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Sample records for psychological factors improved

  1. Improving Departments of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed

    2016-11-01

    Our procedures for creating excellent departments of psychology are based largely on selection-hiring and promoting the best people. I argue that these procedures have been successful, but I suggest the implementation of policies that I believe will further improve departments in the behavioral and brain sciences. I recommend that we institute more faculty development programs attached to incentives to guarantee continuing education and scholarly activities after the Ph.D. degree. I also argue that we would do a much better job if we more strongly stream our faculty into research, education, or service and not expect all faculty members to carry equal responsibility for each of these. Finally, I argue that more hiring should occur at advanced levels, where scholars have a proven track record of independent scholarship. Although these practices will be a challenge to implement, institutions do ossify over time and thus searching for ways to improve our departments should be a key element of faculty governance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS UNDERLYING UNETHICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Nazemian, Sahar; Balash, Farhad; Balash, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Thisstudy is to cast a light on psychological factors, which force faculty memberstoward conducting unethical research. Since psychological factors are the keyfactors to control human behavior, in this paper, they are highlighted as themain purpose of the study. Methodologically, a qualitative approach was appliedto reveal the factors. Thematic analysis assisted the researchers discoveringthe main factors. Ten faculty members were interviewed as to understand theways that factors could deploy...

  3. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales: The Expanded Format as an Alternative to the Likert Scale Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format,…

  4. Learner internal psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Book synopsis: \\ud \\ud What is language and how can we investigate its acquisition by children or adults? What perspectives exist from which to view acquisition? What internal constraints and external factors shape acquisition? What are the properties of interlanguage systems? This comprehensive 31-chapter handbook is an authoritative survey of second language acquisition (SLA). Its multi-perspective synopsis on recent developments in SLA research provides significant contributions by establi...

  5. Psychological factors and coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Khayyam-Nekouei, Zohreh; Neshatdoost, Hamidtaher; Yousefy, Alireza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Manshaee, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although psychological factors play an important role in coronary heart diseases (CHD), it seems there is a need for more researches in this respect. The present study aimed to review psychological factors, including depression, anxiety and stress related to etiology and prognosis of CHD. METHODS This was a review on medical and psychological literatures, particularly in the years 1995-2012. RESULTS As protective factor or risk factor, psychological factors play an important role i...

  6. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  7. Psychological factors driving the symptoms of Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Aim: It has been reported that various psychological factors, including stress, associate with the clinical features of fibromyalgia. This project proposed that a top down process, comprising of a number of contributing psychological factors, plays a pivotal role in the establishment of fibromyalgia. The project specifically examined whether a number of psychological factors would contribute significantly to the core clinical features of fibromyalgia, and if so whether these...

  8. Psychological Factors in Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Özdemir

    2010-04-01

    systemic vessel resistance; and in turn increase in the secretion of vasoconstrictor compounds from endothelial cells of over-resistant vessels. Hypertension develops as a result of vasoconstriction. In the previous studies, emotional factors and particular personality traits are consistently confirmed for being predisposing factors in hypertensive individuals. In this article, we focused on the association between essential hypertension and psychological factors, and discussed the common pathophysiological mechanisms.

  9. Psychological and psychopathological factors in alopecia areata

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Kuty-Pachecka

    2015-01-01

    The problems of mental disorders and psychological aspects in the condition referred to as alopecia areata in the Polish context are not well researched yet. The objective of our analyses is to present the results of the review of literature devoted to the occurrence of mental disorders and the participation of psychological factors in the aetiology of alopecia areata. Preparing the review of the research conducted hitherto and concerning the participation of psychological factors in the path...

  10. Psychological factors and outcomes of coronary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokeria,Leo A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although heart surgery is one of the most effective methods in treating cardiovascular diseases, more than 50% of patients have problems in personal, social, professional adaptation after surgery (Pogosova, 1996. According to recent studies, psychological factors contribute significantly to negative outcomes of coronary surgery. The main factors are: depression, anxiety, personal factors and character traits, social isolation, and chronic life stress (Blumental, 2003; Connerney, 2010; Contrada, 2008; Cserep, 2010, Gallagher, 2007; Hoyer, 2008; Pigney-Demaria, 2003; Rozancki, 1999; Rymaszewska, 2003; Viars, 2009, Zaitsev, 1997. The aim of the article is to describe the association between psychological factors and the outcomes of coronary surgery. We have studied how the patient’s attitude towards forthcoming open heart surgery is associated with the outcomes. We have picked out four types of attitude towards forthcoming heart surgery: 1 pessimistic (no belief in recovery, surgery is threatening, damaging, 2 indifferent (no belief in recovery, surgery will not change anything, 3 optimistic but not realistic (exaggerated expectations, belief in full recovery, 4 optimistic and realistic (adequate expectations, belief in improvement. The study has shown that patients with optimistic-realistic attitudes towards forthcoming heart surgery have better outcomes, better emotional status, and shorter stays in hospital.

  11. Health locus of control as a psychological factor in improving treatment results in adolescents with primary hypertension and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Anna Biernacka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The belief that an individual can influence and control the course of events is a factor which enables a person to overcome difficulties. Some studies, however, have questioned the universality of this statement. This study aims to investigate and explore the relationship between the self-health locus of control and the effectiveness of cooperation in the treatment process in adolescents with chronic diseases. Participants and procedure One hundred and sixty-four adolescent patients suffering from chronic diseases (61 girls and 103 boys ranging from 11 to 17 years old participated in the study. Eighty-seven had primary hypertension and 77 had type 1 diabetes. To investigate their sense of health control we used the Health Locus of Control Scale (HLC. Cooperation in the treatment process was assessed using a 4-item scale completed by a doctor. Results Better results in the treatment were positively correlated with a better internal health locus of control. A negative correlation between the chance health locus of control and results in the treatment was found. Differences in the health locus of control proved to be dependent on gender, age and different clinical groups. Conclusions Health locus of control in patients with chronic diseases seems to be a crucial factor in determining the results of the treatment process in such patients.

  12. Political diversity will improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  13. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  14. Psychological aspects in asthma: do psychological factors affect asthma management?

    OpenAIRE

    Baiardini, Ilaria; Sicuro, Francesca; Balbi, Francesco; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS plus long-acting beta2-agonists, permits to control de majority of asthmatics, a significant proportion of patients does not respond to this treatment. This review was aimed to explore the role of psychological factors associated to the unsuccessful fulfilment of optimal levels of asthma control, especially in patients suffering from severe asthma. The results of a Medline search were 5510 articles addressed to different ...

  15. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

  16. Childhood obesity : medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was

  17. Relationship between subjective halitosis and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Armita; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Afghari, Parastoo; Javad Shirani, Mohamad; Afshar, Hamid; Savabi, Omid; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-06-01

    Subjective halitosis is a growing concern in the fields of dentistry and psychology. This study was designed to determine the association between subjective halitosis and contributing psychological factors. Data for this cross-sectional study were gathered from 4,763 participants who had answered questions on subjective halitosis and psychological factors (depression, anxiety, stress and personality traits) in the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition (SEPAHAN). Binary logistic regression was used for data analysis. The mean age of all subjects was 36.58 years; and the majority of subjects were female (55.8%), married (81.2%) and graduates (57.2%). The prevalence of subjective halitosis was 52.8%. The majority of subjects with the complaint of subjective halitosis were married (Phalitosis were significantly more anxious [odds ratio (OR)=1.76, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.38-2.24], stressed (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.17-1.71) and depressed (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.57). Among personality traits, neuroticism was a risk factor (tertile 1 vs. tertile 2: OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.09-1.51; and tertile 1 vs. tertile 3: OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.43-2.13) and conscientiousness was revealed to be a protective factor (tertile 1 vs. tertile 2: OR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.98; and tertile 1 vs. tertile 3: OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.53-0.80). It seems that psychological factors, such as anxiety, depression and stress, as well as some personality traits, can be considered as risk factors for subjective halitosis. Multidisciplinary efforts by dental and psychological professionals must be considered to address this problem. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. Managing oral hygiene as a risk factor for periodontal disease: a systematic review of psychological approaches to behaviour change for improved plaque control in periodontal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J Timothy; Asimakopoulou, Koula

    2015-04-01

    Plaque control in patients with periodontal disease is critically dependent upon self-care through specific oral hygiene-related behaviours. To determine the relationship between adherence to oral hygiene instructions in adult periodontal patients and psychological constructs. To determine the effect of interventions based on psychological constructs on oral health-related behaviour in adult periodontal patients. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. Studies were grouped according to the study design, and appraised using an appropriate methodology, either the Newcastle-Ottawa assessment for observational studies, or the Cochrane criteria for trials. Fifteen reports of studies were identified. There was a low risk of bias identified for the observational studies. Older trials suffered from high risk of bias, but more recent trials had low risk of bias. However, the specification of the psychological intervention was generally poor. The use of goal setting, self-monitoring and planning are effective interventions for improving oral hygiene-related behaviour in patients with periodontal disease. Understanding the benefits of behaviour change and the seriousness of periodontal disease are important predictors of the likelihood of behaviour change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Psychological and psychopathological factors in alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuty-Pachecka, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The problems of mental disorders and psychological aspects in the condition referred to as alopecia areata in the Polish context are not well researched yet. The objective of our analyses is to present the results of the review of literature devoted to the occurrence of mental disorders and the participation of psychological factors in the aetiology of alopecia areata. Preparing the review of the research conducted hitherto and concerning the participation of psychological factors in the pathogenesis and the course of alopecia areata, it is indicated that stress, a traumatic situation, a high level of neuroticism and alexithymia, may influence the occurrence, duration and exacerbation of the condition in question. Mental disorders occurring most frequently amongst individuals suffering from alopecia areata are: depression, increased level of anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal thoughts.

  20. Improving access to psychological treatments: lessons from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Chowdhary, Neerja; Rahman, Atif; Verdeli, Helen

    2011-09-01

    Even though psychological treatments have been advocated as treatments for a range of mental disorders by the WHO for scaling up through primary care globally, the vast majority of potential beneficiaries are unable to access these treatments. Two major barriers impede the path between evidence based treatments and improved access: the lack of skilled human resources and the acceptability of treatments across cultures. This essay synthesizes the experiences of programs which developed and evaluated psychological treatments for depression in three resource poor developing countries. These programs addressed the human resource barrier by training lay or community health workers to deliver the treatments and addressed the acceptability barrier by systematically adapting the treatment to contextual factors. All programs demonstrated significant benefits in recovery rates when compared with usual care demonstrating the effectiveness of the approach. The implications for these experiences to improving access to psychological treatments in the global context are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychological factors determine depressive symptomatology after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mierlo, Maria L.; Van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W.; De Kort, Paul L.; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify psychological factors related to poststroke depressive symptoms. Design Cross-sectional study, with patients assessed at 2 months poststroke. Setting Patients with stroke from 6 general hospitals. Participants Stroke patients (N=344; mean age ± SD, 66.9±12.3y). Interventions

  2. Psychological Factors That Predict Reaction to Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, D. T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to reactions to legal abortions in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were most predictive of a positive reaction. (Author)

  3. Psychological Factors in Community College Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Chad; Redekop, Frederick; Burgin, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study explored psychological factors in the context of a community college population purported to impact decisions to remain in college from one semester to another. Researchers examined results from 1191 responses from students attending a community college in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The study further explored the predictive power…

  4. Association of Selected Psychological Factors to Smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored college students' smoking behaviour and identifies the effect of different psychological factors. Randomly selected students from two different universities completed the perceived stress scale, self esteem scale, anxiety scale and a smoking questionnaire. Non-parametric analyses suggested that higher ...

  5. Psychological Factors Associated with Paranursing Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine

    The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…

  6. Links Between Psychological Factors And Physical Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of six months duration since diagnosis. Perceived Stress Scale-10 and Exercise Self-efficacy Scale were used to assess psychological factors while the Stage of Change for Exercise Behaviour scale assessed physical exercise behaviour. Information including age, gender, ...

  7. Psychological Factors Determine Depressive Symptomatology After Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, Maria L.; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W.; de Kort, Paul L.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M.

    Objective: To identify psychological factors related to poststroke depressive symptoms. Design: Cross-sectional study, with patients assessed at 2 months poststroke. Setting: Patients with stroke from 6 general hospitals. Participants: Stroke patients (N=344; mean age +/- SD, 66.9 +/- 12.3y).

  8. Links Between Psychological Factors And Physical Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For diverse reasons, a large number of patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are yet to imbibe regular physical exercise behaviour. In this study, we characterised the link between psychological factors and physical exercise behaviour of a sample of Nigerian T2D patients. Participants were 176 T2D patients with minimum of ...

  9. [Management of psychologic factors in chronic urticaria. When and how?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, M

    2003-05-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria is a frequent disease witch treatment is often disappointing. Psychological factors seem to be frequently associated to it. In what cases consider psychological treatment? And according to what modalities? Review of the literature in search of articles in both French and English concerning psychological factors associated to chronic urticaria, either as responsible factors, or as aggravating factors, or as a consequence of the urticaria, with the study of the impact on the quality of life. We also studied articles analyzing various types of psychology-targeted treatments. We use a serie of keywords on following data banks: Medline (1970-2002), Embase, Pascal and Cochrane Library (period 1995-2002). Very few controlled studies were published.: Various studies are found reporting an association between stress, anxiety or depressive symptomatology and CIU, but none can assert a causality. Three controlled opened studies show significantly more anxiety and\\or depression in the chronic urticaria patients. Three studies analyze the psychopathological personalities of the patients with urticaria. Two studies focus specifically on the impact of the CIU on the quality of life. Various psychotropic drugs (mainly tricyclic antidepressants) have been tested, mostly because of their anti-H1 activity. There is no study on psychological support, psychotherapies, behavioral therapies, technique of biofeedback and group therapies. A particular attention is focused to hypnosis and relaxation techniques because of the improvement of the urticarial wheals reported in studies of cutaneous ability to react in subcutaneous injections of histamine. A complementary psychological treatment of patients suffering from CIU seems necessary, because of the high frequency of psychological symptoms. Published studies concern essentially the prescription of psychotropic drugs and the use of therapies with suggestion or relaxation under hypnosis. Prospective studies on

  10. Improving the Understanding of Psychological Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accident and Injury: Context, Loss of Focus, Cognitive Errors and Rigidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi DeAraugo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While the role of the horse in riding hazards is well recognised, little attention has been paid to the role of specific theoretical psychological processes of humans in contributing to and mitigating risk. The injury, mortality or compensation claim rates for participants in the horse-racing industry, veterinary medicine and equestrian disciplines provide compelling evidence for improving risk mitigation models. There is a paucity of theoretical principles regarding the risk of injury and mortality associated with human–horse interactions. In this paper we introduce and apply the four psychological principles of context, loss of focus, global cognitive style and the application of self as the frame of reference as a potential approach for assessing and managing human–horse risks. When these principles produce errors that are combined with a rigid self-referenced point, it becomes clear how rapidly risk emerges and how other people and animals may repeatedly become at risk over time. Here, with a focus on the thoroughbred racing industry, veterinary practice and equestrian disciplines, we review the merits of contextually applied strategies, an evolving reappraisal of risk, flexibility, and focused specifics of situations that may serve to modify human behaviour and mitigate risk.

  11. [The adolescent and contraception: psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viala, M; Sperandeo, D; Duprez, D

    1986-05-01

    Psychological aspects of contraception in adolescence tend to be of interest primarily because of the belief that better understanding of psychological resistence to contraception would lead to more effective use and a lower rate of pregnancy. The failure of adolescents to use contraception appears to be due in part to irresponsibility but in part also to a variety of other factors. There is no ideal contraceptive for adolescents. The pill has potentially serious side effects whose significance may be exaggerated by adolescents, and the price of the contraceptive sponge may be prohibitive. Contraceptives themselves are perceived by adolescents as belonging more to parents, physicians, or the media than to themselves. Low-dose pills considered appropriate for adolescents are often abandoned because of their annoying minor side effects. Most adolescents do not seek contraception in an independent way, but out of fear that they are already pregnant or, if they have been sexually active for some time without using contraception, out of fear of infertility. Use of contraception may also be initiated by the partner, or the mother wishing to protect her daughter against pregnancy or to regularize the menstrual cycle. Contraceptive use by adolescents is complex because it signifies delaying rather than spacing or terminating pregnancy. The long duration of use that may be required until the time is right for pregnancy and the need to foresee future consequences are difficult given the cognitive level of adolescents. There are also difficult problems of access, prescription, and follow-up. Prescription of contraceptives for an adolescent is likely to invoke ambivalent feelings. Follow-up should be scheduled at fairly short intervals because of the fragility of motivation for contraceptive use at this age. The constraints of contraceptive use are not adapted to the sporadic and unplanned nature of much adolescent sexual activity. Society has an image of the adolescent as

  12. Role of Psychological Factors on Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mohadese Ghayoomi Javinani; Shahab Alddin Shokri

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate effecting psychological factors on advertising effectiveness in case of Samsung Television. In this line, advertising attitude and advertising involvement were measured as indicators of effectiveness. This research is quantitative in its nature and applied in kind. The research population was consisted of 305 respondents who were selected by hazardous sampling. A questionnaire was developed as the research instrument and validity of it was ...

  13. Psychological Factors Affecting Rehabilitation and Outcomes Following Elective Orthopaedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, David C; Everhart, Joshua S; Glassman, Andrew H

    2015-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgery often requires many months of rehabilitation to achieve a successful outcome, regardless of subspecialty. Several important psychological factors strongly influence pain perceptions, rehabilitation compliance, and patient outcomes after common orthopaedic surgeries that require extensive rehabilitation, including total joint arthroplasty, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and spine surgery for degenerative disease. Early recognition of patients exhibiting psychological distress, fear-avoidance behavior, or poor perceived self-efficacy or pessimistic personality traits can be used to improve preoperative risk stratification for poor rehabilitation or surgical outcomes. Several intervention strategies exist to address these psychological factors when they appear to contribute suboptimal postoperative rehabilitation or recovery. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  14. [Relationship between balance control and psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grub, Elisabeth Johanna; Wydra, Georg; Köllner, Volker

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the study was to capture the relationship between motor balance and psychological factors, using sport-motoric tests as well as subjective self-evaluations. The balance control of 118 patients of a psychosomatic rehabilitation clinic was examined at the beginning and end of rehabilitation using various motor tests. Additionally, psychological variables including self-esteem (MSWS), degree of anxiety (BAI) and depressive symptoms (BDI) were assessed. To examine subjective self-evaluation a numerical analog scale and a questionnaire with open questions were used. Content analysis was performed on the questionnaire. In the area of physical self-esteem, especially sportiness, low to moderate correlations were found between self-esteem and balance. No significant relationship was found between anxiety or depressive symptoms and balance. In the open questions most patients described a distinct connection between emotional distress and balance. The participation in the tests was often a topic in their therapy. The expected relationship between psychological factors and motor balance could be only partially confirmed. A question is raised as to whether this relationship appears merely in situations of acute stress, as detected in the patients answers to the open questions. Addressing the study in psychotherapie an indication that balance tasks are well suited for the subjective experience and discussion of psychosomatic relationships. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  16. [Psychological factors for planning early retirement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowska, Małgorzata; Drabek, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    Over the recent years the proportion of retired persons in the over 54 years age group has systematically increased in the European Union (EU). In Poland, work force participation rate for people aged 54-65 years is particularly low compared to other countries. The aim of the presented study was to explore psychological and socio-demographic factors affecting the early retirement decision. The study was performed on 199 manual and skilled workers aged 50-64 years. The data were obtained by means of: Effort-Reward Imbalance questionnaire, Organizational Commitment Scale and adapted items from Work Description Inventory. To explore the risk factors for an early retirement, the logistic regression was used. The following risk factors of an early retirement were identified: low education (primary and vocational Exp(B) = 10.394, p = 0.001; secondary and Bachelor's degree Exp(B) = 3.462, p = 0.001), low health status (Exp(B) = 3.36, p = 0.006, Exp(B) = 7.73, p = 0.002) and lack of reward at work (ERI R) (Exp(B) = 1.09, p = 0.002). The results of the study suggest that psychological variables play a secondary role in the process of making early retirement decision, while they probably exert a stronger effect on the decision to continue occupational activities than to quit them. This problem should be explored more deeply in the future research.

  17. Psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder improves body dysmorphic concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Angela; Sawyer, Alice T; Aderka, Idan M; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-10-01

    Social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder are considered nosologically distinct disorders. In contrast, some cognitive models suggest that social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder share similar cognitive maintenance factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder on body dysmorphic disorder concerns. In Study 1, we found that 12 weekly group sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy led to significant decreases in body dysmorphic symptom severity. In Study 2, we found that an attention retraining intervention for social anxiety disorder was associated with a reduction in body dysmorphic concerns, compared to a placebo control condition. These findings support the notion that psychological treatments for individuals with primary social anxiety disorder improve co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical and psychological factors for criminal aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates approach to the study of crime of aggression, taking into account the analysis of the behavior principles of interaction of personal and situational factors; interaction of aggressive and antiaggressive personal factors. Three-dimensional typology of crime of aggression formed three axles: high – low aggressiveness; formation – aborted personal aggression inhibitors; neutral – a legally significant traumatic situation. This typology has been verified on the basis of empirical material, including 329 people (257 males and 72 women aged 18 to 70 years charged with violent crimes. All of the defendants (33 % mental health 67 % – with a variety of mental disorders not excluding sanity were examined in the production of a comprehensive forensic psychological and psychiatric examination. A cluster analysis of the subjects (Ward's method showed the validity of the choice of three bases of a typology of criminal aggression. The most powerful discriminator of types of aggression were personal inhibitors of aggression, less severe factors of high aggressiveness and characteristics of the situation. Identified correlations between various mental disorders and types of aggression.

  19. Analysis of psychological factors which interfere in soccer athletes’ behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Pujals

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the psychological factors which interfere in soccer athletes’s behaviour, juvenile and infant categories. 40 athletes from a soccer school in Maringá – PR were studied and the instruments used were: inventories, interviews, questionnaires and research diary. Data were collected individually and in group. Intervention occurred for 12 months through observation, evaluation and showed the following factors: motivation, anxiety, aggression and self confidence. Results pointed out that the positive emotions expressed by the athletes were good mood, happiness, relaxation, interest in improving and hope while negative emotions were anxiety, rage, aggressiveness, low self-confidence, lack of motivation, insecurity, feeling of failure, pessimism and group instability. Relatives and coach were also generating factors of stress and anxiety. Thus, this sporting context shows that the sports psychology seems to be highly efficient to reduce anxiety and agression indexes as well as to increase motivation and self-confidence, demonstrating the importance of psychological preparation for sporting training.

  20. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  1. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  2. Socio-Psychological Factors in Electronic Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, Roger

    1990-01-01

    This paper analyzes electronic mail and its role in adult education, identifies research on the educational implications of electronic mail, and discusses theoretical issues from an economic, psychological, and sociological perspective. (SK)

  3. Psychosocial factors associated with perceived psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan ...

  4. Social and Psychological Factors Associated With Adolescent Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Larsen, Ross; Bruening, Meg; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, using structural equation modeling, the associations between nominated friend physical activity (PA), friend social support with individual PA-related psychological factors, and adolescent PA. Data were obtained from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity Among Teens), a large cross-sectional study conducted in 20 middle and high schools. The sample consisted of 1951 adolescents (mean age: 14.25 ± 1.96, 54% female, 68% ethnic minorities). PA, parent and friend social support (perceived social support for PA from parents and friends), and psychological measures (PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and PA barriers) were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The SEM analysis consisted of 1 observed variable: friend PA, and 2 latent constructs: psychological factors, perceived social support. The model was a good fit, indicating that there were significant direct effects of both friend PA (P < .01) and psychological factors (P < .0001) on adolescent PA. In addition, psychological factors mediated the association between friend PA and adolescent PA. The results of this model suggest that psychological factors and friend PA are associated with adolescent PA, and that psychological factors may play an important role. Future studies should further examine the association of both friend PA and psychological variables with adolescent PA.

  5. Applying sport psychology to improve clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Helen R; Rumbold, James L; Sandars, John

    2017-12-01

    Preparedness for practice has become an international theme within Medical Education: for healthcare systems to maintain their highest clinical standards, junior doctors must "hit the ground running" on beginning work. Despite demonstrating logical, structured assessment and management plans during their undergraduate examinations, many newly qualified doctors report difficulty in translating this theoretical knowledge into the real clinical environment. "Preparedness" must constitute more than the knowledge and skills acquired during medical school. Complexities of the clinical environment overwhelm some junior doctors, who acknowledge that they lack strategies to manage their anxieties, under-confidence and low self-efficacy. If uncontrolled, such negative emotions and behaviors may impede the delivery of time-critical treatment for acutely unwell patients and compound junior doctors' self-doubt, thus impacting future patient encounters. Medical Education often seeks inspiration from other industries for potential solutions to challenges. To address "preparedness for practice," this AMEE Guide highlights sport psychology: elite sportspeople train both physically and psychologically for their discipline. The latter promotes management of negative emotions, distractions and under-confidence, thus optimizing performance despite immense pressures of career-defining moments. Similar techniques might allow junior doctors to optimize patient care, especially within stressful situations. This AMEE Guide introduces the novel conceptual model, PERFORM, which targets the challenges faced by junior doctors on graduation. The model applies pre-performance routines from sport psychology with the self-regulatory processes of metacognition to the clinical context. This model could potentially equip junior doctors, and other healthcare professionals facing similar challenges, with strategies to optimize clinical care under the most difficult circumstances.

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF ATHLETES AS A HUMANIZING FACTOR OF SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Čokorilo; Zoran Milošević

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the role and importance of modern psychological preparation to achieve the best possible athletic performance while maintaining mental health and well being of athletes. In this sense, psychological preparation is perceived as an equal factor with the physical and technical-tactical preparation at all levels of competition. The achievement of equality can be achieved only by specialized (licensed) psychologists for specific areas that must understand the psychology of sport...

  7. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  8. Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors that Inhibit Seeking Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Larson, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    How do counselors reach out to individuals who are reluctant to seek counseling services? To answer this question, the authors examined the research on the psychological help-seeking barriers from counseling, clinical and social psychology, as well as social work and psychiatry. Specific avoidance factors that have been identified in the mental…

  9. Psychological factors in developing high performance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2017-01-01

    Top-level athletes are often said to have extraordinary personalities and special psychological characteristics (Gould, Dieffenbach & Moffett, 2002). This is not surprising when considering the many years of training needed to achieve athletic success. This long-term engagement in intense training...

  10. The Role of Psychological Factors in the Process of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, Maryam; Roslan, Samsilah; Idris, Khairuddin; Othman, Jamilah

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, psychological factors have become vital factors in literacy education. Existing research has indicated that these factors haves received special attention in the comprehension process. Moreover, in reading process and teaching curriculum understanding, the role of these factors could be beneficial for the students. This paper…

  11. The Longitudinal Association between Psychological Factors and Health Care Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-03-15

    Little attention has been given to psychological factors as correlates of health care use, which could be an important key to manage it. We analyzed the association of psychological factors with health care use. Primary data were obtained from three follow-ups (2002, 2008, and 2011) of a large population-based study with participants aged 40+. Using a longitudinal observational study, we analyzed the psychological factors of negative and positive affect (affective well-being), life satisfaction (cognitive well-being), self-efficacy, loneliness, self-esteem, optimism, and flexible goal adjustment using fixed-effects regressions. The participants provided data on health care use (visits to general practitioners [GPs] and specialists as well as hospitalization) and psychological factors via self-administered questionnaires and personal interviews (7,116 observations). The sample was drawn using national probability sampling. Controlling for self-rated health, chronic diseases and sociodemographics, increases in affective well-being, and optimism decreased health care use of GPs, specialists, and hospital treatment. Increases in cognitive well-being decreased health care use of GPs and specialists. Increases in self-efficacy decreased hospitalization. The study underlines the influence of psychological factors on health care use. Thus, whenever possible, future studies of health care use should include psychological factors, and efforts to reduce health care use might focus on such factors. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Psychological factors and psychosocial interventions for cancer related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucă, Andrada; Băban, Adriana

    2017-06-01

    The present paper is aimed at briefly presenting psychological factors involved in cancer related pain and what psychosocial interventions are efficient in reducing it. Cancer related pain is a complex experience and the most integrative and recommended approach is the biopsychosocial model. It has been proved that chronic pain is more strongly related to psychological factors than to treatment or illness related factors. Psychological factors influencing pain experience can be intuitively grouped starting with awareness of pain (i.e., attentional factor), then with evaluation of pain (i.e., cognitive factors) which is leading to feelings (i.e., emotional factors), and behaviours (i.e., coping strategies) regarding pain. Psychosocial interventions (i.e., skill based and education based interventions) have strong evidence that is effective in reducing cancer related pain.

  13. Longevity factor klotho and chronic psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, A A; Epel, E S; Arenander, J; Broestl, L; Garay, B I; Wang, D; Dubal, D B

    2015-06-16

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and premature morbidity and mortality; however, the biology linking chronic psychological stress and its maladaptive effects remains largely unknown. Klotho is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates the aging process and promotes better brain and body health. Whether klotho is linked to psychosocial stress or its negative impact in humans has not been investigated. To address this gap, we recruited 178 healthy women who were either chronically high-stress maternal caregivers for a child with autism spectrum disorder (n = 90) or low-stress control mothers of a typically developing child (n = 88). We found that women under high chronic stress displayed significantly lower levels of the longevity hormone klotho compared with low-stress controls (t(176) = 2.92, P = 0.004; d = 0.44), and the decrease among those under high stress was age-dependent. In addition, high-stress caregivers who reported more depressive symptoms displayed even lower klotho levels compared with low-stress participants. These findings provide the first evidence that klotho levels are sensitive to psychosocial stressors and raise the possibility that klotho may serve as a novel biological link connecting stress, depression and risk for accelerated disease development. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for understanding the plasticity of the aging process and may represent a therapeutic target for mitigating the deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress on health and well-being.

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and psychological stress - a modifiable risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is common in many physical illnesses and is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for disease onset and progression. An emerging body of literature suggests that stress has a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both as a predictor of new onset T2DM and as a prognostic factor in people with existing T2DM. Here, we review the evidence linking T2DM and psychological stress. We highlight the physiological responses to stress that are probably related to T2DM, drawing on evidence from animal work, large epidemiological studies and human laboratory trials. We discuss population and clinical studies linking psychological and social stress factors with T2DM, and give an overview of intervention studies that have attempted to modify psychological or social factors to improve outcomes in people with T2DM.

  15. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...... psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis....

  16. New Directions in Social Psychological Interventions to Improve Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timothy D.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to improve student achievement typically focus on changing the educational environment (e.g., better schools, better teachers) or on personal characteristics of students (e.g., intelligence, self-control). The 6 articles in this special issue showcase an additional approach, emanating from social psychology, which focuses on students'…

  17. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  18. Motivational factors and psychological processes in cosmetic breast augmentation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvi, Anette S; Foss, Kaja; von Soest, Tilmann; Roald, Helge E; Skolleborg, Knut C; Holte, Arne

    2010-04-01

    We investigated how and why prospective cosmetic breast augmentation patients decide to undergo such surgery. The results can offer important insights to plastic surgeons in addressing their patients' motives and expectations, and thereby avoiding potential patient dissatisfaction and disappointment. It is also a necessary first step to better understand the increasing tendency among women in the Western society to seek cosmetic breast augmentation. A qualitative, descriptive and phenomenological design was employed. Fourteen female prospective breast augmentation patients, aged 19-46 years, were recruited from a private plastic surgery clinic and interviewed in depth based on an informant-centred format. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded and analysed phenomenologically using a QSR-N*Vivo software program. We detected four psychological processes associated with cosmetic breast augmentation surgery (create, improve, repair and restore). The data could further be categorised into one basic drive (femininity), six generating factors (appearance dissatisfaction, ideal figure, self-esteem, comments, clothes and sexuality) and five eliciting factors motivating the decision (media, knowledge of former patients, physicians, finances and romantic partner). These new insights into how and why women seek cosmetic breast augmentation may aid plastic surgeons in enhancing their communication with patients. This can be achieved by addressing the patient's psychological process and motives, and thereby better assist them in making the best decision possible in their particular situation. It may also lay the groundwork for future quantitative studies on the prevalence of certain motives for undergoing such surgery and, as such, help explain the increasing popularity of cosmetic breast-augmentation surgery. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychological factors in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, B B; Garfinkel, P E; Jeejeebhoy, K N

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes the prevalence and incidence of psychiatric disorders in IBS patients using a standardized psychiatric interview, and proposes a psychological model for investigating one aspect of IBS. Forty-four IBS patients and 28 nonclinical participants received a psychiatric interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule) and completed the Lie Scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (L-EPI). Results indicated that a significant percentage (59%) of the IBS group met DSM-III criteria for a psychiatric disorder within the last year, far more than occurred in the matched nonclinical comparison group. Relative to the comparison group, the IBS group also had significantly higher lie scores on the EPI indicating a response style of social desirability. On the basis of these findings, together with earlier work by Latimer's group, a conceptual model was formulated on the notion that some IBS patients may have a self-schema (i.e. knowledge of self, stored in memory) characterized by social desirability. We suggest that the construct of self-schema may be helpful in differentiating IBS from psychiatric groups both conceptually and therapeutically.

  20. [Influential factors analysis of positive psychology in patients with oral and maxillofacial trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Wei-Jun; Chen, Qiao-Lu; Yao, Yao; Huang, Ying-Bi

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the positive psychological reaction of patients with oral and maxillofacial trauma and related factors. One hundred and five hospitalized patients with oral and maxillofacial trauma were investigated by self-designed general data questionnaire, positive psychological scale posttraumatic growth evaluation of quantitative PTG, and self-image questionnaire. SPSS 18.0 software package was used to analyze the data. Positive psychological score of the patients was 56.01±17.322, and self-image average score was 51.33±7.306. There were significant differences between male and female patients after trauma in new possibilities, personal power, self transformation and personal feeling (Ppositive psychological reaction.With the improvement of educational level of patients, better personal power (P=0.031) and self transformation (P=0.01), and more positive psychological reaction were observed; Posttraumatic positive psychology of patients was negatively correlated with self-image score (r=-0.318, Ppositive attitude than female. With the improvement of educational level, more positive psychological reaction was documented in term of personal strength, self-transformation,but no obvious change in relationship with others, new possibilities and personal feeling. The better self image, the more positive psychological reaction was displayed.

  1. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  2. The Influence of Psychological Factors in Meniere's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orji, FT

    2014-01-01

    Many physicians have observed that psychological factors play a significant role in the course of Meniere's disease (MD), with Meniere's patients being subject to anxiety and tension states. A lot of research attentions from a psychological point of view have been directed at MD, with earlier researchers focusing on psychosomatic causes of the illness as well as its somatopsychic result. However, the question whether MD is caused by psychological factors or whether the psychological manifestation in MD is as a result of the illness is still unresolved. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of interaction that exists between physical and emotional factors in the development of MD and its impact on the quality of life of the sufferers. A structured literature search was carried out, with no restrictions to the dates searched. A vicious circle of interaction seems to exist between the somatic organic symptoms of MD and resultant psychological stress. The frightening attacks of vertigo seem likely to produce and increase the level of anxiety thereby worsening the emotional state and the resultant anxiety provokes various symptoms probably through disorders of the autonomic nervous system occasioned by the increased levels of stress-related hormones. PMID:24669323

  3. Familial psychological factors are associated with encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Devrim; Çengel Kültür, S Ebru; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Zeki, Ayşe; Şenses Dinç, Gülser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess maternal psychiatric symptoms, family functioning and parenting styles in children with encopresis. Forty-one children with encopresis were compared to 29 children without any psychiatric disorder. Higher maternal psychiatric symptoms were found in children with encopresis. The general family functioning and strictness/supervision in parenting were significant predictors of encopresis. Family functioning may be screened in children with encopresis, especially when standard interventions have had limited success. Identification and treatment of familial factors may enhance the treatment efficacy in encopresis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Psychological Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder Improves Body Dysmorphic Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Angela; Sawyer, Alice T.; Aderka, Idan M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder are considered nosologically distinct disorders In contrast, some cognitive models suggest that social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder share similar cognitive maintenance factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder on body dysmorphic disorder concerns. In Study 1, we found that 12 weekly group sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy led to significant decre...

  5. Psychological factors addressed in cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric functional abdominal pain: Which are most important to target?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; de Haan, Else; Derkx, H. H. F.; Benninga, Marc A.; Boer, Frits

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric functional abdominal pain leaves room for improvement. We studied which factors addressed in cognitive behaviour therapy relate most strongly to the physical and psychological functioning of children with functional abdominal pain and

  6. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women) from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed ...

  7. Socio-Psychological Factors Influencing the Educational Aspiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work investigated the influence of socio-psychological factors on the educational aspiration of married women in Rivers State. A stratified random sample of 680 married women selected purposively from 8 out of 23 local government areas of Rivers State was used for the study. The sample covered both the ...

  8. The Challenges of Socio-Psychological Factors as Correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated adolescent students' cigarette smoking behaviour as correlates of the challenges socio-psychological factors in Cross River State. Snowball sampling technique was used to select 200 participants across the state who were male and female. Their ages ranged between 14 and 19 years with a mean ...

  9. Psychological Factors Associated with Smartphone Addiction in South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeewon; Sung, Min-Je; Song, Sook-Hyung; Lee, Young-Moon; Lee, Je-Jung; Cho, Sun-Mi; Park, Mi-Kyung; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2018-01-01

    The smartphone has many attractive attributes and characteristics that could make it highly addictive, particularly in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of young adolescents in risk of smartphone addiction and the psychological factors associated with smartphone addiction. Four hundred ninety middle school…

  10. The College Experience: Protective Factors and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midili, Gina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify protective factors in college student development as they relate to psychological well-being (PWB). Using archival data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) dataset, this research was guided by a blend of models and constructs to capture the association between college student…

  11. Weight Perception, Academic Performance, and Psychological Factors in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate weight perception and related psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire on weight perception, academic performance, stress, hostility, and depression was completed by 6863 middle and high school students. Weight and height were measured. Results: Overweight perception was related to…

  12. The Influence of Psychological and Societal Factors on Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of psychological and societal factors on students' performance in mathematics at Senior Secondary School Level in. Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. A simple random sampling technique was used to sample three hundred secondary school students who supplied information on the ...

  13. [The psychological factors affecting athletic performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária

    2010-05-16

    The physical and mental health complex is claimed as achievement of the XXI. century, whereby also among the sportsmen and sportswomen, beside the somatic medicine, growing attention is devoted to the psyche as well. The sports psychiatry was dragged in and put into service to enhance performance after all biological weapons run out of ammunition, and the long-awaited results still failed to come about. Moreover, despite the energy increasingly invested it was going from bad to worse. Among athletes many psychiatric disorders call attention, either by the high prevalence or by the development of a specific syndrome. Symptoms of depression (depression after the competition, depression following the failure at the competition), chronic stress, anxiety, fatigue syndrome of overtraining, enervation, sleep disturbances, eating problems, burnout, eating disorders (anorexia athletics, athlete triad), personality factors and the chemical addiction are all extremely important. The present study is the first to summarize the most crucial psychiatric disorders that may have great significance in the athlete population, in varying degrees according to the individual sports.

  14. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. (Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  15. The concept of mindfulness: nonspecific factor of psychological wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugovkina O.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the growing interest in the study of the concept of mindfulness as a psychological construct and a form of psychotherapeutic intervention for the prevention and treatment of various mental disorders has become prominent in the foreign literature. On the basis of empirical evidence the article describes the positive effects of psychological awareness, including an increase of the subjective well-being, satisfaction with interpersonal relationships, improvement of some cognitive performance (working memory, executive functions, decline in cognitive and emotional reactivity. The article gives a description of the presumed neurobiological correlates of awareness and formulate the general perspective for further research.

  16. Moving Toward Improved Teamwork in Cancer Care: The Role of Psychological Safety in Team Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anshu K; Fennell, Mary L; Chagpar, Anees B; Connolly, Hannah K; Nembhard, Ingrid M

    2016-11-01

    Effective communication is a requirement in the teamwork necessary for improved coordination to deliver patient-centered, value-based cancer care. Communication is particularly important when care providers are geographically distributed or work across organizations. We review organizational and teams research on communication to highlight psychological safety as a key determinant of high-quality communication within teams. We first present the concept of psychological safety, findings about its communication effects for teamwork, and factors that affect it. We focus on five factors applicable to cancer care delivery: familiarity, clinical hierarchy-related status differences, geographic dispersion, boundary spanning, and leader behavior. To illustrate how these factors facilitate or hinder psychologically safe communication and teamwork in cancer care, we review the case of a patient as she experiences the treatment-planning process for early-stage breast cancer in a community setting. Our analysis is summarized in a key principle: Teamwork in cancer care requires high-quality communication, which depends on psychological safety for all team members, clinicians and patients alike. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of psychological safety in clinical care and suggestions for future research.

  17. Evaluation of some psychological factors in psoriatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Fakour, Yousef; Nazemei, Mohammad Javad; Ehsani, Amirhooshang; Gholamali, Fatemeh; Morteza, Afsaneh; Mokhtari, Leila; Khosrovanmehr, Najmeh

    2015-01-01

    vulnerability score. PASI score as a representing factor of skin involvement has a limited role in predicting the effect of psoriasis on mental status and illness perception of psoriatic patients. Psychological vulnerability of the patients is the main predicting factor of illness perception and coping strategies (representing patients approach to their disease or their treatment beliefs).

  18. Evaluation of some psychological factors in psoriatic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Noormohammadpour

    2015-03-01

    vulnerability score.PASI score as a representing factor of skin involvement has a limited role in predicting the effect of psoriasis on mental status and illness perception of psoriatic patients. Psychological vulnerability of the patients is the main predicting factor of illness perception and coping strategies (representing patients approach to their disease or their treatment beliefs.

  19. On placebos, placebo responses and placebo responders- (A review of psychological, psychopharmacological and psychophysiological factors, I- psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doongaji D

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Placebogenesis is an established phenomenon in the therapeutic management of virtually every known illness. This article reviews the various psychological factors which play an important role in the genesis of this important phenomenon. Classification of place-bos along with ethical issues involved in administration of placebos for therapeutic and research purposes are discussed in the article.

  20. Inflammatory genes and psychological factors predict induced shoulder pain phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Z; Parr, Jeffrey J; Wallace, Margaret R; Wu, Samuel S; Borsa, Paul A; Dai, Yunfeng; Fillingim, Roger B

    2014-10-01

    The pain experience has multiple influences, but little is known about how specific biological and psychological factors interact to influence pain responses. The current study investigated the combined influences of genetic (pro-inflammatory) and psychological factors on several preclinical shoulder pain phenotypes. An exercise-induced shoulder injury model was used, and a priori selected genetic (IL1B, TNF/LTA region, and IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)) and psychological (anxiety, depression symptoms, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, and kinesiophobia) factors were included as the predictors of interest. The phenotypes were pain intensity (5-d average and peak reported on numerical rating scale), upper extremity disability (5-d average and peak reported on the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand instrument), and duration of shoulder pain (d). After controlling for age, sex, and race, the genetic and psychological predictors were entered separately as main effects and interaction terms in regression models for each pain phenotype. Results from the recruited cohort (n = 190) indicated strong statistical evidence for the interactions between 1) TNF/LTA SNP rs2229094 and depression symptoms for average pain intensity and duration and 2) IL1B two SNP diplotype and kinesiophobia for average shoulder pain intensity. Moderate statistical evidence for prediction of additional shoulder pain phenotypes included interactions of kinesiophobia, fear of pain, or depressive symptoms with TNF/LTA rs2229094 and IL1B. These findings support the combined predictive ability of specific genetic and psychological factors for shoulder pain phenotypes by revealing novel combinations that may merit further investigation in clinical cohorts to determine their involvement in the transition from acute to chronic pain conditions.

  1. Inflammatory Genes and Psychological Factors Predict Induced Shoulder Pain Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Z.; Parr, Jeffrey J.; Wallace, Margaret R.; Wu, Samuel S.; Borsa, Paul A.; Dai, Yunfeng; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The pain experience has multiple influences but little is known about how specific biological and psychological factors interact to influence pain responses. The current study investigated the combined influences of genetic (pro-inflammatory) and psychological factors on several pre-clinical shoulder pain phenotypes. Methods An exercise-induced shoulder injury model was used, and a priori selected genetic (IL1B, TNF/LTA region, IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) and psychological (anxiety, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, kinesiophobia) factors were included as the predictors of interest. The phenotypes were pain intensity (5-day average and peak reported on numerical rating scale), upper-extremity disability (5-day average and peak reported on the QuickDASH instrument), and duration of shoulder pain (in days). Results After controlling for age, sex, and race, the genetic and psychological predictors were entered separately as main effects and interaction terms in regression models for each pain phenotype. Results from the recruited cohort (n = 190) indicated strong statistical evidence for the interactions between 1) TNF/LTA SNP rs2229094 and depressive symptoms for average pain intensity and duration and 2) IL1B two-SNP diplotype and kinesiophobia for average shoulder pain intensity. Moderate statistical evidence for prediction of additional shoulder pain phenotypes included interactions of kinesiophobia, fear of pain, or depressive symptoms with TNF/LTA rs2229094 and IL1B. Conclusion These findings support the combined predictive ability of specific genetic and psychological factors for shoulder pain phenotypes by revealing novel combinations that may merit further investigation in clinical cohorts, to determine their involvement in the transition from acute to chronic pain conditions. PMID:24598699

  2. Personality and psychological factors: Effects on dental beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi Hathiwala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental treatment can be highly unpleasant for anxious patients. Despite all advancements, dental anxiety continues to upset the dentist-patient relationship. The psychological factors like individual personality and familial and peer influence may alter the dental beliefs of a patient. Aim: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among young adolescents to investigate the relationship among various psychological factors and the dental beliefs of an individual. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among higher secondary school children, aged 15−17 years in Udupi district. The dental anxiety of the participants was measured using Modified Dental Beliefs scale and the personality traits were assessed using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Pearson′s correlation and chi-square analysis were performed among these scales. Independent t-test was performed to compare dental anxiety scores with different socio-demographic and psychological characteristics. Results: In all 198 students, with a mean age of 16.6 years, completed the questionnaire. A majority of the participants had lower MDBS scores. The personality traits like Emotional Stability and Openness to New Experiences showed a negative correlation with the Dental Belief scores. Apart from these, the experience at first dental visit and peer support also affected the dental beliefs of the adolescents. Conclusion: Various psychological traits of adolescents influence their dental anxiety.

  3. Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    K. Kontoangelos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c < 7% from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ≥ 7. Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R. Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P<0.013 was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P<0.030, as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P<0.047 in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM.

  4. An Investigation of Psychological Factors Inluencing Investment Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Hue Chang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This  study  applies  a  second-order  conirmatory  factor  analysis  (CFA  approach  to investigate  psychological  factors  inluencing  individuals'  investment  decision-making.  A second-order  CFA  approach  consists  of  ive  irst-order  psychological  factors  in  terms  of mental  accounting,  regret  avoidance,  self-control,  heuristic  and  overconidence,  and  one second-order factor in terms of investment decision-making. Quantitative data was yielded by the questionnaire, and an effective sample of 752 responses was used to execute the estimation procedure.  The  results  reveal  that  there  exist  statistically  signiicant  relationships  between ive psychological factors and investment decision-making. Investors are likely to consider a product with different functions as one with different mental accounts (gains. Thus, inancial institutions  are  advised  to  provide  their  potential  customers  with  multi-function  products. Since self-control is  a  signiicant self-imposed mechanism  for  investment decision-making, inancial institutions can merchandise products that can help their customers to execute the self-imposed rules of thumb. ";} // -->activate javascript

  5. Psychological distress and personality factors in takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J

    2016-09-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This study examined whether patients with TTC have higher levels of psychological distress (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, general anxiety), illness-related anxiety and distinct personality factors compared with healthy controls and patients with heart failure. Patients with TCC (N = 18; mean age 68.3 ± 11.7 years, 77.8 % women) and two comparison groups (healthy controls: N = 19, age 60.0 ± 7.6, 68.4 % women and patients with chronic heart failure: N = 19, age 68.8 ± 10.1, 68.4 % women) completed standardised questionnaires to measure depression (PHQ‑9), perceived stress (PSS-10), general anxiety (GAD-7), illness-related anxiety (WI-7) and personality factors (NEO-FFI and DS-14). Psychological measures were obtained at 23 ± 18 months following the acute TTC event. Results showed that patients with TCC had higher levels of depressive symptoms (5.2 ± 5.2 vs. 2.5 ± 2.4, p = 0.039) and illness-related anxiety (2.1 ± 1.7 vs. 0.7 ± 1.3, p = 0.005) compared with healthy controls. Patients with TCC did not display significantly elevated perceived stress (p = 0.072) or general anxiety (p = 0.170). Regarding personality factors, levels of openness were lower in TCC compared with healthy controls (34.2 ± 4.3 vs. 38.2 ± 5.6, p = 0.021). No differences between TCC and heart failure patients were found regarding the psychological measures. TCC is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, more illness-related anxiety and less openness compared with healthy controls. These data suggest that TCC is associated with adverse psychological factors that may persist well after the acute episode.

  6. Psychoneuroimmunology and health psychology: inflammation and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, M; Conti, C M; Fulcheri, M

    2013-01-01

    A common clinical observation is the adverse relationship between stress and human diseases. The attention of scientific research on health has been disproportionately focused on risk factors that predict the onset of certain health outcomes, in particular there has been an increasing interest in the role of inflammation as a common mechanism of disease in a number of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the importance of such research being undisputed, it is necessary to emphasize what the protective factors are that promote psychosocial recovery processes and increased survival rates in a biopsychosocial perspective. This article aims to understand the relationship between psychosocial factors and immune system in the interests of health psychology, highlighting the protective factors that promote recovery, resiliency and resistance to disease.

  7. Supportive Group Factors, Course Pedagogy, and Multicultural Competency within Multicultural Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, Michael Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between course pedagogy and supportive group factors with variables of multicultural competency and multicultural counseling self-efficacy at the completion of a multicultural psychology course. The participants were students in graduate clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology programs…

  8. Psychological factors associated with acute and chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahousen, Theresa; Painold, Annamaria; Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Schienle, Anne; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Ille, Rottraut

    2016-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) has been associated with several psychological factors. But previous psychological data are limited and mainly restricted to male patients and small sample size. In this study we investigated psychosomatic complaints, personality factors, life events, and stress coping in acute and chronic recurrent CSC patients. Ninety-five patients (71 men, 24 women) with either acute or chronic CSC were evaluated regarding critical life events before diagnosis, psychosomatic complaints, personality traits and coping style. The characteristics of CSC patients were compared with a control group comprising 75 patients (46 men, 29 women) suffering from acute or chronic ophthalmic disorders other than CSC. Compared with patients of the control group, CSC patients reported more psychosomatic problems, unfavourable stress coping strategies and critical life events as well as elevated tension, aggression, strain, emotional instability and achievement orientation. Except for aggression the observed characteristics were more pronounced in acute than in chronic CSC patients. The appearance of CSC may be associated with an accumulation of stressful life events with an unfavourable coping style and distinctive personality factors. Acute CSC is related to more unfavourable stress coping and more physical complaints compared to its chronic course. Elevated aggression may imply one potential risk factor for CSC manifestation and also may have an adverse effect with its chronification.

  9. Psychological Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Psychological factors are significantly associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-seven patients who were 6 to 24 months post-computer-assisted ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon consented to participate in the study (52% response rate). Participants had a 1-time visit with a physician consisting of: a physical examination, a single-leg hop test, KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, and survey completion. Psychological measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Brief Profile of Mood States. Outcome measures included the Tegner activity scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Quality of Life subscale (KOOS-QOL), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Patient charts were also reviewed for pertinent operative details. The mean age of patients (±SD) was 25.7 ± 8.4 years, and the mean duration of time since surgery was 16.5 ± 5.9 months. The majority (89%) of the patients identified themselves as athletes, and of these, 65% reported returning to sports at a competitive level. Sport returners were found to have higher levels of self-esteem (P = .002) and higher reported KOOS-QOL scores (P = .02). Self-esteem was significantly associated with IKDC scores (r = 0.46, P physical functioning (r = 0.42, P Self-esteem levels and locus of control had significant

  10. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jang, Hyesue; Jo, Minkyung

    2017-05-19

    We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES), exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  12. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES, exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  13. ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 12 April). ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognition,

  14. Improving Otolaryngology Residency Selection Using Principles from Personnel Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Sarah N; Laury, Adrienne M; Gray, Stacey T

    2017-06-01

    There has been a heightened focus on improving the resident selection process, particularly within highly competitive specialties. Previous research, however, has generally lacked a theoretical background, leading to inconsistent and biased results. Our recently published systematic review examining applicant characteristics and performance in residency can provide historical insight into the predictors (ie, constructs) and outcomes (ie, criteria) previously deemed pertinent by the otolaryngology community. Personnel psychology uses evidence-based practices to identify the most qualified candidates for employment using a variety of selection methods. Extensive research in this discipline has shown that integrity tests, structured interviews, work samples, and conscientiousness offer the greatest increase in validity when combined with general cognitive ability. Blending past research knowledge with the principles of personnel selection can provide the necessary foundation with which to engage in theory-driven, longitudinal studies on otolaryngology resident selection moving forward.

  15. Psychological factors associated with NAFLD/NASH: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macavei, B; Baban, A; Dumitrascu, D L

    2016-12-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide. So far, the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its more severe variant nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is yet unclear, with many mechanisms being proposed as possible causes. This article aims to review the psychological factors associated with NAFLD/NASH. Three main categories of factors have been investigated: emotional, cognitive and behavioral. Five electronic databases were searched, limited to studies published in the English language, during the period 2005-2015: PubMed, Thomson ISI - Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, and ScienceDirect. Results indicated the most relevant emotional factors to be depression and anxiety. The areas of investigation for cognitive functioning concern those contents and processes related to the ability to initiate and maintain lifestyle changes. The most important behavioral factors identified are physical activity, nutrition/food intake and substance consumption: coffee, alcohol, cigarettes. Some of the factors identified act as protective factors, other as vulnerability factors. NAFLD/NASH may be considered a cognitive-behavioral disease, the most effective management being lifestyle changes, with emphasis on diet and exercise.

  16. Fear of hypoglycemia: relationship to hypoglycemic risk and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderbro, Therese; Gonder-Frederick, Linda; Bolinder, Jan; Lins, Per-Eric; Wredling, Regina; Moberg, Erik; Lisspers, Jan; Johansson, Unn-Britt

    2015-06-01

    The major aims of this study were to examine (1) the association between fear of hypoglycemia (FOH) in adults with type 1 diabetes with demographic, psychological (anxiety and depression), and disease-specific clinical factors (hypoglycemia history and unawareness, A1c), including severe hypoglycemia (SH), and (2) differences in patient subgroups categorized by level of FOH and risk of SH. Questionnaires were mailed to 764 patients with type 1 diabetes including the Swedish translation of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS) and other psychological measures including the Perceived Stress Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Social Phobia Scale, and Fear of Complications Scale. A questionnaire to assess hypoglycemia history was also included and A1c measures were obtained from medical records. Statistical analyses included univariate approaches, multiple stepwise linear regressions, Chi-square t tests, and ANOVAs. Regressions showed that several clinical factors (SH history, frequency of nocturnal hypoglycemia, self-monitoring) were significantly associated with FOH but R (2) increased from 16.25 to 39.2 % when anxiety measures were added to the model. When patients were categorized by level of FOH (low, high) and SH risk (low, high), subgroups showed significant differences in non-diabetes-related anxiety, hypoglycemia history, self-monitoring, and glycemic control. There is a strong link between FOH and non-diabetes-related anxiety, as well as hypoglycemia history. Comparison of patient subgroups categorized according to level of FOH and SH risk demonstrated the complexity of FOH and identified important differences in psychological and clinical variables, which have implications for clinical interventions.

  17. Adults' Narratives of Growing up With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Factors Associated With Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola

    2016-03-01

    Background Growing up with a cleft lip and/or palate presents a number of challenges for those affected and their families. Understanding why some individuals cope well while others struggle is key to psychological research in this field. A better appreciation of the factors and processes that contribute to psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from the patient perspective would be of value to both researchers and clinicians. Design Qualitative data elicited from individual interviews with 52 adults born with CL/P. Results Inductive thematic analysis identified three main themes: "background" factors (age, gender, sexual orientation, culture, additional conditions, socioeconomic status, and adoption), "external" factors (treatment autonomy, familial coping and support, salience, public understanding, psychological input, and peer support), and "internal" psychological factors (perceptions of difference, noticeability and teasing, social confidence, internalization of beauty ideals, valence, expectations of treatment, responding to challenges, social comparisons, acceptance, faith, dispositional style, and recognition of strengths and positive growth). Conclusions The number and breadth of factors identified in this study are testament to the importance of psychology in the field of CL/P and may offer guidance in relation to developing and assessing the value of psychological interventions. There is a clear role for psychologists in tackling appearance-related concerns, designing materials, supporting patient decision making, and improving social interaction, as well as providing specialist psychological support. The findings illustrate the potential degree of individual variation in perspectives and offer insight into the conflicting results found within current literature.

  18. Mind over matter: psychological factors and the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edozien, Leroy C

    2006-08-01

    Increasingly, gynaecologists are becoming aware of the impact of psychosocial factors on women's health generally, and on the menstrual cycle in particular. This review highlights developments in this field in the last triennium. Stress impairs the ovarian cycle through activation of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis. The effect of psychological stress on the menstrual cycle is mediated by metabolic factors. Stress-induced impairment of ovarian function may not necessarily manifest as menstrual irregularity, and the effects of stress may persist beyond the cycle in which the stress episode occurred. Response to stress may be determined not so much by the nature of the stress as by the intrinsic neuronal attributes of the individual. Interventions to address underlying stress should be part of the management regime for women with menstrual cycle abnormalities.

  19. The relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanami, Takuya; Kikuchi, Ayano; Kaneko, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Yano, Natsumi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have clarified the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display images. Psychological factors were obtained by the factor analysis with the results of the semantic differential (SD) method. In the psychological experiments, subjects evaluated the impressions of displayed images with changing ambient illuminating conditions. The illumination conditions were controlled by a fluorescent ceiling light and a color LED illumination which was located behind the display. We experimented under two kinds of conditions. One was the experiment with changing brightness of the ambient illumination. The other was the experiment with changing the colors of the background illumination. In the results of the experiment, two factors "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "comfortable," were extracted under different brightness of the ambient illumination of the display surroundings. It was shown that the "comfortable" was improved by the brightness of display surroundings. On the other hand, when the illumination color of surroundings was changed, three factors "comfortable," "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "activity" were extracted. It was also shown that the value of "comfortable" and "realistic sensation, dynamism" increased when the display surroundings were illuminated by the average color of the image contents.

  20. Predicting mental health after living kidney donation: The importance of psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Lotte; Timman, Reinier; Laging, Mirjam; Zuidema, Willij C; Beck, Denise K; IJzermans, Jan N M; Busschbach, Jan J V; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K

    2016-09-01

    living kidney donors, while mental health improved or deteriorated for a minority after donation. In reaction to these findings, many psychosocial screening guidelines have been developed for potential donors; however, the components of these guidelines are based on professional opinions and experience rather than on longitudinal empirical data. There is a lack of research that identifies pre-donation donor characteristics that are related to a lower mental health among donors. Such studies are essential in order to tailor psychosocial support during the donation process. What does this study add? Components that are mostly included in psychosocial screening guidelines for potential living kidney donors are not predictive of deterioration, nor increase, in mental health after donation, except for the lack of a partner. Therefore, there is little evidence on the necessity of rejecting potential donors based on these psychological criteria. The following psychological risk factors are predictive of the absolute level of donors' mental health during the donation process: A history of psychological problems, expectations of interpersonal benefit and negative health outcomes, an avoidant coping style, lack of social support, appraisals of the donation process as an unmanageable and/or negative event, a younger age, no religious affiliation, and unemployment. We argue that potential donors should not be rejected for donation based on these factors, but the indicators should be used to identify donors who might be in need for more psychological support. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Psychological Factors and Their Association with Ideal Cardiovascular Health Among Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Lena; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Nasir, Khurram; Blumenthal, Roger S; Utuama, Ovie A; Rouseff, Maribeth; Das, Sankalp; Veledar, Emir; Feldman, Theodore; Agatston, Arthur; Zhao, Di; Michos, Erin D

    2018-01-29

    The cardiovascular effects of stress and other psychological factors may be different between women and men. We assessed whether self-perceived adverse psychological factors were associated with achievement of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) as measured by the American Heart Association's Life's Simple Seven (LS7) and whether this differed by sex. This was a cross-sectional study of employees from a large healthcare organization. The LS7 metrics (smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose) were each scored as ideal (2), intermediate (1), or poor (0). Total scores were categorized as optimal (11-14), average (9-10), and inadequate (0-8). Using logistic regression, we tested whether psychological factors obtained by questionnaire (self-perceived stress, low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, depression, and anxiety) were associated with CVH, after adjustment for age, ethnicity, and education. Among 9,056 participants, the mean (SD) age was 43 (12) years, 74% were women, 57% Hispanic/Latino, 17% white, and 16% black. Stress was associated with reduced odds of having optimal/average CVH [OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.50-0.66) and 0.63 (0.50-0.81), for women and men, respectively]. Similarly, depression was associated with reduced odds of optimal/average CVH [0.58 (0.43-0.78) and 0.44 (0.26-0.76), for women and men, respectively]. Low life satisfaction, hopelessness, sadness, and anxiety were also associated with statistically significantly lower odds of optimal/average CVH in women, but not in men; however, there were no interactions by sex. In an ethnically diverse population, both women and men with several adverse self-perceived psychological factors were less likely to have optimal or adequate CVH. Future studies are needed to determine whether addressing psychological stressors can improve CVH.

  2. Contributions of risk and protective factors to prediction of psychological symptoms after traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Eve B; Palmieri, Patrick A; Field, Nigel P; Dalenberg, Constance J; Macia, Kathryn S; Spain, David A

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic experiences cause considerable suffering and place a burden on society due to lost productivity, increases in suicidality, violence, criminal behavior, and psychological disorder. The impact of traumatic experiences is complicated because many factors affect individuals' responses. By employing several methodological improvements, we sought to identify risk factors that would account for a greater proportion of variance in later disorder than prior studies. In a sample of 129 traumatically injured hospital patients and family members of injured patients, we studied pre-trauma, time of trauma, and post-trauma psychosocial risk and protective factors hypothesized to influence responses to traumatic experiences and posttraumatic (PT) symptoms (including symptoms of PTSD, depression, negative thinking, and dissociation) two months after trauma. The risk factors were all significantly correlated with later PT symptoms, with post-trauma life stress, post-trauma social support, and acute stress symptoms showing the strongest relationships. A hierarchical regression, in which the risk factors were entered in 6 steps based on their occurrence in time, showed the risks accounted for 72% of the variance in later symptoms. Most of the variance in PT symptoms was shared among many risk factors, and pre-trauma and post-trauma risk factors accounted for the most variance. Collectively, the risk factors accounted for more variance in later PT symptoms than in previous studies. These risk factors may identify individuals at risk for PT psychological disorders and targets for treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Educational Psychology Working to Improve Psychological Well-Being: An Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joe; Singh-Dhesi, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    This article presents one English local authority's educational psychology service's approach to supporting children and young people's psychological well-being. Evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic approaches adopted by one intervention (the Child Behaviour Intervention Initiative [CBII]) is presented. The statistical analysis…

  4. Evaluation of factors affecting psychological morbidity in emergency medicine practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Mehdi; Fahim, Farshid; Vahidi, Elnaz; Nejati, Amir; Saeedi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Assessing and evaluating mental health status can provide educational planners valuable information to predict the quality of physicians' performance at work. These data can help physicians to practice in the most desired way. The study aimed to evaluate factors affecting psychological morbidity in Iranian emergency medicine practitioners at educational hospitals of Tehran. In this cross sectional study 204 participants (emergency medicine residents and specialists) from educational hospitals of Tehran were recruited and their psychological morbidity was assessed by using a 28-question Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Somatization, anxiety and sleep disorders, social dysfunction and depression were evaluated among practitioners and compared to demographic and job related variables. Two hundreds and four participants consisting of 146 (71.6%) males and 58 (28.4%) females were evaluated. Of all participants, 55 (27%) were single and 149 (73%) were married. Most of our participants (40.2%) were between 30-35 years old. By using GHQ-28, 129 (63.2%) were recognized as normal and 75 (36.8%) suffered some mental health disorders. There was a significant gender difference between normal practitioners and practitioners with disorder (P=0.02) while marital status had no significant difference (P=0.2). Only 19 (9.3%) declared having some major mental health issue in the previous month. Females encountered more mental health disorders than male (P=0.02) and the most common disorder observed was somatization (P=0.006).

  5. A Program for Improving Undergraduate Psychology Students' Basic Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Wood, Rebecca M.; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of in-class writing instruction, practice, peer review, and feedback on writing skills of undergraduates enrolled in a general psychology course. We rated writing for grammar, writing style, mechanics, and American Psychological Association referencing style. Significant differences emerged on the 4 writing skill domains (p…

  6. [Study on environmental and psychological risk factors for female infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fen; Liu, Wei-na; Zhao, Qing-xia; Han, Miao-miao

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the environmental and psychological risk factors for female infertility and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of female infertility. In a hospital-based case-control study, a self-designed questionnaire was used to survey the cases and controls (1:1) with nation and age (± 2 years) as matching variables. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the datasets. The univariate analysis showed that female infertility was related to the following factors: eating fried foods, alcohol consumption, smoking, staying up late, perm, housing decoration, contact with heavy metals, exposure to radiation, contact with pesticides, working in hot environment, mental stress, uneasiness, helplessness, and despair. The multivariate analysis showed that staying up late (OR = 2.937), housing decoration (OR = 2.963), exposure to radiation (OR = 2.506), contact with pesticides (OR = 2.908), and mental stress (OR = 4.101) were the main risk factors for female infertility. Furthermore, there was an interaction between staying up late and mental stress. Female infertility is caused by multiple factors including staying up late, housing decoration, exposure to radiation, contact with pesticides, and mental stress, and there is an interaction between staying up late and mental stress.

  7. [Relationship between neuro-psychological factors and effect of acupuncture in treating Bell's palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun-Hua; Gao, Shan; Chen, Guo-Hua

    2010-10-01

    To study the influence of neuro-psychological factors on the effect of acupuncture in the treatment of Bell's palsy and the overall prognosis in patients. Fifty patients with Bell's palsy were randomized into the treatment group and the control group, and they were treated with manipulated and non-manipulated acupuncture, respectively. Scorings by subjective perceptive scale of acupuncture, Cartel personality test, and Hamilton Anxiety Scale were performed and the curative effect was assessed according House-Brackmann grading standards. The total effective rate of acupuncture was 78.0% (39/50), and that of manipulated acupuncture was better than that of non-manipulated acupuncture [89.2% (25/28) vs. 63.6% (14/22), P 16PF) found that patients with personality factors of sociability, intellectuality, excitability, braveness, and independence were capable of getting "Deqi" more easily, there existed a significant correlation between personality factors and curative effect. By Hamilton Anxiety Scale scoring, 92.0% (46/50) of the patients were found being in an anxiety state, and the efficacy of treatment was negatively correlated with the degree of anxiety (r = -0.9491, P < 0.05). Neuro-psychological factors put great influence on the efficacy of treatment for Bell's palsy, multiple measures, such as drug-therapy, acupuncture, psychological intervention, rehabilitation therapy, etc., should be taken in combination for improving patients' prognosis.

  8. Improving the efficiency of psychological treatment using outcome feedback technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Overend, Karen; Lucock, Mike; Groom, Martin; Kirby, Naomi; McMillan, Dean; Gilbody, Simon; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rubel, Julian A; de Jong, Kim

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the impact of applying computerized outcome feedback (OF) technology in a stepped care psychological service offering low and high intensity therapies for depression and anxiety. A group of therapists were trained to use OF based on routine outcome monitoring using depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) measures. Therapists regularly reviewed expected treatment response graphs with patients and discussed cases that were "not on track" in clinical supervision. Clinical outcomes data were collected for all patients treated by this group (N = 594), six months before (controls = 349) and six months after the OF training (OF cases = 245). Symptom reductions in PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were compared between controls and OF cases using longitudinal multilevel modelling. Treatment duration and costs were compared using MANOVA. Qualitative interviews with therapists (N = 15) and patients (N = 6) were interpreted using thematic analysis. OF technology was generally acceptable and feasible to integrate in routine practice. No significant between-group differences were found in post-treatment PHQ-9 or GAD-7 measures. However, OF cases had significantly lower average duration and cost of treatment compared to controls. After adopting OF into their practice, this group of therapists attained similar clinical outcomes but within a shorter space of time and at a reduced average cost per treatment episode. We conclude that OF can improve the efficiency of stepped care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychological factors that promote behavior modification by obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Akinori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-loss effect of team medical care in which counseling is provided by clinical psychologists was investigated in an university hospital obesity (OB clinic. Nutritional and exercise therapy were also studied. In our previous study, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial with obese patients and confirmed that subjects who received counseling lost significantly more weight than those in a non-counseling group. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological characteristics assessed by ego states that promote behavior modification by obese patients. Methods 147 obese patients (116 females, 31 males; mean age: 45.9 ± 15.4 years participated in a 6-month weight-loss program in our OB clinic. Their psychosocial characteristics were assessed using the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG before and after intervention. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare weight and psychological factors before and after intervention. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting weight loss. Results Overall, 101 subjects (68.7% completed the program, and their data was analyzed. The subjects mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 7.3 kg (Z = 7.72, p 2 (Z = 7.65, p Z = 1.95, p Z = 2.46, p p p = 0.06 was observed. Conclusion This study of a 6-month weight-loss program that included counseling by clinical psychologists confirmed that the A ego state of obese patients, which is related to their self-monitoring skill, and the FC ego state of them, which is related to their autonomy, were increased. Furthermore, the negative aspects of the FC ego state related to optimistic and instinctive characteristics inhibited the behavior modification, while the A ego state represented objective self-monitoring skills that may have contributed to weight loss.

  10. Patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy and its individual psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Trachuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the treatment of chronic, especially asymptomatic pathology one of the main problem is the adherence to therapy. Patients with arterial hypertension need long-term, often lifelong medication, and how strictly they adhere to prescriptions often determines the course of the disease and the medical measures effectiveness. According to statistics, more than half of patients with hypertension are characterized by low compliance, which leads to complications of this disease. The objective of the research is to identify and analize the individual psychological factors that determine patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Methods and materials. This study was conducted during 2011-2013 at the cardiology departments of the Kyiv Alexander Hospital, polyclinics number 2 Shevchenko district in Kyiv, Desnyanskiy clinic №3 district in Kyiv, medical center "Adonis plus". We examined 203 patients with arterial hypertension (average age 53,5 ± 4,5 years. Methods: socio-demographic, clinical, clinical and psychological, psychodiagnostical, mathematical and statistical methods. Psychodiagnostical method included: 8-item Morisky medical adherence scale (Morisky D. E., 2008; self-assessment anxiety scale Charles D. Spielberger – Y.L Hanin (A.V. Batarshev, 2005; the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory questionnaire (MMRI (F.B. Berezin, 1994; "The level of subjective control" (A.A. Rean, 2001; "Index of attitudes to health" (S.D. Deryabo, VA Yasvin, 2000. Results. According to the results of 8-item Morisky medical adherence scale patients were divided into 3 groups according to the level of compliance - with high (26.11%, average (24.14% and low (49.75% levels of adherence to antihypertensive therapy. The individual-psychological predictors of poor adherence to antihypertensive therapy include the following personal characteristics of patients: a low level of intensity of attitude to health, internal type of subjective control, a

  11. Psychological Help-Seeking Attitudes of Helping Professional Candidates and Factors Influencing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed as descriptive to identify psychological help-seeking attitudes of helping professional candidates and factors influencing them. The research population consisted of 447 first and fourth grade students studying in the Departments of Psychological Counselling and Guidance, Psychology or Nursing at Ondokuz Mayis University.…

  12. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  13. Association of Personality Traits with Psychological Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Distress: A Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to find the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress

  14. STUDENTS’ PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN SLA: A DILLEMA FOR TEACHERS OF ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Langgeng Budianto

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at describing psychological factors in language acquisition and learning for human being who learn second language acquisition. Stephens found that external factors such as the characteristic of teacher, class and school condition had consistently no relation with the success of learning foreign language. On the other hand, student’s psychological conditions, as one of the internal factors, are potential to influence the foreign or second language acquisition. Psychological fa...

  15. Applying Intervention Mapping to Develop a Community-Based Intervention Aimed at Improved Psychological and Social Well-Being of Unmarried Teenage Mothers in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N.; Kok, Gerjo; Weyusya, Joseph; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E.; Nshakira, Nathan; Bartholomew, Leona K.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psychological and social well-being of unmarried…

  16. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees; Maria Hafeez; Jung-Yong Kim

    2017-01-01

    .... Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety...

  17. Psychological factors in exceptional, extreme and torturous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, John

    2016-01-01

    Our cognitive system has adapted to support goal-directed behaviour within a normal environment. An abnormal environment is one to which we are not optimally adapted but can accommodate through the development of coping strategies. These abnormal environments can be 'exceptional', e.g., polar base, space station, submarine, prison, intensive care unit, isolation ward etc.; 'extreme', marked by more intense environmental stimuli and a real or perceived lack of control over the situation, e.g., surviving at sea in a life-raft, harsh prison camp etc.; or 'tortuous', when specific environmental stimuli are used deliberately against a person in an attempt to undermine his will or resistance. The main factors in an abnormal environment are: psychological (isolation, sensory deprivation, sensory overload, sleep deprivation, temporal disorientation); psychophysiological (thermal, stress positions), and psychosocial (cultural humiliation, sexual degradation). Each single factor may not be considered tortuous, however, if deliberately structured into a systemic cluster may constitute torture under legal definition. The individual experience of extremis can be pathogenic or salutogenic and attempts are being made to capitalise on these positive experiences whilst ameliorating the more negative aspects of living in an abnormal environment.

  18. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…

  19. Positive Psychology Factors as Predictors of Latina/o College Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier Cavazos; Smith, Wayne D.; Whittenberg, James F.; Guardiola, Rebekah; Savage, Miranda

    2018-01-01

    Latina/o college students (N = 130) provided perceptions of psychological grit, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, life satisfaction, and mindfulness. Hope and mindfulness were significant predictors of psychological grit. A discussion regarding the importance of these findings and implications for counselors are…

  20. The influence of preoperative psychological factors on weight loss after bariatric surgery: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Carlo; Aceto, Paola; Petrucci, Ilaria; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Callari, Cosimo; Giustacchini, Piero; Sollazzi, Liliana; Mingrone, Geltrude; Bellantone, Rocco; Raffaelli, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate relationship between preoperative psychological factors and % total weight loss after gastric bypass. 76 adult patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were preoperatively asked to complete anxiety and depression Hamilton scales and Toronto Alexithymia Scale. At 3- and 6-month follow-up, body weight was assessed. At 6-month follow-up, alexithymic patients showed a poorer % total weight loss compared with non-alexithymic patients ( p = .017), and moderately depressed patients showed a lower % total weight loss compared with non-depressed patients ( p = .011). Focused pre- and postoperative psychological support could be useful in bariatric patients in order to improve surgical outcome.

  1. Psychological factors of social anxiety in Russian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Pavlova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social anxiety is one of the most common and disturbing conditions of childhood and adolescence. It is defined as an excessive fear of embarrassment or humiliation in social performance situations. Recent studies have identified a number of psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the condition. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate psychological factors of social anxiety in adolescents with a multifactor psychosocial model. Design: The study population comprised 183 Russian-speaking adolescents from Moscow secondary schools, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. Self-report measures were used to access social anxiety, symptoms of depression, gender role identification, perfectionism, hostility, family emotional communications, and social support. Results. The results indicate that social anxiety was positively correlated with symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts. No quantitative differences in social anxiety between girls and boys were found, while masculinity and undifferentiated gender identification had a strong association with social anxiety. A positive correlation was found between “concern over mistakes” (fear of making a mistake and being negatively compared with peers and “overdoing” (spending too much time doing homework and too little or none communicating with peers, using the Child Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ subscales and Social Anxiety and Distress Scale (SADS total score. Positive correlations were found between social anxiety and suppression of emotions and outward well-being subscales, as well in as the Family Emotional Communication (FEC total score. It is not common to discuss emotions and feelings; it is difficult to share negative experiences; and it is important for the families of socially anxious adolescents to put up a good front. Analysis revealed significant negative correlations between the SADS total score (as well its subscales and the Social

  2. Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines

  3. Risk factors for longer term psychological distress in well-functioning fibromyalgia patients: a prospective study into prognostic factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulil, S. van; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological distress is a key risk factor for long-term complaints in fibromyalgia (FM). Prognostic factors for psychological distress might facilitate an early identification of patients at risk to help prevent long-term dysfunction, especially for the relatively well-functioning

  4. Overlap and distinctiveness of psychological risk factors in patients with ischemic heart disease and chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Denollet, Johan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the importance of psychological factors in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, this research has been criticized due to overlap between psychological constructs. We examined whether psychological questionnaires frequently used...

  5. Translational research: how social psychology can improve psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Ty; Mortensen, Laura

    2006-12-01

    In an effort to generate innovative treatments, the National Institute of Mental Health has made translational research for alleviating mental illness a major funding priority. Although translational research is a powerful approach for moving basic science findings into novel treatments, it remains ambiguous and rarely implemented in psychology. The current article describes conceptual and methodological issues involved with translational research, including considerations about time frame, scope of hypothesis tested, dose of treatment, contraindication, and sampling. Translational concepts and methods are illustrated with areas of social psychology that are promising for translation into solutions for pressing questions in psychotherapy research. Copyright 2006 APA.

  6. Impact of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Training on Psychological Risk Factors and Subsequent Prognosis in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Menezes, Arthur R; De Schutter, Alban; Milani, Richard V; Blumenthal, James A

    2016-10-01

    The role of psychological risk factors has been under-recognized in most subspecialties of medicine, as well as in general medicine practices. However, considerable evidence indicates that psychosocial factors are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Emerging data from cardiac rehabilitation (CR) settings and CR exercise training (CRET) programs have demonstrated the value of comprehensive CRET to improve psychological functioning and reduce all-cause mortality. Recent evidence also supports the role of CRET and the added value of stress management training in the secondary prevention of CVD. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Where's the emotion? How sport psychology can inform research on emotion in human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.

  8. The Temporal Relationship Between Environmental Factors and Psychological Symptoms in Native American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matt, Georgia Lee

    2007-01-01

    Native American youth often experience high rates of environmental risk factors that may put them at increased risk for developing psychological problems, yet research within this high-risk population is severely limited. The present study was designed to provide information on the rate of psychological symptoms in a sample of Native American youth, and evaluate the impact of environmental factors (risk, protective, and cultural) on psychological disorder symptoms over time. Data were coll...

  9. Risk factors for major depressive disorder and the psychological impact of hysterectomy: a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Yung-Hung; Long, Cheng-Yu; Chang, Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2008-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated the risk of major depressive disorder and the psychological impact of recent hysterectomy in 68 women who underwent hysterectomy for non-malignant conditions. Depression, anxiety, body image, sexual functioning, family support, life stress, and subjective gynecological symptoms were assessed 2 weeks before surgery and at 1 month and 4 months after surgery. Depression, anxiety, body image, and subjective gynecological symptoms improved after surgery; however, sexual functioning worsened after surgery. Previous emotional problems and poorer body image, sexual functioning, and higher stress 1 month after surgery are risk factors for post-hysterectomy major depressive disorder.

  10. Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    players also showed significantly greater self-confidence (d ≥ 0.4), personal coping resources, coping with adversity, average psychological skills and activation control scores than their lower ranked counterparts, stressing the important role of sport psychological skills towards rugby performance. It can be concluded that ...

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF LABOR ACTIVITY OF ELDERLY MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyusova O.V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern Russian society occurred deformation traditions of respect and maintain the credibility of the elderly, and the socio-economic situation has deteriorated. An important condition to characterize the elderly is related to labor activity. expressed doubts surrounding their professionalism and high-quality and modern education. In society there are negative stereotypes about the elderly: Edil accusations of conservatism, the inability to take risks, tolerance for young. Old age pensioners perceived themselves as age losses, shrinking circle of social contacts, there is social exclusion, significant interpersonal contacts become strained. The psychological diagnosis of labor socialization of older employees 40 people participated. Conducted an empirical study it possible to identify the factors of labor activity in old age: the age and state of health; desire to raise the level of material well-being, the need to work, enthusiasm labor process, achievement motivation, the need for communication with the team; desire for samooaktualizatsii, positive self-esteem, internal locus of control. Working pensioners have high situational anxiety, adequate to the achievement of the objectives, an adequate assessment of its internal and external quality, high life satisfaction, motivation tends to focus on the process and result, reflexivity, subjectivity, have no fear of being rejected, is well adapted to society. Workers older people have average values of introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism.

  12. Team-Based Learning Improves Course Outcomes in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Lisa L.; Hudson, Nathan W.; Henricks-Lepp, Genevieve M.; Street, Whitney S.; Weidenbenner, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of team-based learning (TBL) methods on exam performance and student satisfaction in an introductory psychology class. Fifteen instructors teaching 29 sections (with a combined enrollment of approximately 1,130 students) were randomly assigned to use TBL for 7 of 12 major topics or to use lecture. All students…

  13. Translational Research: How Social Psychology Can Improve Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Ty; Mortensen, Laura

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to generate innovative treatments, the National Institute of Mental Health has made translational research for alleviating mental illness a major funding priority. Although translational research is a powerful approach for moving basic science findings into novel treatments, it remains ambiguous and rarely implemented in psychology.…

  14. Using psychological science to improve summer camp staff training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ethan D

    2007-10-01

    Preseason staff training is an exciting and stressful time for all camping professionals. By using principles of developmental psychology, learning theory, and self-monitoring, however, we can maximize the usefulness of training sessions. This article also discusses educating staff about children's mental health issues and managing challenging situations with adolescents.

  15. Beyond Negative Pain-Related Psychological Factors: Resilience Is Related to Lower Pain Affect in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington, Kasey S; Cheng, Joshua C; Bosma, Rachael L; Rogachov, Anton; Kim, Junseok A; Davis, Karen D

    2017-09-01

    Resilience, a characteristic that enhances adaptation in response to stressful events, is a positive psychological factor that can predict and modulate health outcomes. However, resilience is rarely considered in pain research. Conversely, negative psychological factors (eg, anxiety, depression) are known to be related to the affective dimension of pain. It is critical to understand all potential psychological drivers of pain affect, a prominent component of chronic pain. We tested the hypothesis that higher resilience is associated with lower pain affect, above and beyond the predictive value of negative psychological factors. Healthy adults underwent psychophysical testing to acquire ratings of heat pain intensity and unpleasantness and completed the Resilience Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait form), Beck Depression Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Vigilance and Attention Questionnaire. Multiple regression modeling (n = 68) showed resilience to be a negatively associated with pain affect (unpleasantness). Furthermore, in individuals with higher anxiety scores, resilience was protective against higher pain affect. This highlights the importance of resilience, a positive psychological factor, in the affective dimension of pain. This study is the first to assess a positive psychological factor and experimental pain affect, and has the potential to improve prediction of and treatment strategies for clinical pain. We report that resilience, a positive psychological factor, interacts with anxiety and is associated with heat pain affect (unpleasantness) in healthy individuals. Resilience may provide predictive value of chronic pain affect and treatment outcomes, and could be a target for behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological factors and mental health in persons with SCI: an exploration of change or stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.M.; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Peter, Claudio; Post, MWM; Stiggelbout, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the course of mental health and psychological factors over time in persons with a recent spinal cord injury and to determine whether change in psychological factors is associated with change in mental health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands with 3

  17. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaygan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of

  18. Mixed Emotional Experience Is Associated with and Precedes Improvements in Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationships between positive and negative emotional experience and physical and psychological well-being have been well-documented. The present study examines the prospective positive relationship between concurrent positive and negative emotional experience and psychological well-being in the context of psychotherapy. Methods 47 adults undergoing psychotherapy completed measures of psychological well-being and wrote private narratives that were coded by trained raters for emotional content. Results The specific concurrent experience of happiness and sadness was associated with improvements in psychological well-being above and beyond the impact of the passage of time, personality traits, or the independent effects of happiness and sadness. Changes in mixed emotional experience preceded improvements in well-being. Conclusions Experiencing happiness alongside sadness in psychotherapy may be a harbinger of improvement in psychological well-being. PMID:22539987

  19. Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmeleva E.A.

    2015-03-01

    readiness of a teacher to ensure social security in the educational environment: social anticipation, resistance to sociopsychological stress, social tolerance, professional orientation, responsibility, communication skills. Data were collected in the analytical and experimental studies to determine ways to improve the organization of educational processes in order to ensure the social security of students and society in general. The identified psychological factors, their relative weight, and content must be considered when designing a system for training teachers and developing in them the required personal and professional qualities.

  20. Toward Improved Statistical Reporting in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff; Thomason, Neil; Pannuzzo, Dominique; Smith, Julian; Fyffe, Penny; Edmonds, Holly; Harrington, Claire; Schmitt, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Philip Kendall's (1997) editorial encouraged authors in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) to report effect sizes and clinical significance. The present authors assessed the influence of that editorial--and other American Psychological Association initiatives to improve statistical practices--by examining 239 JCCP articles…

  1. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  2. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; S. Andersen, John; K. Jacobsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...

  3. Exploring resilience and mindfulness as preventative factors for psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress among human service professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Rachel; Pidgeon, Aileen M; Klaassen, Frances; King, Steven

    2016-06-08

    Human service professionals are concerned with the intervention and empowerment of vulnerable social populations. The human service industry is laden with employment-related stressors and emotionally demanding interactions, which can lead to deleterious effects, such as burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Little attention has been given to developing knowledge of what might enable human service workers to persist and thrive. Cultivating and sustaining resilience can buffer the impact of occupational stressors on human service professionals. One of the psychological factors associated with cultivating resilience is mindfulness. The aim of this current research is to improve our understanding of the relationship between resilience, mindfulness, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and psychological distress among human service professionals. The current study surveyed 133 human service professionals working in the fields of psychology, social work, counseling, youth and foster care work to explore the predictive relationship between resilience, mindfulness, and psychological distress. The results showed that higher levels of resilience were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress, burnout and secondary traumatic stress. In addition, higher levels of mindfulness were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress and burnout. The findings suggest that cultivating resilience and mindfulness in human service professionals may assist in preventing psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Limitations of this study are discussed together with implications for future research.

  4. Psychological Characteristics in Talented Soccer Players – Recommendations on How to Improve Coaches’ Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Musculus

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Psychological characteristics, including personality traits and psychological skills, have been shown to be relevant predictors of soccer performance. In research, general and sport specific standardized self-report questionnaires have been applied in psychological diagnostics of sports talent. However, with regard to the assessment of psychological characteristics of talented soccer players, a gap between research and practice is apparent. While soccer clubs often ask their coaches to assess their players on self-designed, unevaluated scouting sheets, research widely neglects expert coaches’ and clubs’ perspectives on relevant performance characteristics. As we believe that expert coaches’ assessments could be a valid predictor of a player’s current performance and future success, we provide recommendations on how to improve coaches’ assessment of psychological characteristics. As the quality of the assessment of psychological characteristics is crucial, we provide recommendations on how to ensure the central diagnostic standards: objectivity, reliability, and validity in talent assessment. Further, we argue that assessing psychological characteristics should combine self ratings of players and external ratings of coaches in talent development. Sport psychologists should assist clubs and coaches in improving the diagnostics of psychological characteristics as well as in embedding psychological diagnostics and interventions in the talent development process.

  5. Psychological Characteristics in Talented Soccer Players – Recommendations on How to Improve Coaches’ Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musculus, Lisa; Lobinger, Babett H.

    2018-01-01

    Psychological characteristics, including personality traits and psychological skills, have been shown to be relevant predictors of soccer performance. In research, general and sport specific standardized self-report questionnaires have been applied in psychological diagnostics of sports talent. However, with regard to the assessment of psychological characteristics of talented soccer players, a gap between research and practice is apparent. While soccer clubs often ask their coaches to assess their players on self-designed, unevaluated scouting sheets, research widely neglects expert coaches’ and clubs’ perspectives on relevant performance characteristics. As we believe that expert coaches’ assessments could be a valid predictor of a player’s current performance and future success, we provide recommendations on how to improve coaches’ assessment of psychological characteristics. As the quality of the assessment of psychological characteristics is crucial, we provide recommendations on how to ensure the central diagnostic standards: objectivity, reliability, and validity in talent assessment. Further, we argue that assessing psychological characteristics should combine self ratings of players and external ratings of coaches in talent development. Sport psychologists should assist clubs and coaches in improving the diagnostics of psychological characteristics as well as in embedding psychological diagnostics and interventions in the talent development process. PMID:29459839

  6. Psychological Characteristics in Talented Soccer Players - Recommendations on How to Improve Coaches' Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musculus, Lisa; Lobinger, Babett H

    2018-01-01

    Psychological characteristics, including personality traits and psychological skills, have been shown to be relevant predictors of soccer performance. In research, general and sport specific standardized self-report questionnaires have been applied in psychological diagnostics of sports talent. However, with regard to the assessment of psychological characteristics of talented soccer players, a gap between research and practice is apparent. While soccer clubs often ask their coaches to assess their players on self-designed, unevaluated scouting sheets, research widely neglects expert coaches' and clubs' perspectives on relevant performance characteristics. As we believe that expert coaches' assessments could be a valid predictor of a player's current performance and future success, we provide recommendations on how to improve coaches' assessment of psychological characteristics. As the quality of the assessment of psychological characteristics is crucial, we provide recommendations on how to ensure the central diagnostic standards: objectivity, reliability, and validity in talent assessment. Further, we argue that assessing psychological characteristics should combine self ratings of players and external ratings of coaches in talent development. Sport psychologists should assist clubs and coaches in improving the diagnostics of psychological characteristics as well as in embedding psychological diagnostics and interventions in the talent development process.

  7. Psychological Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christino, Melissa A; Fleming, Braden C; Machan, Jason T; Shalvoy, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Study Design...

  8. Psychological distress and personality factors in takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J

    2016-01-01

    Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This

  9. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygan, Maryam; Böger, Andreas; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. Methods Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms). Results ANOVA (analysis of variance) results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors. Conclusion Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms. The findings are discussed in term of differential response bias in patients with versus without verified neuropathic sensory symptoms by clinical examination, medical tests, or underlying pathology of

  10. Psychological Risk Factors and Outcomes of Dance Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Lynda M; Finney, Caitlin

    2017-09-15

    Historically, dance medicine and science has focused on the physical aspects rather than the psychological aspects of dance injury. Psychological variables, however, have been shown to influence the occurrence of injury and post-injury outcomes. The purpose of this review was to examine the dance psychology literature and determine the specific psychological factors reported to be associated with the incidence, frequency, and outcome of dance injuries. A systematic literature search was conducted using SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. All retrieved articles were screened based on criteria developed a priori, and selected articles were subsequently assessed for quality. Thirteen studies met the inclusion and quality assessment criteria. Psychological factors associated with both risk and outcome of dance injury included the following: stress, psychological distress, disordered eating, and coping. Factors associated only with risk of injury were sleep, personality, and social support. The results suggest that psychological variables can affect both the incidence and outcome of dance injury among dancers. Therefore, it is critical to gain a well-rounded, thorough understanding of all the factors, including psychological, that have a negative impact on dancers with respect to dance injury. The findings are discussed in terms of the utility of including psychological assessment and intervention, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, when implementing preventative and treatment measures in dance schools and companies.

  11. Taking an educational psychology course improves neuroscience literacy but does not reduce belief in neuromyths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Joo-Yun; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2018-01-01

    Educators are increasingly interested in applying neuroscience findings to improve educational practice. However, their understanding of the brain often lags behind their enthusiasm for the brain. We propose that educational psychology can serve as a bridge between basic research in neuroscience and psychology on one hand and educational practice on the other. We evaluated whether taking an educational psychology course is associated with increased neuroscience literacy and reduced belief in neuromyths in a sample of South Korean pre-service teachers. The results showed that taking an educational psychology course was associated with the increased neuroscience literacy, but there was no impact on belief in neuromyths. We consider the implications of these and other findings of the study for redesigning educational psychology courses and textbooks for improving neuroscience literacy. PMID:29401508

  12. Taking an educational psychology course improves neuroscience literacy but does not reduce belief in neuromyths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Soo-Hyun; Cho, Joo-Yun; Dubinsky, Janet M; Varma, Sashank

    2018-01-01

    Educators are increasingly interested in applying neuroscience findings to improve educational practice. However, their understanding of the brain often lags behind their enthusiasm for the brain. We propose that educational psychology can serve as a bridge between basic research in neuroscience and psychology on one hand and educational practice on the other. We evaluated whether taking an educational psychology course is associated with increased neuroscience literacy and reduced belief in neuromyths in a sample of South Korean pre-service teachers. The results showed that taking an educational psychology course was associated with the increased neuroscience literacy, but there was no impact on belief in neuromyths. We consider the implications of these and other findings of the study for redesigning educational psychology courses and textbooks for improving neuroscience literacy.

  13. A model of real estate and psychological factors in decision-making to buy real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Grum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the psychological characteristics of potential real estate buyers connected with their decision to buy. Through a review of research, it reveals that most studies of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate have a partial and dispersed orientation, and examine individual factors independently. It appears that the research area is lacking clearly defined models of psychological factors in the decision to buy real estate that would integrally and relationally explain the role of psychological characteristics of real estate buyers and their expectations in relation to a decision to buy. The article identifies two sets of psychological factors, motivational and emotional, determines their interaction with potential buyers’ expectations when deciding to purchase real estate and offers starting points for forming a model.

  14. Demographic and psychological factors associated with lifetime cocaine use: An exploratory factor analysis of baseline questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nadeeka R; Lane, Scott D; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Schmitz, Joy M; Green, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Underlying heterogeneity among individuals with cocaine dependence is widely postulated in the literature, however, identification of a group of factors that explain risk of cocaine use severity has yet to be confirmed. Methods Latent mixture modeling evaluated 338 cocaine-dependent individuals recruited from the community to assess the evidence for the presence of distinct subgroups. Variables included 5 baseline questionnaires measuring cognitive function (Shipley), impulsivity (BIS), mood (BDI), affective lability (ALS), and addiction severity (ASI). Results failed to suggest multiple subgroups. Given a lack of evidence for discrete latent classes, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) followed by exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was implemented to identify functional dimensions to enhance interpretation of these variables. Results Findings from the EFA indicated a 3-factor model as the best fit, and the subsequent ESEM solution resulted in associations with lifetime cocaine use. Factor 1, best characterized by demographic factors (gender, age), is associated with less lifetime cocaine use. Psychological problems best characterize factor 2, which is associated with higher lifetime cocaine use. Finally, factor 3 is characterized by other substance use (alcohol and marijuana). Although this factor did not demonstrate a statistically reliable relation with self-reported, lifetime cocaine use, it did indicate a potentially meaningful positive association. Conclusions These 3 factors delineate dimensions of functioning that likewise help characterize the variability found in previously established associations with self-reported cocaine use. PMID:26170765

  15. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.

  16. Psychological Distress and Associated Factors Among Mexican American Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recto, Pamela; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2016-12-01

    Mental health literacy is a critical component of adolescent health enabling recognition, management, and prevention of psychological distress. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors and experiencing interpersonal violence, substance use, and pregnancy are at high risk for psychological distress. Secondary analysis of data collected via a control randomized trial among Mexican American females (aged 14-18 years; N = 461) experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and sexually transmitted infection was conducted with comparisons of psychological distress by pregnancy status. At study entry, 46.4% (n = 214) self-reported ever experiencing pregnancy (ever-pregnant) while 53.6% (n = 246) self-reported never experiencing pregnancy (never-pregnant). Adolescents reporting ever-pregnancy status were older and school dropouts. However, adolescents reporting never-pregnancy experienced higher sexual risk behaviors, substance use, interpersonal violence, and psychological distress than those reporting ever-pregnancy. A higher proportion of ever- versus never-pregnant adolescents were born in Mexico and preferred Spanish language indicating less acculturation. Findings support the need for mental health literacy concerning psychological distress with consideration of implications of acculturation among adolescents experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and substance use. More never- than ever-pregnant adolescents were attending school, presenting opportunities for implementation of health promotion strategies within community health settings for mental health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Psychological factors as risk factors for poor hip function after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benditz A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Achim Benditz,1 Petra Jansen,2 Jan Schaible,1 Christina Roll,1 Joachim Grifka,1 Jürgen Götz1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 2Department of Sport Science, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA is influenced by several psychological aspects, such as depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits. We hypothesized that preoperative depression impedes early functional outcome after THA (primary outcome measure. Additional objectives were perioperative changes in the psychological status and their influence on perioperative outcome. This observational study analyzed depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits in 50 patients after primary unilateral THA. Hip functionality was measured by means of the Harris Hip Score. Depression, state anxiety, and resilience were evaluated preoperatively as well as 1 and 5 weeks postoperatively. Trait anxiety and personality traits were measured once preoperatively. Patients with low depression and anxiety levels had significantly better outcomes with respect to early hip functionality. Resilience and personality traits did not relate to hip functionality. Depression and state anxiety levels significantly decreased within the 5-week stay in the acute and rehabilitation clinic, whereas resilience remained at the same level. Our study suggests that low depression and anxiety levels are positively related to early functionality after THA. Therefore, perioperative measurements of these factors seem to be useful to provide the best support for patients with risk factors. Keywords: total hip arthroplasty, psychological factors, depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety, resilience, personality traits

  18. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Mi Jung; Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Taek-Ho; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2017-12-27

    Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jung Rho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5 criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138, belief self-control (1.034, anxiety (1.086, pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105, money spent on gaming (1.005, weekday game time (1.081, offline community meeting attendance (2.060, and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors; Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......, psychological and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile and glucose at baseline and after 12W. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, glucose and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (Z-scores sum). RESULTS......= -.48; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: High intensity training does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents....

  1. Psychological factors in patients with peptic ulcerand functional dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad; Mosavi, Shokofeh; Zarini, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of psychological factors in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and functional dyspepsia (FD) has not been clearly determined. In this study the role of conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were assessed in patients with PUD and FD and in the healthy individuals. Methods: Ninety subjects [30 PUD (15 women, 15 men), 30 FD (15 women, 15 men), and 30 healthy individuals (15 women, 15 men)] in two endoscopy wards of Babol University of Medical Sciences were evaluated. Three groups were matched with regard to demographic variables. Conflict management styles, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia were evaluated by appropriate questionnaires. Results: The patients with PUD reported less mean scores on psychiatric symptoms than the FD patients (depression 12.6±7.5 vs 28±9.5, anxiety 8.2±5.9 vs 18.7±6. obsessive-compulsive disorder 15.7±7.5 vs 21.8±8.4, interpersonal sensitivity 9.5±7.4 vs 16±7, psychoticism 8.03±4.5 vs 14.3±6.3, somatization 12.5±10.8 vs 20.7±8.1, and the total score of psychiatric symptoms 94.4±49.9 vs 160.1±46.6). The mean scores use of unconstructive conflict management styles in PUD patients were lower than FD (dominating 17.7±3.5 vs 20.2±2.7, avoiding 17.5±3 vs 23.8±4.4). Alexithymia symptoms were higher in FD patients than PUD individuals (difficulty in identifying feelings 23.5±6.3 vs 27.8±3.9, difficulty in describing feeling 16.5±4.4 vs 17.3±3.6). The PUD and FD patients had higher scores regarding these variables than the healthy subjects. Conclusion: The results show that both PUD and FD patients experienced more psychiatric symptoms, unconstructive conflict management styles, and alexithymia than the healthy subjects. FD patients had worse psychiatric problems than PUD. PMID:24778780

  2. Psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance: theory-driven practice for nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Rebecca M; Greenwald, Beverly J; Lewis, Carolyn C

    2015-04-01

    The authors discuss the psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance and the use of Pender's health promotion model as a guide for the construction of clinical interventions to address these factors. The psychological factors include internal drive for weight maintenance, ongoing self-monitoring, long-term flexibility, positive mood and emotions, appropriate goals, and management of external stimuli. Nurse practitioners can help combat obesity trends through caring for patients in a holistic manner. Periodic psychological needs-assessments for patients who desire to maintain weight loss may further promote long-term success in weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the psychological and pedagogical factors of effective implementation and use of electronic educational tools in secondary schools. Determination of individual development by complex of psychological and pedagogical, ergonomic, aesthetic and hygienic factors of information technology use is grounded. The basic psychological and educational factors that influence child development are considered. Main groups of ergonomic requirements, which should emphasize the development and evaluation of electronic tools to maximize development and mental and physical health of the child, are described.

  4. Improving the psychological evaluation of exercise referral: Psychometric properties of the Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Hilton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to assess the psychological outcomes of exercise referral and the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence has called for the routine assessment of life-quality. However, a quality of life scale specific to the requirements of exercise referral is currently unavailable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce a quality of life measure for this purpose. The Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale is a 22-item measure comprising three domains: mental and physical health, injury pain and illness and physical activity facilitators. Exploratory factor analysis determined the initial factor structure and was subsequently confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Additional scale properties were also assessed. The scale contributes to the global need for improved consistent psychological outcome assessment of exercise referral.

  5. Factors Associated With Presenteeism and Psychological Distress Using a Theory-Driven Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.

  6. The role of personal protective factors in anchoring psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    category to compile the research groups. Background history and behaviour reports were gathered in order that proposed group members could first be discussed inter subjectively regarding their identified resilience/vulnerability. This was done in discussion with the school's psychology department and with an ...

  7. Psychological Factors of Familial Alcoholism in American Indians and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Saumty, Deborah; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated within-group differences for Indians with (N=28) and without (N=32) familial history of alcoholism; and assessed cross-cultural differences for Indian (N=31) and Caucasian (N=39) social drinkers with a familial history of alcoholism. Results showed no psychological functioning differences between the Indian groups, but cross-cultural…

  8. Personal And Psychological Factors As Predictors Of Organisational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Police should be more professionalized, first by making its recruitment policies much more competitive, technical, scientific and psychological. Also screening in form of oral interview from a panel of credible and highly educated police and police psychologists should be put in place to screen recruits for emotional stability.

  9. Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Psychological Wellbeing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Care-related Stress Scale (CSS) with reliability of .73 Cronbach's alpha and Ryff's Psychological Wellbeing Scale (RPBS) with reliability of .87 Cronbach's alpha were used for data collection. Statistical analysis involved the use of Pearson's Moment Correlation, Independent t- test and One-Way ANOVA. Findings from the ...

  10. Factors Influencing the Spiritual Competency of Predoctoral Psychology Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…

  11. Identifying psychological contract breaches to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Gretchen L; Desselle, Shane P; Draugalis, JoLaine R; Spies, Alan R; Davis, Tamra S; Bolino, Mark

    2012-08-10

    To identify pharmacy faculty members' perceptions of psychological contract breaches that can be used to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development. A list of psychological contract breaches was developed using a Delphi procedure involving a panel of experts assembled through purposive sampling. The Delphi consisted of 4 rounds, the first of which elicited examples of psychological contract breaches in an open-ended format. The ensuing 3 rounds consisting of a survey and anonymous feedback on aggregated group responses. Usable responses were obtained from 11 of 12 faculty members who completed the Delphi procedure. The final list of psychological contract breaches included 27 items, after modifications based on participant feedback in subsequent rounds. The psychological contract breach items generated in this study provide guidance for colleges and schools of pharmacy regarding important aspects of faculty recruitment, retention, and development.

  12. Sense of Community as a Protective Factor against Long-Term Psychological Effects of Childhood Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Emily A; Marks, Nadine F

    2010-03-01

    This study uses a risk and resilience framework for conceptualizing the long-term effects of childhood family violence on mental health. It examines sense of community as a protective factor against adult psychological distress associated with experiences of physical or psychological violence in childhood from parents. Regression models are estimated using data from the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. and from the 1996-97 National Study of Daily Experiences. Reported experiences of frequent psychological violence, regardless of the frequency of physical violence, is found to be positively associated with adult psychological distress. Adults' sense of community is found to moderate the association between reports of both frequent psychological and frequent physical violence in childhood from parents and adult psychological distress.

  13. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.

  14. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Hildegard M.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation. PMID:24633083

  15. Cognitive reserve in the healthy elderly: cognitive and psychological factors

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    Josef Zihl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR helps explain the mismatch between expected cognitive decline and observed maintenance of cognitive functioning in older age. Factors such as education, literacy, lifestyle, and social networking are usually considered to be proxies of CR and its variability between individuals. A more direct approach to examine CR is through the assessment of capacity to gain from practice in a standardized challenging cognitive task that demands activation of cognitive resources. In this study, we applied a testing-the-limits paradigm to a group of 136 healthy elderly subjects (60–75 years and additionally examined the possible contribution of complex mental activities and quality of sleep to cognitive performance gain. We found a significant but variable gain and identified verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem-solving as significant factors. This outcome is in line with our earlier study on CR in healthy mental aging. Interestingly and contrary to expectations, our analysis revealed that complex mental activities and sleep quality do not significantly influence CR. Contrasting “high” and “low” cognitive performers revealed significant differences in verbal memory and cognitive flexibility; again, complex mental activities and sleep quality did not contribute to this measure of CR. In conclusion, the results of this study support and extend previous findings on CR in older age; further, they underline the need for improvements in existing protocols for assessing CR in a dynamic manner.

  16. Effects of Psychological and Social Work Factors on Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance and Difficulties Initiating Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleeshouwers, Jolien; Knardahl, Stein; Christensen, Jan Olav

    2016-04-01

    This prospective cohort study examined previously underexplored relations between psychological/social work factors and troubled sleep in order to provide practical information about specific, modifiable factors at work. A comprehensive evaluation of a range of psychological/social work factors was obtained by several designs; i.e., cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, prospective analyses with baseline predictors (T1), prospective analyses with average exposure across waves as predictor ([T1 + T2] / 2), and prospective analyses with change in exposure from baseline to follow-up as predictor. Participants consisted of a sample of Norwegian employees from a broad spectrum of occupations, who completed a questionnaire at two points in time, approximately two years apart. Cross-sectional analyses at T1 comprised 7,459 participants, cross-sectional analyses at T2 included 6,688 participants. Prospective analyses comprised a sample 5,070 of participants who responded at both T1 and T2. Univariable and multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were performed. Thirteen psychological/social work factors and two aspects of troubled sleep, namely difficulties initiating sleep and disturbed sleep, were studied. Ordinal logistic regressions revealed statistically significant associations for all psychological and social work factors in at least one of the analyses. Psychological and social work factors predicted sleep problems in the short term as well as the long term. All work factors investigated showed statistically significant associations with both sleep items, however quantitative job demands, decision control, role conflict, and support from superior were the most robust predictors and may therefore be suitable targets of interventions aimed at improving employee sleep. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Medical and Psychological Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension in Type 1 Diabetic African-Americans

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    Monique S. Roy

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The development of hypertension in African-Americans living with type 1 diabetes appears to be multifactorial and includes both medical (overt proteinuria as well as psychological (high hostility risk factors.

  18. Perceived spasticity in chronic spinal cord injured patients: associations with psychological factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, G.E.; Erren-Wolters, C.V.; Fleuren, J.F.; Hermens, H.J.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete

  19. Perceived spasticity in chronic spinal cord injured patients: Associations with psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Gerlienke; Erren-Wolters, Cathelijne V.; Fleuren, Judith F.M.; Fleuren, J.F.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Geurts, Alexander C.H.

    Purpose: To explore the association between perceived spasticity and psychological factors (pain sensations, coping strategies, and illness cognitions) in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. - Methods: Cross-sectional study using a set of questionnaires was designed for chronic complete

  20. Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  1. Psychological factors unrelated to activity level in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmus, M.; Preuper, H.R.S.; Hof, A.L.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Reneman, M.F.

    Background: Enhancement of physical activities is an important goal in rehabilitation programmes for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). A relationship between activity level and psychological factors is suggested but studied scarcely. Aim: To explore the relationship between the

  2. Psychological Factors Associated with Development of TMD: the OPPERA Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Diatchenko, Luda; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Mack, Nicole; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William

    2013-01-01

    Case-control studies have consistently associated psychological factors with chronic pain in general and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. However, only a handful of prospective studies has explored whether pre-existing psychological characteristics represent risk factors for first-onset TMD. The current findings derive from the prospective cohort study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 3,263 TMD-free participants completed a battery of psychological instruments assessing general psychological adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic symptoms, and pain coping and catastrophizing. Study participants were then followed prospectively for an average of 2.8 years to ascertain cases of first-onset of TMD, and 2,737 provided follow-up data and were considered in the analyses of TMD onset. In bivariate and demographically-adjusted analyses, several psychological variables predicted increased risk of first-onset TMD, including reported somatic symptoms, psychosocial stress, and affective distress. Principal component analysis of 26 psychological scores was used to identify latent constructs, revealing four components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychological and somatic symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. In multivariable analyses, global psychological and somatic symptoms emerged as the most robust risk factor for incident TMD. These findings provide evidence that measures of psychological functioning can predict first-onset of TMD. Future analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine whether these psychological factors interact with other variables to increase risk for TMD onset and persistence. PMID:24275225

  3. Enhancing recovery rates: lessons from year one of the English 'Improving access to psychological therapies' programme

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David M.; Alex Gyani; Richard Layard; Roz Shafran

    2013-01-01

    Background: The English Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative aims to make evidence-based psychological therapies for depression and anxiety disorder more widely available in the National Health Service (NHS). 32 IAPT services based on a stepped care model were established in the first year of the programme. We report on the reliable recovery rates achieved by patients treated in the services and identify predictors of recovery at patient level, service level, and as a...

  4. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  5. [Prevalence and influencing factors on psychological violence from parents to child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Q; Jin, Y C; Li, J Y; Feng, Y N; Zhao, X X; Yu, B Y; Zhang, W J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of psychological violence against children by parents and to explore possible influencing factors. In two primary schools from a city, located in the northeast part of China, 1 164 parents of the pupils from grade 1 to 6, were anonymously surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire, to analyze the situation of psychological violence and influencing factors. Of the 1 164 parents, 78.1% reported that they practised psychological violence towards their children. Compared with girls, boys were more psychologically maltreated by their parents (81.3% vs. 74.7%,Ppsychological violence against children: child being male (OR=1.684); initiated by the mother (OR=1.640), parents experiences of psychologically violent victimization (OR=2.064) during their childhood, supportive or tolerant attitudes towards corporal punishment (OR=2.618) from the parents, low awareness of the harmfulness of psychological violence against children (OR=1.666) of the parents, and lower social economic status (OR=1.745) of the family, etc. Psychological violence experienced by the parents appeared very common. Prevention programs on psychological violence should be strengthened to increase the awareness of parents on this serious problem.

  6. In Harm's Way: Factors Related to Psychological Distress following Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…

  7. Factor Structure of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) among Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessaha, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the 6-item version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Methods: A subsample of emerging adults, aged 18-29 (n = 20,699), from the 2013 National Survey of Drug Use and Health were used in this study. Results: Each of the models (one-factor, two-factor…

  8. Psychological Factors of Innovativeness among Nomadic Micro-Entrepreneurs for Achieving Business Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore the psychological factors of innovativeness that drives nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth in Malaysia. Nomadic micro entrepreneurs refer to those who regularly change the location of their business. To meet the research objective, the current study carried out in-depth interviews among the Nomadic MEs operating their business in Northern region, Malaysia. Twenty Nomadic MEs were interviewed on voluntary basis. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the recurring themes that delineate psychological factors that may influence innovativeness. Interestingly, the findings revealed that the innovativeness of Nomadic MEs is influenced by four psychological characteristics namely sense of curiosity, interest, risk taking, and risk avoidance. The contribution of this study lies in the identification of four substantial psychological factors that act as a foundation for innovativeness among nomadic micro entrepreneurs’ (MEs in enhancing their business growth.

  9. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The safety of construction workers is always a major concern at construction sites as the construction industry is inherently dangerous with many factors influencing worker safety. Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety. However, research on psychological factors that are characteristic of different age groups have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychological factors on the perception of worker safety for two different age groups. After an extensive literature review, different psychological factors were identified, and a hypothetical research model was developed based on psychological factors that could affect workers’ perception of safety. A survey instrument was developed, and data were collected from seven different construction sites in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test the hypothetical model for both age groups. The results revealed that workload and job satisfaction are significantly dominant factors on workers’ perception of safety in older workers, whereas organizational relationships, mental stress, and job security are dominant factors for younger workers at construction sites.

  10. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline S; Ndjaboué, Ruth; Levesque, Manon; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Xavier; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Dionne, Clermont E; Mâsse, Benoît; Pearce, Neil; Brisson, Chantal

    2017-01-18

    Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD) in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05) and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73) respectively). In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  11. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems (MHP are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Methods Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Results Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05 and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73 respectively. In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. Conclusions These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  12. Understanding sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender people of color in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bith-Melander, Pollie; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Sheth, Lina; Bermudez, Carlos; Drone, Jennifer; Wood, Woo; Schroeder, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic qualitative study explored the needs of transgender people of color, including biological transitioning issues, gender and group membership identity formation, HIV, and other health issues. The sample consisted of transgender youth and adults of color in San Francisco (N = 43). Data were collected from in-depth interviews with 20 youth and adults and focus groups with 23 individuals. The study focused on perspectives of racial and ethnic minorities from Asian/Pacific Islander, African American, and Latino backgrounds. The medical decision-making perspective was used to gain a deeper understanding of sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender individuals of color in San Francisco. The major themes that emerged were gender identity, group membership, transitioning and related issues, sex work, alcohol and drug use, mental health and health care, sense of community, HIV, resources, and other support. Key clinical considerations that health providers can use to improve care of transgender individuals of color are included.

  13. Psychological Factors and Reference Potential of Market Mavens

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    Jofi Puspa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of a market maven in the information transfer processes is apparently related to one’s psychological states such as inherent knowledge and involvement level. Understanding reference potential of mavens seems to be relevant to comprehend the implicit value of a maven in the communication process. This study shows that (1 apparently, maven groups can be clearly distinguished from a non-maven group on the basis on inherent personal knowledge level and involvement level; (2 market mavens have a high reference potential which confirmed their function in WOM-information.

  14. A systematic review of the psychological factors associated with returning to sport following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E

    2013-11-01

    Psychological factors have been shown to be associated with the recovery and rehabilitation period following sports injury, but less is known about the psychological response associated with returning to sport after injury. The aim of this review was to identify psychological factors associated with returning to sport following sports injury evaluated with the self-determination theory framework. Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from the earliest possible entry to March 2012. Quantitative studies were reviewed that included athletes who had sustained an athletic injury, reported the return to sport rate and measured at least one psychological variable. The risk of bias in each study was appraised with a quality checklist. Eleven studies that evaluated 983 athletes and 15 psychological factors were included for review. The three central elements of self-determination theory-autonomy, competence and relatedness were found to be related to returning to sport following injury. Positive psychological responses including motivation, confidence and low fear were associated with a greater likelihood of returning to the preinjury level of participation and returning to sport more quickly. Fear was a prominent emotional response at the time of returning to sport despite the fact that overall emotions became more positive as recovery and rehabilitation progressed. There is preliminary evidence that positive psychological responses are associated with a higher rate of returning to sport following athletic injury, and should be taken into account by clinicians during rehabilitation.

  15. Multiple sclerosis and employment: Associations of psychological factors and work instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charlotte Rose; Ward, Karl; Stroud, Amanda; Tennant, Alan; Ford, Helen L

    2016-10-12

    People with multiple sclerosis often stop working earlier than expected. Psychological factors may have an impact on job retention. Investigation may inform interventions to help people stay in work. To investigate the associations between psychological factors and work instability in people with multiple sclerosis. A multi-method, 2-phased study. Focus groups were held to identify key themes. Questionnaire packs using validated scales of the key themes were completed at baseline and at 8-month follow-up. Four key psychological themes emerged. Out of 208 study subjects 57.2% reported medium/high risk of job loss, with marginal changes at 8 months. Some psychological variables fluctuated significantly, e.g. depression fell from 24.6% to 14.5%. Work instability and anxiety and depression were strongly correlated (χ2 p < 0.001). Those with probable depression at baseline had 7.1 times increased odds of medium/high work instability, and baseline depression levels also predicted later work instability (Hosmer-Lemeshow test 0.899; Nagelkerke R Square 0.579). Psychological factors fluctuated over the 8-month follow-up period. Some psychological variables, including anxiety and depression, were significantly associated with, and predictive of, work instability. Longitudinal analysis should further identify how these psychological attributes impact on work instability and potential job loss in the longer term.

  16. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in urban hospital outpatients in South Africa

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    Karl Peltzer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.

  17. Development of a positive psychology intervention to improve adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaser, Sarah S; Patel, Niral; Linsky, Rebecca; Whittemore, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Novel interventions are needed to improve adherence to treatment in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. In this article, we describe the development, feasibility, and acceptability of a positive psychology intervention for this population. Adolescents and their parents (n = 39) were randomly assigned to either a positive psychology intervention or an attention control group. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on feasibility and acceptability. Descriptive and content analysis methods were used. Recruitment was successful, participation and satisfaction were high in both groups, and retention was excellent over 6 months. In the positive psychology group, adolescents and their parents noted benefits related to increased positive communication and thinking more about diabetes care. We also identified challenges to implementation. Although more research is indicated, a positive psychology framework emphasizing positive emotions and strengths, rather than problems, may be beneficial to adolescents living with a complex chronic illness. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlations Between Quality of Life and Psychological Factors in Patients With Chronic Neck Pain

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    Rong-Fong Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL and associated factors in patients with chronic neck pain (CNP. The HRQOL of patients with CNP was assessed by the Short Form-36 questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. To evaluate the psychological factors related to HRQOL, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. The scores for the eight subscales of Short Form-36 were all lower than the Taiwanese age-matched normative values (p < 0.001. The two most strongly affected subscales were the role–physical subscale and the bodily pain sub-scale; both scores were below half the score of the age-/sex-matched normative values. The physical components summary score, a summary measure, was moderately correlated with age (ρ = −0.43, education level (ρ = 0.37 and Beck Anxiety Inventory score (ρ = −0.36. The mental components summary score was moderately to highly correlated with the Chinese Health Questionnaire score (ρ = −0.72, the neuroticism domain of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (ρ = −0.52 and Beck Anxiety Inventory score (ρ = −0.41. The HRQOL of patients with CNP was worse than that of normal subjects across all domains. Furthermore, patients with a neurotic personality, minor psychiatric morbidity and higher anxiety status showed poor mental health, as measured by the Short Form-36. We found that patients with CNP had multiple physical and mental health problems in terms of. The mental health of patients with CNP was strongly associated with various psychological factors. Comprehensive assessment of the physical and mental functioning of patients with CNP can improve the management and care of these patients.

  19. Stress-related psychological factors for back pain among athletes: Important topic with scarce evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Jahan; Hasenbring, Monika; Kleinert, Jens; Kellmann, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Health issues represent a frequent problem for athletes, as this particular demographic is repeatedly confronted with physically and psychologically stressful situations. Back pain (BP) materialises as comparatively common health problem being regarded as functionally limiting and psychologically straining burden for athletes. According to research conducted on athletes with BP, biomechanical and physiological mechanisms emerge as influential, whereas stress-related psychological factors appear to be neglected. For athletic injuries, the essential impact of psychological processes on injury occurrence and return from injury has already been corroborated. Hence, the aim of this literature review is to: (1) introduce a conceptual differentiation between injuries and BP; (2) summarise the results obtained regarding stress-related psychological aspects for injuries; and (3) connect the injury research to the state-of-the-art evidence regarding stress-related factors for BP among athletes. A distinction between injuries and BP could be established based on previous definitions, despite the fact that a considerable overlap between both concepts prevails. Injuries can be attributed to a physical origin, whereas BP frequently lacks this physical criterion. For BP, our enquiry yielded four studies including psychological measures of stress - with two studies specifically examining the association between BP and psychological stress among athletes longitudinally. Abundant findings from the general population support the importance of considering psychological and specifically stress-related factors in BP prevention and rehabilitation, but evidence related to the athletic field remains elusive. Further scientific investigations with a wider methodological approach are needed to deepen the knowledge about the crucial relationship between psychological stress, BP, and athletes.

  20. Work factors and psychological distress in nurses' aides: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambs Kristian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses' aides (assistant nurses, the main providers of practical patient care in many countries, are doing both emotional and heavy physical work, and are exposed to frequent social encounters in their job. There is scarce knowledge, though, of how working conditions are related to psychological distress in this occupational group. The aim of this study was to identify work factors that predict the level of psychological distress in nurses' aides. Methods The sample of this prospective study comprised 5076 Norwegian nurses' aides, not on leave when they completed a mailed questionnaire in 1999. Of these, 4076 (80.3 % completed a second questionnaire 15 months later. A wide spectrum of physical, psychological, social, and organisational work factors were measured at baseline. Psychological distress (anxiety and depression was assessed at baseline and follow-up by the SCL-5, a short version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Results In a linear regression model of the level of psychological distress at follow-up, with baseline level of psychological distress, work factors, and background factors as independent variables, work factors explained 2 % and baseline psychological distress explained 34 % of the variance. Exposures to role conflicts, exposures to threats and violence, working in apartment units for the aged, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that were reported to result in less support and encouragement were positively associated with the level of psychological distress. Working in psychiatric departments, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that gave lower work pace were negatively associated with psychological distress. Conclusion The study suggests that work factors explain only a modest part of the psychological distress in nurses' aides. Exposures to role conflicts and threats and violence at work may contribute to psychological distress in nurses' aides

  1. Simulating environmental and psychological acoustic factors of the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Christopher L; Dudaryk, Roman; Ayers, Andrew L; McNeer, Richard R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an operating room simulation environment was adapted to include quadraphonic speakers, which were used to recreate a composed clinical soundscape. To assess validity of the composed soundscape, several acoustic parameters of this simulated environment were acquired in the presence of alarms only, background noise only, or both. These parameters were also measured for comparison from size-matched operating rooms at Jackson Memorial Hospital. The parameters examined included sound level, reverberation time, and predictive metrics of speech intelligibility in quiet and noise. It was found that the sound levels and acoustic parameters were comparable between the simulated environment and the actual operating rooms. The impact of the background noise on the perception of medical alarms was then examined, and was found to have little impact on the audibility of the alarms. This study is a first in kind report of a comparison between the environmental and psychological acoustical parameters of a hospital simulation environment and actual operating rooms.

  2. Exhausted but not cynical: burnout in therapists working within Improving Access to Psychological Therapy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Catherine; Macdonald, James; Schröder, Thomas; Mellor-Clark, John

    2015-02-01

    Burnout is common in mental health professionals and has serious personal and professional consequences. Levels and predictors of burnout for therapists within "Improving Access to Psychological Therapies" (IAPT) services are thus far unknown. This study investigated levels and predictors of three burnout dimensions--Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalisation (DP) and Personal Accomplishment (PA)--in IAPT therapists. Therapists from eight services completed a web-based survey measuring burnout levels and hypothesised burnout predictors. Reponses were matched to demographic information on clients with whom they had completed treatment in the last 2 months. 116 (n) therapists showed comparatively high levels of EE, and relatively low levels of DP and PA. These were predicted by some factors from the General Burnout Model and by Work Involvement styles. Stressful Involvement, in particular in-sessions feelings of anxiety predicted EE and DP, and Healing Involvement predicted Personal Accomplishment. The most important predictors of therapist burnout were service-related, particularly work demands and autonomy, and in-session feelings. Addressing these factors in IAPT services may prevent therapist burnout.

  3. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, J.M.

    1996-04-23

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  4. [The psychological security in the framework of the system of factors responsible for the effectiveness of spa and health resort-based rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyanskaya, T M; Tylets, V G

    2017-01-01

    The present work was designed to address the problem of ensuring the psychological security in the framework of organization of the rehabilitative treatment based at the spa and health resort facilities. We undertook the questionnaire study for which 650 subjects were recruited among those attending spa and health resort facilities of the cities of Essentuki and Kislovodsk. The participants were asked to estimate the level of their personal security and the quality of the provided means for the rehabilitative treatment and general health improvement. It was found that as many as 43% of the respondents reported the moderate level of psychological security whereas about 30% of them estimated the level of their psychological security as low. Overall, the attitude toward the available means for health improvement and rehabilitation proved extremely variable. The factorial analysis has demonstrated the highly subjective opinions of the responders as regards the provided services categorized in terms of therapeutic (mineral water, preformed physical factors, peloid and dietary therapy), health improvement (herbal medicine, therapeutic physical training, therapy, bioclimatic therapy), and recreational (animation, excursion and touristic activities) factors. The value of these factors was perceived differently by the vacationers with different feelings of psychological security. Those reporting the high level of psychological security demonstrated the positive attitude toward all factors and circumstances available for the general improvement of the health status whereas the holidaymakers reporting the moderate level of personal psychological security exhibited the non-equivalent attitude toward the provided services; namely, they highly estimated the available therapeutic factors but either underestimated the value of the constituent components of the health improving and recreational factors or demonstrated the very selective attitude toward their assessment. Generally

  5. Sense of Community as a Protective Factor against Long-Term Psychological Effects of Childhood Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Nadine F. Marks

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a risk and resilience framework for conceptualizing the long-term effects of childhood family violence on mental health. It examines sense of community as a protective factor against adult psychological distress associated with experiences of physical or psychological violence in childhood from parents. Regression models are estimated using data from the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. and from the 1996–97 National Study of Daily Experiences. Reported e...

  6. Psychological factors are closely associated with the Bell's palsy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Xu, Shabei; Xiong, Jin; Huang, Guangying; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    To observe the differences in psychological status between Bell's palsy (BP) patients and healthy subjects, and to examine the relationship between psychological factors and the severity of BP, we conducted a case-control, multi-center clinical investigation. A total of 695 subjects were assigned to the case group (n=355) and the control group (n=340). House-Brackmann grading system and Facial Disability Index (FDI) were adopted to assess the BP patients; Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and 16 Personality Factor (16PF) scale were employed to evaluate the psychological distress and personality profiles of all subjects. Two independent samples t test was used to compare the differences between cases and controls, and to compare the differences among different BP patients. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between psychological factors and severity of facial paralysis. The results showed that psychological distress (K10) in case group (27.09±5.80) was significantly higher than that in control group (13.43±3.02) (t=-37.219, P=0.000). The scores of personality factor Warmth (A), Openness to Change (Q1), Self-Reliance (Q2) were lower in cases than in the controls (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05, respectively), whereas the scores of Sensitivity (I), Vigilance (L), Apprehension (O), and Tension (Q4) were significantly higher in cases than in the controls (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively). In addition, the psychological distress was significantly higher in female patients, severe (HB score IV-VI) patients, and subacute (onset time 72-168 h) patients compared with that in male patients, mild (HB score I-III)patients, and acute (onset time[Symbol: see text]72 h) patients (P<0.05). The scores of personality factor in female patients, severe patients, and subacute patients were also significantly different from male patients, mild patients, and acute patients (P<0.05). The result of Pearson correlation analysis showed that

  7. The contribution from psychological, social, and organizational work factors to risk of disability retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knardahl, Stein; Johannessen, Håkon A.; Sterud, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social...... social support from ones superior. Conclusions: Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability retirement with the most robust evidence for the role of work control. We recommend the measurement of specific exposure factors in future studies......., and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional...

  8. Participation restrictions in ambulatory amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: Physical and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Groenestijn, Annerieke C; Schröder, Carin D; Kruitwagen-Van Reenen, Esther T; Van Den Berg, Leonard H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of participation restrictions in ambulatory patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to identify physical and psychological contributory factors. In this cross-sectional study, self-reported participation restrictions of 72 ambulatory ALS patients were assessed using the social health status dimension (SIPSOC) of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68). Associations between SIPSOC and physical functioning, psychological factors, and demographic factors were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. Ninety-two percent of the patients reported participation restrictions; 54.9% could be explained by physical functioning; psychological factors accounted for 8.1% of the variance. Lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and helplessness were independently associated with participation restrictions. Ambulatory ALS patients have participation restrictions, which may be influenced if early ALS care is directed toward lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and feelings of helplessness. Muscle Nerve 56: 912-918, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Risk Factors for Farmers' Suicides in Central Rural India: Matched Case-control Psychological Autopsy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Manik Changoji; Behere, Prakash Balkrushna

    2016-01-01

    Despite more than two decades since recognition of suicides by farmers in India, systematic studies comparing various risk factors are lacking. This is major hurdle for the formulation of strategies for farmers' suicide prevention. To identify socioeconomic and psychological risk factors and their relative contribution in suicides by farmers. A matched case-control psychological autopsy was done on 98 farmers' suicide victims and 98 controls in Central India. Economic problems, psychiatric illness, and stressful life events were found to be important contributors to farmers' suicides. Important economic risk factors were procurement of debt, especially from multiple sources and for nonagricultural reasons and leasing out farms. Psychiatric illness was present significantly in higher proportion among cases than controls. Crop failure, interpersonal problems, medical illness, and marriage of female family member were significant stressful life events. There are socioeconomic and psychological risk factors for suicide by farmers which can be targets of prevention policy.

  10. Physiological strain in the Hungarian mining industry: The impact of physical and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Varga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of these investigations completed on workplaces in the Hungarian mining industry were to characterize the physiological strain of workers by means of work pulse and to examine the effects of work-related psychological factors. Material and Methods: Continuous heart rate (HR recording was completed on 71 miners over a total of 794 shifts between 1987 and 1992 in mining plants of the Hungarian mining industry using a 6-channel recorder – Bioport (ZAK, Germany. The work processes were simultaneously documented by video recording along with drawing up the traditional ergonomic workday schedule. All workers passed health evaluation for fitness for work. The effects of different psychological factors (simulated danger, “instrument stress,” presence of managers, and effect of prior involvement in accidents as well as different mining technologies and work place illumination on the work pulse were evaluated. The statistical analysis was completed using SPSS software (version 13.0, SPSS Inc., USA. Results: The work-related physiological strain differed between work places with different mining technologies in groups of 12–18 workers. The work pulse was lowest in bauxite mining (ΔHR = 22±8.9 bpm and highest in drift drilling in dead rock with electric drilling machine (ΔHR = 30±6.9 bpm. During sham alarm situation the work pulse was significantly higher than during normal activities with the same physical task (ΔHR = 36.7±4.8 bpm vs. 25.8±1.6 bpm, p < 0.001. When work was performed under different psychological stress, the work pulse was consistently higher, while improving the work place illumination decreased the physiological strain appreciably (ΔHR (median, 25–75 percentiles = 23, 20–26 bmp vs. 28, 25–31.3 bpm, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Recording the heart rate during whole-shift work along with the work conditions gives reliable results and helps isolating factors that contribute to increased strain. The

  11. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  12. Psychological, behavioral and familial factors in obese Cuban children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes M; García, Keytel; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-10-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions. In Cuba, the rise in numbers of children who are overweight or obese, especially preschoolers and adolescents, is similar to that observed in developed countries. Beyond the physical risk factors, there is evidence that obesity has negative psychological, social, academic and economic effects. Describe the psychological, behavioral and familial factors present in a group of obese children and adolescents in Cuba. This is a qualitative cross-sectional study of 202 obese children and adolescents aged 3-18 years, with an average age of 9.9 years, seen at the Medical-Surgical Research Center (Havana) psychology service from January 2009 through December 2012. Techniques included interviews of patients and parents, projective drawings and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank. Unhealthy eating habits were reported in 96% of obese children and adolescents, and sedentary lifestyles in 88.1%. Emotional state was affected in 80.2%, and in 72.3% there were family attitudes with potential to produce psychological disturbances in children. Psychological, behavioral, and familial factors known to foster development and perpetuation of obesity were observed in the majority of cases. This is a first diagnostic stage that will aid in design and implementation of a psychological intervention program for obese and overweight children and their families.

  13. Psychological resilience in sport performers: a review of stressors and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Psychological resilience is important in sport because athletes must utilise and optimise a range of mental qualities to withstand the pressures that they experience. In this article, we discuss psychological resilience in sport performers via a review of the stressors athletes encounter and the protective factors that help them withstand these demands. It is hoped that synthesising what is known in these areas will help researchers gain a deeper profundity of resilience in sport, and also provide a rigorous and robust foundation for the development of a sport-specific measure of resilience. With these points in mind, we divided the narrative into two main sections. In the first section, we review the different types of stressors encountered by sport performers under three main categories: competitive, organisational and personal. Based on our recent research examining psychological resilience in Olympics champions, in the second section we discuss the five main families of psychological factors (viz. positive personality, motivation, confidence, focus, perceived social support) that protect the best athletes from the potential negative effect of stressors. It is anticipated that this review will help sport psychology researchers examine the interplay between stressors and protective factors, which will, in turn, focus the analytical lens on the processes underlying psychological resilience in athletes.

  14. The Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwan, Toni; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2017-12-22

    To identify and appraise studies investigating the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke and evidence for personality change. Systematic searches of six databases (PsychINFO, CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science) were conducted from inception to June 2017. Studies involving adult stroke samples that employed a validated measure of at least one of the Big Five personality factors were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of studies. Eleven studies were identified that assessed associations between personality and psychological well-being after stroke (nine studies) or post-stroke personality change (two studies). A consistent finding was that higher neuroticism was significantly related to poorer psychological well-being. The evidence for the other Big Five factors was mixed. In terms of personality change, two cross-sectional studies reported high rates of elevated neuroticism (38-48%) and low extraversion (33-40%) relative to normative data. Different questionnaires and approaches to measuring personality (i.e., self vs. informant ratings, premorbid personality vs. current personality) complicated comparisons between studies. People high on neuroticism are at increased risk of poor psychological well-being after stroke. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to address the limited research on post-stroke personality change. Implications for rehabilitation High neuroticism is associated with poorer psychological well-being after stroke. Assessing personality characteristics early after stroke may help to identify those at risk of poor psychological outcomes.

  15. [The impact of social and psychological factors on the formation of health students during training in the higher educational institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretova, I G; Belyaeva, O V; Shiraeva, O I; Komarova, M V; Chygarina, S E; Kostsova, E A

    2014-01-01

    There was performed an assessment of anthropometric indices of physical development and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system, psychological and social status in 770 students of the higher educational institutions in the city ofSamara. There was revealed the presence of I-III degree obesity in 13.2% of young males and underweight in 19.1% of young females. Stress and disruption of the processes of the adaptation process were shown to be observed in 7.6% and 6.1% of students, respectively. There was found a tendency to hypertension in 12.6% of young males. Revealed changes are related to lifestyle of the modern student. The main factors for the improvement of the life quality is the duration of sleep and ultimate nutrition. Initially, the lower level of physical and functional capabilities is compensated by virtue of the correct organization of social and psychological factors and prevents possible deviations from the part of health.

  16. Critical success factors for performance improvement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, William M; Krsek, Cathleen; Weber, Diane; Cerese, Julie

    2005-04-01

    Most health care organizations struggle with the design and implementation of effective, systemwide improvement programs. In 2000, the University HealthSystem Consortium initiated a benchmarking project to identify the organizational elements that predict a successful perfermance improvement (PI) program and that are best suited to support change initiatives. Forty-one organizations completed a survey about the presence of critical components, processes used to improve performance, and organizational PI structures. Follow-up site visits were conducted at three organizations. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR A PI PROGRAM: Eight organizational success factors for an effective performance improvement program were identified: (1) Strong Administrative Fxecutive and Performance Improvement Leadership, (2) Active Involvement of the Board of Trustees, (3) Effective Oversight Structure, (4) Expert Performance Improvement Staff, (5) Physician Involvement and Accountability, (6) Active Staff Involvement, (7) Effective Use of Information Resources-Data Used for Decision Making, and (8) Effective Communication Strategy. The approach offered is grounded in the belief that effective organizational structures and processes are prerequisites to improving health care delivery. Although some empirical support for the proposed model is provided, additional research will be required to determine the effectiveness of this approach.

  17. Psychological Factors and Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis : A Web Based Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in

  18. The psychological aftermath of bereavement : Risk factors, mediating processes, and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Houwen, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on

  19. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociskova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova, Jan Prasko, Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Ales Grambal Department of Psychiatry, Olomouc University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. Subjects and methods: A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory – revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Results: Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial

  20. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory - revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective) the Beck Depression Inventory - second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to backward-stepwise multiple regression, the best

  1. Factors Constraining Farmers Use of Improved Cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that land and labour problems, marketing problems, poor technical information, cultural incompatibility, high cost of farm inputs and unavailability of necessary inputs were the major factors constraining the use of improved cowpea technologies in the area. These findings suggest that there is an urgent ...

  2. Psychological factors that influence traumatic injury occurrence and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, R L; Banderet, L E; Reynolds, K L; Creedon, J F; Rice, V J

    2002-01-01

    This 9 month prospective study, conducted at the US Army Sergeants Major Academy (USASGMA), examined the association of selected psychological variables (e.g., measures of tension/anxiety, sleep disturbance, Type A behavior pattern) with injury occurrence and physical performance in 126 soldiers. ANOVA and logistic regression analyses revealed significant relationships between: 1) Traumatic injury occurrence and mean tension/anxiety scores, 2) Mean self-reported sleep disturbance scores and traumatic injury occurrence, 3) The Type A behavior pattern (abbreviated Jenkins Activity Survey) and number of sit-ups repetitions completed in 2 minutes, one component of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), 4) The Type A behavior pattern and total score APFT. No significant associations were found for mean tension/anxiety scores and overuse injuries, or Type A behavior pattern and two mile run time or number of push-up repetitions completed in 2 minutes. These data suggest traumatic injury occurrence is influenced by tension/anxiety and disturbances in sleep habits. Additionally, individuals with higher Jenkins Activity scores (characteristic of the Type A behavior pattern) perform better physically.

  3. Gingivitis, Psychological Factors and Quality of Life in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Priscila de Lima; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Amato, Juliana Neide; Montes, Ana Bheatriz Marangoni; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between gingivitis, emotional status and quality of life in children. Sixty-four Brazilian students (11 to 12 years old) were examined for clinical and self-reported gingivitis. The participants were divided into two groups: those with gingivitis (n = 21) and controls (n = 43). Quality of life, anxiety and depression were measured using self-administered questionnaires. Saliva was collected 30 min after waking and at bedtime to measure the diurnal decline in salivary cortisol. The results were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. There were significantly more female participants in the control group. Approximately 90% of the children with gingivitis had good oral hygiene and 10.5% had satisfactory oral hygiene. There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety and depression in both clinical groups. Anxiety was negatively correlated with quality of life in the control group. Depression was negatively correlated with quality of life and cortisol concentrations in the group with gingivitis, and with quality of life in the control group. Children with gingivitis were more likely to be older and males. Older children are more likely to experience gingival bleeding. The presence of gingivitis in children may be associated with worse psychological well-being, possibly compromising the quality of life.

  4. Applying psychological frameworks of behaviour change to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, J A; Corace, K; Hargadon, D P; Yu, D; MacDonald, T; Fabrigar, L; Garber, G

    2015-11-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in preventing transmission of healthcare-associated infections, compliance rates are suboptimal. Hand hygiene is a complex behaviour and psychological frameworks are promising tools to influence healthcare worker (HCW) behaviour. (i) To review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behaviour change to improve HCW hand hygiene compliance; (ii) to determine which frameworks have been used to predict HCW hand hygiene compliance. Multiple databases and reference lists of included studies were searched for studies that applied psychological theories to improve and/or predict HCW hand hygiene. All steps in selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. The search yielded 918 citations; seven met eligibility criteria. Four studies evaluated hand hygiene interventions based on psychological frameworks. Interventions were informed by goal setting, control theory, operant learning, positive reinforcement, change theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the transtheoretical model. Three predictive studies employed the theory of planned behaviour, the transtheoretical model, and the theoretical domains framework. Interventions to improve hand hygiene adherence demonstrated efficacy but studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. For many studies, it was unclear how theories of behaviour change were used to inform the interventions. Predictive studies had mixed results. Behaviour change theory is a promising tool for improving hand hygiene; however, these theories have not been extensively examined. Our review reveals a significant gap in the literature and indicates possible avenues for novel research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Garry J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22, compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p Conclusion Although, methodologically, this study had good internal validity, it has limited generalisability because it was not possible to identify, bound, or sample the target population accurately. However, this study is the first to collect psychological distress data from an affected population during such a disease outbreak and has potential to inform those involved in assessing the potential psychological impacts of human infectious diseases, such as pandemic influenza.

  7. [Efficacy impacts of psychological factors on primary dysmenorrhea treated with acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jin; Liu, Fang; Wang, Wei; Huang, Guang-ying

    2011-06-01

    To explore the relationship between psychological factors and efficacy of acupuncture on primary dysmenorrhea. Sixty cases of primary dysmenorrhea were observed. Before acupuncture treatment, the self-designed confidence questionnaire was used to assess patients' confidence in acupuncture efficacy. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was adopted to assess patients' tension level during acupuncture. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were applied to assess the situations of patients' anxiety and depression. Eysenck's personality questionnaire (EPQ) and Cattell sixteen personality factors questionnaire (16PF) were provided to assess the personal characters of patients. Pain intensity, pain duration and accompanied symptoms were recorded before and after acupuncture treatment so as to assess the efficacy. Canonical correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the psychological factors and acupuncture efficacy on primary dysmenorrhea. There were significant differences in grading of dysmenorrhea, pain intensity score and pain duration after treatment as compared statistically with those before treatment (all Panxiety (r=-0.5906) in personality factors and the reduction of pain duration (r=0.9042) among efficacy indices were the highest. The overall correlation coefficients were all lower between the indices of psychological factors and canonical variables of dysmenorrhea efficacy. Acupuncture efficacy on primary dysmenorrhea has a certain correlation with dominance and anxiety of patients' personality factors. But, the psychological factors do not play a leading role in acupuncture treatment.

  8. The role of psychological factors in oncology nurses' burnout and compassion fatigue symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the role of several psychological factors in professional quality of life in nurses. Specifically, we tried to clarify the relationships between several dimensions of empathy, self-compassion, and psychological inflexibility, and positive (compassion satisfaction) and negative (burnout and compassion fatigue) domains of professional quality of life. Using a cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of 221 oncology nurses recruited from several public hospitals filling out a battery of self-report measures. Results suggested that nurses that benefit more from their work of helping and assisting others (compassion satisfaction) seem to have more empathic feelings and sensibility towards others in distress and make an effort to see things from others' perspective. Also, they are less disturbed by negative feelings associated with seeing others' suffering and are more self-compassionate. Nurses more prone to experience the negative consequences associated with care-providing (burnout and compassion fatigue) are more self-judgmental and have more psychological inflexibility. In addition, they experience more personal feelings of distress when seeing others in suffering and less feelings of empathy and sensibility to others' suffering. Psychological factors explained 26% of compassion satisfaction, 29% of burnout and 18% of compassion fatigue. We discuss the results in terms of the importance of taking into account the role of these psychological factors in oncology nurses' professional quality of life, and of designing nursing education training and interventions aimed at targeting such factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of psychological factors in burning mouth syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Federica; Lodi, Giovanni; Sardella, Andrea; Vegni, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic medical condition characterised by hot, painful sensations in the lips, oral mucosa, and/or tongue mucosa. On examination, these appear healthy, and organic causes for the pain cannot be found. Several studies have yielded scant evidence of the involvement of psychological and/or psychopathological factors, and several have outlined a model for the classification of BMS. Aim This review aims to provide a systematic review of research examining the psychological, psychiatric, and/or personality factors linked to BMS. Findings Fourteen controlled studies conducted between 2000 and the present were selected based on stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria. All studies but one reported at least some evidence for the involvement of psychological factors in BMS. Anxiety and depression were the most common and the most frequently studied psychopathological disorders among BMS patients. Discussion and conclusion Anxiety and depression play critical roles in this condition. Evidence on the role of personality characteristics of BMS patients has also been produced by a few studies. Further studies on the role of specific psychological factors in BMS are warranted, but the importance of a multidisciplinary approach (medical and psychological) to BMS is no matter of discussion.

  10. Psychological Factors Explaining the Referral Behavior of Iranian Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Bahram; Seyedin, Hesam; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Khalesi, Nader; Kazemeini, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: The recently developed policy of the family practice program in rural regions of Iran faced some challenges such as inefficient referral system. The health insurance organizations (purchaser) and health policy makers are concerned about the high rate of patient referrals from family physicians to specialists due to imposing unnecessary services and costs. Objectives: This study examined utility of the theory of planned behavior to explain intention of Iranian family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialist. Patients and Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study, employing a correlational design directed by the theory of planned behavior was conducted. A questionnaire was developed based on an eliciting study and review of literature. One hundred and seventy-four family physicians working at primary care centers in two provinces of Iran completed the questionnaire (response rate of 86%). Results: The finding revealed that intention of family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients to specialists was significantly related to two theory-based variables of subjective norms (r = 0.38, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), and not to attitudes. A stepwise regression entering direct measures of the theory variables explained 35% of the variance on the intention, with perceived behavioral control being the strongest predictor. Adding background variables to the model achieved further 5% by variables of practice size and past referral rate behavior. Conclusions: The results indicated that psychological variables of the theory of planned behavior could explain a noticeable proportion of variance in family physician's intention to decrease the rate of referring patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialists. The intention is primarily influenced by normative and control considerations. These findings contribute to a better understanding of referral decisions by

  11. Psychosocial factors, quality of life, and psychological distress: ethnic differences in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Melanie K; Gibson, Douglas; Flattery, Maureen; Duncan, Angela; Hess, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Advances in treatment have prolonged life in heart failure (HF) patients, leading to increased attention to quality of life (QOL) and psychological functioning. It is not clear if ethnic differences exist in factors associated with psychological well-being. We examined psychosocial factors associated with depression and anxiety in 97 HF patients. Medical records were reviewed and patients (M age 53, 50% African American) completed surveys examining social support, coping, spirituality, and QOL for their association with depression and anxiety. Multiple regressions suggested that psychosocial factors were associated with psychological health. Patients with lower social support, lower meaning/peace and more negative coping reported greater depression; positive coping, and lower meaning/peace were associated with higher anxiety. Ethnicity stratified models suggested that spiritual well-being was associated with depression only among African Americans and QOL partially mediated this relationship. Findings suggest the importance of considering the unique psychosocial needs of diverse populations to appropriately target clinical interventions.

  12. Factors That Influence the Decision to Undergo Labiaplasty: Media, Relationships, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of women are undergoing labiaplasty procedures; however, very little is known about the psychological factors that motivate women to seek out this procedure. To investigate the factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. Women seeking to undergo labiaplasty (n = 35) were compared with women who were not (n = 30). Standardized measures were employed to assess the patients' media exposure (television, the Internet, advertising, pornography), relationship quality, and psychological well-being. Women's motivations for deciding to undergo a labiaplasty procedure were characterized as "appearance," "functional," "sexual," or "psychological" motivations, with concerns about the labia's appearance being the most commonly reported motivation. Correspondingly, women seeking labiaplasty were significantly less satisfied with the appearance of their genitals than the comparison group (P media exposure and relationship status as important factors that influence women's decisions to undergo labiaplasty. 3 Risk. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line

    Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors...... (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints.......% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together...

  14. Predictors of psychological improvement on non-professional suicide message boards: content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, T; Gould, M; Sonneck, G; Stack, S; Till, B

    2016-12-01

    Suicide message boards have been at the core of debates about negative influences of the Internet on suicidality. Nothing is currently known about communication styles that may help users to psychologically improve in these settings. In all, 1182 archival threads with 20 499 individual postings from seven non-professional suicide message boards supporting an 'against-suicide', 'neutral' or 'pro-suicide' attitude were randomly selected and subject to content analysis. Initial needs of primary posters (i.e. individual who open a thread), their psychological improvement by the end of the thread, their responses received and indicators of suicidality were coded. Differences between 'pro-suicide', 'neutral' and 'against suicide' boards, and correlations between primary posters and respondents in terms of suicidality were assessed. Logistic regression was used to test associations with psychological improvement. 'Pro-suicide' boards (n = 4) differed from 'neutral' (n = 1) and 'against-suicide' (n = 2) boards in terms of communicated contents. Indicators of suicidality correlated moderately to strongly between primary posters and respondents on 'pro-suicide' message boards, but less on other boards. Several communicative strategies were associated with psychological improvement in primary posters, including the provision of constructive advice [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-7.03], active listening (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.12-2.27), sympathy towards the poster (aOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.68-2.95) and provision of alternatives to suicide (aOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.67-3.18). Respondents resemble primary posters with regard to suicidality in 'pro-suicide' boards, which may hinder psychological improvement. Still, opportunities to intervene in these settings using simple communication techniques exist and need to be taken and evaluated.

  15. Meditation awareness training (MAT) for improved psychological well-being: a qualitative examination of participant experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are reported as being efficacious treatments for a variety of psychological and somatic conditions. However, concerns have arisen relating to how mindfulness is operationalized in mindfulness-based interventions and whether its 'spiritual essence' and full potential treatment efficacy have remained intact. This qualitative study used interpretative phenomenological analysis to examine participant experiences regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of a newly designed secularized intervention called meditation awareness training (MAT) that follows a more traditional Buddhist approach to meditation. Participants (with issues of stress and low mood) reported experiencing improvements in psychological well-being due to receiving MAT. The wider implications are discussed.

  16. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O Shepherd

    Full Text Available Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max, cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT.Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2 were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1. MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1. VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention.Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT and 128±44 min (MICT (p<0.05, with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05. HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05. HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05. No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables.HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  17. Psychological Factors Influencing the Decision of Urban Adolescents With Undiagnosed Asthma to Obtain Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Kingston, Sharon; Zhao, Yihong; DiMeglio, John S; Céspedes, Amarilis; George, Maureen

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are low users of medical care. Psychological factors and perceived reasons to not seek routine medical care may increase risk of nonuse by adolescents with undiagnosed asthma. This study tests if psychological factors were associated with seeing a medical provider for asthma-like symptoms; identifies adolescents' perceived reasons for not obtaining care; explores if psychological factors are associated with these perceptions; and explores if asthma severity moderates the relationships with psychological factors. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a baseline assessment of 349 urban, primarily ethnic minority adolescents with moderate to severe asthma-like symptoms but no asthma diagnosis who were enrolled in a controlled trial. The odds of seeing a provider for their asthma-like symptoms were significantly higher for those with asthma-related anxiety (odds ratio [OR]: 1.644; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.242-2.176) and depressive symptoms (OR: 1.031; 95% CI: 1.004-1.059). The most commonly endorsed reason for noncare included a characterization of symptoms as not serious, past medical visits not diagnosed as asthma, fear of diagnosis, busy lifestyles, and not wanting medication. Psychological factors were not related to the number of reasons or to most of the commonly endorsed reasons. Adolescents with more asthma-related anxiety were less likely to characterize their breathing problems as serious (OR = .0583; 95% CI: .424-.802) and were more likely to report busy lifestyles (OR = 1.593; 95% CI: 1.122-2.261). Adolescent-perceived reasons for noncare were not pragmatic, but instead highlighted denial. Asthma-related anxiety was the most robust psychological factor associated with the decision to seek medical care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Applying Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based intervention aimed at improved psychological and social well-being of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Kok, G.; Weyusya, J.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Bartholomew, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve

  19. Social, institutional, and psychological factors affecting wildfire incident decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Managing wildland fire incidents can be fraught with complexity and uncertainty. Myriad human factors can exert significant influence on incident decision making, and can contribute additional uncertainty regarding programmatic evaluations of wildfire management and attainment of policy goals. This article develops a framework within which human sources of uncertainty...

  20. Student Success Factors in Graduate Psychology Professional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Noelle K.; Cerniak, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Research examining factors contributing to online students' success typically focuses on a single point in time or completion of a single course, as well as individual difference variables, such as learning style or motivation, that may predispose a student to succeed. However, research concerning longer term online student outcomes, such as…

  1. Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Students' Learning with Erroneous Worked Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Eric; Stark, Robin; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of diagnostic competence is seen as a major goal during the course of study in medicine. One innovative method to foster this goal is problem-based learning with erroneous worked examples provided in a computer learning environment. The present study explores the relationship of attitudinal, emotional and cognitive factors for…

  2. Psychological factors influencing self-disclosure in marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esteem, self-monitoring and social–demographic factors of gender, age, education qualification and duration of marriage. An Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study while a sample of 204 married people completed measures of ...

  3. Factors of collective psychological empowerment of active users in the online health community med.over.net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovčič Andraž

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the collective psychological empowerment of users of online health communities, which has been often overlooked in literature. Drawing on the theories of empowerment in the context of community psychology, it explores the factors - that are also an important characteristic of online health communities - that are associated with the collective psychological empowerment of online health community users.

  4. Factor Analysis of Subjective Psychological Experiences and States of Football Referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš ZEMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between values of components of subjective psychological experiences and states in 26 male football referees before the match and after the match were explored using factor analysis. For evaluation of subjective psychological experiences and states the standardized questionnaire SUPSO was used. The questionnaire was filled in twice by refer ees: before the match and immediately after the match. Four most important factors were described and named. The first factor was called "tendency to discomfort". It relates to referee ́s current mental state being probably a reflection of long - term negativ e circumstances in referee ́s life. It is neither related to the completed match, nor referee ́s temperament . The second factor was called "depression from failure" and it is connected directly to the completed match. It is probably determined by current ref eree ́s physical and mental conditions . The third and fourth factors proved to be consequences of temperament of referees. In conclusion, the two most important factors of current mental state of football referee during the game can probably be influenced b y a systematic psychological preparation . Psychological preparation should therefore become an effective part of the pre - match preparation of football referees.

  5. STUDENTS’ PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN SLA: A DILLEMA FOR TEACHERS OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Budianto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing psychological factors in language acquisition and learning for human being who learn second language acquisition. Stephens found that external factors such as the characteristic of teacher, class and school condition had consistently no relation with the success of learning foreign language. On the other hand, student’s psychological conditions, as one of the internal factors, are potential to influence the foreign or second language acquisition. Psychological factor is a factor that is mentally or spiritually concerned with the aspects in students’ acquisition. At least, four of many factors, such as anxiety, attitude, aptitude, and motivation influence the students’ process of language acquisition. However, to cope the psychological problems of learning second language, Kando, D. suggests the five strategies for coping with language anxiety, among of them are preparation strategy, relaxation, positive thinking, peer, and labeled resignation. Therefore, in maximizing the result of second language acquisition, the five strategies illustrated by Kando are important as an alternative solution.

  6. Improving psychology students' attitudes toward people with schizophrenia: A quasi-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Rinaldi, Angela; Costanzo, Regina; De Leo, Renata; Schioppa, Giustina; Petrillo, Miriam; Read, John

    2016-01-01

    Despite scientific evidence that the majority of people with schizophrenia (PWS) have personal histories of traumatic life events and adversities, their needs for psychological support often remain unmet. Poor availability of nonpharmacological therapies in schizophrenia may be partly because of professionals' attitudes toward people diagnosed with this disorder. As future health professionals, psychology students represent a target population for efforts to increase the probability that PWS will be offered effective psychological therapies. This quasi-randomized controlled study investigated the effect of an educational intervention, addressing common prejudices via scientific evidence and prerecorded audio-testimony from PWS, on the attitudes of psychology students toward PWS. Students in their fifth year of a master's degree in Psychology at the Second University of Naples, Italy were randomly assigned to an experimental group-which attended two 3-hr sessions a week apart-or to a control group. Compared with their baseline assessment, at 1-month reassessment the 76 educated students endorsed more psychosocial causes and more of them recommended psychologists in the treatment of schizophrenia. They were also more optimistic about recovery, less convinced that PWS are recognizable and unpredictable, and more convinced that treatments, pharmacological and psychological, are useful. No significant changes were found, from baseline to 1-month reassessment, in the 112 controls. At 1-month reassessment, educated students were more optimistic about recovery and less convinced that PWS are unpredictable than controls. These findings suggest that psychology students' attitudes toward PWS can be improved by training initiatives including education and indirect contact with users. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Duchaine, CS; Ndjaboué, R; Levesque, M; Vézina, M; Trudel, X; Gilbert-Ouimet, M; Dionne, CE; Mâsse, B; Pearce, N; Brisson, C

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates ...

  8. Psychological Factors in Experience of Pain During Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrović, Ana Havelka; Bilić, Morana; Loncar, Larisa Buhin; Micković, Vlatko; Loncar, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    Pain during delivery is unique because it is accompanied by powerful emotions. Emotions that occur in women during labor and delivery are closely tied to upbringing and culture in which they were raised and consequently with the sensation of experienced pain. According to the Melzack-Wall Theory of Pain, general mood is directly related to the intensity and quality of pain and it is therefore justifiable to presuppose that certain psychosocial factors will be linked with the intensity and quality of pain experienced during childbirth. (Melzack et al., 1981). We endeavored to show the effect of psychosocial factors that influence the intensity and quality of labor pain. Data was collected in a sample of 176 parturient women who delivered without Cesarean sections or epidural anesthesia. The intensity and quality of pain were obtained through the administration of the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form. Psychosocial factors included: number of births, presence of partner, self-evaluation of knowledge of physio-anatomical aspects of birth and the completion of a pregnancy course. Labor and delivery pain is of high intensity anl the quality of pain is most frequently characterized as smarting, cramping, exhausting, and sharp. The presence of a partner and the completion of a pregnancy course is exercised by a small number of parturients. Self-evaluation of preexisting knowledge of physio-anatomical aspects of delivery is predictive of the affective component of intensity of childbirth pain. Psychosocial factors have been shown as significant for the intensity and quality of experienced childbirth pain.

  9. Identification of Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Affecting Women's Propensity to Breastfeed: An Italian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.

  10. Increasing emotional competence improves psychological and physical well-being, social relationships, and employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelis, Delphine; Kotsou, Ilios; Quoidbach, Jordi; Hansenne, Michel; Weytens, Fanny; Dupuis, Pauline; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2011-04-01

    This study builds on earlier work showing that adult emotional competencies (EC) could be improved through a relatively brief training. In a set of 2 controlled experimental studies, the authors investigated whether developing EC could lead to improved emotional functioning; long-term personality changes; and important positive implications for physical, psychological, social, and work adjustment. Results of Study 1 showed that 18 hr of training with e-mail follow-up was sufficient to significantly improve emotion regulation, emotion understanding, and overall EC. These changes led in turn to long-term significant increases in extraversion and agreeableness as well as a decrease in neuroticism. Results of Study 2 showed that the development of EC brought about positive changes in psychological well-being, subjective health, quality of social relationships, and employability. The effect sizes were sufficiently large for the changes to be considered as meaningful in people's lives. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary report on social psychological factors in long duration space flights: Review and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Group dynamics, sociological and psychological factors are examined. Crew composition and compatibility are studied. Group dynamics analysis includes: leadership; cohesiveness; conformity; and conflict.

  12. Emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, and shame as explanatory factors between neuroticism and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel J; Vanwoerden, Salome; Norton, Peter J; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-15

    The association between neuroticism and depression is well documented. However, neuroticism is a general risk factor associated with many forms of psychopathology, such as anxiety, eating, and personality disorders. Past research has suggested that other factors may mediate the relationship between neuroticism and symptoms of particular disorders. Self-report questionnaires measuring neuroticism, emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, shame, and symptoms of depression were administered to 105 inpatient adolescents (aged 12-17). The current study examined three factors (emotion dysregulation difficulties, psychological inflexibility, and shame) as concurrent mediators of the neuroticism/depression association. Neuroticism was significantly associated with depression, as expected. Neuroticism was also associated with emotion dysregulation and psychological inflexibility, which, in combination, fully mediated the association between neuroticism and depression. Shame was not significantly associated with neuroticism or depression, when controlling for anxiety, externalizing, sex, and age. Follow-up analyses examined six sub-factors of emotion dysregulation as multiple mediators of the neuroticism/depression association. Goal directed behavior, lack of emotion regulation strategies, and impulse control were significant mediators, controlling for the other three emotion dysregulation sub-factors. The study is limited by the cross sectional design, sample size, and self-report measurement. Despite limitations, this study demonstrated that the link between neuroticism and depression is explained by both emotion dysregulation and psychological inflexibility and that specific emotion dysregulation facets may be at play in adolescent depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of psychological factors in inflammatory rheumatic diseases: From burden to tailored treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middendorp, Henriët; Evers, Andrea W M

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases have a long-lasting effect on patients' physical and psychological functioning, for instance, due to disabling symptoms and unpredictable disease course. Consequently, many patients show adjustment problems such as depressed mood, which in turn can negatively influence their disease outcome. Specific biopsychosocial factors have shown to affect this outcome. For example, daily stress, cognitive-behavioral risk factors such as pain catastrophizing and avoidance, and resilience factors such as optimism and social support influence the quality of life, physical symptoms of pain and fatigue, and inflammatory markers. Psychological interventions tackling these factors can have beneficial effects on physical and psychological functioning. Recent advances in screening for patients at risk, tailored treatment, and eHealth further broaden the efficiency and scope of these interventions while simultaneously optimizing patient empowerment. This chapter describes the biopsychosocial risk and resilience factors related to disease outcome and the possible benefits of psychological treatment strategies in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. KEY FACTORS FOR A CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Ricardo Formento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine the content of continuous improvement strategies, taking into account the important role they play in building competitiveness. This paper argues that several specific issues must be taken into account in order to reach successful outcomes. This work starts with a literature review on the matter. On this basis, we designed a survey administered to a group of 30 large companies, each of which is renowned leader in Argentina. Finally, we compared the development of continuous improvement process in companies with very effective results and with scarce results. Differences that emerged from this comparison enabled us to identify critical factors for achieving a successful improvement process. As there are no recent researches on continuous improvement programs in Argentina, this paper contributes to recognizing and systematizing what has been done, comparing it with theoretical framework and uncovering research gaps for future studies. However, further research must confirm these findings and move forward on the analysis of intangible factors, like: internal communications, climate, culture, self reflexion, consensus, etc.

  15. [The role of psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in skin diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Dudek, Bohdan; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Dudek, Wojciech; Garnczarek, Adrianna; Turczyn, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in patients with skin diseases is discussed. On the one hand psychological factors (stress, negative emotions) can influence the generation and aggravation of skin disorders (urticaria, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo), on the other hand psychological disorders can result in some skin diseases (psoriasis, atopic dermatitis). In the majority of cases the quality of life is poorly estimated by patients with skin problems. Psychodermatology is divided into three categories according to the relationship between skin diseases and mental disorders: 1) psychophysiologic disorders caused by skin diseases triggering different emotional states (stress), but not directly combined with mental disorders (psoriasis, eczema); 2) primary psychiatric disorders responsible for self-induced skin disorders (trichotillomania); and 3) secondary psychiatric disorders caused by disfiguring skin (ichthyosis, acne conglobata, vitiligo), which can lead to states of fear, depression or suicidal thoughts.

  16. Caring for the Elderly at Work and Home: Can a Randomized Organizational Intervention Improve Psychological Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Thompson, Rebecca J; Lawson, Katie M; Bodner, Todd; Perrigino, Matthew B; Hammer, Leslie B; Buxton, Orfeu M; Almeida, David M; Moen, Phyllis; Hurtado, David A; Wipfli, Brad; Berkman, Lisa F; Bray, Jeremy W

    2017-12-07

    Although job stress models suggest that changing the work social environment to increase job resources improves psychological health, many intervention studies have weak designs and overlook influences of family caregiving demands. We tested the effects of an organizational intervention designed to increase supervisor social support for work and nonwork roles, and job control in a results-oriented work environment on the stress and psychological distress of health care employees who care for the elderly, while simultaneously considering their own family caregiving responsibilities. Using a group-randomized organizational field trial with an intent-to-treat design, 420 caregivers in 15 intervention extended-care nursing facilities were compared with 511 caregivers in 15 control facilities at 4 measurement times: preintervention and 6, 12, and 18 months. There were no main intervention effects showing improvements in stress and psychological distress when comparing intervention with control sites. Moderation analyses indicate that the intervention was more effective in reducing stress and psychological distress for caregivers who were also caring for other family members off the job (those with elders and those "sandwiched" with both child and elder caregiving responsibilities) compared with employees without caregiving demands. These findings extend previous studies by showing that the effect of organizational interventions designed to increase job resources to improve psychological health varies according to differences in nonwork caregiving demands. This research suggests that caregivers, especially those with "double-duty" elder caregiving at home and work and "triple-duty" responsibilities, including child care, may benefit from interventions designed to increase work-nonwork social support and job control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Differences in caregivers' psychological distress and associated factors by care recipients' gender and kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Noboru; Horiguchi, Kazuko

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we examined the level of psychological distress of Japanese caregivers according to various combinations of the gender of care recipients and the kinship of caregivers (spouse, son, daughter, or daughter-in-law). Furthermore, we explored the associated factors that could exacerbate or alleviate psychological distress. We utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design and implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey with a two-stage stratified sample of community-dwelling caregivers of frail elderly persons throughout Japan. We surveyed 1279 caregiving families, and 1020 questionnaires were completed by primary caregivers (response rate: 79.8%), with 945 respondents providing data on the Japanese version of the Kessler 6 psychological distress scale (K6). Caregivers' K6 scores varied significantly by care recipients' gender and their relationship with the caregiver. K6 scores were significantly higher among daughters-in-law caring for fathers-in-law than among daughters-in-law caring for mothers-in-law, wives caring for husbands, or daughters or sons caring for mothers. 'Negative influence of caregiving' and 'anxious about continuing caregiving' were factors that commonly exacerbated caregivers' psychological distress. Further analyses involving interactions indicated that the effects of 'anxious about continuing caregiving' and 'personal growth through caregiving' on the psychological distress of daughters-in-law varied by care recipients' gender as did the effects of an alleviating factor, 'keeping their own pace', on daughters. Psychological distress levels among family caregivers, as well as exacerbating and alleviating factors, varied depending on the gender and kinship of care recipients.

  18. [Role of psychological factors in pathogenesis of disturbances of voice caused with vocal nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Jan; Grzywacz, Krzysztof; Wojdas, Andrzej; Rapiejko, Piotr; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2008-01-01

    Hoarseness is most frequent complaint notified by ill in phoniatric outpatient clinics. Looking of causes notified of disturbances of voice often we ascertain in larynx existence of vocal nodules. Changes these come into being in consequence of excessive or irregular phonations. Single incident of disturbances of voice caused with oedema changes nascent of in consequence of inappropriate work with voice does not wake of our trouble, instead returns this of type of complaint provoke to other researches coexisting of etiological factors this diseases. Estimation of influence of individual personality trait of ill on formation of vocal nodules. One examined 20 patients with vocal nodules classified to treatments operating and 20 without disturbances of voice. All patients were subjected to otolaryngological and stroboscopic examinations. Character created of voice one examined at help of scale GRBAS, instead influence of disturbances of voice on quality of life ill at help of test VHI. Psychological examinations one executed using questionnaire State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI), questionnaire NEO-FFI and questionnaire of aggression Buss-Perry. Obtained results showed, that persons with returning vocal nodules, both during of research as in different situations everyday lives characterizes with higher level of fear and have greater inclination to worry oneself. Ill from groups examined in greater degree are extroverts, show greater activity and more are contagious socially in comparison to persons of comparative group. Attitude this in situations extorting rivalry will be able to be ruthless, are well organized guided, scrupulous and consistently endeavour to aim. Wanting efficiently to treat persons with returning vocal nodules we should subject to ill psychological examination and in once of ascertainment of irregularity to correct it, what at simultaneous correct treatment of organic changes should diminish frequency or to eliminate returns of disease. Skill

  19. Challenging factors for enuresis treatment: Psychological problems and non-adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; De Bruyne, Pauline; De Bruyne, Elke; Walle, Johan Vande

    2015-12-01

    The evidence for organic pathogenetic factors in enuresis and the discovery of effective therapies targeting the bladder and/or nocturnal diuresis have overwhelmed every potential role of psychological factors in pathogenesis and treatment. However, psychopathology is still important in enuresis because according to the document of the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) 20-30% of the children with enuresis have at least one psychological/psychiatric disorder at rates two times higher than non-wetting children. The most common comorbid disorder with enuresis is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this review is to translate the existing evidence on the importance of a psychological screening into daily clinical practice of the medical practitioner. The use of the minimal psychological screening tool should be considered mandatory in each primary setting. If psychological problems are indicated, referral of the patient to a multidisciplinary setting should be considered, not only to allow psychological assessment to screen for a possible psychopathology, but also since therapy resistance might be expected. This review concentrates on two items from psychopathology/psychotherapy that might predict insufficient treatment response: the psychological comorbidities as described according to the DSM-5 criteria and the underestimated importance of therapy adherence. Adherence is a cornerstone of effective therapy in enuresis. It is a problem involving the doctor, the patient, and the parents. Increasing adherence takes effort and is time-consuming. But it is worthwhile knowing that several studies have demonstrated that high adherence is associated with high therapy success of enuresis. Eventually, this is the ultimate goal of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvements in closeness, communication, and psychological distress mediate effects of couple therapy for veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Brian D; Mitchell, Alexandra; Georgia, Emily J; Biesen, Judith N; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson

    2015-04-01

    Empirically based couple therapy results in significant improvements in relationship satisfaction for the average couple; however, further research is needed to identify mediators that lead to change and to ensure that improvements in mediators predict subsequent-not just concurrent-relationship satisfaction. In addition, given that much of the current literature on couple therapy examines outcomes in a research environment, it is important to examine mediators in a treatment-as-usual setting. To address these questions, 161 heterosexual couples (322 individuals) received treatment-as-usual couple therapy at one of two Veteran Administration Medical Centers (M = 5.0 and 13.0 sessions at the two sites) and were assessed before every session. The majority of couples were married (85%) and had been together for a median of 7.8 years (SD = 13). Participants were primarily White, non-Hispanic (69%), African American (21%), and White, Hispanic/Latino (8%). Individuals' own self-reported improvements in communication, emotional closeness, and psychological distress (but not frequency of behaviors targeted in treatment) mediated the effect of treatment on their subsequent relationship satisfaction. When all significant mediators were examined simultaneously, improvements in men's and women's emotional closeness and men's psychological distress independently mediated subsequent relationship satisfaction. In contrast, improvements in earlier relationship satisfaction mediated the effect of treatment only on subsequent psychological distress. This study identifies unique mediators of treatment effects and shows that gains in mechanisms predict subsequent relationship satisfaction. Future investigations should focus on the role of emotional closeness and psychological distress-constructs that have often been neglected-in couple therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. A prospective study of the relationship between psychological factors and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso-Ying Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional prospective study aimed to explore the relationship between psychological factors and breast cancer incidence. Methods: The subjects who scheduled to receive mammography screening were recruited from a medical center′s outpatient department in Taiwan. Psychological factors used for measurement were stress, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 1160 questionnaires were completed, which underwent statistical analysis using independent t-test, Chi-square test, Pearson′s correlation, and multiple logistic regression. There were statistically significant differences in the average scores of the two groups with and without breast cancer for psychological factors of anxiety (t = −2.071; P = 0.039, depression (t = −3.035; P = 0.002, and stress (t = −4.087; P < 0.001. The crude odds ratio of the two groups showed that subjects with borderline anxiety were 2.576 times ( P = 0.001 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no anxiety. Subjects with depression were 4.078 times (P = 0.03 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no depression. Every point added to the average total stress score increased the additional risk of breast cancer by 1.124 times (P < 0.001. Conclusions: After making adjustments on educational factors, the results conclude that psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and depression can be considered predictors of breast cancer risk. To prevent and control breast cancer in women, the findings suggest that nurses should consider adding emphasis on psychological factors in women′s health education.

  2. De-qi, not psychological factors, determines the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jin; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Ming-Min; Wang, Wei; Huang, Guang-Ying

    2012-01-01

    To study the impact of De-qi (, obtaining qi) and psychological factors on the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea, with an attempt to explore the relationship among De-qi, psychological factors, and clinical efficacy. The patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomly assigned to a group of acupuncture with manual manipulation (manipulation group, n=67) and an acupuncture group without manipulation (non-manipulation group, n=64). Pain intensity and pain duration were used as measures for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of the acupuncture treatment. De-qi, the sensations a patient experienced during the acupuncture treatment, was scored on a 4-point scale by the subjects. In addition, the psychological factors, including belief in acupuncture, the level of nervousness, anxiety, and depression, were quantitatively assessed. The personality of the subject was assessed using the Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) and 16 personality factor questionnaire (16PF). Complete data were obtained from 120 patients, 60 patients in each group. There were statistically significant differences in pain intensity (W=2410.0, P<0.01) and pain duration (W=3181.0, P<0.01) between the two groups. The number of De-qi acupoints (W=1150.5, P<0.01) and the average intensity of De-qi (W=1141.0, P<0.01) were significantly higher in the manipulation group as compared with their non-manipulation counterparts. The correlation coefficients between De-qi and therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture were greater than those between psychological factors and therapeutic efficacy. Compared with the psychological factors, De-qi contributed more to the pain-relieving effect of acupuncture in subjects with primary dysmenorrhea. Moreover, manual manipulation is a prerequisite for eliciting and enhancing the De-qi sensations, and De-qi is critical for achieving therapeutic effects.

  3. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  4. Quality of life after young ischemic stroke of mild severity is mainly influenced by psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, M.; Synhaeve, N.A.; van Rijsbergen, Marielle; de Leeuw, F.-E.; Mark, Ruth; Jansen, B.; de Kort, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term prognosis in terms of quality of life (QoL) in young stroke patients is of importance because they usually have a long life expectancy and extensive daily life demands. We aimed at determining which medical and psychological factors influence the QoL in young stroke patients

  5. Entrepreneurship Education: How Psychological, Demographic and Behavioural Factors Predict the Entrepreneurial Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carla S.; Ferreira, Joao J.; Gomes, Daniela N.; Rodrigues, Ricardo Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the purpose of this paper is to approach entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the factors preceding the founding of EI among secondary students, both studying general academic and specific professional programs, and thereby establish causal relationships between psychological, demographic and…

  6. 393 The Challenges of Socio-Psychological Factors as Correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... The first hypothesis stated that there will be no significant relationship between peer influence and adolescent students' smoking behaviour. The findings this study indicate a significant relationship. It agrees with the. The Challenges of Socio-Psychological Factors as Correlates of Adolescent Students' ...

  7. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  8. Psychological factors are associated with subjective cognitive complaints 2 months post-stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Britta; van Heugten, Caroline M.; van Mierlo, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480856; Post, Marcel W M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137146426; de Kort, Paul L M; Visser-Meily, Anne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which psychological factors are related to post-stroke subjective cognitive complaints, taking into account the influence of demographic and stroke-related characteristics, cognitive deficits and emotional problems. In this cross-sectional study, 350 patients

  9. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  10. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. AIMS: To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  11. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Grievink, Linda; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris

    2006-01-01

    Background There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. Aims To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  12. Ryff's six-factor model of psychological well-being, a Spanish exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Dierendonck (Dirk); D. Díaz (Dario); R. Rodríguez-Carvajal (Raquel); A. Blanco (Amalio); B. Moreno-Jiménez (Bernardo)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article aims to provide researchers interested in using Ryff's Scales of Psychological Wellbeing with additional information to make an informed decision on the scales and items to use. It builds on the discussion in the literature on the six factor structure of this measure. An

  13. Ryff's Six-Factor Model of Psychological Well-Being, a Spanish Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dierendonck, Dirk; Diaz, Dario; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Blanco, Amalio; Moreno-Jimenez, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to provide researchers interested in using Ryff's Scales of Psychological Wellbeing with additional information to make an informed decision on the scales and items to use. It builds on the discussion in the literature on the six factor structure of this measure. An alternative shortened version of this wellbeing measure (Van…

  14. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Hope and College Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…

  15. Students' Physical and Psychological Reactions to Forensic Dissection: Are There Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Papadodima, Stavroula A.; Evaggelakos, Christos I.; Mytilinaios, Dimitrios G.; Goutas, Nikolaos D.; Spiliopoulou, Chara A.

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of students to forensic dissection encompass psychologico-emotional and physical components. This exploratory study aimed to determine risk factors for students' adverse physical and psychological reactions to forensic dissection. All sixth-year medical students (n = 304) attending the compulsory practical course in forensic medicine…

  16. [The role of some psychological, psychosocial and obstetrical factors in the intensity of postpartum blues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, N; Denis, A; Theux, G; Chabrol, H

    2008-04-01

    Within days following birth, most women show signs of mood changes, commonly named baby blues. Baby blues can result in postpartum depression. Hence it appears important to explore in more details the clinical background related to the intensity of postpartum blues. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological, psychosocial and obstetrical factors to the intensity of postpartum blues. One hundred and forty-eight women participated in the study and completed questionnaires three days after delivery. A questionnaire was built to collect information on psychosocial and obstetrical factors. The Maternity Blues (Kennerley and Gath, 1989) was used to assess postpartum blues. Psychological factors were measured with the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (Shea et Tronick, 1988), the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarch et Mermelstein, 1983) and the Sarason's Social Support Questionnaire (1983). Four multiple regression analyses were conducted to predict the intensity of postpartum blues by entering psychosocial factors, history of depression, obstetrical factors and psychological and relational factors. Significant predictors (maternal self-esteem, marital status, previous psychotherapeutic treatment, previous antidepressant treatment) were entered in a multiple regression analysis predicting the intensity of postpartum blues. This model accounted for 31% of the variance in the intensity of postpartum blues (F(4, 143)=17.9; Pblues and may be used in order to detect women who exhibit risk factors.

  17. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  18. Perception of Euro in Poland – Economic and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Matyja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diagnosis of the opportunities and threats associated with the introduction of the euro in Poland was the main focus of this study. The research had two main objectives: exploratory and operational. The exploratory objective was to capture the structure of convictions affecting Poles’ attitudes toward the introduction of the euro. The operational objective was to verify which of those convictions have the most infl uence on the lack of support for the introduction of the euro. Methodology: The research was conducted with a national random sample (n=509 of Polish citizens. The CAPI/ CASI face-to-face questionnaire was used. Findings: There exists a multi-level structure of attitudes towards the euro. The attitude toward the introduction of the euro is explained by attitudes toward the euro and the Polish zloty, perceived gains and losses from introduction of the euro and life attitudes. One cannot force another individual to support the introduction of the euro. However, one can act upon the convictions of the nation, which has a major impact on raising euro acceptance. The most impact is from strengthening of national beliefs, which strongly and positively affect the level of euro acceptance, whereas any reduction lowers the acceptance of the introduction of a new currency. Limitations: As any other social phenomena, money perception is very dynamic and dependent on current political and social issues. Therefore, despite the fact that the model seems to defi ne the factors and their influence on euro perception very accurately, it is essential that every time it is applied, the current state of mind of the society is measured. Furthermore, additional research should be conducted for groups deviating from the average results for the society. Originality: The practical aspect of this research is the opportunity to point out convictions, which need to be modified to increase euro acceptance.

  19. How Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt) could Help to Improve Psychological Wellbeing within the Dental Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    This article is an exploration of some of the causes of stress within the dental profession and a discussion on how some of the models and philosophies of NLPt could help improve the levels of psychological wellbeing within the profession. Some of the fundamental concepts of NLPt are explored, with particular reference to their application in regard to stress. It is concluded that NLPt could provide a robust methodology for reducing psychological distress within the profession, by helping dentists to understand the concept of unuseful constructs, to improve behavioural choice and to discover the possibility of a more resourceful way of being. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Dentists under stress do not perform well; judgement is impaired, motivation is reduced and poor decisions can be made which impact directly on patient care.

  20. CONTEXTUAL FACTORS AND MORAL EMOTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSMENT IN THE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÓN PAOLA GUEVARA MARÍN

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at testing a proposal relating contextual and emotional factors to prosocial and problematicbehaviors in adolescence. This proposal is based on ecological contextual models dealing with the influence ofmultiple factors on the explanation of psychological phenomena. The study was done on a sample of 239 nuclearfamilies with at least one son aged between 12 and 18 years old. The results showed that the main predictor ofprosocial behavior is the emotional factor, whereas for the psychological disadjustment behavior it is a proximal factor.It was also found that sympathy mediates both the relation between inductive discipline and the prosocial behavior,and the relation between acceptance and this adjustment behavior in adolescence.

  1. Who benefits from a psychosocial counselling versus educational intervention to improve psychological quality of life in prostate cancer survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Terry A; Segrin, Chris; Figueredo, Aurelio J; Harrington, Joanne; Sheppard, Kate; Passalacqua, Stacey; Pasvogel, Alice; Bishop, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We examined selected survivor characteristics to determine what factors might moderate the response to two psychosocial interventions. Seventy-one prostate cancer survivors (PCSs) were randomly assigned to either a telephone-delivered health education (THE) intervention or a telephone-delivered interpersonal counselling (TIP-C) intervention. Psychological quality of life (QOL) outcomes included depression, negative and positive affect, and perceived stress. For three of the psychological outcomes (depression, negative affect and stress), there were distinct advantages from participating in THE. For example, more favourable depression outcomes occurred when men were older, had lower prostate specific functioning, were in active chemotherapy, had lower social support from friends and lower cancer knowledge. Participating in the TIP-C provided a more favourable outcome for positive affect when men had higher education, prostate specific functioning, social support from friends and cancer knowledge. Unique survivor characteristics must be considered when recommending interventions that might improve psychological QOL in PCSs. Future research must examine who benefits most and from what components of psychosocial interventions to enable clinicians to recommend appropriate psychosocial care.

  2. Check it! A randomized pilot of a positive psychology intervention to improve adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaser, Sarah S; Patel, Niral; Rothman, Russell L; Choi, Leena; Whittemore, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to pilot-test a positive psychology intervention to improve adherence to diabetes management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. A total of 39 adolescents (ages, 13-17 years) with type 1 diabetes and their caregivers were randomized to a positive psychology intervention (n = 20) or an attention control (education) intervention (n = 19). The intervention condition used positive psychology exercises (eg, gratitude, self-affirmation), small gifts, and parent affirmations to boost positive affect. Outcomes included frequency of blood glucose monitoring, quality of life, and glycemic control. No main effects for treatment were observed at the 6-month follow-up. However, there was a significant association between adolescents' levels of positive affect and measures of adherence, including self-report and meter downloads of glucose monitoring. The results from the current study support the assertion that positive affect in the context of diabetes education is an important factor to consider in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. Use of a Supplementary Internet Based Education Program Improves Sleep Literacy in College Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Stuart F.; Anderson, Janis L.; Hodge, Gordon K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge regarding the importance of sleep in health and performance and good sleep hygiene practices is low, especially among adolescents and young adults. It is important to improve sleep literacy. Introductory psychology is one of the most highly enrolled courses at colleges and universities. This study tested the impact of an Internet-based learning module on improving sleep literacy in this venue. Methods: An Internet-based supplementary learning module containing sleep physiology and hygiene information was developed using content from the Harvard Medical School sleep educational website http://www.understandingsleep.org. Access to the module was provided as an extra credit activity for 2 of 4 sections (Supplemental Sleep, SS, N = 889) of an introductory college psychology course during their standard instruction on sleep and dreaming. The remaining 2 sections (Standard Instruction, SI, N = 878) only were encouraged to visit the website without further direction. Level of knowledge was assessed before and after availability to the module/website and at the end of the semester. Students were asked to complete a survey at the end of the semester inquiring whether they made any changes in their sleep behaviors. Results: Two hundred fifty students participated in the extra credit activity and had data available at all testing points. Students in the SS Group had a significant improvement in sleep knowledge test scores after interacting with the website in comparison to the SI group (19.41 ± 3.15 vs. 17.94 ± 3.08, p psychology course. Citation: Quan SF; Anderson JL; Hodge GK. Use of a supplementary internet based education program improves sleep literacy in college psychology students. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):155-160. PMID:23372469

  4. Peran Psychological Factors terhadap Pengambilan Keputusan Finansial (Studi Kasus pada Perusahaan Kalrez Petroleum (Seram) Ltd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarimatua, Yohannes Ronald; HUSAINI, ACHMAD

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know what psychological factors play a role in financial decision making on Kalrez Petroleum (Seram) Ltd. company. This research is descriptive research with qualitative approach. This research uses data collection method interviews and review of documentation. Data analysis using qualitative data analysis techniques to Miles and Hubberman. Based on the data analysis performed shows that there are thirteen factors that play a role in financial decision-makin...

  5. The contribution of psychological factors to recovery after mild traumatic brain injury: is cluster analysis a useful approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Deborah L; Surgenor, Lois J; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Williman, Jonathan; Siegert, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Outcomes after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) vary, with slow or incomplete recovery for a significant minority. This study examines whether groups of cases with shared psychological factors but with different injury outcomes could be identified using cluster analysis. This is a prospective observational study following 147 adults presenting to a hospital-based emergency department or concussion services in Christchurch, New Zealand. This study examined associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychological variables (distress, injury beliefs and symptom burden) and outcome 6 months later. A two-step approach to cluster analysis was applied (Ward's method to identify clusters, K-means to refine results). Three meaningful clusters emerged (high-adapters, medium-adapters, low-adapters). Baseline cluster-group membership was significantly associated with outcomes over time. High-adapters appeared recovered by 6-weeks and medium-adapters revealed improvements by 6-months. The low-adapters continued to endorse many symptoms, negative recovery expectations and distress, being significantly at risk for poor outcome more than 6-months after injury (OR (good outcome) = 0.12; CI = 0.03-0.53; p < 0.01). Cluster analysis supported the notion that groups could be identified early post-injury based on psychological factors, with group membership associated with differing outcomes over time. Implications for clinical care providers regarding therapy targets and cases that may benefit from different intensities of intervention are discussed.

  6. An investigation into the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being

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    Carolina M. Henn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South African studies investigating the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-being (RPWB are needed to ensure that the instrument is valid and reliable within the South African context.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the RPWB within two South African samples. Motivation for the study: Although a substantial number of studies have been undertaken, results regarding the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being are inconclusive. There is a dearth of information in relation to South African studies examining the scales’ factor structure.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach using a crosssectional field survey design was utilised. An adult working group (n = 202 was selected using convenience sampling, and a student group (n = 226 was selected by means of purposive non-probability sampling. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted to examine the factor structure.Main findings: The preferred model was a two-factor model where all the positively worded items were grouped in the first factor and all the negatively worded items were grouped in the second factor.Practical/managerial implications: The factor structure of the original RPWB was not satisfactorily replicated and remains seemingly unsettled. The utility of negatively worded items should be considered carefully, and alternatives such as mixed response options and phrase completion should be explored. The scales should be used with caution.Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the literature concerning the factor structure of the RPWB with an emphasis on the South African context. It contributes to ensuring that researchers and practitioners use a valid and reliable instrument when measuring psychological well-being.

  7. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

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    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  8. Correlations between postural control and psychological factors in vestibular schwannoma patients.

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    Ribeyre, Laurence; Spitz, Elisabeth; Frère, Julien; Gauchard, Gerome; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile

    2016-11-03

    Various individual factors have been described to influence postural performances related to vestibular schwannoma. However, psychological factors may also be involved in postural variations. To identify relationships between postural performances, illness perceptions, coping, anxiety-depression and quality of life of patients with vestibular schwannoma. Twenty-six patients who were scheduled for a surgical removal of a vestibular schwannoma underwent posturography tests and were asked to complete psychological questionnaires three days prior to surgery.The Sensory Organization Test, the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised, the Brief-COPE, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument were used for assessments. Correlations between posturography and psychological questionnaires were calculated. Balance disorders were associated with (i) impaired quality of life of patients, (ii) anxiety and depression affects, (iii) greater daily consequences, and with (iv) denial coping response. Given the association between balance disorders and psychological factors, health practitioners should be attentive to the deterioration of both aforementioned issues.

  9. Psychological factors mediate key symptoms of fibromyalgia through their influence on stress.

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    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2016-09-01

    The clinical features of fibromyalgia are associated with various psychological factors, including stress. We examined the hypothesis that the path that psychological factors follow in influencing fibromyalgia symptoms is through their direct effect on stress. Ninety-eight females with ACR 1990 classified fibromyalgia completed the following questionnaires: The Big 5 Personality Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Mastery Scale, and Perceived Control of Internal States Scale. SPSS (PASW version 22) was used to perform basic t tests, means, and standard deviations to show difference between symptom characteristics. Pathway analysis using structural equation modelling (Laavan) examined the effect of stress on the relationships between psychological factors and the elements that define the fibromyalgia phenotype. The preferred model showed that the identified path clearly linked the psychological variables of anxiety, neuroticism and mastery, but not internal control, to the three key elements of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep (p fibromyalgia symptoms. This has implications for the understanding of contributing mechanisms and the clinical care of patients with fibromyalgia.

  10. Meaning in life: is it a protective factor for adolescents' psychological health?

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    Brassai, László; Piko, Bettina F; Steger, Michael F

    2011-03-01

    Searching for a coherent meaning in life has long been proposed to be a protective factor in adolescent development. The present study aimed to examine meaning in life as a protective factor in a largely unstudied population: Romanian adolescents. Additionally, we sought to provide a novel, multidimensional assessment of several health-related variables (substance abuse, health risk behaviors, psychological health). Potential gender differences were explored regarding the role of life meaning in adolescent health. Data were collected in 2006 from students enrolled in the secondary schools of the Middle Transylvanian Region, Romania (n = 1,977). Self-administered questionnaires were used as a method of data collection including items of life meaning and psychological health. Meaning in life played a protective role with regard to health risk behaviors except smoking and binge drinking. Among males, meaning in life was found to be correlated only to illicit drug and sedative use, whereas among females, meaning in life was associated with binge drinking, unsafe sex, and lack of exercise and diet control. Psychological health was strongly related to meaning in life. In Romanian adolescents, meaning in life is a protective factor against health risk behaviors and poor psychological health.

  11. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress.

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    Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-07-25

    The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years +/- SD 10-years) from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6). Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR) for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years). This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P or = 25 contacts per week (P = 0.016). The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.

  12. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Methods Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years ± SD 10-years from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6. Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years. This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. Results In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P Conclusions The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.

  13. Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD

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    Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, VL

    2014-01-01

    COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (χ2 = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test – Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism PMID

  14. The impact of psychological factors on outcomes for spinal cord stimulation: an analysis with long-term follow-up.

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    Wolter, Tilman; Fauler, Ingrid; Kieselbach, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has successfully been employed to treat neuropathic pain. Psychological factors are assumed to be important for the efficacy of SCS. However, the impact of psychological factors on the outcome of SCS has only rarely been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of psychological factors such as anxiety and depression, perceived disability, and self efficacy on the outcome of SCS in a representative clinical sample. Retrospective study. Academic university interdisciplinary pain center. We reviewed the records of 60 consecutive patients who had been treated at our institution with lumbar, thoracic, or cervical neurostimulators between July 1, 2008, and June 30, 2012. Information with respect to age, gender, diagnosis, age at time of implantation, disease duration, the preoperative Hospital Anxiety and Depression Test, German Version (HADS-D), the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and preoperative pain scores on an 11 point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) were recorded. In addition, a questionnaire was mailed to participants that contained the following items: pain scores on the NRS with and without stimulation, time intervals of stimulation, paresthesia coverage, treatment satisfaction and medication intake, anxiety/depression (HADS-D and Beck Depression Index II [BDI-II]), PDI, and self efficacy using the Fragebogen zur Erfassung der schmerzspezifischen Selbstwirksamkeit (FESS). Preoperative HADS-D, PDI, and NRS pain scores were not different in those patients with an unsuccessful trial and those who underwent IPG implantation. Long-term outcomes were not affected by pre-implantation HADS-D or PDI scores. FESS scores showed a strong inverse correlation with HADS-D, BDI-II, and PDI scores and showed a tendency towards correlation with the percentage of pain reduction. HADS-D and PDI scores improved after SCS therapy. Retrospective study. The outcome of SCS therapy could not be predicted on the basis of

  15. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; McMillan, Susan C

    2016-11-02

    Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping), and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning), behavioral (pain-related distress), and demographic characteristics. Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  16. Quality of life and psychological well-being in obesity management: improving the odds of success by managing distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallis, M

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is increasing in prevalence and placing an ever-greater burden on individuals and healthcare resources alike. Obesity management is complex and, for many, elusive. This paper reviews the major factors that influence psychological well-being in individuals with obesity and describes the means by which their impact on distress and other aspects of quality of life (QoL) can be quantified. The goal is to enable healthcare providers to set reasonable, achievable, maintainable weight loss targets that will improve the psychological well-being and QoL of individuals living with obesity. PubMed and Web of Science searches were conducted to identify literature that addresses the key question: How can distress over obesity be measured and taken into account when tailoring weight loss interventions for a particular patient? 'Distress over obesity' is a key parameter that illustrates the psychological consequences of excess weight. Healthcare providers can draw on a range of obesity-specific and non-specific assessment tools to quantify distress as well as the other contributions of obesity to QoL and mental/emotional health. When physicians consider the psychological/QoL aspects of obesity and how these change with successful weight loss, it becomes possible to set achievable, realistic weight loss goals and develop a manageable plan to achieve them. Any future developments that make it easier to achieve these goals should be made widely available to all patients in need, in order to help them turn a vicious cycle of failure into a virtuous cycle of success. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Self-reported psychological characteristics as risk factors for injuries in female youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K; Pensgaard, A M; Bahr, R

    2009-06-01

    Identifying and understanding injury risk factors are necessary to target the injury-prone athlete and develop injury prevention measurements. The influence of psychological factors on injuries in football is poorly documented. The purpose of this 8-month prospective cohort study therefore was to examine whether psychological player characteristics assessed by a self-administered questionnaire represent risk factors for injury. At baseline, female football players (14-16 years) were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire covering player history, previous injuries, perception of success and motivational climate, life stress, anxiety and coping strategies. During the 2005 season, a total of 1430 players were followed up to record injuries. A history of a previous injury [odds ratio (OR)=1.9 (1.4; 2.5), Pfootball players.

  18. Appropriateness and limitations of factor analysis methods utilized in psychology and kinesiology: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trninić Viktorija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural modelling techniques and application of models that extract latent variables are recent predominant techniques in the applied multivariate statistical procedures in social sciences. We believe that correlation studies can provide adequate findings if they are supported by logical analysis or causal modelling procedures. It is important to emphasize that factor analysis methods alone do not reveal the cause of covariability and that the final result of factor analytical investigation depends, in part, on the decisions and interpretations of the researcher. The question of the minimum sample size in factor analysis, ambiguousness of results obtained by FA and mathematical problems in the use of FA is particularly scrupulously discussed in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of the factor analysis of data obtained from experiments on the scientific paradigm was analyzed, with emphasis on the current problems with its application in social sciences research. Neither method, including factor analysis, is sufficient to answer all problem issues in the field of psychology and kinesiology. Therefore, it is necessary to combine complementary methods within the research which will allow a more comprehensive analysis of the researched phenomena and a greater validity of empirical results. Finally, reducing theories in psychology to a psychometric method and theories in kinesiology to a kinesiometric method is an anomaly of numerous quantitative studies within these scientific disciplines, making identification, instead of explanation of multi-causal nature of psychological and kinesiological phenomena, a primary focus of the research.

  19. Improving transparency and reproducibility through registration: The status of intervention trials published in clinical psychology journals.

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    Cybulski, Lukasz; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Grant, Sean

    2016-09-01

    Prospective registration increases the validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In the United States, registration is a legal requirement for drugs and devices regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and many biomedical journals refuse to publish trials that are not registered. Trials in clinical psychology have not been subject to these requirements; it is unknown to what extent they are registered. We searched the 25 highest-impact clinical psychology journals that published at least 1 RCT of a health-related psychological intervention in 2013. For included trials, we evaluated their registration status (prospective, retrospective, not registered) and the completeness of their outcome definitions. We identified 163 articles that reported 165 RCTs; 73 (44%) RCTs were registered, of which only 25 (15%) were registered prospectively. Of registered RCTs, only 42 (58%) indicated their registration status in the publication. Only 2 (1% of all trials) were registered prospectively and defined their primary outcomes completely. For the primary outcome(s), 72 (99%) of all registrations defined the domain, 67 (92%) the time frame, and 48 (66%) the specific measurements. Only 19 (26%) and 5 (7%) defined the specific metric and method of aggregation, respectively, for all primary outcomes. Very few reports of RCTs published in clinical psychology journals were registered prospectively and completely. Clinical psychology journals could improve transparency and reproducibility, as well as reduce bias, by requiring complete prospective trial registration for publication and by including trial registration numbers in all reports of RCTs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Resilient Warrior: A Stress Management Group to Improve Psychological Health in Service Members.

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    Sylvia, Louisa G; Bui, Eric; Baier, Allison L; Mehta, Darshan H; Denninger, John W; Fricchione, Gregory L; Casey, Aggie; Kagan, Leslee; Park, Elyse R; Simon, Naomi M

    2015-11-01

    Many veterans deployed after 9/11/2001 are impacted by subthreshold levels of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, or other psychological health problems that may interfere with successful reintegration. Conventional treatments, including medication and trauma-focused individual psychotherapies, may not be optimally adapted, accepted, or effective to treat these subsyndromal symptoms. We developed "Resilient Warrior," a 4-session, group-based, mind-body stress-management and resilience program targeted to build skills and assessed whether its format was accessible and acceptable, and potentially efficacious, to support resilience among service members. From April 2014 to October 2014, 15 participants (53.3% women; mean age=36.6 y; SD=6.2) were surveyed for program acceptability and feasibility and completed self-reported psychological health outcomes before and after program participation. The majority (71.4%) of participants reported that the program included the right number of sessions, and all of them reported that it was helpful and relevant and that they would recommend it to others. While changes in self-reported resilience were only marginal, participation was associated with improvements in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, and general sense of self efficacy. These pilot data provide preliminary support that "Resilient Warrior," a group-based, stress reduction and resilience program, may improve psychological health in service members even when delivered in community settings. Randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish efficacy and effectiveness for this program.

  1. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A; Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Arias-Morales, Carlos E; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Rogers, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, sociodemographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications.

  2. Investigating risk factors for psychological morbidity three months after intensive care: a prospective cohort study.

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    Wade, Dorothy M; Howell, David C; Weinman, John A; Hardy, Rebecca J; Mythen, Michael G; Brewin, Chris R; Borja-Boluda, Susana; Matejowsky, Claire F; Raine, Rosalind A

    2012-10-15

    There is growing evidence of poor mental health and quality of life among survivors of intensive care. However, it is not yet clear to what extent the trauma of life-threatening illness, associated drugs and treatments, or patients' psychological reactions during intensive care contribute to poor psychosocial outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the relative contributions of a broader set of risk factors and outcomes than had previously been considered in a single study. A prospective cohort study of 157 mixed-diagnosis highest acuity patients was conducted in a large general intensive care unit (ICU). Data on four groups of risk factors (clinical, acute psychological, socio-demographic and chronic health) were collected during ICU admissions. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and quality of life were assessed using validated questionnaires at three months (n = 100). Multivariable analysis was used. At follow-up, 55% of patients had psychological morbidity: 27.1% (95% CI: 18.3%, 35.9%) had probable PTSD; 46.3% (95% CI: 36.5%, 56.1%) probable depression, and 44.4% (95% CI: 34.6%, 54.2%) anxiety. The strongest clinical risk factor for PTSD was longer duration of sedation (regression coefficient = 0.69 points (95% CI: 0.12, 1.27) per day, scale = 0 to 51). There was a strong association between depression at three months and receiving benzodiazepines in the ICU (mean difference between groups = 6.73 points (95% CI: 1.42, 12.06), scale = 0 to 60). Use of inotropes or vasopressors was correlated with anxiety, and corticosteroids with better physical quality of life. Strikingly high rates of psychological morbidity were found in this cohort of intensive care survivors. The study's key finding was that acute psychological reactions in the ICU were the strongest modifiable risk factors for developing mental illness in the future. The observation that use of different ICU drugs correlated with different psychological outcomes merits further

  3. Improvements in Vertebral-Column Angles and Psychological Metrics After Abdominoplasty With Rectus Plication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Metin; Türkmen, Arif; Berberoğlu, Ömer

    2016-05-01

    Substantial fluctuations in body weight can result in diastasis recti and weakening of the connections between the lateral abdominal muscles and the rectus sheath. The authors sought to determine the postural and psychological effects of abdominoplasty with vertical rectus plication. Forty women with substantial back and lumbar pain owing to abdominal lipodystrophy were evaluated in a prospective study. Preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively, patients underwent bidirectional radiography of the thoracic and lumbar regions. A visual analog scale (VAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were applied to assess physical, psychological, and quality-of-life changes following surgery. Significant improvements in posture, assessed in terms of lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, and the lumbosacral angle, were observed 6 months after abdominoplasty with rectus plication. Results of the VAS and BDI indicated significant improvements in pain and quality of life, respectively. Results of the NHP indicated significant postoperative improvements in fatigue, pain, and sleep. Abdominoplasty with rectus plication improves posture by tightening the thoracolumbar fascia. In selected patients, abdominoplasty can reduce back and lumbar pain, thereby improving quality of life. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Psychological factors related to temporomandibular disorders: an evaluation of students preparing for college entrance examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Maisa Reis; Sabadin, Patricia A; Leite, Fabiola P P; Kamizaki, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to research how stress and anxiety affected the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in 55 high school graduates at two different times: six months before and one the week before their college entrance examinations. The American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) Questionnaire, Lipp's Stress for Adults Inventory (ISSL) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to evaluate TMD, stress and anxiety, respectively. The data were submitted to Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests. At first the results showed higher positive correlation between anxiety and TMD than between stress and TMD. Out of the total participants, 36% had TMD, and of these, only 12.7% had no psychological disorder. One week before the tests there were high positive correlations between TMD and the psychological factors studied, and 50.9% of the students had TMD, of which only 9% had no psychological disorder The most prevalent signs of TMD symptomatology were joint sounds and headache, followed by neck pain. It was concluded that students preparing to take college entrance examinations are a potential risk group for developing TMD due to psychological factors generating anxiety and stress. Anxiety becomes more significant as the semester progresses, and both anxiety and stress increase as the examination dates approach.

  5. Maternal and childhood psychological factors predict chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years.

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    Collin, Simon M; Tilling, Kate; Joinson, Carol; Rimes, Katharine A; Pearson, Rebecca M; Hughes, Rachael A; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Crawley, Esther

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether premorbid maternal and childhood psychological problems are risk factors for chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort. Chronic disabling fatigue was defined as fatigue of at least 3-month, and up to 5-year, duration that prevented school attendance or hobbies/sport/leisure activities, and for which other causes were not identified. Maternal psychological factors were symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed up to eight times between pregnancy and age 6 years. We investigated critical periods for maternal effects and effects of paternal depression at three time points. Child psychological factors included internalizing and externalizing problems and upsetting life events occurring at age 7-8 years. Of 5,657 children, 110 (1.9%) had chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years. Maternal anxiety (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.31 per episode), maternal depression (AOR, 1.24; CI, 1.11-1.39 per episode), child psychological problems (AOR, 1.19; CI, 1.00-1.41 per problem), and upsetting events (AOR, 1.22; CI, .99-1.58 per event) were associated with chronic disabling fatigue. Associations of child psychological problems and upsetting events were attenuated (AOR, 1.12; CI, .93-1.33 per problem; AOR, 1.19; CI, .94-1.52 per event) after further adjusting for maternal anxiety and depression. Pediatricians need to be aware that children whose mothers experience anxiety and/or depression between pregnancy and child's age 6 years have an increased risk of developing chronic disabling fatigue in early adolescence. Conversely, clinicians need to be alert to fatigue in children whose mothers have longstanding anxiety and depression. These findings suggest the importance of family-based approaches to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychological Factors Involved in Sexual Desire, Sexual Activity, and Sexual Satisfaction: A Multi-factorial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosch, Alessandra; Rochat, Lucien; Ghisletta, Paolo; Favez, Nicolas; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the role of psychological trait factors in sexual desire and sexual activity. In particular, it investigated how these factors may contribute to maintaining a balance between motivational aspects and self-control abilities, as both have been considered important in relation to adaptive sexuality. Moreover, the study explored the relationship between sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction. Participants completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), sexual activity (with a partner, alone), sexual satisfaction, approach and avoidance motivation, attachment, self-control, sensation seeking, and mindfulness. Cluster analyses, based on participants' level of sexual desire and sexual activity, highlighted three distinct profiles for each gender related to different types of psychological functioning: (a) participants with high dyadic sexual desire and activity were the most sexually satisfied, showed optimal psychological functioning, and were characterized by a balance between motivational tendencies to seek positive rewards and self-control abilities (high approach motivation, secure attachment, high self-control, high mindfulness); (b) participants with high dyadic and solitary sexual desire and activity were moderately satisfied and showed a type of psychological functioning predominantly characterized by impulsivity (an overly high motivation to obtain rewards in women, and low self-control in men); (c) participants with low dyadic sexual desire and activity were the least sexually satisfied and were characterized by high motivation to avoid negative consequences and low self-control (high avoidance motivation, insecure attachment, and poor mindfulness). These results shed further light on how fundamental psychological factors contribute to explain the individual variability in sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction.

  7. Using Psychology in the Physics Classroom: Five Steps to Improving Classroom Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jo-Anne

    2018-01-01

    Psychology has been an avocation of mine for almost 20 years, and over the past decade I have begun integrating this knowledge into my classroom. My first introduction to psychology was through the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®. MBTI looks at preferences in how people interact with the world around them. By recognizing how different students receive, process, and communicate information, and how my communication style likely interacts with theirs, I have been able to improve my competence in the classroom. For example, my student evaluations have gone from the low- to mid-5's 13 years ago to mid-6's (out of 7) consistently over the last five years, during which time I have also won four teaching awards and have been nominated for one more at my institution.

  8. Integrating the ICF with positive psychology: Factors predicting role participation for mothers with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ruth S; Kern, Margaret L; Brusilovsky, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Being a mother has become a realizable life role for women with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying psychosocial factors that facilitate participation in important life roles-including motherhood-is essential to help women have fuller lives despite the challenge of their illness. By integrating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and a positive psychology perspective, this study examined how environmental social factors and positive personal factors contribute to daily role participation and satisfaction with parental participation. One hundred and 11 community-dwelling mothers with MS completed Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, the Short Form-36, and the Parental Participation Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses examined associations between social support and positive personal factors (environmental mastery, self-acceptance, purpose in life) with daily role participation (physical and emotional) and satisfaction with parental participation. One-way ANOVAs tested synergistic combinations of social support and positive personal factors. Social support predicted daily role participation (fewer limitations) and greater satisfaction with parental participation. Positive personal factors contributed additional unique variance. Positive personal factors and social support synergistically predicted better function and greater satisfaction than either alone. Integrating components of the ICF and positive psychology provides a useful model for understanding how mothers with MS can thrive despite challenge or impairment. Both positive personal factors and environmental social factors were important contributors to positive role functioning. Incorporating these paradigms into treatment may help mothers with MS participate more fully in meaningful life roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help: Factor structure and socio-demographic predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa ePicco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps and delays in help seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: ‘Openness to seeking professional help’, ‘Value in seeking professional help’ and ‘Preference to cope on one’s own’. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, and employment status were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.

  10. Kinesiophobia and depression affect total knee arthroplasty outcome in a multivariate analysis of psychological and physical factors on 200 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, G; Merli, G; Roffi, A; Marcacci, T; Berti Ceroni, F; Raboni, D; Bortolotti, B; Kon, E; Marcacci, M

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of kinesiophobia on the outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to investigate whether kinesiophobia represents an independent factor influencing the surgery success or whether the observed effects are driven by other physical or psychological aspects such as anxiety and depression. Two hundred patients were evaluated prospectively (mean age 65.7 ± 9.1 years, 134 women and 66 men) at 12 months after TKA. Kinesiophobia was assessed with the Tampa Scale for kinesiophobia (TSK: Activity Avoidance-TSK1 and Harm-TSK2 subscales); anxiety and depression were assessed with STAI and BDI, respectively, and preoperative pain and function, sex, age, BMI, education level, number of painful joints and years of symptoms' duration before surgery were documented as well. Results were evaluated with pain and function on 0-10 numeric rating scales, while the overall clinical outcome was documented with WOMAC and SF-12 (Physical and Mental subscales) scores. TSK1 was correlated with WOMAC results at 12 months (p = 0.005, ρ = 0.197). STAI (p = 0.002, ρ = 0.222), BDI (p Kinesiophobia is a factor influencing the outcome after TKA independently from other psychological and physical variables. This risk factor may affect TKA results, especially in women, and shows a further synergic interaction with depression in terms of lower surgical outcome. These findings are of clinical relevance because they show the impact of psychological factors such as kinesiophobia, and suggest the possibility of adopting co-interventions to overcome the fear of physical activity, and in the end improve patient recovery and final outcome after TKA. IV.

  11. Headache disorders in children and adolescents: their association with psychological, behavioral, and socio-environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Gassmann, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    This cross-sectional study on a randomly drawn population sample of children and adolescents (n = 3399; aged 9 to 15) aimed at the assessment of patterns of associations between psychosocial variables and primary headache disorders like migraine (MIG) or tension-type headache. A headache-free group served as a control. Data on headache and psychological trait variables (eg, internalizing symptoms), behavioral factors (eg, physical activities), and socio-environmental factors (eg, life events) were gathered by questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with headache types (MIG, tension-type, and non-classifiable headache) as dependent variables. The pattern of correlations was largely congruent between the headache disorders. Associations were closest regarding maladaptive psychological traits (in particular internalizing symptoms with an odds ratio > 4 regarding MIG) compared with socio-environmental factors and particularly the behavioral factors. Unfavorable psychological traits and socio-environmental strains demonstrated distinctly stronger associations with MIG than tension-type headache and explained more variance in the occurrence of pediatric headache disorders than parental headache. Sex-specific analyses showed similarities as well as differences regarding the correlations, and in general, the associations were stronger in girls than boys. A common path model as posited by several researchers in the field may explain the parallelism in biopsychosocial vulnerability regarding the different headache disorders. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  12. Psychological Factors and Mortality Risk in a Rural Area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokushima, Yasuko; Hosoda, Takenobu; Okamoto, Mikizo; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to assess the association between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Methods We used follow-up data for 4,181 persons from 40 to 79 years over a period of 17.6 years from one part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). The status of the individuals comprising the data of the study as of the end of December 2006 was determined from their registration cards and death records. We calculated the proportions of selected variables among 5 psychological factors by sex. Cox’s proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the associations between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Data were adjusted for age, medical history, education, job status, marital status, drinking, smoking, physical activity, sleeping duration, body mass index and breakfast. Results During the follow-up period, a total of 791 deaths were recorded. Men who reported feelings of being trusted had a decreased risk for mortality risk from all causes compared with the risk of those who reported “maybe”, whereas those without feelings of being trusted had increased risk for mortality risk from all causes. Conclusion This study suggests that the absence of feelings of being trusted increases the risk of all causes of mortality among middle-aged and elderly men in a rural area. Our findings suggest that interpersonal relationships comprise an important factor in longevity. PMID:25324588

  13. FACTORS OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF TEENAGERS TO EDUCATION IN SUVOROV MILITARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the content of the concept ofsocio-psychological adaptation.Methods. In the course of work theoretical methods of research are used: an overview and synthesis of approaches to the study of such a theoretical construct as adaptation and disadaptation; practical methods: methods of diagnostics of socio-psychological adaptation by K. Rogers and P. Diamond (SPA and multi-factor personality questionnaire by R. Cattell (CPQ. The research is summative. Statistical processing is carried out using the computer programs STATISTICA 6.0 and MS Excel; the method of multiple regression analysis is used to highlight the personal factors influencing the level of adaptation of pupils of the Suvorov military school. Results. According to the empirical study, the authors describe the obtained factors of socio-psychological adaptation and disadaptation of adolescents enrolled in the course at Suvorov military school of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. The results of empirical research of features of adolescents’ adaptation to the conditions of a military educational institution are presented. Special attention is paid to the selection of personality traits characterizing the failure probability of disadaptation. The authors justified the need and described the possibility of organizing a psychological-pedagogical support of adolescents at the initial stage of studying in military educational institution of the closed type.Scientific novelty. The article proposes the authors’ approach to the concept of socio-psychological adaptation; the main indicators of successful socio-psychological adolescents’ adaptation to the conditions of Suvorov military school are identified; the indicators that predict the risk of the failure probability of disadaptation are given. It is concluded that the development of adaptive capacity should be achieved through personal components.Practical significance. The

  14. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring psychological and social work factors in relation to mental health problems (anxiety and depression) have mainly focused on a limited set of exposures. The current study investigated prospectively a broad set of specific psychological and social work factors as predictors of potentially clinically relevant mental distress (anxiety and depression), i.e. “caseness” level of distress. Employees were recruited from 48 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 3644 employees responded at both baseline and at follow-up two years later. Respondents were distributed across 832 departments within the 48 organizations. Nineteen work factors were measured. Two prospective designs were tested: (i) with baseline predictors and (ii) with average exposure over time ([T1+T2]/2) as predictors. Random intercept logistic regressions were conducted to account for clustering of the data. Baseline “cases” were excluded (n = 432). Age, sex, skill level, and mental distress as a continuous variable at T1 were adjusted for. Fourteen of 19 factors showed some prospective association with mental distress. The most consistent risk factor was role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 99% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.00). The most consistent protective factors were support from immediate superior (lowest OR 0.56, 99% CI: 0.43–0.72), fair leadership (lowest OR 0.52, 99% CI: 0.40–0.68), and positive challenge (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.41–0.86). The present study demonstrated that a broad set of psychological and social work factors predicted mental distress of potential clinical relevance. Some of the most consistent predictors were different from those traditionally studied. This highlights the importance of expanding the range of factors beyond commonly studied concepts like the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. PMID:25048033

  15. Aging and low back pain among exercise participants: a follow-up study with psychological adaptation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Kadivar, Zahra; Guillory, Stephen A; Isaza, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    This study is a follow-up to a study previously published in this journal that reported the moderating function of exercise exertion amid the relationship between age and low back pain (LBP) among consistent exercise participants. The current study analyzed factors of psychological adaptation as potential mediators within the age--LBP relationship. Measures of psychological adaptation included psychological vulnerability, avoidant coping, resilient coping, and perceived resilience. The sample reported slightly moderate psychological vulnerability; a moderate extent of avoidant coping and resilient coping; and high resilience. Age inversely correlated with psychological vulnerability and avoidance coping. LBP correlated inversely with avoidant coping. Avoidant coping positively mediated (enhanced) age's effect on LBP. Results from this follow-up analysis highlight the importance of understanding and testing psychological factors in models with age and a physical health outcome.

  16. Some individual psychological characteristics as protective or risk factors for occurrence of conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jasminka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study included 30 pairs of siblings aged 12-18 years; one sibling with and one without conduct disorder in each pair. The aim of the study was to assess individual characteristics of those siblings, i.e. to determine differences in psychological characteristics of the siblings with regard to locus of control, stress coping strategies and frequency and structure of behavioral problems and emotions. The results suggested significant differences in individual characteristics of children with conduct disorder and their healthy siblings. These results mainly confirm previous results of foreign research on a sample of our population. Exception of findings was related to strategies for coping with stress: religious behavior that didn’t turn out as a protective factor and avoiding confrontation and withdrawal which are shown as a protective factor. These results suggest the importance of individual psychological characteristics for the occurrence of conduct disorders and have implications in therapy and in preventive work with adolescents.

  17. Psychological risk factors of social maladjustment and protective factors in alcohol-dependent women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleshakova E.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the psychological characteristics of alcohol-dependent women, including the particularities of subjective psychological symptomatic status, psychological well-being, motivation, social desirability and self-esteem. We tested the hypothesis that: 1 alcohol-dependent women expressed less motivation of social desirability and expressed more subjectively perceived symptoms in comparison with normal; 2 alcohol-dependent women have lower levels of well-being, self-esteem and level of aspiration in comparison with the conventional norm. The experimental group consisted of 46 women (mean age 45 years who are dependent on alcohol. The comparison group included 33 women with normal behavior who are not dependent on alcohol (the average age 33 years. We have found that a statistically significant contribution to the classification of women in a group of alcohol-dependent is made by low self-esteem, high levels of anxiety, low real self-evaluation of their success in business, willpower and mental health, low ideal self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and mind, achievable self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and visual attractiveness, the average level of the personal growth as basic component of well-being.

  18. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    OpenAIRE

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questio...

  19. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...

  20. Relevant risk factors, current eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero García, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The first aim of this study is to assess retrospectively the relevant risk factors in patients with Eating Disorders (EDs). The second aim is the assessment of eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning in different groups of eating disorders. Method: Evaluation prior to intervention of 73 patients with bulimia nervosa of the purging type (BN-P; n=29), binge eating disorder (BED; n=6), eating disorder not otherwise specified purging type (EDNOS-P; n=17...

  1. Association of Psychological Factors to Alcohol Consumption Behavior among U.S. College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Oladunni Oluwoye; Salam Khan; Jacob Oluwoye; Russell J. Fricano; Earl M. Gooding; Joan Fobbs-Wilson; Jitendra Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    This study explores college students’ alcohol consumption behavior and evaluates theeffect of different psychological factors on consumption patterns. Randomly selectedstudents from two different universities completed surveys with perceived scales for stress,self esteem and anxiety and an alcohol consumption questionnaire. Non-parametricanalyses suggests that low self esteem, higher stress and anxiety level and younger ageincrease the likelihood of drinking alcohol. These findings were consi...

  2. Subjective Factors of the Hospital Environment and Their Influence on Psychological Well-being of Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Agalarova K.N.

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the relationship between man and the space around him, namely between the patient and hospital environment. The article gives a little insight into the history of the issue. The study held in a number of hospitals explored the influence of hospital environment on the psychological state of patients and their recovery, as well as the searching of behavior patterns of patients staying in the hospital. There are several main factors in the right treatment: ...

  3. Psychological factors and visual fatigue in working with video display terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Mocci, F; Serra, A.; Corrias, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine the part played by psychological factors in complaints about visual health reported by banking officers who work at video display terminals (VDTs).
METHODS—Out of a population of 385 bank workers, a group of 212 subjects without organic visual disturbances (as determined by opthalmological examination) who share a work environment and job duties was selected. Three questionnaires were administered to these subjects: (a) the NIOSH job stress questionnaire; (b) a questionn...

  4. [Longitudinal study on adolescents' psychological resilience and its impact factors in 5.12 earthquake-hit areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaolan; He, Furong; Jiang, Min; Zhou, Yanyang

    2013-11-01

    To explore the trajectory of psychological resilience and its impact factors of adolescents in earthquake-hit areas by latent variable growth curve model (LGM) and to find out protective factors for psychological resilience. Longitudinal design was administrated. All grade one students in two junior high schools in the heavily and slightly earthquake-hit areas respectively were investigated by follow-up study in one year. Repeated measures analysis of variance and latent variable growth curve model were used for statistical analysis. The three-time measurements of psychological resilience of adolescents in the heavily earthquake-hit areas were significantly lower than corresponding measurements of the slightly earthquake-hit areas all along. There was an ascending trend of adolescent's psychological resilience and objective support over one year (P protective factors of resilience were self-esteem and subjective support and indirectly protective factors were objective support and utilization of social support. The psychological resilience of boys was higher than that of girl, but the change trend of psychological resilience was no difference between boys and girls. Psychological resilience of adolescents had dynamic characteristics. Psychological resilience of adolescents would be damaged in disasters but it could be recovered through enhance internal and external protective factors.

  5. Research on psychological and social factors in palliative care: an invited commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Gary

    2013-12-01

    Psychosocial factors are a major determinant of well-being in patients with advanced disease. However, the development of valid and reliable measures of meaningful and relevant outcomes and randomized controlled trials to assess the impact of novel interventions are relatively recent accomplishments. To discuss significant developments in psychosocial research, including work of the author, in palliative populations and to identify areas where uncertainty and controversy persist. The impact of systematic research on psychosocial factors in palliative care over the past four decades is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the development of relevant measures of psychological outcomes and to the results of pilot studies and randomized controlled trials of psychosocial interventions. A variety of factors, including methodological limitations, protective attitudes of health-care providers, and the progressive deterioration of patients with terminal disease, have presented obstacles to psychosocial research in palliative care. The more recent development of valid and reliable measures of psychological distress and psychological well-being has significantly advanced research in the field. Pilot studies and randomized controlled trials of psychosocial interventions have yielded promising results, although the demonstrated impact on primary outcomes in these studies has typically been modest. Psychosocial research in palliative care has grown in rigor and volume over the past several decades, and a variety of novel interventions have been developed and evaluated. However, the findings from this research have only begun to have an impact on clinical practice in palliative care.

  6. Use of a supplementary internet based education program improves sleep literacy in college psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Stuart F; Anderson, Janis L; Hodge, Gordon K

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge regarding the importance of sleep in health and performance and good sleep hygiene practices is low, especially among adolescents and young adults. It is important to improve sleep literacy. Introductory psychology is one of the most highly enrolled courses at colleges and universities. This study tested the impact of an Internet-based learning module on improving sleep literacy in this venue. An Internet-based supplementary learning module containing sleep physiology and hygiene information was developed using content from the Harvard Medical School sleep educational website http://www.understandingsleep.org. Access to the module was provided as an extra credit activity for 2 of 4 sections (Supplemental Sleep, SS, N = 889) of an introductory college psychology course during their standard instruction on sleep and dreaming. The remaining 2 sections (Standard Instruction, SI, N = 878) only were encouraged to visit the website without further direction. Level of knowledge was assessed before and after availability to the module/website and at the end of the semester. Students were asked to complete a survey at the end of the semester inquiring whether they made any changes in their sleep behaviors. Two hundred fifty students participated in the extra credit activity and had data available at all testing points. Students in the SS Group had a significant improvement in sleep knowledge test scores after interacting with the website in comparison to the SI group (19.41 ± 3.15 vs. 17.94 ± 3.08, p internet-based sleep learning module has the potential to enhance sleep literacy and change behavior among students enrolled in an introductory college psychology course.

  7. Subjective Factors of the Hospital Environment and Their Influence on Psychological Well-being of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agalarova K.N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the relationship between man and the space around him, namely between the patient and hospital environment. The article gives a little insight into the history of the issue. The study held in a number of hospitals explored the influence of hospital environment on the psychological state of patients and their recovery, as well as the searching of behavior patterns of patients staying in the hospital. There are several main factors in the right treatment: the doctor’s qualification, quality of medical equipment, novelty of medical technology and medicines prescribed to patients but also the conditions of the hospital environment and trusting relationship between patient and doctor as well. This theme is insufficiently explored especially in Russian medicine. Its studying will serve as a referral base for a more effective treatment of patients, and also for a creating a conducive hospital environment. This theme is interdisciplinary in nature. Mainly it refers to the subject of environmental psychology, also located at the junction of personality, health psychology and rehabilitation psychology.

  8. Modulatory effects of aromatherapy massage intervention on electroencephalogram, psychological assessments, salivary cortisol and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Ji; Cui, Yanji; Yang, Yoon-Sil; Kang, Moon-Seok; Jung, Sung-Cherl; Park, Hyeung Keun; Yeun, Hye-Young; Jang, Won Jung; Lee, Sunjoo; Kwak, Young Sook; Eun, Su-Yong

    2014-06-01

    Aromatherapy massage is commonly used for the stress management of healthy individuals, and also has been often employed as a therapeutic use for pain control and alleviating psychological distress, such as anxiety and depression, in oncological palliative care patients. However, the exact biological basis of aromatherapy massage is poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluated here the effects of aromatherapy massage interventions on multiple neurobiological indices such as quantitative psychological assessments, electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum pattern, salivary cortisol and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. A control group without treatment (n = 12) and aromatherapy massage group (n = 13) were randomly recruited. They were all females whose children were diagnosed as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and followed up in the Department of Psychiatry, Jeju National University Hospital. Participants were treated with aromatherapy massage for 40 min twice per week for 4 weeks (8 interventions). A 4-week-aromatherapy massage program significantly improved all psychological assessment scores in the Stat-Trait Anxiety Index, Beck Depression Inventory and Short Form of Psychosocial Well-being Index. Interestingly, plasma BDNF levels were significantly increased after a 4 week-aromatherapy massage program. Alpha-brain wave activities were significantly enhanced and delta wave activities were markedly reduced following the one-time aromatherapy massage treatment, as shown in the meditation and neurofeedback training. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were significantly reduced following the one-time aromatherapy massage treatment. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage could exert significant influences on multiple neurobiological indices such as EEG pattern, salivary cortisol and plasma BDNF levels as well as psychological assessments. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [The relationship between fat intake behavior and psychological impact factor in adolescent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xian; Huang, Xianhong; Gu, Fang; Qu, Xuping; Xu, Liangwen

    2015-02-01

    To learn the dietary fat intake behavior status and influencing psychological factors in teenagers. According to the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, students were recruited from middle and high schools in Hangzhou, Wuhan and Xi'an from March to May, 2012. Chinese version of adolescent dietary fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales was utilized in field investigations with 3 448 effective questionnaires. Under the transtheoretical model, the status quo of teenagers fat intake behavior was analyzed and it shows the relationship between stages and psychological variables, including strategy of change, decision balance and self-efficacy. In the 3 448 participants, the proportion of girls were 52.4% (1 806/3 448) and boys were 47.6% (1 642/3 448), while the mean age was (14.85 ± 1.46). There are significant differences among distributed stages of behavior change, grouped by gender, grade and region (χ(2) values were 33.59, 20.53, 27.92, P behavior change, which showed a significant difference (F values were 155.12, 19.86, 44.59, 94.27, P behavioral stage (from 14.7 ± 4.4 to 12.2 ± 3.9). Post hoc comparison also found that the score of process of change, decision balance (pros) and self-efficacy after action stages were higher than those before action, while the score of decisional balance (cons) in the precontemplation stage was higher than that in the other 4 stages. Fat intake behavior in teenagers showed different stages, whose psychological factors had significant influences, with decision balance (pros) hindered the progress of stages of behavior change, while other three factors played a positive role.

  10. The influence of psychological factors on post-partum weight retention at 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joanne; King, Ross; Skouteris, Helen

    2014-11-01

    Post-partum weight retention (PWR) has been identified as a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. In recent years, psychological factors have been demonstrated to play a key role in contributing to and maintaining PWR. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between post-partum psychological distress and PWR at 9 months, after controlling for maternal weight factors, sleep quality, sociocontextual influences, and maternal behaviours. Pregnant women (N = 126) completed a series of questionnaires at multiple time points from early pregnancy until 9 months post-partum. Hierarchical regression indicated that gestational weight gain, shorter duration (6 months or less) of breastfeeding, and post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months are associated with higher PWR at 9 months; stress, depression, and anxiety had minimal influence. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should specifically target the prevention of body dissatisfaction and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. What is already known on this subject? Post-partum weight retention (PWR) is a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. Causes of PWR are complex and multifactorial. There is increasing evidence that psychological factors play a key role in predicting high PWR. What does this study add? Post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months is associated with PWR at 9 months post-birth. Post-partum depression, stress and anxiety have less influence on PWR at 9 months. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should target body dissatisfaction. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. The Provision of Psychological Therapy to People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Investigation into Some of the Relevant Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Five factors are proposed as important in influencing the provision of psychological therapy to people with intellectual disabilities (IDs): the perceived effectiveness of psychological therapy, individual clinician competence, service resources (number of trained clinicians), the level of the clients disability and the diagnostic…

  12. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Methods Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232 receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping, and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning, behavioral (pain-related distress, and demographic characteristics. Results Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. Conclusions It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  13. Associations between psychological factors and the effect of home-based physical exercise in women with chronic neck and shoulder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linn; Gerdle, Björn; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Andersson, Gerhard; Larsson, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exercise is often used in the treatment of chronic neck and shoulder muscle pain. It is likely that psychological aspects have an impact on the results of exercise-based treatments. Objectives: (1) To examine the associations between psychological factors and the effect of a home-based physical exercise intervention. (2) To examine differences in psychological factors at baseline between (a) subjects who continued in the trial and those who did not and (b) subjects who completed the intervention and those who did not. Method: A total of 57 women with chronic neck and shoulder pain were included in a home-based exercise intervention trial. Pain intensity, disability, and psychological factors (anxiety and depression symptoms, catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, self-efficacy, and pain acceptance) were measured at baseline, after 4–6 months, and after 1 year of exercise. Associations between the psychological factors and changes in pain intensity and disability were analysed, as well as differences in psychological factors at baseline between subjects who continued in and completed the intervention, and those who did not. Results: Associations between positive changes in pain intensity and disability were found for low fear-avoidance beliefs and low-pain self-efficacy at baseline. In addition, fear-avoidance beliefs at baseline were higher in the subjects who dropped out of the intervention than in those who continued. Pain acceptance at baseline was higher in the subjects who completed the intervention at the end of the trial. Conclusion: Particularly, fear-avoidance beliefs and pain self-efficacy should be taken into consideration when implementing home-based physical exercise as treatment for chronic neck pain. In addition, high pain acceptance might improve the adherence to prescribed exercise. PMID:27688880

  14. Associations between psychological factors and the effect of home-based physical exercise in women with chronic neck and shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linn; Gerdle, Björn; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Andersson, Gerhard; Larsson, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is often used in the treatment of chronic neck and shoulder muscle pain. It is likely that psychological aspects have an impact on the results of exercise-based treatments. (1) To examine the associations between psychological factors and the effect of a home-based physical exercise intervention. (2) To examine differences in psychological factors at baseline between (a) subjects who continued in the trial and those who did not and (b) subjects who completed the intervention and those who did not. A total of 57 women with chronic neck and shoulder pain were included in a home-based exercise intervention trial. Pain intensity, disability, and psychological factors (anxiety and depression symptoms, catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, self-efficacy, and pain acceptance) were measured at baseline, after 4-6 months, and after 1 year of exercise. Associations between the psychological factors and changes in pain intensity and disability were analysed, as well as differences in psychological factors at baseline between subjects who continued in and completed the intervention, and those who did not. Associations between positive changes in pain intensity and disability were found for low fear-avoidance beliefs and low-pain self-efficacy at baseline. In addition, fear-avoidance beliefs at baseline were higher in the subjects who dropped out of the intervention than in those who continued. Pain acceptance at baseline was higher in the subjects who completed the intervention at the end of the trial. Particularly, fear-avoidance beliefs and pain self-efficacy should be taken into consideration when implementing home-based physical exercise as treatment for chronic neck pain. In addition, high pain acceptance might improve the adherence to prescribed exercise.

  15. Associations between psychological factors and the effect of home-based physical exercise in women with chronic neck and shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Karlsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise is often used in the treatment of chronic neck and shoulder muscle pain. It is likely that psychological aspects have an impact on the results of exercise-based treatments. Objectives: (1 To examine the associations between psychological factors and the effect of a home-based physical exercise intervention. (2 To examine differences in psychological factors at baseline between (a subjects who continued in the trial and those who did not and (b subjects who completed the intervention and those who did not. Method: A total of 57 women with chronic neck and shoulder pain were included in a home-based exercise intervention trial. Pain intensity, disability, and psychological factors (anxiety and depression symptoms, catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, self-efficacy, and pain acceptance were measured at baseline, after 4–6 months, and after 1 year of exercise. Associations between the psychological factors and changes in pain intensity and disability were analysed, as well as differences in psychological factors at baseline between subjects who continued in and completed the intervention, and those who did not. Results: Associations between positive changes in pain intensity and disability were found for low fear-avoidance beliefs and low-pain self-efficacy at baseline. In addition, fear-avoidance beliefs at baseline were higher in the subjects who dropped out of the intervention than in those who continued. Pain acceptance at baseline was higher in the subjects who completed the intervention at the end of the trial. Conclusion: Particularly, fear-avoidance beliefs and pain self-efficacy should be taken into consideration when implementing home-based physical exercise as treatment for chronic neck pain. In addition, high pain acceptance might improve the adherence to prescribed exercise.

  16. Resilient Warrior: A Stress Management Group to Improve Psychological Health in Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Eric; Baier, Allison L.; Mehta, Darshan H.; Denninger, John W.; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Casey, Aggie; Kagan, Leslee; Park, Elyse R.; Simon, Naomi M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many veterans deployed after 9/11/2001 are impacted by subthreshold levels of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, or other psychological health problems that may interfere with successful reintegration. Conventional treatments, including medication and trauma-focused individual psychotherapies, may not be optimally adapted, accepted, or effective to treat these subsyndromal symptoms. Methods: We developed “Resilient Warrior,” a 4-session, group-based, mind-body stress-management and resilience program targeted to build skills and assessed whether its format was accessible and acceptable, and potentially efficacious, to support resilience among service members. Results: From April 2014 to October 2014, 15 participants (53.3% women; mean age=36.6 y; SD=6.2) were surveyed for program acceptability and feasibility and completed self-reported psychological health outcomes before and after program participation. The majority (71.4%) of participants reported that the program included the right number of sessions, and all of them reported that it was helpful and relevant and that they would recommend it to others. While changes in self-reported resilience were only marginal, participation was associated with improvements in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, and general sense of self efficacy. Conclusion: These pilot data provide preliminary support that “Resilient Warrior,” a group-based, stress reduction and resilience program, may improve psychological health in service members even when delivered in community settings. Randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish efficacy and effectiveness for this program. PMID:26665021

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF INJURIES AMONG SENIOR SOCCER PLAYERS. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ivarsson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that between 65-91% of elite soccer players in Sweden have at least one injury per year. Several studies define different physiological and psychological factors affecting athletic injury-risk. A number of models contain proposals that specify relationships between psychological factors and an increased athletic injury-risk. Examples include Williams and Andersen's stress-injury model and Johnson and Ivarsson's empirical model of injury risk factors which proposes that factors such as trait anxiety and ineffective coping skills are influential. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between (a personality factors, b coping variables, and (c stress and injury risk. Participants were 48 male soccer players from 3 Swedish teams ranging in age from 16 to 36 years (M = 22 years. Participants completed 5 questionnaires: Football Worry Scale, Swedish universities Scales of Personality, Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes, Daily Hassle Scale and Brief COPE. Information on injuries was collected by athletic trainers of the teams over 3-months. Results suggest injury was significantly predicted by 4 personality trait predictors: somatic trait anxiety, psychic trait anxiety, stress susceptibility, and trait irritability. Collectively, the predictors self-blame and acceptance could explain 14.6% of injury occurrence. More injuries were reported among players who score high in daily hassles. These results support previous findings. Recommendations are given for both the athletes and the trainers on working to prevent sport injuries

  18. Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Cheung, Vivi I; Ku, Lisbeth; Hung, Eva P W

    2013-09-01

    Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment.

  19. Better design of menu selection systems through cognitive psychology and human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kent L

    2008-06-01

    In this study, I seek to emphasize the contributions of cognitive psychology and human factors research in the design of menu selection systems. Menu selection systems are used in computer interfaces to allow users to enter choices, set parameters, and navigate to items, functions, and locations. Designers of these systems have many choices concerning the organizational structure and layout of the menu interface. I review several of these concerning hierarchies of menus, organization and clustering of items, and item distinctiveness. Special attention is given to cases in which designer's intuition differed from theory and experimental results. Cognitive psychology and human factors have contributed both theory and empirical research that have helped to resolve differences of opinion and establish general principles for design. It is argued that cognitive psychology has contributed substantially to the design of better menu selection systems. It is imperative that designers continue to apply these findings to interfaces that they develop and that researchers continue to study the characteristics and efficacy of innovative menu designs as they appear.

  20. A review of post-concussion syndrome and psychological factors associated with concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broshek, Donna K; De Marco, Anthony P; Freeman, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    This study reviewed several topics related to post-concussion syndrome and psychological factors associated with concussion. Topics include neurobiological perspectives, psychological predictors of post-concussion syndrome including pre-morbid anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and cognitive biases and misattribution. In addition, the iatrogenic effects of excessive rest are reviewed and treatment options are discussed briefly. Animal models of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury suggest that a concussion can result in anxiety and fear reactions. The pathophysiology of depression following a concussion appears to be consistent with the cortico-limbic model of depression. Additionally, some individuals may be at risk for neurobiological depression and/or anxiety following a concussion. The literature also demonstrates that pre-morbid and concurrent anxiety increases the risk for prolonged concussion recovery. Cognitive biases and misattribution of symptoms contribute to lengthy recovery from concussion. In addition, medically prescribed excessive cognitive and physical rest may contribute to a protracted concussion recovery. Supervised and graduated physical activity, the introduction of anxiety reduction techniques and cognitive-behavioural therapy of cognitive biases and misattribution are effective means of shortening the length of post-concussion syndrome. Understanding, assessing and treating the psychological factors associated with concussion are effective means of preventing or shortening the length of post-concussion syndrome.

  1. Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Cheung, Vivi I.; Ku, Lisbeth; Hung, Eva P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. Results: The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment. PMID:25215198

  2. Adjustment to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the importance of psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCathie, H C F; Spence, S H; Tate, R L

    2002-01-01

    Research has indicated a weak relationship between the degree of physical problems and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The importance of adaptive psychological functioning to maintain optimum quality of life has long been recognized, but there is a lack of empirical evidence concerning the nature of psychological factors involved in adjustment to COPD. Ninety-two males completed questionnaires to determine their coping strategies, levels of self-efficacy of symptom management and social support. Adjustment was measured in terms of depression, anxiety and quality of life. Symptom severity, socioeconomic status, duration of disease and age, which have been demonstrated to be of consequence in COPD, were used as control variables in hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Higher levels of catastrophic withdrawal coping strategies and lower levels of self-efficacy of symptom management were associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety and a reduced quality of life. Higher levels of positive social support were linked to lower levels of depression and anxiety, while higher levels of negative social support were linked to higher levels of depression and anxiety. To maximize quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psychological factors need to be carefully assessed and addressed.

  3. Influence of Psychological, Anthropometric and Sociodemographic Factors on the Symptoms of Eating Disorders in Young Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE, respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p < .05 the variance of females’ EAT-26 scores, whereas BD, DPCE, fat percentage, age, ethnicity and competitive level significantly explained ( p < .05 the variance of risk behaviours for males’ ED. Thus, only BD influenced risk behaviours for ED in both sexes.

  4. Psychological Disorders and Ecological Factors Affect the Development of Executive Functions: Some Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebdi, Rafika; Goyet, Louise; Pinabiaux, Charlotte; Guellaï, Bahia

    2016-01-01

    The links between deficits in executive functions (EFs) (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities, etc.) and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) have been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults' population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic relation of these EF/psychological disorders. We suggest to focus on the following two axes in future research: (i) relations between EF and anxiety traits through development and (ii) the possible role of external factors such as parent-child relationships on the development of EF.

  5. Psychological factors of propensity for alcoholism (social anxiety, hostility, Machiavellianism in depressive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popinako A.V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of psychosocial models of alcoholism and depression the general and specific factors of occurrence and course of illness are identified in the present study. The authors put forward hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of activation of psychological addiction to alcohol as an ineffective coping strategy. The necessity of empirical research needed to refine the techniques and targets of patient care within the psychiatric and psychological care is justified. The results of the pilot study show that depressed patients who are subject to alcohol dependence feature marked distress in interpersonal relations, coupled with hostility and aim at gaining profit and pleasure by manipulating other people. These patients are hostile to others, while in interpersonal relationships personal safety is important to them, so they may be more likely to resort to manipulation. In their attitudes with respect to health the communication of these patients is characterized by hedonistic tendencies and histrionic traits in interpersonal contacts.

  6. [Psychological conditions and the influence factors of the Sichuan Three Gorges immigrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jianni; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yang; Li, Ge

    2009-01-01

    To learn and analyze the psychological conditions and the influence factors of Sichuan immigrations so as to provide the science basis for the government. Take residents generally questionnaire, symptom checklist (SCL90), psychosocial stress survey for groups(PSSG) and social support rating scale (SSRS) four questionnaires to collect and analyze the mental conditions and influences of Sichuan immigrations and local residents by cluster stratified random sampling. There is no difference in the sex, age, marriage, culture, occupation, economy and character between immigrations and local residents. Immigrations owned medical safeguard are less than local residents (P psychological stress and social support of migrants relate to the mental health of migrants. The mental health of Sichuan immigrations is bad, so the government should strengthen their financial support and pay attention to their humanist concern.

  7. A systematic review of factors affecting migrant attitudes towards seeking psychological help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Mhairi; Quayle, Ethel; Rothwell, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Research indicates that service utilization rates in migrant groups are low, although levels of distress appear high when compared with host populations. This paper systematically reviews quantitative and qualitative literature on factors associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help among working age migrants. Data were extracted from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Science Direct and SAGE databases. Eight quantitative studies and 16 qualitative studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in North America (67%). Although results of quantitative studies were heterogeneous, stronger identification with host than heritage culture, fluency in host country language, psychological attributions of distress, higher educational levels, higher socioeconomic status, female gender, and older age were associated with more favourable attitudes toward help-seeking in some migrant groups. Three major themes emerged from the qualitative literature: logistical barriers, cultural mismatch between service providers and participants, and preferences for other sources of assistance.

  8. Effects of Inhalation of Emissions from Cedar Timber on Psychological and Physiological Factors in an Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Components extracted from cedar timber have been reported to have stress-reducing effects in humans. If the positive effects of cedar timber in indoor environments are scientifically proven, an indoor environment that utilizes cedar timber may contribute to the improvement or promotion of well-being in humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inhaling emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber (Cryptomeria japonica on the psychological and physiological factors in indoor environments. A case-control study with a crossover design was conducted with 10 subjects occupying two rooms that were controlled for interior materials, indoor climate, and room size. Cedrol and β-eudesmol were specifically detected in the case room. However, no significant differences were observed in psychological and physiological factors. There was a significant loss in vigor in the control group from the time before entering the room to the time after leaving the room; however, this loss in vigor was not seen in the case group. Temperature conditions were higher than the indoor environmental standard in Japan but similar in the two groups. Our results showed a minor positive change in vigor among participants exposed to cedar timber for a short term. Inhalation of emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber may have positive effects in humans; however, further research on their efficacy is needed.

  9. Pilot study of the psychological factors in the professional health of managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingaev S.M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main research problems and tasks of a new scientific field in Russia—the psychology of professional health — are formulated. A definition of professional health as the abilities of a person successfully to cope with the demands and requirements in a professional environment is offered. A psychological vision for professional health with four basic provisions is proposed. The aim of the research was to study the extent of the influence on the professional health of managers of such psychological factors as systems of values, stress in professional activity, individual and psychological features, strategies for overcoming stressful situations. Data are provided from research conducted in 2002-2012 on managers in Russian companies. Taking part in the research were 651 managers of various organizations in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Veliky Novgorod, and Kharkov. For collecting empirical material on methods of supervision, I used polls, tests, interviews, content analysis, self-reports of participants in training programs, and a method for forming the experiment. In addition I employed psychodiagnostic techniques intended for studying the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of health, a technique for revealing the personal potentials (regulatory, communicative, intellectual of the managers, and also my own techniques. The study positively correlated health with such values as having interesting work, having a happy family life, being financially secure, having an active life, and giving and receiving love. Connections between the behavioral manifestations of type A behavior and the managers’ values were revealed. The greatest negative impact on the managers was made by such factors of professional activity as an excessive workload, emotional pressure at work, difficulty in carrying out activity, and insufficient time. Health is important in the structure of the professional activity of managers; it acts as a strategic

  10. [Analysis on the incidence and influencing factors of psychological violence among college students in Guangzhou in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Chi, Guibo; Mo, Sufang; Wang, Shengyong; Zhang, Jingbo; Dong, Xiaomei; Li, Wenhao

    2014-10-01

    To study the incidence and influencing factors of psychological violence among college students in Guangzhou in 2010. Convenience sampling method was used and 2 200 college students from 61 classes of three universities in Guangzhou were interviewed with self-designed questionnaire about the incidence and influencing factors of the psychological violence in 2010. The valid sample was 2 060. Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the incidence and influencing factors of the psychological violence between different genders. A total of 66.3% (1 365/2 060) college students reported having experienced at least one kind of psychological violence during the past 12 months, either as a perpetrator or as a victim. The proportion of psychological violence among males (72.3%, 775/1 072) was significantly higher than that in females (59.7%, 590/988)(χ(2) = 36.39, P psychological violence were 16.1% (331/2 060), 8.9% (184/2 060) and 41.3% (850/2 060), respectively. The incidence of victimization only in females was 10.4% (103/988), which was significantly higher than that in males (7.6%, 81/1 072) (χ(2) = 5.20, P psychological violence among college students is very serious in Guangzhou in 2010. And the influencing factors of it between different genders are different. Females are affected by a wider ranges of factors than males, and are more influenced by family and parents.

  11. Improving the dependability of research in personality and social psychology: recommendations for research and educational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, David C; Levine, John M; Mackie, Diane M; Morf, Carolyn C; Sansone, Carol; Vazire, Simine; West, Stephen G

    2014-02-01

    In this article, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) Task Force on Publication and Research Practices offers a brief statistical primer and recommendations for improving the dependability of research. Recommendations for research practice include (a) describing and addressing the choice of N (sample size) and consequent issues of statistical power, (b) reporting effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), (c) avoiding "questionable research practices" that can inflate the probability of Type I error, (d) making available research materials necessary to replicate reported results, (e) adhering to SPSP's data sharing policy, (f) encouraging publication of high-quality replication studies, and (g) maintaining flexibility and openness to alternative standards and methods. Recommendations for educational practice include (a) encouraging a culture of "getting it right," (b) teaching and encouraging transparency of data reporting, (c) improving methodological instruction, and (d) modeling sound science and supporting junior researchers who seek to "get it right."

  12. Assessing social capacity and vulnerability of private households to natural hazards - integrating psychological and governance factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werg, J.; Grothmann, T.; Schmidt, P.

    2013-06-01

    People are unequally affected by extreme weather events in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial losses; this is the case not only for developing, but also for industrialized countries. Previous research has established indicators for identifying who is particularly vulnerable and why, focusing on socio-demographic factors such as income, age, gender, health and minority status. However, these factors can only partly explain the large disparities in the extent to which people are affected by natural hazards. Moreover, these factors are usually not alterable in the short to medium term, which limits their usefulness for strategies of reducing social vulnerability and building social capacity. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we propose an approach for refining assessments of social vulnerability and building social capacity by integrating psychological and governance factors.

  13. Turning men into machines? Scientific management, industrial psychology, and the "human factor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    In the controversy that broke out in 1911 over Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management, many critics contended that it ignored "the human factor" and reduced workers to machines. Psychologists succeeded in positioning themselves as experts of the human factor, and their instruments and expertise as the necessary complement of Taylor's psychologically deficient system. However, the conventional view that the increasing influence of psychologists and other social scientists "humanized" management theory and practice needs to be amended. Taylor's scientific management was not less human than later approaches such as Human Relations, but it articulated the human factor differently, and aligned it to its own instruments and practices in such a way that it was at once external to them and essential to their functioning. Industrial psychologists, on the other hand, at first presented themselves as engineers of the human factor and made the human mind an integral part of management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Body Esteem Among Women with Multiple Sclerosis and its Relationship with Demographic, Clinical and Socio-Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilski, M; Tasiemski, T; Dąbrowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The principal aim of this study was to verify if specific socio-demographic, clinical, and socio-psychological factors are correlates of body esteem in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study included 185 women with MS who completed the Body Esteem Scale (BES), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), Actually Received Support Scale (a part of the Berlin Social Support Scale), and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patients were recruited as a result of cooperation with the Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation Centre in Borne Sulinowo and Polish Society of Multiple Sclerosis. The demographic characteristics of the participants and their illness-related problems were determined with a self-report survey. A hierarchical multiple regression revealed that four factors, psychological condition (R (2) = 0.23, p ≤ 0.001), received support (R (2) = 0.28, p ≤ 0.001), personal control (R (2) = 0.30, p ≤ 0.001), and physical condition (R (2) = 0.31, p ≤ 0.001), were significant correlates of the general body esteem in our study group of women with MS. The model explained 31 % of variance in body esteem. Positive body esteem, an important component of self-esteem in women with MS, is associated with better social support, overcoming negative illness-related appraisals and improvement of psychological well-being. Subjective perception of a negative impact of MS on one's physical condition may be helpful in the identification of women with MS being at increased risk of decreased body esteem.

  15. Work and neck pain: a prospective study of psychological, social, and mechanical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2010-10-01

    To determine the impact of occupational psychological/social and mechanical factors on neck pain, a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 2 years was conducted with a sample of Norwegian employees. The following designs were tested: (i) cross-sectional analyses at baseline (n=4569) and follow-up (n=4122), (ii) prospective analyses with baseline predictors, (iii) prospective analyses with average exposure over time [(T1+T2)/2] as predictor, and (iv) prospective analyses with measures of change in exposure from T1 to T2 as predictors. A total of 2419 employees responded to both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire. Data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. After adjustment for age, sex, neck pain at T1, and other exposure factors that had been estimated to be confounders, the most consistent risk factors were role conflict (highest OR 2.97, 99% CI: 1.29-6.74) and working with arms raised to or above shoulder level (highest OR 1.37, 99% CI: 1.05-1.78). The most consistent protective factors were empowering leadership (lowest OR 0.53, 99% CI: 0.35-0.81) and decision control (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.36-1.00). Hence, psychological and social factors are important precursors of neck pain, along with mechanical factors. Although traditional factors such as quantitative demands and decision control play a part in the etiology of neck pain at work, in this study several new factors emerged as more important. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Psychological Factors on Subjective Disease Activity Assessments in Patients With Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordingley, Lis; Prajapati, Rita; Plant, Darren; Maskell, Deborah; Morgan, Catharine; Ali, Faisal R; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Isaacs, John D; Barton, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), used to assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is a composite score comprising clinical, biochemical, and patient self-report measures. We hypothesized that psychological factors (cognitions and mood) would be more strongly associated with patient-reported components of the DAS28 than clinical or biochemical components. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study of 322 RA patients with active disease (mean DAS28 6.0) awaiting therapy with a biologic agent was undertaken. Patients' illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, and mood were measured using the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), respectively. Relationships between psychological factors and 1) total DAS28 and 2) individual components of the DAS28 were analyzed using linear regression. Results Total DAS28 produced significant but weak associations with 2 of the Brief IPQ items, but no associations with BMQ or HADS scores. There were larger significant associations between the patient-reported visual analog scale (VAS) with 5 items of the Brief IPQ and with HADS depression. Low illness coherence was associated with higher tender joint count. Three Brief IPQ items and HADS anxiety scores were significantly associated with C-reactive protein level or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. No psychological factors were associated with the swollen joint count. Conclusion One of the subjective components of the DAS28, patient VAS, was highly correlated with cognitive factors and depression in those with severe RA. By reporting individual DAS28 components, clinicians may be better able to assess the impact of therapies on each component, adjusting approaches according to patients' needs. PMID:24339425

  17. Factors impacting on psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Robinson, Eddie; Penman, Joy; Hills, Danny

    2017-09-01

    There are increasing numbers of international students undertaking health professional courses, particularly in Western countries. These courses not only expose students to the usual stresses and strains of academic learning, but also require students to undertake clinical placements and practice-based learning. While much is known about general issues facing international students, less is known about factors that impact on those studying in the health professions. To explore what is known about factors that influence the psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions. A scoping review. A range of databases were searched, including CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Proquest and ERIC, as well as grey literature, reference lists and Google Scholar. The review included qualitative or quantitative primary peer reviewed research studies that focused on international undergraduate or postgraduate students in the health professions. The core concept underpinning the review was psychological issues, with the outcome being psychological and/or social wellbeing. Thematic analysis across studies was used to identify key themes emerging. A total of 13 studies were included in the review, from the disciplines of nursing, medicine and speech-language pathology. Four key factor groups emerged from the review: negotiating structures and systems, communication and learning, quality of life and self-care, and facing discrimination and social isolation. International health professional students face similar issues to other international students. The nature of their courses, however, also requires negotiating different health care systems, and managing a range of clinical practice issues including with communication, and isolation and discrimination from clinical staff and patients. Further research is needed to specifically explore factors impacting on student well-being and how international students can be appropriately prepared and supported for their

  18. Social and psychological factors of the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aiming; Wang, Zhilin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, concern about suicide by college students has been on the rise worldwide, in general and in China particularly. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of social and psychological factors on the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students. Of the 540 students surveyed, 48 had a suicidal tendency to some extent. The highest rate of suicide was observed for fourth-year students, followed by the fifth-year, first-year, third-year, and second-year students. Female students and students not satisfied with their major had a higher rate of suicidal tendency. However, mature coping strategies had a protective effect on suicide. The stepwise regression analysis shows that academic burden, grade, and introversion/extraversion are the most significant risk factors for the suicidal tendency of Chinese medical students. Suicide is affected by demographic risk factors as well as psychological factors. Our results lend support to a multi-factorial approach to the understanding and prevention of suicide by college students.

  19. The relationship among psychological factors, neglect-like symptoms and postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain.

  20. The relationship among psychological factors, neglect-like symptoms and postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. METHODS: The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. RESULTS: At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain. PMID:25101335

  1. Psychological factors and trimester-specific gestational weight gain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia; Gaston, Anca; Van Blyderveen, Sherry; Schmidt, Louis; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Helen; McDonald, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Excess gestational weight gain (GWG), which has reached epidemic proportions, is associated with numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes. Early pregnancy provides a unique opportunity for counseling pregnant women since many women are motivated to engage in healthy behaviors. A systematic review was conducted to summarize the relation between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, i.e. GWG measured at the end of each trimester. Eight databases were searched for affect, cognition and personality factors. The guidelines on meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology were followed. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Of 3620 non-duplicate titles and abstracts, 74 articles underwent full-text review. Two cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Distress was negatively associated with first trimester GWG among both adolescents and non-adolescents. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with second trimester GWG only among non-adolescents. No association emerged between perceived stress, state and trait anxiety and body image dissatisfaction among adolescents and trimester-specific GWG. The relation between trimester-specific GWG and a number of weight-related and dietary-related cognitions, affective states and personality traits remain unexplored. Given the limited number of studies, further high-quality evidence is required to examine the association between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, especially for cognitive and personality factors.

  2. Social and psychological factors of the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past few decades, concern about suicide by college students has been on the rise worldwide, in general and in China particularly. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of social and psychological factors on the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students. Findings Of the 540 students surveyed, 48 had a suicidal tendency to some extent. The highest rate of suicide was observed for fourth-year students, followed by the fifth-year, first-year, third-year, and second-year students. Female students and students not satisfied with their major had a higher rate of suicidal tendency. However, mature coping strategies had a protective effect on suicide. The stepwise regression analysis shows that academic burden, grade, and introversion/extraversion are the most significant risk factors for the suicidal tendency of Chinese medical students. Conclusion Suicide is affected by demographic risk factors as well as psychological factors. Our results lend support to a multi-factorial approach to the understanding and prevention of suicide by college students. PMID:26019719

  3. Peptic Ulcer at the End of the 20th Century: Biological and Psychological Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Levenstein

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing concept of peptic ulcer etiology has swung over entirely in just a few years from the psychological to the infectious, yet the rich literature documenting an association between psychosocial factors and ulcer is not invalidated by the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. Physical and psychological stressors interact to induce ulcers in animal models, concrete life difficulties and subjective distress predict the development of ulcers in prospective cohorts, shared catastrophes such as war and earthquakes lead to surges in hospitalizations for complicated ulcers, and stress or anxiety can worsen ulcer course. Many known ulcer risk factors, including smoking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, heavy drinking, loss of sleep and skipping breakfast, can increase under stress; the association of low socioeconomic status with ulcer is also accounted for in part by psychosocial factors. Among possible physiological mechanisms, stress may induce gastric hypersecretion, reduce acid buffering in the stomach and the duodenum, impair gastroduodenal blood flow, and affect healing or inflammation through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Psychosocial factors seem to be particularly prominent among idiopathic or complicated ulcers, but they are probably operative in run of the mill H pylori disease as well, either through additive effects or by facilitating the spread of the organism across the pylorus, while gastrointestinal damage by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be potentiated by stress. Although the clinical importance of peptic ulcer is fading along with the millenium, due to secular trends and new therapies, it remains worthy of study as a splendid example of the biopsychosocial model.

  4. The connection of socio-demographic factors and child-parent relationships to the psychological aspects of children's development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobkin, Vladimir S; Veraksa, Aleksandr N; Yakupova, Vera A; Bukhalenkova, Darya A; Fedotova, Aleksandra V; Khalutina, Ulia A

    2016-01-01

    ...). The common assumption is that to determine a parent's position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship...

  5. The Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Biological and psychological factors associated with learning performance in adult distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Learning is crucial for everyone. The association between biological (eg, sleep, nutrition) and psychological factors (eg, test anxiety, goal orientation) and learning performance has been well established for children, adolescents and college students in traditional education. Evidence for these

  6. Sport participation and its association with social and psychological factors known to predict substance use and abuse among youth: A scoping review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather J.; Camiré, Martin; Wade, Terrance J.; Cairney, John

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport literature (2000–2014) on psychological and social outcomes relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the literature on sport participation and psychological and social outcomes to identify factors that could help explain this link. Psychological and social factors were selected as they play a paramount role in understanding youth alcohol and drug use. Fifty-nine articles were identified and included in the review. The literature generally supported connections between sport and positive psychological and social outcomes, including self-esteem, self-regulation, general life skills, and pro-social behaviour. Yet limitations in the methods and measures limit the ability to draw conclusions from the literature. In addition, the diversity of youth and sport was generally ignored in the literature. This article suggests a number of directions for future research that might improve our understanding of how sport impacts psychological and social outcomes along with alcohol and illicit drug use. PMID:26692895

  7. Sport participation and its association with social and psychological factors known to predict substance use and abuse among youth: A scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather J; Camiré, Martin; Wade, Terrance J; Cairney, John

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport literature (2000-2014) on psychological and social outcomes relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the literature on sport participation and psychological and social outcomes to identify factors that could help explain this link. Psychological and social factors were selected as they play a paramount role in understanding youth alcohol and drug use. Fifty-nine articles were identified and included in the review. The literature generally supported connections between sport and positive psychological and social outcomes, including self-esteem, self-regulation, general life skills, and pro-social behaviour. Yet limitations in the methods and measures limit the ability to draw conclusions from the literature. In addition, the diversity of youth and sport was generally ignored in the literature. This article suggests a number of directions for future research that might improve our understanding of how sport impacts psychological and social outcomes along with alcohol and illicit drug use.

  8. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ybarra Sagarduy JL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy,1 Dacia Yurima Camacho Mata,1 José Moral de la Rubia,2 Julio Alfonso Piña López,3 José Luis Masud Yunes Zárraga4 1Unit of Social Work and Human Development, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, 2School of Psychology, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, 3Independent Researcher, Hermosillo, 4Institute of Health and Safety Services for State Workers, Clinic for the Study and Prevention of the Chilhood Obesity, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico Background: It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension.Purpose: This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior.Results: Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data (pBS =0.235, χ2/gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom’s Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053.Conclusion: The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so

  9. Effects of heterogeneous risk factors on psychological distress in adolescents with autism and victimization experiences in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Lung; Kao, Senyeong; Tou, Shao-Wen; Lin, Fu-Gong

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of various types of bullying victimization among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and examine the effects of victimization on the mental health of adolescents with ASD. The sample was collected from the Special Needs Education Longitudinal Study (SNELS) database released in 2011. Variables comprising seven psychological distress (PD) items and four types of bullying victimization and family-, school-, and peer-related factors were included in a multivariate regression analysis. Exclusion and verbal bullying were most frequently reported, 72.4% of students with ASD experiencing exclusion bullying and 66% of them experiencing verbal bullying. Among the victims, delayed bedtime, use of medication, and conflicts with parents significantly increased PD. By contrast, good relationships with parents and friends and liking school environments relieved PD symptoms. Furthermore, delayed bedtime after 12 a.m. enhanced the effects of exclusion victimization on PD in the participants. Our results indicated that bullying victimization among adolescents with ASD was a risk factor for their psychological well-being. Nevertheless, good parent-adolescent and interpeer relationships improved their mental health. Our results can serve as a reference in implementing strategies for motivating parents and teachers to pay more attention to the needs of adolescents with ASD. Implications for Rehabilitation More than 80% of adolescents with autism experience at least one type of bullying victimization. Bullying victimization attributes to a major factor influencing mental health of adolescents with autism. Good parent-adolescent and interpeer relationships can play beneficial roles in improving mental health of the adolescents.

  10. Duration of psychological therapy: relation to recovery and improvement rates in UK routine practice. [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, William B; Barkham, Michael; Wheeler, Sue

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have reported similar recovery and improvement rates regardless of treatment duration among patients receiving National Health Service (NHS) primary care mental health psychological therapy. To investigate whether this pattern would replicate and extend to other service sectors, including secondary care, university counselling, voluntary sector and workplace counselling. We compared treatment duration with degree of improvement measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) for 26 430 adult patients who scored above the clinical cut-off point at the start of treatment, attended 40 or fewer sessions and had planned endings. Mean CORE-OM scores improved substantially (pre-post effect size 1.89); 60% of patients achieved reliable and clinically significant improvement (RCSI). Rates of RCSI and reliable improvement and mean pre- and post-treatment changes were similar at all tested treatment durations. Patients seen in different service sectors showed modest variations around this pattern. Results were consistent with the responsive regulation model, which suggests that in routine care participants tend to end therapy when gains reach a good-enough level. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. Effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural programme to improve psychological and social adjustment among hepatitis C patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attik, A El; Awadalla, H; Fakhry, A; Wahab, E Abdel

    2014-01-09

    This study determined the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral programme in improving the level of psychological and social adjustment in a sample of patients with viral hepatitis C. The study included 30 patients on interferon from the National Institute of Liver, Cairo, divided into 2 groups of 15 patients: an experimental group who agreed to participate in a cognitive behavioral programme and a control group of patients taking interferon only. The study tools included an compliance scale designed to assess the level of psychological and social adjustment of patients in both groups before and after the application of the cognitive behavioral programme. To determine the effectiveness of the programme, the experimental group was compared with the control group. There were statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in the level of psychological and social compliance which points to the effectiveness of the programme in improving psychological and social adjustment among patients with viral hepatitis C.

  12. Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment: Antecedents, Mediating Factors, and Longitudinal Dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Soenens, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Introduction 5 Literature Overview and Research Aims 6 A Brief History of Research on Psychological Control 6 Research Aims of this Dissertation 12 Part 1: Psychological Control: An Exploration in Depth 15 Mediators of the Link between Psychological Control and Internalizing Problems 15 Antecedents or Predictors of Psychological Control 28 Direction of Effects 37 Part 2: Psychological Control: An Exploration in Breadth 45 Psychological Con...

  13. Evaluation of the Prevalence and Contributing Factors of Psychological Intimate Partner Violence in Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Ozgoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a global public health issue leading to the death of many people every year. Experience of infertility profoundly affects the personal well-being of women. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and contributing factors of psychological IPV in infertile women referring to the infertility centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 410 infertile women selected via multistage sampling. Demographic data of infertile women (33 items and their spouses (16 items were collected. In addition, researcher-made IPV questionnaire (53 items and general health questionnaire (GHQ (28 items were used. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16 using descriptive statistics (Chi-square, independent T-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation-coefficient, and linear regression. Results: In total, 410 infertile women were enrolled in this study, 74.3% of whom were victims of psychological IPV. Results of linear regression analysis indicated that psychological IPV and GHQ had significant associations with the ethnicity and physical diseases of the spouses of infertile women (P

  14. The Consequences of Predicting Scientific Impact in Psychology Using Journal Impact Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Peter; Walton, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    An academic journal's impact factor (hereafter JIF) is an average measure of the citation count of individual articles published in that journal. JIF is used to assess merit, predict impact, and allocate resources, but the actual number of citations to individual articles is only modestly correlated with the JIFs of the journals in which they are published. We counted PsycInfo citations to 1,133 articles published in nine leading psychology journals (1996-2005). Both article length (r =.31) and reference list length (r = .41) predicted log-transformed citation counts better than JIF (r = .27). Articles with fewer graphs and more structural equation models were more frequently cited. Citation count was better predicted by a model based on article length and citation count rather than JIF. When JIF was used to predict citation count, the impact of women authors and social science research was underestimated. These findings distinguish impact in science, as measured by JIF, from actual impact in psychology, and they show the unintended consequences of using a measure of the former to predict the latter. © Association for Psychological Science 2012.

  15. [Nutritional and psychological factors associated with the occurrence of pica in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeta, Ana Carolina; Cunha, Ana Cristina Barros da; Heidelmann, Sonaly Petronilho; Saunders, Cláudia

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the nutritional and psychological factors associated with the occurrence of the practice of pica in pregnant women attending a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was based on a descriptive design with exploratory features, and conducted on 13 adult and adolescent pregnant women aged 16 to 40 years with a diagnosis of pica in the current pregnancy. Pica was diagnosed by a nutritionist in a standardized interview situation, when questions about the occurrence and frequency of pica, and types of substance ingestion were investigated. After signing the Informed Consent Form (ICF), all participants were evaluated by a nutritionist and seven of them were submitted to psychological assessment with standardized instruments to evaluate stress and anxiety, and to assess coping strategies. The type of pica most frequently reported was pagophagia (30.8%) and the consumption of fruit with salt (30.8%). The most prevalent coping strategies were "religious practice-focused" and "seeking social support", both presented by 42% of the pregnant women. We observed the occurrence of some degree of stress and anxiety in all pregnant women, as well as comorbidities (69.2%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (84.6%). Considering that pica may be associated with increased perinatal risk, it is very important to investigate this disorder during prenatal care, and to dopt obstetric, psychological and nutritional preventive practices to reduce the complications for mother and fetus.

  16. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

  17. Psychological factors determining success in a medical career: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartas, Malgorzata; Walkiewicz, Maciej; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Budzinski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Systemic review of predictors of success in medical career is an important tool to recognize the indicators of proper training. To determine psychological factors that predict success in a medical career. The success is defined as professional competence, satisfaction with medicine as a career, occupational stress and burnout and quality of life (QOF). Part I (1999-2005), medical students were examined each subsequent year, beginning with admission. Assessment included academic achievement (high school final examination results, entrance exam results, academic results during medical school) and psychological characteristics (sense of coherence (SOC), depression, anxiety, coping styles, value system and need for social approval). Part II (2008-2009), the same participants completed an Internet survey 4 years after graduation. Results of the postgraduate medical exam were taken under consideration. Academic achievement predicts only professional competence. Coping styles are significant indicators of satisfaction with medicine as a career. SOC, while assessed with anxiety and depression during studies, enabled us to recognize future QOF of medical graduates. Professional stress is not predictable to such an extent as other success indicators. There are significant psychological qualities useful to draw the outline of the future job and life performance of medical graduates.

  18. Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label.

  19. Early childhood psychological factors and risk for bedwetting at school age in a UK cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joinson, Carol; Sullivan, Sarah; von Gontard, Alexander; Heron, Jon

    2016-05-01

    There is evidence for a link between psychological factors and bedwetting, but the direction of this association is unclear. Using data on 8769 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we examined whether difficult temperament (Toddler Temperament Scale at 24 months; Emotionality Activity Sociability Questionnaire at 38 months) and psychological problems (Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children at 42 months) are linked to bedwetting at school age. We examined the association between these risk factors and different patterns of bedwetting from 4 to 9 years using multinomial regression. Difficult temperament and psychological problems in early childhood were associated with increased odds of bedwetting at 4-9 years. The strongest associations were most often found for the pattern of bedwetting that was both frequent (at least twice a week) and persistent (up to age 9) e.g. the temperament traits of 'adaptability' and 'mood' were associated with a 33 % increase (95 % confidence interval = 1.14-1.55) and a 27 % increase (1.10-1.47) respectively in the odds of persistent and frequent bedwetting per one standard deviation increase in risk score. Early behaviour problems (e.g. conduct problems [1.43 (1.25, 1.63)] and hyperactivity [1.29 (1.11, 1.50), p early emotional difficulties were risk factors for bedwetting. Adjustment for confounders did not alter these conclusions. The presence of difficult temperament and behaviour problems in early childhood might help to identify children who will continue to experience bedwetting at school age.

  20. Social, Psychological, and Environmental-Structural Factors Associated with Tobacco Experimentation among Adolescents in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Qiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.

  1. Psychosocial factors and pre-abortion psychological health: The significance of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Julia R; Tschann, Jeanne M; Furgerson, Dorothy; Harper, Cynthia C

    2016-02-01

    Most research in mental health and abortion has examined factors associated with post-abortion psychological health. However, research that follows women from before to after their abortion consistently finds that depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms are highest just before an abortion compared to any time afterwards. This finding suggests that studies investigating psychosocial factors related to pre-abortion mental health are warranted. The current study uses data from 353 women seeking abortions at three community reproductive health clinics to examine predictors of pre-abortion psychological health. Drawing from three perspectives in the abortion and mental health literature, common risks, stress and coping, and sociocultural context, we conducted multivariable analyses to examine the contribution of important factors on depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms just before an abortion, including sociodemographics, abortion characteristics, childhood adversities, recent adversities with an intimate partner, relationship context, future pregnancy desires, and perceived abortion stigma. Childhood and partner adversities, including reproductive coercion, were associated with negative mental health symptoms, as was perceived abortion stigma. Before perceived abortion stigma was entered into the model, 18.6%, 20.7%, and 16.8% of the variance in depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms respectively, was explained. Perceived abortion stigma explained an additional 13.2%, 9.7%, and 10.7% of the variance in depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms pre-abortion. This study, one of the first to focus on pre-abortion mental health as an outcome, suggests that addressing stigma among women seeking abortions may significantly lower their psychological distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Bakke Finne

    Full Text Available Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2 were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect

  3. Explanation of Psychological Capital Effects on Improvement of Farmers’ Job Satisfaction of the Ardabil County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakil Heidari sraban

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychological Capital is defined as the positive and developmental state of an individual as characterized by high self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. The main purpose of this paper is to explain the psychological capital effects on improvement of village farmer’s job satisfactions in the Ardabil County. The study sample consists of farmers in the Ardabil Province and 380 people were selected by convenience sampling. The sample size was determined based on Cochran's formula and the required data was collected through questionnaires. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaires face and content validity were confirmed by professors and experts, and its reliability was confirmed based on Cronbach's alpha (0.71-0.82. For data analysis, the SPSS software was used. The results of Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between all research variables and job satisfactions with the reliability of %95. Moreover, the variables of optimism, resiliency and self-efficacy contained %41 of dependent variables in linear multiple regression test. Finally, according to the results of analysis, practical suggestions are presented.

  4. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-12

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  5. It may be harder than we thought, but political diversity will (still) improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Duarte, José L; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Stern, Charlotta; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    In our target article, we made four claims: (1) Social psychology is now politically homogeneous; (2) this homogeneity sometimes harms the science; (3) increasing political diversity would reduce this damage; and (4) some portion of the homogeneity is due to a hostile climate and outright discrimination against non-liberals. In this response, we review these claims in light of the arguments made by a diverse group of commentators. We were surprised to find near-universal agreement with our first two claims, and we note that few challenged our fourth claim. Most of the disagreements came in response to our claim that increasing political diversity would be beneficial. We agree with our critics that increasing political diversity may be harder than we had thought, but we explain why we still believe that it is possible and desirable to do so. We conclude with a revised list of 12 recommendations for improving political diversity in social psychology, as well as in other areas of the academy.

  6. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI, mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  7. Predictors of emotional exhaustion, disengagement and burnout among improving access to psychological therapies (IAPT) practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Sophie; Morison, Linda; Allt, Jackie; Holmes, Nan

    2017-04-01

    Among mental health staff, burnout has been associated with undesirable outcomes, such as physical and mental ill-health, high levels of staff turnover and poorer patient care. To estimate the prevalence and predictors of burnout amongst Improving Access to Psychological Therapist (IAPT) practitioners. IAPT practitioners (N = 201) completed an on-line survey measuring time spent per week on different types of work related activity. These were investigated as predictors of burnout (measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory). The prevalence of burnout was 68.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 58.8-77.3%) among psychological wellbeing practitioners (PWP) and 50.0% (95% CI 39.6-60.4%) among high intensity (HI) therapists. Among PWPs hours of overtime-predicted higher odds of burnout and hours of clinical supervision predicted lower odds of burnout. The odds of burnout increased with telephone hours of patient contact among PWPs who had worked in the service for two or more years. None of the job characteristics significantly predicted burnout among HI therapists. Our results suggest a high prevalence of burnout among IAPT practitioners. Strategies to reduce burnout among PWPs involving reductions in workload, particularly telephone contact and increases in clinical supervision need to be evaluated.

  8. Individual psychological and social risk factors for violent criminal behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova A.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that risk factors for criminal aggressive behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder are a high level of proactive and reactive aggression, combined with underdeveloped mechanisms deter aggressive intentions. With the increase of organic disease, these features become more stable. An important role in shaping the aggressive criminal behavior plays an unsuccessful social environment. Interfamily problems, social deprivation, learning difficulties, communication in antisocial groups and substance abuse - all this increases the risk of aggressive illegal actions.

  9. Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey: Factors Related to Compensation of Pediatric Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, Cheryl L; Hilliard, Marisa E; Williams, Andre; Armstrong, F Daniel; Christidis, Peggy; Kichler, Jessica; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Stamm, Karen E; Wysocki, Tim

    2017-05-01

    To summarize compensation results from the 2015 Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) Workforce Survey and identify factors related to compensation of pediatric psychologists. All full members of SPP ( n  = 1,314) received the online Workforce Survey; 404 (32%) were returned with usable data. The survey assessed salary, benefits, and other income sources. The relationship between demographic and employment-related factors and overall compensation was explored.   Academic rank, level of administrative responsibility, and cost of living index of employment location were associated with compensation. Compensation did not vary by gender; however, women were disproportionately represented at the assistant and associate professor level. Compensation of pediatric psychologists is related to multiple factors. Longitudinal administration of the Workforce Survey is needed to determine changes in compensation and career advancement for this profession over time. Strategies to increase the response rate of future Workforce Surveys are discussed.

  10. Factors associated with psychological distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that lymphoedema impacts negatively on an individual, including psychological distress and body image disturbance, particularly for younger women. This study identified psychological factors associated with distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema and determined whether age moderated the specific relationship between body image disturbance and distress. Australian women (n = 166) diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphoedema were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organisation and lymphoedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online survey assessing lymphoedema-related cognitions (personal control, perceived treatment effectiveness, and consequences of lymphoedema), perceived ability to self-regulate lymphoedema-related negative affect, body image disturbance, psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), and demographic/medical information. Beliefs about the consequences, perceived effectiveness of treatment and controllability of lymphoedema, perceived ability to self-regulate negative affect, body image disturbance, and number of lymphoedema symptoms were correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that body image disturbance was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, and perceived treatment effectiveness was associated with stress. Age was a significant moderator of the relationship between body image disturbance and depression and anxiety, with older women with greater body image disturbance more distressed. Health professionals need to be aware that women diagnosed with lymphoedema are at risk of experiencing psychological distress, particularly arising from body image disturbance and beliefs that treatment cannot control lymphoedema. Furthermore, older women may be at an increased risk of anxiety and depression arising from body image disturbance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  11. Subjective symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome correlate more with psychological factors than electrophysiological severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firosh Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied. Boston CTS Assessment Questionnaire (BCTSAQ and visual analog scale (VAS were used to assess subjective symptom severity. Psychological status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Electrophysiological severity of CTS was estimated by median motor distal latency and median to ulnar peak sensory latency difference across the wrist. Each parameter in both hands was scored from 0 to 3 depending on the severity grade, and a composite electrophysiological severity score (CEPSS was calculated for each patient by summing up the scores in both hands. Statistical analysis was done by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: There was significant correlation of BCTSAQ with VAS (P = 0.001, HADS anxiety score (P < 0.001, and HADS depression score (P = 0.01. CEPSS had no significant correlation with VAS (P = 0.103, HADS anxiety score (P = 0.211, or HADS depression score (P = 0.55. CEPSS had a borderline correlation with BCTSAQ (P = 0.048. Conclusions: While the subjective symptoms of CTS are well correlated with psychological factors, their correlation with objective electrophysiological severity is weak. Hence, prompt treatment of psychological comorbidity is important in symptomatic management of CTS; decision about surgical intervention should be based on electrophysiological severity rather than symptom severity.

  12. How Social Psychological Factors May Modulate Auditory and Cognitive Functioning During Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The framework for understanding effortful listening (FUEL) draws on psychological theories of cognition and motivation. In the present article, theories of social-cognitive psychology are related to the FUEL. Listening effort is defined in our consensus as the deliberate allocation of mental resources to overcome obstacles in goal pursuit when carrying out a task that involves listening. Listening effort depends not only on hearing difficulties and task demands but also on the listener's motivation to expend mental effort in challenging situations. Listeners' cost/benefit evaluations involve appraisals of listening demands, their own capacity, and the importance of listening goals. Social psychological factors can affect a listener's actual and self-perceived auditory and cognitive abilities, especially when those abilities may be insufficient to readily meet listening demands. Whether or not listeners experience stress depends not only on how demanding a situation is relative to their actual abilities but also on how they appraise their capacity to meet those demands. The self-perception or appraisal of one's abilities can be lowered by poor self-efficacy or negative stereotypes. Stress may affect performance in a given situation and chronic stress can have deleterious effects on many aspects of health, including auditory and cognitive functioning. Social support can offset demands and mitigate stress; however, the burden of providing support may stress the significant other. Some listeners cope by avoiding challenging situations and withdrawing from social participation. Extending the FUEL using social-cognitive psychological theories may provide valuable insights into how effortful listening could be reduced by adopting health-promoting approaches to rehabilitation.

  13. [Impact of psychological factors on marital satisfaction and divorce proneness in clinical couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the psychological factors that affect marital satisfaction or divorce likelihood in clinical couples. Clinical couples (n=57) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data was collected from September 2005 to June 2006 using a Marital Satisfaction Scale, a Marital Status Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory, and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The couples showed high scores on depression, obsessive-compulsion, personality factors and divorce probability and a low score on marital satisfaction. The wife's obsessive-compulsion was a predictor of her marital satisfaction, and the wife's social introversion and depression, and husband's obsessive-compulsion were predictors of the wife's prospect of divorce. The husband's hypomania and depression were predictors of his marital satisfaction, and there were no predictors of the husband's prospect of divorce. Obsessive-compulsion is a significant factor in a couple's relationship, although previous studies have not been interested in obsessive-compulsion. Divorce likelihood should be evaluated for clinical couples as well as marital satisfaction, because it is more important for divorce prevention. Each spouse who has a psychological problem such as depression, obsessive-compulsion, and deviated personality needs individual therapy as well as couple therapy.

  14. Factors associated with trajectories of psychological distress for Australian fathers across the early parenting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Cooklin, Amanda; Christensen, Daniel; Nicholson, Jan M

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the course of fathers' psychological distress and associated risk factors beyond the postnatal period. Therefore, the current study aimed to: (a) assess the course of distress over 7 years postnatally; (b) identify classes of fathers defined by their symptom trajectories; and (c) identify early postnatal factors associated with persistent symptoms. Data from 2,470 fathers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed using latent growth modelling. Fathers' psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler-6 (Kessler et al. in Arch Psychiatry 60:184-189, 2003) when their children were aged 0-1, 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7 years. Overall, distress was highest in the first postnatal year and then decreased over time. Two distinct trajectories were identified. The majority of fathers (92%) were identified as having minimal distress in the first postnatal year which decreased over time, whilst 8% had moderate distress which increased over time. Low parental self-efficacy, poor relationship and job quality were associated with 'persistent and increasing distress'. Early postnatal factors associated with fathers' persistent distress were identified, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention.

  15. Psychological factors at work and musculoskeletal disorders: a one year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajska, Joanna; Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Jędryka-Góral, Anna; Gasik, Robert; Hildt-Ciupińska, Katarzyna; Malińska, Marzena; Bedyńska, Sylwia

    2013-12-01

    The etiology of musculoskeletal disorders is complex, with physical and psychosocial working conditions playing an important role. This study aimed to determine the relationship between psychosocial work conditions, such as psychological job demands, decision latitude, social support and job insecurity and musculoskeletal complains (MSCs) and (repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) in a 1-year prospective study. The job content questionnaire, the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and provocation tests were used to study 725 employees aged 20-70 years. Pain in the lower back (58 % of subjects), neck (57 %), wrists/hands (47 %) and upper back (44 %) was most frequent. The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) (33.6 %), rotator cuff tendinitis (15.4 %), Guyon's canal syndrome (13.4 %), lateral epicondylitis (7.6 %), medial epicondylitis (5.3 %), tendinitis of forearm-wrist extensors (7.8 %) and tendinitis of forearm-wrist flexors (7.3 %) were the most frequent RSIs. Logistic analysis showed that increased psychological job demands statistically significantly increased the probability of lateral and medial epicondylitis, and increased control (decision latitude) statistically significantly decreased the risk of CTS. There was no relationship between job insecurity, social support and the studied RSIs. Psychosocial factors at work predict prevalence of MSCs and RSIs, irrespectively of demographic factors, e.g., age or gender, and organizational and physical factors.

  16. Psychological factors associated with failure of detoxification treatment in chronic headache associated with medication overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiroli, S; Viana, M; Sances, G; Ghiotto, N; Guaschino, E; Galli, F; Vegni, E; Pazzi, S; Nappi, G; Tassorelli, C

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological factors associated with a negative outcome following detoxification in a 2-month follow-up in medication-overuse headache. All consecutive patients entering the detoxification program were analysed in a prospective, non-randomised fashion. Psychiatric conditions and personality characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-I) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2. χ2 tests, one-way analyses of variance, and odds ratios (ORs) were used. A total of 248 patients completed the follow-up: 156 stopped overuse and their headaches reverted to an episodic pattern (Group A); 23 kept overusing without any benefit on headache frequency (Group B); and 51 stopped overuse without any benefit on headache frequency (Group C). The prognostic factors for the outcome of Group B were higher scores on the correction (OR 1.128; p = 0.036), depression (OR 1.071; p = 0.05), hysteria (OR 1.106; p = 0.023), and overcontrolled hostility (OR 1.182; p = 0.04) MMPI-2 scales, whereas those for Group C were psychiatric comorbidities (OR 1.502; p = 0.021) and higher scores on the hysteria scale (OR 1.125; p = 0.004). The outcome of detoxification is influenced by psychological factors that should be considered when considering treatment strategies. © International Headache Society 2016.

  17. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.

  18. Psychological factors and visual fatigue in working with video display terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocci, F; Serra, A; Corrias, G A

    2001-04-01

    To examine the part played by psychological factors in complaints about visual health reported by banking officers who work at video display terminals (VDTs). Out of a population of 385 bank workers, a group of 212 subjects without organic visual disturbances (as determined by ophthalmological examination) who share a work environment and job duties was selected. Three questionnaires were administered to these subjects: (a) the NIOSH job stress questionnaire; (b) a questionnaire investigating subjective discomfort related to environmental and lighting conditions of the workplace; (c) a questionnaire on the existence of oculovisual disturbances. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to examine for the presence of predictors of asthenopia. Social support, group conflict, self esteem, work satisfaction, and underuse of skills were found to be predictors of visual complaints; social support played a part also as a moderating factor in the stress and strain model; this model accounted for 30% of the variance. Subjective environmental factors, although in some cases significantly correlated with asthenopia, were not found to be strong predictors of the symptoms. Some part of the complaints about visual health reported by VDT workers are likely indirect expressions of psychological discomfort related to working conditions.

  19. Psychological Determinants of Whole-Body Endurance Performance

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2015-01-01

    Background No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research. Objective A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affec...

  20. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  1. Social and psychological factors of the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Aiming; Wang, Zhilin

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past few decades, concern about suicide by college students has been on the rise worldwide, in general and in China particularly. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of social and psychological factors on the suicidal tendencies of Chinese medical students. Findings Of the 540 students surveyed, 48 had a suicidal tendency to some extent. The highest rate of suicide was observed for fourth-year students, followed by the fifth-year, first-year, thi...

  2. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE CONSUMER’S INTENTION TO USE E- COMMERCE: A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Al-dalahmeh; Ali Salman Saleh

    2007-01-01

    There is a need in the literature for an application of the well known social cognitive theory in the area of e-commerce. Hence, this paper develops and models a theoretical framework to study the impact of psychological factors based on the social cognitive theory on the intention to use e-commerce. More specifically, the paper examines the role of individuals’ beliefs about their abilities towards the intention to use e-commerce technology (e-commerce self-efficacy). A conceptual model, bas...

  3. Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers. Risk factors for negative changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzunov, V O; Loganovsky, K N; Krasnikova, L I; Bomko, M O; Belyaev, Yu M; Yaroshenko, Zh S; Domashevska, T Ye

    2016-12-01

    It is generally recognized that the Chornobyl nuclear accident caused strong psychosocial stress affecting the entire population of Ukraine, primarily people involved in recovery operations. But what are the reasons? What is the struc ture of stressors? What are their social, medical and biological consequences, what are strategy and preventive meas ures? Issues that require special research and development. To study social and psychological state of the Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987, and to determine regularities of changes and dangerous risk factors. On the basis of Polyclinic of Radiation Registry, NRCRM, we conducted sample epidemiolog ical study of social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987. We used method of inter viewing based on «questionnaire», specially developed for this purpose. The study was conducted in October 2013 - May 2015. The sample numbered 235 males aged 18-50 at the time of the accident. Their average age was (31.3 ± 5.3) years at the time of the accident and (58.9 ± 5.3) at the time of survey. The results revealed that the Chornobyl nuclear accident and its consequences caused strong social and psychological stress among clean up workers 1986-1987. We have identified a set of factors closely related to the Chornobyl accident, they have caused a sustainable development of mental syndrome - «Anxiety about their own health and the health of family members, especially children». The other set of stressors which are not closely relat ed to the Chornobyl accident but are the result of the social and economic, social and political situation in the coun try. However the former was found to be the cause of such a psychological state as «dissatisfaction with the com pleteness and quality of life». Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987 is estimated as «poor» and it integrally can be characterized as a state of chronic psychosocial stress. Mental syndrome

  4. Psychological Factors Predict Local and Referred Experimental Muscle Pain: A Cluster Analysis in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E.; Watson, David; Frey-Law, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest an underlying three- or four-factor structure explains the conceptual overlap and distinctiveness of several negative emotionality and pain-related constructs. However, the validity of these latent factors for predicting pain has not been examined. Methods A cohort of 189 (99F; 90M) healthy volunteers completed eight self-report negative emotionality and pain-related measures (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Pain Catastrophizing Scale; Fear of Pain Questionnaire; Somatosensory Amplification Scale; Anxiety Sensitivity Index; Whiteley Index). Using principal axis factoring, three primary latent factors were extracted: General Distress; Catastrophic Thinking; and Pain-Related Fear. Using these factors, individuals clustered into three subgroups of high, moderate, and low negative emotionality responses. Experimental pain was induced via intramuscular acidic infusion into the anterior tibialis muscle, producing local (infusion site) and/or referred (anterior ankle) pain and hyperalgesia. Results Pain outcomes differed between clusters (multivariate analysis of variance and multinomial regression), with individuals in the highest negative emotionality cluster reporting the greatest local pain (p = 0.05), mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds; p = 0.009) and greater odds (2.21 OR) of experiencing referred pain compared to the lowest negative emotionality cluster. Conclusion Our results provide support for three latent psychological factors explaining the majority of the variance between several pain-related psychological measures, and that individuals in the high negative emotionality subgroup are at increased risk for (1) acute local muscle pain; (2) local hyperalgesia; and (3) referred pain using a standardized nociceptive input. PMID:23165778

  5. [INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL FACTORS ON PERSONAL SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE CNS IN NORTHERN CHILDREN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovleva, N N; Soroko, S I

    2015-06-01

    The results of the socio-psychological and psycho-physiological study of children and adolescents rural secondary school in a remote area of the Arkhangelsk region were studied. It was found that the poor situation of children in families at social risk leads to a decrease in their school performance, motivation to succeed and, in some cases, to reduce their personal social and psychological adaptation. However, in general, the level of personal social and psychological adaptation in the majority of surveyed students is high enough. As complementary social institutions, the family and the school, in some cases, can compensate for a number of adverse social and psychological factors. Pupils from social risk groups functional state of the central nervous system has been significantly reduced compared with children who are brought up in affluent families. In the North adverse social factors may increase the effects of the harsh climatic conditions and are an important risk factor for children's health.

  6. Psychological Characteristics in Talented Soccer Players – Recommendations on How to Improve Coaches’ Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Musculus; Babett H. Lobinger

    2018-01-01

    Psychological characteristics, including personality traits and psychological skills, have been shown to be relevant predictors of soccer performance. In research, general and sport specific standardized self-report questionnaires have been applied in psychological diagnostics of sports talent. However, with regard to the assessment of psychological characteristics of talented soccer players, a gap between research and practice is apparent. While soccer clubs often ask their coaches to assess...

  7. Rinitis y factores psicológicos: estado de su relación (The association between rhinitis and psychological factors: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernández Rodríguez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the concept of rhinitis, its classification and the reasons for classifying the different typesof rhinitis as psychophysiological diseases. We review the few studies that have investigated the association betweenrhinitis and psychological factors. Most of these studies have focussed on allergies, among which is rhinitis. We alsoassess current knowledge on the association between rhinitis and psychological factors, mainly addressing anxiety,depression and personality characteristics. Further lines of research are suggested regarding this association.

  8. Why women of lower educational attainment struggle to make healthier food choices: the importance of psychological and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Wendy; Skinner, Chas; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Barker, David; Cooper, Cyrus; Jackson, Alan; Barker, Mary

    2009-11-01

    Women of lower educational attainment are more likely to eat unhealthy diets than women of higher educational attainment. To identify influences on the food choices of women with lower educational attainment, 11 focus groups (eight with women of lower, and three with women of higher educational attainment) were held. Using a semi-structured discussion guide, environmental, social, historical and psychological factors known to be associated with food choice were explored. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Compared to women of higher educational attainment, women of lower educational attainment had less control over their families' food choices, less support for attempts to eat healthily, fewer opportunities to observe and learn good food-related practices, more negative affect, more perceived environmental constraints and more ambiguous beliefs about the consequences of eating a nutritious diet. These findings provide a starting point for taking forward the design of an intervention to improve the diets of young women.

  9. A cross-sectional study of irritable bowel syndrome in nurses in China: prevalence and associated psychological and lifestyle factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Xiao, Qi-fan; Zhang, Yan-li; Yao, Shu-kun

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and associated factors, especially psychological and lifestyle factors, in nurses in China have not been investigated previously. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of IBS in nurses, to evaluate whether factors, such as psychological disorders, are associated with IBS, and to determine whether psychological disorders can influence the severity of symptoms of IBS and quality of life (QOL). A cross-sectional study was conducted for Chinese nurses from November 2012 to February 2013. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires. The prevalence of IBS was 17.4%. The revised symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90-R) scores were significantly higher for nurses with IBS than for those without IBS (P<0.001), and no difference in scores between IBS subtypes was found (F=1.893, P=0.142). The scores of QOL for nurses with and without IBS were 77.18±21.93 and 88.44±11.89 (P<0.001), respectively. Psychological disorders did not show statistically significant correlations with severity of symptoms of IBS or QOL. Alcohol consumption, low level of exercise, and psychological disorders were risk factors for IBS. In summary, nurses in China show a high prevalence of IBS. Psychological disorders and some related lifestyle factors are probably responsible for the development of IBS in nurses. PMID:24903997

  10. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, Monday N; Bakare, Muideen O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Okonkwo, Kevin O

    2010-06-13

    Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to the students. The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67+/-3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24+/-3.24, 10.76+/-3.50 and 9.01+/-3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p=0.000), domain 3 (p=0.029), domain 4 (p=0.000) and total score (p=0.000), with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p=0.769). The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r=0.319, p=0.000) and the number of weeks of posting in paediatrics (r=0.372, p=0

  11. The Future of Counseling Psychology: Improving Quality of Life for Persons with Chronic Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwalisz, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The literature review and focus group findings that compose the Major Contribution illustrate how counseling psychologists can integrate expertise from various subdisciplines (vocational psychology, health psychology, multicultural psychology) to effectively address the needs of those living with HIV. Given changes in the nature of health problems…

  12. Cognitive and psychological science insights to improve climate change data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Jordan; Lorenzoni, Irene; Shipley, Thomas F.; Coventry, Kenny R.

    2016-12-01

    Visualization of climate data plays an integral role in the communication of climate change findings to both expert and non-expert audiences. The cognitive and psychological sciences can provide valuable insights into how to improve visualization of climate data based on knowledge of how the human brain processes visual and linguistic information. We review four key research areas to demonstrate their potential to make data more accessible to diverse audiences: directing visual attention, visual complexity, making inferences from visuals, and the mapping between visuals and language. We present evidence-informed guidelines to help climate scientists increase the accessibility of graphics to non-experts, and illustrate how the guidelines can work in practice in the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change graphics.

  13. Ethnic differences in the association between cardiovascular risk factors and psychological distress in a population study in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrier Agnes C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing body of evidence of an association between cardiovascular risk factors and depressive and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these associations are similar in ethnic minority groups. Methods A random urban population sample, aged 18+, stratified by ethnicity (484 native Dutch subjects, 383 Turkish-Dutch subjects, and 316 Moroccan-Dutch subjects, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, was interviewed with the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10 in combination with measurements of several cardiovascular risk factors. The association of psychological distress (defined as a K10 score above cut-off of 20 with cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL cholesterol levels or diabetes, ethnicity and their interaction was analyzed using logistic regression analyses, stratified by gender and adjusted for age. Results Cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly associated with psychological distress in any of the gender/ethnic groups, with the exception of a positive association of obesity and hypertension with psychological distress in native Dutch women and a negative association of hypertension and psychological distress in Turkish men. Interaction terms of cardiovascular risk factors and ethnicity were approaching significance only in the association of obesity with the K10 in women. Conclusion In this cross-sectional multi-ethnic adult population sample the majority of the investigated cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with psychological distress. The association of obesity with psychological distress varies by gender and ethnicity. Our findings indicate that the prevention of obesity and psychological distress calls for an integrated approach in native Dutch women, but not necessarily in Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch women, in whom these problems may be targeted separately.

  14. The influence of behavioural and psychological factors on medication adherence over time in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a study in the biologics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Catharine; McBeth, John; Cordingley, Lis; Watson, Kath; Hyrich, Kimme L; Symmons, Deborah P M; Bruce, Ian N

    2015-10-01

    To investigate levels of self-reported adherence to biologic treatment and establish the contribution of demographic, physical and psychological factors to biologic medication adherence in an RA cohort. Adalimumab-treated patients were recruited through the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA between May 2007 and April 2009. Demographic and baseline psychological measures including illness and medication beliefs were collected. Disease activity (28-item DAS), physical function (HAQ) and quality of life (36-item Short Form Health Survey) were also measured at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months. Adherence was assessed at each follow-up using the patient self-completed Compliance Questionnaire for Rheumatology (CQR). Multilevel mixed effects modelling analysis was performed to investigate predictors of adherence. Of the 329 Adalimumab-treated patients included, low adherence (CQR score psychological factors, particularly medication beliefs, in driving medication adherence could have substantial clinical and health economic benefits in RA. The psychological factors we have identified are putative targets for strategies to improve adherence in RA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  15. Improving access to psychological therapies (IAPT) and treatment outcomes: epistemological assumptions and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C H J

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is recommended as a primary treatment choice in England, for anxiety and depression, by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). It has been argued that CBT has enjoyed political and cultural dominance and this has arguably led to maintained government investment in England for the cognitive and behavioural treatment of mental health problems. The government programme 'Improving Access to Psychological Therapies' (IAPT) aims to improve the availability of CBT. The criticism of the NICE evidence-based guidelines supporting the IAPT programme, has been the dominance of the gold standard randomized controlled trial methodology, with a focus on numerical outcome data, rather than a focus on a recovery narrative. RCT-based research is influenced by a philosophical paradigm called positivism. The IAPT culture is arguably influenced by one research paradigm and such an influence can skew services only towards numerical outcome data as the only truth of 'recovery'. An interpretative paradigm could assist in shaping service-based cultures, alter how services are evaluated and improve the richness of CBT research. This paper explores the theory of knowledge (epistemology) that underpins the evidence-based perspective of CBT and how this influences service delivery. The paper argues that the inclusion of service user narrative (qualitative data) can assist the evaluation of CBT from the user's perspective and can understand the context in which people live and how they access services. A qualitative perspective is discussed as a research strategy, capturing the lived experience of under-represented groups, such as sexual, gender and ethnic minorities. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has enjoyed political and cultural dominance within mental healthcare, with renewed government investment in England for the'Improving Access to Psychological Therapies' (IAPT) programme. The criticism of the evidence-based guidelines

  16. Prospective Associations Between Binge Eating and Psychological Risk Factors in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra

    2016-07-11

    There is evidence that intrapersonal psychological factors might contribute to the development of binge eating. However, studies considering reciprocal effects between risk factors and disordered eating are rare. The present article investigates the nature of the temporal relationships between binge eating and low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, weight/shape concerns, dietary restraint, and the internalization of the societal body ideal in adolescence while taking into account the moderating effects of age and gender. A German population-based sample of 1039 boys and girls from 12 to 19 years of age answered self-report questionnaires on risk factors and eating pathology on 2 measurement points separated by 20 months. Data were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. Low self-esteem, interoceptive deficits, weight/shape concerns, and the internalization of the societal body ideal predicted binge eating longitudinally in bivariate analyses. Binge eating predicted later depressive symptoms, whereas perfectionism and dietary restraint were not longitudinally linked to binge eating in either direction. Low self-esteem and weight/shape concerns emerged as multivariate predictors of binge eating in girls and boys, respectively. No moderating effects of age were observed. The results suggest that depressive symptoms might rather be a consequence of binge eating than a risk factor, and this underscores that even subclinical eating pathology might be associated with negative psychological outcomes. Central risk factors that should be targeted in prevention programs might be low self-esteem for girls and weight/shape concerns for boys.

  17. Describing functioning and health after spinal cord injury in the light of psychological-personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, Szilvia; Kunz, Simon; Müller, Rachel; Peter, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    To describe and explore functioning and health of persons with spinal cord injury from the perspective of psychological-personal factors in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Data from 511 participants regarding feelings, thoughts and beliefs, motives, and patterns of experience and behaviour were analysed. Measurement instruments included the Mental Health Index-5, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Appraisal of Life Events Scale, 5 items from the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale, Purpose in Life Test-Short Form, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Big Five Inventory-21, Social Skills Inventory-SF, Brief COPE. The distribution of the selected psychological-personal factors-indicators was examined using descriptive statistics. Differences between SCI subgroups by sex, age, age at injury, time since injury, aetiology and severity of injury were explored using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-tests. Participants who were older and sustained their spinal cord injury more recently experienced more depressed mood, less positive affect, less challenge appraisal, lower life satisfaction, lower purpose in life, and lower self-efficacy. They reported lower social skills, less usage of the coping strategies humour, positive reframing, and acceptance, and more usage of the coping strategies denial and self-distraction. Overall, effect sizes were small. Although study participants appeared to be well adjusted to spinal cord injury, those who sustained their injury at an older age and more recently reported more negative experiences. Quantitative description and exploration of the psychological-personal aspects of health will enable hypotheses to be formulated for further research, and suggest a need for tailored interventions for those at risk of less favourable outcomes.

  18. The role of psychological factors in the career of the independent dancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imogen eAujla

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that psychological factors such as motivation and mental skills play an important role in relation to performance and to negotiating talent development stages. However, little is known about these factors in dance, particularly with regard to the independent dancer whose career may involve multiple roles, varied work patterns and periods of instability. The aim of this study was to explore dancers’ motivation to work in an independent capacity, and the extent to which dancers’ psychological characteristics and skills enabled them to navigate a career in this demanding sector. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 dancers at different stages of their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the dancers were intrinsically motivated and highly committed to the profession. Working in the independent sector offered dancers opportunities for growth and fulfillment; they appreciated the autonomy, flexibility and freedom that the independent career afforded, as well as working with new people across roles and disciplines. In order to overcome the various challenges associated with the independent role, optimism, self-belief, social support and career management skills were crucial. The mental skills reported by the participants had developed gradually in response to the demands that they faced. Therefore, mental skills training could be invaluable for dancers to help them successfully negotiate the independent sector.

  19. The role of psychological factors in the career of the independent dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Imogen; Farrer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that psychological factors such as motivation and mental skills play an important role in relation to performance and to negotiating talent development stages. However, little is known about these factors in dance, particularly with regard to the independent dancer whose career may involve multiple roles, varied work patterns, and periods of instability. The aim of this study was to explore dancers' motivation to work in an independent capacity, and the extent to which dancers' psychological characteristics and skills enabled them to navigate a career in this demanding sector. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 dancers at different stages of their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the dancers were intrinsically motivated and highly committed to the profession. Working in the independent sector offered dancers opportunities for growth and fulfillment; they appreciated the autonomy, flexibility and freedom that the independent career afforded, as well as working with new people across roles and disciplines. In order to overcome the various challenges associated with the independent role, optimism, self-belief, social support, and career management skills were crucial. The mental skills reported by the participants had developed gradually in response to the demands that they faced. Therefore, mental skills training could be invaluable for dancers to help them successfully negotiate the independent sector.

  20. Commonalities in the psychological factors associated with problem gambling and Internet dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Brown, M

    2010-08-01

    The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.

  1. Assessment of significant psychological distress at the end of pregnancy and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorén-Guerrero, L; Gascón-Catalán, A; Pasierb, D; Romero-Cardiel, M A

    2017-10-25

    The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of mental distress at the end of pregnancy and after birth and the impact of selected socio-demographic and obstetric factors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample is consisted of 351 puerperal women at the age of 18 and over. Sociodemographic, obstetric variables were collected to detect significant psychological distress; the instrument used was General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. The prevalence of significant mental distress amounted to 81.2%, mostly related to social relationship and anxiety. The women who affirmed having more stress during pregnancy had too significantly increased emotional distress before the birth as well as during early puerperium, increasing somatic symptoms (p socio-demographic data, being an immigrant is the only protective factor reducing the social dysfunction in the last weeks of pregnancy (p stress experienced during pregnancy and parity. It is advisable to perform proper assessment of stress and significant psychological distress at the early stage of pregnancy and repeatedly later on until delivery. Information and support from professionals can help to decrease and prevent their negative impact on maternal and fetal health, as observed in the current evidence.

  2. Psychological Stress Delays Periodontitis Healing in Rats: The Involvement of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Juan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of psychological stress on periodontitis healing in rats and the contribution of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression to the healing process. Methods. Ninety-six rats were randomly distributed into control group, periodontitis group, and periodontitis plus stress group. Then, the rats were sacrificed at baseline and week(s 1, 2, and 4. The periodontitis healing condition was assessed, and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and bFGF were tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. The stressed rats showed reduced body weight gain, behavioral changes, and increased serum corticosterone and ACTH levels (. The surface of inflammatory infiltrate, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in the stress group were higher than those in the periodontitis group at weeks 2 and 4 (. Rats with experimental periodontitis showed decreased bFGF expression (, and the recovery of bFGF expression in the stress group was slower than that in the periodontitis group (. Negative correlations between inflammatory cytokines and bFGF were detected. Conclusion. Psychological stress could delay periodontitis healing in rats, which may be partly mediated by downregulation of the expression of bFGF in the periodontal ligament.

  3. The role of psychological factors in the development of burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, H S; Jin, S H; Lee, Y J; Song, C M; Ji, Y B; Tae, K

    2018-03-01

    The psychiatric profiles of 50 patients diagnosed with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) were compared to those of 50 age- and sex-matched individuals as the control group. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaire was used to evaluate the role of psychological factors in the development of BMS. Somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, psychoticism, global severity index (GSI), positive symptom total (PST), and positive symptom distress index (PSDI) scores were significantly higher in the patients with BMS than in the control group. In a subgroup analysis according to sex, women with BMS had higher T-scores for somatization, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid ideation, GSI, PST, and PSDI than women in the control group. In contrast, only the PSDI score was significantly higher in men with BMS compared to men in the control group. There was a significant difference in the T-scores for somatization, psychoticism, and GSI between the three age subgroups (≤50, 51-65, and ≥66 years). The obsessive-compulsive and PSDI scores were significantly higher in patients with BMS who also had at least one chronic disease than in patients with BMS who had no chronic disease. In conclusion, psychological factors are correlated with BMS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Dementia worry and its relationship to dementia exposure, psychological factors, and subjective memory concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzer, Adrianna; Suhr, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    With increased societal awareness of dementia, older adults show increased concern about developing dementia, leading to misidentification of aging-related cognitive glitches as signs of dementia. While some researchers have suggested self-reported cognitive concerns accurately identify older adults with early signs of dementia, there is evidence that subjective cognitive decline is not associated with objective cognitive performance and instead reflects psychological factors consistent with models of health anxiety, including dementia worry. We examined the construct of dementia worry and its relationship to subjective memory concerns in 100 older adults (Mage = 69 years) without signs of dementia, using a recently developed measure of dementia worry. Consistent with hypotheses, dementia worry was related to exposure to dementia, having a high number of depressive or general worry symptoms, and having more memory concerns. Exposure to dementia moderated the relationship of dementia worry to depression and general worry. Furthermore, dementia worry moderated the relationship of objective memory impairment to subjective memory ratings. The results provide further evidence of the role of psychological factors such as dementia worry in subjective memory report and emphasize the need for objective cognitive testing before making determinations about dementia in older adults expressing memory concerns.

  5. [Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: brief review of the main associated psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, I; Pérez-Marín, M; Montoya-Castilla, I

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a widespread chronic disease among children and adolescents. Diagnosis and evolution usually involves a significant burden on the patient, and their families must change various aspects of their lifestyle to fulfill the demands of treatment. This study aims to identify the main psychological, family, and adjustment to illness features of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM1 and, in particular to highlight the associated psychopathological factors. The methodology involved a systematic literature search in the main scientific databases. Due to the biopsychosocial impact of DM1 usually assumed in the life of the child and family, and how it may compromise the quality of life and emotional well-being of both, different studies have agreed on the importance of identifying the set of psychological factors involved in healthy adjustment to illness in the child and adolescent with DM1. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors associated with psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel

    We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Sociodemographic, Educational, Behavioral, and Psychologic Factors Underlying Orofacial Esthetics and Self-Reported Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Polo, Cristina; Montero, Javier

    The aim of the present study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral, and educational characteristics, together with personality traits, on perceptions of individuals' own oral health and orofacial esthetics. The participants had different educational backgrounds: dentistry students and students not following health care-related courses (university groups), and volunteers with no university studies (nonstudent group). The age range was 18 to 30 years. Sociodemographic and behavioral data and data on facial and dental attractiveness were gathered via personalized interviews. Personality traits were measured using the Big Five Inventory (BFI) (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. No statistically significant differences were observed among the three educational groups regarding the mean scores on the five personality variables. The nonstudent group accorded significantly greater importance to tooth color, whereas the university groups considered tooth alignment more important (P = .016). The logistic regression model used to predict perceptions about orofacial health and esthetics revealed that underlying behavioral (pattern of visits to dentist and brushing habits), psychologic (pessimism and agreeableness), and educational (training in dentistry) factors affected the participants' perceptions of orofacial attractiveness, oral satisfaction, and self-rated oral health. The results of this study show that there are behavioral, psychologic, and educational factors that significantly modulate people's perceptions of orofacial esthetics, oral satisfaction, and self-rated oral health.

  8. Interaction of Psychological Factors in Shaping Entrepreneurial Intention among Computer and Electrical Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Tung Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous technopreneurs start their ventures at college age, but the entrepreneurship of computer and electrical engineering (CEE students remains under-studied. This study analysed both the combined and interactive effects of psychological factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of CEE students. In this study, entrepreneurial intention comprised two dimensions, conviction and preparation. Regarding the direct effects, the results indicated that self-efficacy affected entrepreneurial conviction the most, followed by negative emotion, intrinsic motivation, and metacognition. Negative emotion affected entrepreneurial preparation the most, followed by self-efficacy and positive emotion. The results also revealed several crucial interactive effects resulting from psychological factors. An increase in cognitive load increased the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting high intrinsic motivation and reduced the intention of students exhibiting low intrinsic motivation. An increase in metacognition increased the entrepreneurial conviction of students exhibiting either high or low intrinsic motivation. An increase in positive emotion reduced the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting high negative emotion and increased the intention of students exhibiting low negative emotion. An increase in self-efficacy increased the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting either high or low negative emotion.

  9. Change in Psychological, Physiological, and Situational Factors in Adults After Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Cynthia L; Crawford, Sybil L; Bova, Carol; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-09-01

    We hypothesized that addressing anxiety and depressive mood disorders will improve chronic cough severity and cough quality of life (CQOL). Major tenets of the theory of unpleasant symptoms were examined in a longitudinal observational study of consecutive adults with cough of > 8 weeks' duration treated in our cough clinic. At baseline and 3 and 6 months, subjects completed 3 Punum Ladders rating cough severity, the CQOL Questionnaire, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21, and the Duke Functional Social Support Questionnaire. Cross-sectional baseline and longitudinal regression analyses were conducted. Eighty subjects (55 women) with a mean age of 58.5 ± 11.1 years and a cough duration of 86.0 ± 123.7 months were enrolled. At baseline, worse cