from participants of other radiating accidents. By retrospective consideration there is a question on a possibility of the insufficient account of toxic influences accompanying the exposure. Comparison of urgent decisions and the retrospective analysis of assessments during the early period of accident allow considering these early decisions adequate to volume of the information available during this
Nielsen, D. L.
Potential activities associated with medical isotope processing at the Hanford Site 325 Building laboratory and hot cell facilities are evaluated to assess the health and safety consequences if these activities are to be implemented as part of a combined tritium and medical isotope production mission for the Fast Flux Text Facility (FFTF). The types of activities included in this analysis are unloading irradiated isotope production assemblies at the 325 Building, recovery and dissolution of the target materials, separation of the product isotopes as required, and preparation of the isotopes for shipment to commercial distributors who supply isotopes to the medical conunuriity. Possible consequences to members of the public and to workers from both radiological and non-radiological hazards are considered in this evaluation. Section 2 of this docinnent describes the assumptions and methods used for the health and safety consequences analysis, section 3 presents the results of the analysis, and section 4 summarizes the results and conclusions from the analysis.
Urberg, K; Robbins, R
Adolescent feelings of vulnerability, an aspect of the Health Belief Model and Elkind's concept of adolescent egocentrism, were examined in two groups of white, middle-class 6th to 12th graders. Feelings of vulnerability were examined with respect to developmental course, antecedents, and relationship to the specific risk-taking behavior of cigarette smoking. Feelings of vulnerability to the negative consequences of smoking were found to decrease rapidly from sixth to eighth grade and to increase slowly thereafter. Experience with illness and accidents was correlated with the general vulnerability measure. However, experience with illness due to smoking was not related to smoking vulnerability. This may have been because few adolescents were found to have had personal experiences with the health consequences of smoking. Feelings of vulnerability with respect to the negative consequences of cigarette smoking were correlated with adolescent smoking behavior. General feelings of vulnerability were unrelated to cigarette smoking.
Health Consequences Of The Interaction Of Our Genome With Our Environment DM DeMarini, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 Our primary exposures to potentially mutagenic agents are via the air, water, soil, combustion emissions, and food. Thus, characterizing the mutations induced by these...
Kaplan, Adriana; Hechavarría, Suiberto; Martín, Miguel; Bonhoure, Isabelle
.... In The Gambia, the prevalence of FGM/C is 78.3% in women aged between 15 and 49 years. The objective of this study is to perform a first evaluation of the magnitude of the health consequences of FGM/C in The Gambia...
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Stancin, Terry; Lochman, John E.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Miranda, Jeanne M.; Wysocki, Tim; Portwood, Sharon G.; Piacentini, John; Tynan, Douglas; Atkins, Marc; Kazak, Anne E.
Recent health care legislation and shifting health care financing strategies are transforming health and behavioral health (a broad term referring to mental health, substance use, and health behavior) care in the United States. Advances in knowledge regarding effective treatment and services coupled with incentives for innovation in health and behavioral health care delivery systems make this a unique time for mobilizing our science to enhance the success of health and behavioral health care redesign. To optimize the potential of our current health care environment, a team was formed composed of leaders from the Societies of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Pediatric Psychology, and Child and Family Policy and Practice (Divisions 53, 54, and 37 of the American Psychological Association). This team was charged with reviewing the scientific and policy literature with a focus on five major issues: (a) improving access to care and reducing health disparities, (b) integrating behavioral health care within primary care, (c) preventive services, (d) enhancing quality and outcomes of care, and (e) training and workforce development. The products of that work are summarized here, including recommendations for future research, clinical, training, and policy directions. We conclude that the current emphasis on accountable care and evaluation of the outcomes of care offer numerous opportunities for psychologists to integrate science and practice for the benefit of our children, families, and nation. The dramatic changes that are occurring in psychological and behavioral health care services and payment systems also require evolution in our practice and training models. PMID:26430948
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Stancin, Terry; Lochman, John E; Hughes, Jennifer L; Miranda, Jeanne M; Wysocki, Tim; Portwood, Sharon G; Piacentini, John; Tynan, Douglas; Atkins, Marc; Kazak, Anne E
Recent health care legislation and shifting health care financing strategies are transforming health and behavioral health (a broad term referring to mental health, substance use, and health behavior) care in the United States. Advances in knowledge regarding effective treatment and services coupled with incentives for innovation in health and behavioral health care delivery systems make this a unique time for mobilizing our science to enhance the success of health and behavioral health care redesign. To optimize the potential of our current health care environment, a team was formed composed of leaders from the Societies of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Pediatric Psychology, and Child and Family Policy and Practice (Divisions 53, 54, and 37 of the American Psychological Association). This team was charged with reviewing the scientific and policy literature with a focus on five major issues: (a) improving access to care and reducing health disparities, (b) integrating behavioral health care within primary care, (c) preventive services, (d) enhancing quality and outcomes of care, and (e) training and workforce development. The products of that work are summarized here, including recommendations for future research, clinical, training, and policy directions. We conclude that the current emphasis on accountable care and evaluation of the outcomes of care offer numerous opportunities for psychologists to integrate science and practice for the benefit of our children, families, and nation. The dramatic changes that are occurring in psychological and behavioral health care services and payment systems also require evolution in our practice and training models.
Giordano, Cecilia; Cannizzaro, Giusy; Tosto, Crispino; Pavia, Laura; Di Blasi, Maria
The effects of the Mafia have been extensively studied from sociological, economic, and historical points of view. However, little research has investigated the influence of the Mafia on individuals and communities in terms of its psychological and social impact. In order to contribute to the advancement of our understanding of the psychological effects of the Mafia on individuals and communities and to promote a participative process of social change, a group analytic intervention was conducted within a Community Based Participatory Research carried out in Corleone, a small Sicilian town with a historically recognized role in the evolution of the Mafia, as well as in the fight against its control. Qualitative findings from the group intervention revealed the development of an awareness process that allowed participants to become aware of their social unconscious anxieties and defenses and to recognize and manage the strong emotional impact related to the Mafia's presence in their lives. Highlighting how psychological processes can have negative impacts on individual and collective capacity to pursuit transformation and resilience, this article provides important insight on how clinical psychology may operate in socio-cultural contexts to promote the reconstruction of the traumatic social dimensions in the community.
Poorthuis, Astrid M. G.; Juvonen, Jaana; Thomaes, Sander; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
Receiving report card grades is psychologically salient to most students and can elicit a range of affective reactions. A 3-wave longitudinal study examined how grades shape students’ (N = 375; M age at Wave 1 = 12.6 years) school engagement through the affective reactions they elicit. Emotional and
Poorthuis, A.M.G.; Juvonen, J.; Thomaes, S.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M.A.G.
Receiving report card grades is psychologically salient to most students and can elicit a range of affective reactions. A 3-wave longitudinal study examined how grades shape students’ (N = 375; M age at Wave 1 = 12.6 years) school engagement through the affective reactions they elicit. Emotional and
Full Text Available The effects of the Mafia have been extensively studied from sociological, economic, and historical points of view. However, little research has investigated the influence of the Mafia on individuals and communities in terms of its psychological and social impact. In order to contribute to the advancement of our understanding of the psychological effects of the Mafia on individuals and communities and to promote a participative process of social change, a group analytic intervention was conducted within a Community Based Participatory Research carried out in Corleone, a small Sicilian town with a historically recognized role in the evolution of the Mafia, as well as in the fight against its control. Qualitative findings from the group intervention revealed the development of an awareness process that allowed participants to become aware of their social unconscious anxieties and defenses and to recognize and manage the strong emotional impact related to the Mafia's presence in their lives. Highlighting how psychological processes can have negative impacts on individual and collective capacity to pursuit transformation and resilience, this article provides important insight on how clinical psychology may operate in socio-cultural contexts to promote the reconstruction of the traumatic social dimensions in the community.
Poorthuis, Astrid M. G.; Juvonen, Jaana; Thomaes, Sander; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
Receiving report card grades is psychologically salient to most students and can elicit a range of affective reactions. A 3-wave longitudinal study examined how grades shape students' (N = 375; M age at Wave 1 = 12.6 years) school engagement through the affective reactions they elicit. Emotional and behavioral engagement were measured at the start…
Kim, Y H
To explore the negative health behaviors of Korean adolescents, reveal factors affecting their negative health behavior, and present a substantial correlation model between the negative health behaviors and psychological factors. A total of 2124 adolescents randomly selected from junior high and high schools in Seoul were surveyed. Four Korean-version instruments were used to identify the negative health behavior and psychological construct of adolescents: Adolescent Health Survey, Health Locus of Control scale, Self-Esteem scale, and Self-Efficacy scale. Korean adolescents showed high prevalence of smoking, drinking alcohol, bad eating habits, and viewing pornography; and very low prevalence, however, of sexual intercourse and illegal drug use. In addition to this, the findings revealed that the subdomains in adolescents' negative health behavior were statistically correlated with the subdimensions of a psychological factor. A correlation model was an adequate fit to identify a possible relationship between the negative health behaviors and the psychological factors. This study provides significant and new information about the relatively unstudied Korean adolescents and has the potential to influence the development of better health education and health psychology.
Asikhia, Olubusayo Aduke; Mohangi, Kesh
Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. The primary data-generation strategies were informal interviews and the Beck Youth Inventories-II (BYI-II) (adopted to measure the participants' level of emotional, behavioural and psychological problems). All interview transcriptions with the participants were thematically analysed. BYI-II data were subjected to T scores (in percentages) to know the participant's psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in order to compare it with their perceptions on the degree of support provided by the school. Result shows that participants have a high prevalence of psychological, behavioural and emotional problems and that the school support provided to them (teachers' support, the general school environment and the degree of discrimination, labelling and bullying that exists in the school) was not sufficient. The participants, however, reported a high level of support from the principal. In conclusion, we have suggested the urgent need for teachers to acquire and possess basic knowledge and skills in caring and paying attention to learners affected by HIV and AIDS and for government agencies and NGOs working with HIV-and AIDS-affected children, to focus on proposals that address the psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in such affected adolescents.
Dorner, Thomas E; Lackinger, Christian; Schindler, Karin; Stein, K Viktoria; Rieder, Anita; Ludvik, Bernhard
To evaluate self-assessed knowledge about diabetes mellitus, to assess determinants of health knowledge and to evaluate consequences of health knowledge on appraisal about consequences of the disease. Population-based computer-assisted web interview survey, supplemented with a paper-and-pencil survey via post. Representative sample of the general Austrian population aged 15 years and older. Men (n 1935) and women (n 2065) with and without diabetes mellitus. Some 20.5% of men and 17.7% of women with diabetes, and 46.2% of men and 36.7% of women without diabetes, rated their knowledge about diabetes mellitus to be ‘very bad’ or ‘rather bad’. Individuals with diabetes and individuals with a family member with diabetes rated their information level more often as ‘very good’ or ‘rather good’, with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.7 (1.1, 2.8) and 2.1 (1.6, 2.7), respectively, in men and 2.7 (1.5, 4.8) and 2.7 (2.1, 3.5), respectively, in women. Additional significant influencing factors on diabetes knowledge were age and educational level in both sexes, and city size in men. Independent of personal diabetes status, diabetes knowledge was associated with a lower perception of restrictions on daily life of diabetes patients and with a lower probability of underestimating health consequences of diabetes. Health knowledge is associated with fewer misconceptions and less underestimation of health consequences in individuals both with and without diabetes mellitus. Thus health information about diabetes is important on the individual level towards disease management as well as on the public health level towards disease prevention.
Roz Shafran; Sophie D Bennett; Mhairi McKenzie Smith
There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a ‘holistic’ and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs...
H. Bosma (Hans); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of psychological attributes (personality characteristics and coping styles) to the association between social class in childhood and adult health among men and women. DESIGN: Partly retrospective, partly cross sectional study
Acharya, Indranil; Acharya, Jayanti P; Waghrey, Divya
.... on rampant users like college-goers. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students pursuing professional courses in colleges in a big city...
Li, Menglong; Nie, Jingsong; Ren, Yujia
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise dependence on the psychological health of Chinese college students. A total of 1601 college students from three universities in Hunan, China, were selected as research subjects. Several measurement scales, including the Exercise Addiction Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Subjective Well-being Scale, were used to survey the psychological health problem of these students and to analyze the effects of exercise dependence on their psychological health. Exercise dependence, based on the structural equation model analysis, can positively influence state anxiety (Pstudents. By contrast, exercise dependence negatively influences students' self-satisfaction (Phealth of college students. Further research using multi-dimensional exercise addiction scales should be conducted to identify all the negative effects of exercise addiction factors on psychological health.
Haslam, N; Lusher, D
Psychiatry and clinical psychology are the two dominant disciplines in mental health research, but the structure of scientific influence and information flow within and between them has never been mapped. Citations among 96 of the highest impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals were examined, based on 10 052 articles published in 2008. Network analysis explored patterns of influence between journal clusters. Psychiatry journals tended to have greater influence than clinical psychology journals, and their influence was asymmetrical: clinical psychology journals cited psychiatry journals at a much higher rate than the reverse. Eight journal clusters were found, most dominated by a single discipline. Their citation network revealed an influential central cluster of 'core psychiatry' journals that had close affinities with a 'psychopharmacology' cluster. A group of 'core clinical psychology' journals was linked to a 'behavior therapy' cluster but both were subordinate to psychiatry journals. Clinical psychology journals were less integrated than psychiatry journals, and 'health psychology/behavioral medicine' and 'neuropsychology' clusters were relatively peripheral to the network. Scientific publication in the mental health field is largely organized along disciplinary lines, and is to some degree hierarchical, with clinical psychology journals tending to be structurally subordinate to psychiatry journals.
Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán
Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.
Acharya Arun Kumar
Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse how the violence and abuse against elderly migrants in Monterrey, Mexico affects their health. For this research, 257 elderly Mexican migrants were surveyed in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey during 2012 through 2013. The study found that the majority of elderly people migrate to urban areas in search of a better economic opportunity. Once in the city, they are absorbed into the informal economic sectors. Results indicate that most of these elderly people suffer physical, sexual and psychological violence, as well as neglect and financial abuse from their employer, relatives, clients and pedestrians, which has an adverse effect on their health. Elderly migrants reported numerous health problems, where many of them were suffering from different types of injuries, stress and depression, among others. This paper concluded that violence suffered by elderly migrants has a significant impact on their health.
Johan M. Wikman
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76 were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22 or a group playing petanque (n = 17 one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.
Jayanti P Acharya, Indranil Acharya, Divya Waghrey
Cell phones have come to stay. Their use without any knowledge of their harmful effects like cancers and other health effects is not ‘quite’ safe. Studies on cancers due to electromagnetic radiations from cell phones are available but there is a need to research on the detrimental physical and psychological effects esp. on rampant users like college-goers. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students pursuing professional courses in...
Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao
Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...
Rosiek, Anna; Maciejewska, Natalia Frąckowiak; Leksowski, Krzysztof; Rosiek-Kryszewska, Aleksandra; Leksowski, Łukasz
The epidemic nature of obesity in industrialized countries is a serious health and social concern. The number of obese people has significantly increased in the past 20 years. In Poland excess weight and obesity are a serious epidemiological concern. In terms of the number of overweight people, Poland is a leader in Europe. Therefore, indicating many serious health concerns that are the natural consequences of this phenomenon has become important from the point of view of public health. This work identifies numerous diseases which are a direct consequence of obesity due to bad eating habits and lack of physical exercise among Poles. It discusses the negative effect of television and food commercials contributing to an increase in obesity, not only among adults but also among children. This is an overview forming grounds for further studies into ways of preventing the development of diseases due to obesity, both in Poland and in the world.
Full Text Available The epidemic nature of obesity in industrialized countries is a serious health and social concern. The number of obese people has significantly increased in the past 20 years. In Poland excess weight and obesity are a serious epidemiological concern. In terms of the number of overweight people, Poland is a leader in Europe. Therefore, indicating many serious health concerns that are the natural consequences of this phenomenon has become important from the point of view of public health. This work identifies numerous diseases which are a direct consequence of obesity due to bad eating habits and lack of physical exercise among Poles. It discusses the negative effect of television and food commercials contributing to an increase in obesity, not only among adults but also among children. This is an overview forming grounds for further studies into ways of preventing the development of diseases due to obesity, both in Poland and in the world.
Zheng, K; Abraham, J; Novak, L L; Reynolds, T L; Gettinger, A
To summarize recent research on unintended consequences associated with implementation and use of health information technology (health IT). Included in the review are original empirical investigations published in English between 2014 and 2015 that reported unintended effects introduced by adoption of digital interventions. Our analysis focuses on the trends of this steam of research, areas in which unintended consequences have continued to be reported, and common themes that emerge from the findings of these studies. Most of the papers reviewed were retrieved by searching three literature databases: MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. Two rounds of searches were performed: the first round used more restrictive search terms specific to unintended consequences; the second round lifted the restrictions to include more generic health IT evaluation studies. Each paper was independently screened by at least two authors; differences were resolved through consensus development. The literature search identified 1,538 papers that were potentially relevant; 34 were deemed meeting our inclusion criteria after screening. Studies described in these 34 papers took place in a wide variety of care areas from emergency departments to ophthalmology clinics. Some papers reflected several previously unreported unintended consequences, such as staff attrition and patients' withholding of information due to privacy and security concerns. A majority of these studies (71%) were quantitative investigations based on analysis of objectively recorded data. Several of them employed longitudinal or time series designs to distinguish between unintended consequences that had only transient impact, versus those that had persisting impact. Most of these unintended consequences resulted in adverse outcomes, even though instances of beneficial impact were also noted. While care areas covered were heterogeneous, over half of the studies were conducted at academic medical centers or teaching hospitals
Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma
Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals' towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents.
Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W
Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims.
Wright, Breanna; Forbes, Andrew; Kelsall, Helen; Clarke, David; Ikin, Jill; Sim, Malcolm
Understanding how veterans appraise their post-deployment experiences could provide insight into better assisting their deployment transitions. We aimed to assess the factor structure of positive and negative post-deployment appraisals in Australian veterans and to examine the resultant factors in their relationship with military stress and psychological health. Questions capturing post-deployment attitudes were developed by the researchers in collaboration with veterans. The questions were administered to 1938 veterans and the results factor analysed. The relationships between post-deployment appraisal, military stress and psychological health were examined using Structural Equation Modelling. A three-factor solution was found for the post-deployment appraisal questions; representing personal development, lack of recognition, and appreciation of life and country. Military stress was associated with the three factors and psychological health. The three factors were weakly to moderately associated with psychological health. Mediation between military stress and psychological health by any post-deployment appraisal factor was minimal. Post-deployment appraisal measures three important attitudes and concerns of veterans after deployment. Military stress is associated with the post-deployment appraisal factors. However, the factors did not mediate the relationship between military stress and psychological health. These factors provide insight into how veterans appraise their complex array of post-deployment experiences, and may provide useful in regard to transitions and integration into civilian life.
Wang, Huey-Fen; Yeh, Mei Chang
An important issue for the nursing education system in Taiwan is to reinforce nursing education to enhance competence levels for entry to nursing specialties. Consequently, to meet the prospective demands of technical manpower, not only do nursing students in college and vocational schools pursue further studies, but they also take competitive entrance exams. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, the study examined the following among nursing students in vocational high schools: (1) perception and sources of entrance exam stress and use of coping behaviors; (2) the effect of difference in entrance exam stress levels on coping behaviors used, and (3) measurement of coping function to determine which coping behavior works best for buffering the impact of stress on psychological health during a preparatory stage of a college and university entrance exam. The subjects were 441 third-year nursing students of vocational high schools in northern Taiwan, recruited by convenience sampling. Three measurements were adopted: Stress perceived scale, Coping behavior inventory, and a Chinese health questionnaire. Results showed that the five main stressors of entrance exam stress, in descending order, were taking tests, the student's own aspirations, learning tasks, teacher's aspirations and parent's aspirations. Students generally used problem-focused coping strategies including optimistic action and social support to deal with the entrance exam stress, but use of emotion-focused coping strategies including avoidance and emotional disturbance was significantly increased as perceived level of stress rose. Two-way analyses of variance (2-way ANOVA) revealed that problem-focused coping had a positive main effect of alleviating psychological distress. A significant interaction was observed between stress perceived and problem-focused coping used for psychological health. Further examination of the interaction effect showed that problem-focused coping behaviors were potentially
Redmond, Nicole; Hicks, Leroi S; Cheng, Debbie M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Winter, Michael R; Samet, Jeffrey H; Saitz, Richard
The higher risk of death among recently released inmates relative to the general population may be because of the higher prevalence of substance dependence among inmates or an independent effect of incarceration. We explored the effects of recent incarceration on health outcomes that may be intermediate markers for mortality. Longitudinal multivariable regression analyses were conducted on interview data (baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up) from alcohol- and/or drug-dependent individuals (n = 553) participating in a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of chronic disease management for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was recent incarceration (spending ≥1 night in jail or prison in the past 3 months). The 3 main outcomes of this study were any traumatic injury, substance use-related health consequences, and health care utilization--defined as hospitalization (excluding addiction treatment or detoxification) and/or emergency department visit. Recent incarceration was not significantly associated with traumatic injury (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-1.49) or health care utilization (AOR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.64-1.20). However, recent incarceration was associated with higher odds for substance use-related health consequences (AOR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.02-1.98). Among people with alcohol and/or drug dependence, recent incarceration was significantly associated with substance use-related health consequences but not injury or health care utilization after adjustment for covariates. These findings suggest that substance use-related health consequences may be part of the explanation for the increased risk of death faced by former inmates.
In the light of the current economic crises which in many countries lead to business closures and mass lay-offs, the consequences of job loss are important on various dimensions. They have to be investigated not only in consideration of a few years, but with a long-term perspective as well, because early life course events may prove important for later life outcomes. This paper uses data from SHARELIFE to shed light on the long-term consequences of involuntary job loss on health. The paper distinguishes between two different reasons for involuntary job loss: plant closures, which in the literature are considered to be exogenous to the individual, and lay-offs, where the causal direction of health and unemployment is ambiguous. These groups are separately compared to those who never experienced a job loss. The paper uses eleven different measures of health to assess long-term health consequences of job loss, which has to have occurred at least 25 years before the current interview. As panel data cannot be employed, a large body of variables, including childhood health and socio-economic conditions, is used to control for the initial conditions. The findings suggest that individuals with an exogenous job loss suffer in the long run: men are significantly more likely to be depressed and they have more trouble knowing the current date. Women report poorer general health and more chronic conditions and are also affected in their physical health: they are more likely to be obese or overweight, and to have any limitations in their (instrumental) activities of daily living. In the comparison group of laid-off individuals, controlling for the initial conditions reduces the effects of job loss on health - proving that controlling for childhood conditions is important. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shah, Drishti; Vaidya, Varun; Patel, Amit; Borovicka, Mary; Goodman, Monica-Holiday
Effectiveness of antidepressants is generally comparable between and within classes. However, real-world studies on antidepressant treatment and its consequences on the overall quality of life and mental health of individuals are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of specific class of antidepressants with the health-related quality of life, psychological distress and self-reported mental health of individuals suffering from depression who are on monotherapy. This retrospective, longitudinal study included individuals with depression who were on antidepressant monotherapy, using data from 2008 to 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Changes in health-related quality of life, self-reported mental health and psychological distress over a year's time were observed. A multinomial logistic regression model was built to examine the association between the class of antidepressant medications and the dependent variables. A total of 688 adults met the study inclusion criteria. No significant difference was observed in the change in Physical Component Summary (PCS), self-reported mental health and psychological distress based on the class of antidepressants. However, individuals on serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (OR 0.337, 95 % CI 0.155-0.730) were significantly less likely to show improvement on Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores as compared to those on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The study findings suggest that practitioners should be aware of the differences in the health-related quality of life of those taking SSRIs versus other classes of antidepressants. Further research needs to be done to determine the reason for SSRIs to show greater improvement on mental health as compared to SNRIs.
The aim of this paper was to explore how a military career may affect the mental health of serving and ex-service personnel, to identify the accessibility and helpfulness of support (both during and after military service) and to make recommendations for change. A literature search was undertaken using the MetaFind meta search engine with keywords: mental health, psychological health, emotional health, soldier, British army, army, ex-army, military, military personnel, armed forces, resettlement, impact, family relationship, divorce, health, support services. The search was applied to the following databases: EBSCO Host, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Ingenta Connect, Medline, PsyArticles, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, together with the specific journals American Journal of Psychiatry, British Journal of Psychiatry and ProQuest Nursing journals. 110 relevant publications were identified and from these 61 papers were retrieved for further analysis. Poor mental health is associated with increased risk of social exclusion on leaving the services, which further exacerbates mental health problems. An increasing number of ex-service personnel are expected to develop stress-related mental health problems in the future. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.
Dec 31, 2014 ... Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: ...
Over the centuries, the heart has been recognized as a centre for spiritual, intellectual and emotional life in diverse cultures. This paper introduces a psychology of the heart with specific reference to the time honoured, transcultural applications of a local, African, Zulu, breath based, heart focussed, psychotherapeutic ...
Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne
Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…
Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: The ...
Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work-Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions.
Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
Background Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work–family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. Methods In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work–Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. Results The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Conclusion Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions. PMID:28331330
Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Grupa, J.B. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (Netherlands)
The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models.
Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)
The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models.
Full Text Available The family and its function as a social institution has an important role in children’s psychological development. The Aim of this study is to investigate the relations of family functioning and the level of psychological basic needs of adolescents with their mental health. Research design is descriptive -correlational and the sample has been recruited from four military areas in Tehran city via simple random sampling method. A total number of 200 families with their youth (14 to 22 year old completed three questionnaires: Family Assessment Device (FAD, Psychological Needs Questionnaire (PNQ, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. The resultsindicate that there are significant correlations between family functionig subscales and mental health of their adolescences. Other finding show that low family functioning has negative correlation with psychological basic needs (including three subscales: competence, autonomy, and relatednessof adolescents. We discuss the results in the light of previous findings and provide suggestions to improve family function.
van der Waal, Jeroen; Daenekindt, Stijn; de Koster, Willem
Various studies on the health consequences of socio-economic position address social mobility. They aim to uncover whether health outcomes are affected by: (1) social mobility, besides, (2) social origin, and (3) social destination. Conventional methods do not, however, estimate these three effects separately, which may produce invalid conclusions. We highlight that diagonal reference models (DRMs) overcome this problem, which we illustrate by focusing on overweight/obesity (OWOB). Using conventional methods (logistic-regression analyses with dummy variables) and DRMs, we examine the effects of intergenerational educational mobility on OWOB (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ) using survey data representative of the Dutch population aged 18-45 (1569 males, 1771 females). Conventional methods suggest that mobility effects on OWOB are present. Analyses with DRMs, however, indicate that no such effects exist. Conventional analyses of the health consequences of social mobility may produce invalid results. We, therefore, recommend the use of DRMs. DRMs also validly estimate the health consequences of other types of social mobility (e.g. intra- and intergenerational occupational and income mobility) and status inconsistency (e.g. in educational or occupational attainment between partners).
Løkke, Anders; Hilberg, Ole; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke; Jennum, Poul
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but longitudinal studies of the economic consequences of COPD are scarce. This study evaluated the economic consequences of COPD patients in Denmark and their spouses at a national level before and after initial diagnosis. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2010), 171,557 patients with COPD and 86,260 spouses were identified; patients were compared with 664,821, and the spouses with 346,524, all controls were randomly selected and matched for age, gender and residence. Direct and indirect costs, including frequency of primary and secondary sector contacts and procedures, medication, unemployment benefits and social transfer payments were extracted from national databases for patients, spouses and controls. COPD patients are earning approximately half of that of controls before diagnosis. After diagnosis this effect diminishes due to people getting older and retiring from work (65 years). Total health expenses are more than twice as high in the COPD group regardless of age and gender compared to controls. Spouses of COPD patients had significantly higher rates of health-related contacts, medication use and higher socioeconomic costs compared to controls. The employment and income rates of employed spouses of COPD patients were significantly lower compared to controls. This study provides unique data on the economic consequences of COPD patients in Denmark and their spouses as well as displaying the serious health consequences for the individual spouse and society. Second, data shows substantial impact of COPD on income level and health expenses regardless of age and gender. It could be speculated that early identification and intervention might contribute to more health and economic equality between patients and controls.
Williams, Amy M; May, Pamela E; Mason, Shawn T; Wang, Chun; Pomana, Lidia
To identify the contributions of medical conditions and psychological distress to well-being within a non-clinical sample, stratified by age. It was predicted that medical conditions and psychological distress would be negatively associated with well-being. It was also predicted that psychological distress and medical conditions would account for significant variance in well-being. It was further predicted that psychological distress would mediate the relationship between medical conditions and well-being across the life span. 1,424,307 employees/health plan members that completed an HRA. SEM was used to characterize relationships among medical conditions and psychological distress in predicting well-being (QoL, HRQoL, and impairments in ADLs) in five adult age groups. Medical conditions and psychological distress were negatively associated with well-being. As age increased, psychological distress was less associated with well-being. However, in those >75 years old, psychological distress had the largest association with well-being. All medical conditions, except cancer, were negatively associated with well-being. There were decreasing effects of medical conditions across the life span, with the exception of pulmonary disease which increased. Psychological distress mediated the relationship between medical conditions and well-being, with chronic pain having the greatest mediation across the life span. The analysis revealed differences in the contribution of psychological distress and medical conditions to well-being by age group. Additionally, the contribution of psychological distress was equitable to that of medical conditions, thus highlighting the importance of addressing psychological distress in medical populations for well-being. Findings suggest the relevance of age in well-being and the need for further longitudinal investigation.
Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [eds.
This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)
Vernberg, Eric M; Hambrick, Erin P; Cho, Bridget; Hendrickson, Michelle L
Positive psychology concepts and principles can be incorporated into preparedness, crisis response, and recovery phases of disaster mental health efforts to address the needs of children, adolescents, and families. This article articulates general developmental considerations for applying positive psychology in disaster mental health contexts and discusses how 5 essential elements of immediate and midterm mass trauma intervention identified by Hobfoll et al. (2007) may be infused in applications of positive psychology for children and adolescents. Specific strategies for working with children, adolescents, and their families in home, community, and school contexts are drawn in part from disaster mental health resources developed jointly by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, including the Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide (Brymer et al., 2006), the Skills for Psychological Recovery Field Operations Guide (Berkowitz et al., 2010), and the Psychological First Aid for Schools Field Operations Manual (Brymer et al., 2012). Two case examples illustrate the use of positive psychology principles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jones, N; Greenberg, N; Fear, N T; Earnshaw, M; Mcallister, P; Reid, G; Wessely, S
UK Forces are currently engaged in high tempo, high intensity operations in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Concern has been raised about the impact of current operations upon the mental health of Service personnel. Using data gathered from deployed Field Mental Health Teams, a random sample of UK based non-deployed Community Mental Health Teams and services dedicated to mobilising, de-mobilising and to de-mobilised Reserve Forces, this paper explores the current mental health burden for UK Forces. At present, operationally related psychological disorders do not appear to be a substantial concern for Regular Forces, although for the minority that suffer such problems they are both distressing and of occupational relevance. Proportionately there are more mobilised Reserve Forces seeking help for mental health problems than Regular Forces on operations, but the overall burden that they currently place upon the Defence Mental Health Services is small. There is at present no evidence of an epidemic of mental health problems amongst either Regular or Reserve Forces veterans of the Op TELIC deployment, however, this may change in the future given the evolving nature and fluctuating intensity of operational activity.
Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)
The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.
Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)
The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.
Gomathi, Kadayam G; Ahmed, Soofia; Sreedharan, Jayadevan
The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. All first-year students (N = 125) of the Gulf Medical University (GMU) in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire, with items related to academic, psychosocial and health domains was used to identify sources of stress. Pearson's chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for testing the association between psychological morbidity and sources of stress. A total of 112 students (89.6%) completed the survey and the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was found to be 33.6%. The main academic-related sources of stress were 'frequency of exams', 'academic workload', and 'time management'. Major psychosocial stressors were 'worries regarding future', 'high parental expectations', 'anxiety', and 'dealing with members of the opposite sex'. Health-related issues were 'irregular eating habits', 'lack of exercise', and 'sleep-related problems'. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with any of the demographic factors studied. However, total stress scores and academics-related domain scores were significantly associated with psychological morbidity. Psychological morbidity was seen in one in three first-year students attending GMU. While worries regarding the future and parental expectations were sources of stress for many students, psychological morbidity was found to be significantly associated with only the total stress and the academic-related domain scores.
Kadayam G Gomathi
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. Methods: All first-year students (N = 125 of the Gulf Medical University (GMU in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE, were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire, with items related to academic, psychosocial and health domains was used to identify sources of stress. Pearson’s chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for testing the association between psychological morbidity and sources of stress. Results: A total of 112 students (89.6% completed the survey and the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was found to be 33.6%. The main academic-related sources of stress were ‘frequency of exams’, ‘academic workload’, and ‘time management’. Major psychosocial stressors were ‘worries regarding future’, ‘high parental expectations’, ‘anxiety’, and ‘dealing with members of the opposite sex’. Health-related issues were ‘irregular eating habits’, ‘lack of exercise’, and ‘sleep-related problems’. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with any of the demographic factors studied. However, total stress scores and academics-related domain scores were significantly associated with psychological morbidity. Conclusion: Psychological morbidity was seen in one in three first-year students attending GMU. While worries regarding the future and parental expectations were sources of stress for many students, psychological morbidity was found to be significantly associated with only the total stress and the academic-related domain scores.
growing number of individuals with psychological health conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder ...ment, follow-up care for children prescribed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication, and mental health utilization (among other...SUMMARY ■ C O R P O R A T I O N Assessing the Quality and Value of Psychological Health Care in Civilian Health Plans Lessons and Implications
Choi, S-H; Kim, J-S; Cha, J-Y; Lee, K-J; Yu, H-S; Hwang, C-J
Reduced food intake ability can restrict an individual's choice of foods and might have a significant impact on the individual's quality of life and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between self-reported masticatory ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) and psychological health. The study included 72 (26 men, 46 women) adults with a mean age of 26·4 ± 8·6 years. Each participant completed the key subjective food intake ability (KFIA) test for five key foods, the Korean version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K) and three questionnaires for measuring anxiety, depression and self-esteem. The participants were distributed into two groups by sex (a mean age of 23·9 ± 5·2 for men and 27·9 ± 9·8 for women) and by the median KFIA score. There were no significant differences in any of the variables according to sex. Thirty-two participants (12 men, 20 women) in the lower KFIA group had a higher total OHIP-14K (P food intake ability is associated with a poor oral health-related quality of life and higher depression level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Blainey, Sarah Heidi; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren; Beck, Alison
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. Method: In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnai...
Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Wolke, Dieter
Summary Background The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. Methods We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) lo...
Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike
The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers, and foster fathers across the German-speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19-72) with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785). The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of sociodemographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father-child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes.
Full Text Available The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers and foster fathers across the German speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19-72 with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785. The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of socio-demographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father-child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes.
Knudson, G B
Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their associated delivery systems pose a major threat to the national security of the United States. The Department of Defense is pursuing a number of activities to counter paramilitary and terrorist threats from nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) agents. These efforts include supporting, training, and equipping the U.S. Army Reserves (USAR) for the medical management of physical injuries and psychological trauma resulting from the use of NBC weapons both in the United States and overseas. The USAR will play an important role in responding to a WMD incident because most of the Army's support assets are in the USAR. The USAR is training to perform its mission in an NBC-contaminated environment by engaging in realistic WMD exercises using state-of-the-art protective equipment and medical support. Realistic training builds confidence in medical defenses and in NBC protective equipment. This translates into accomplishing the mission while minimizing the psychological and physical casualties in an NBC-contaminated battlefield or in support of a WMD terrorist incident.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite widespread acceptance of the 'biopsychosocial model', the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 32,827 (age 18-85 years self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ(2 (3199, N = 23,397 = 126654.8, p<.001; RCFI = .97; RMSEA = .04 (.038-.039. As hypothesised, a family history of mental health difficulties, social deprivation, and traumatic or abusive life-experiences all strongly predicted higher levels of anxiety and depression. However, these relationships were strongly mediated by psychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. CONCLUSION: These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear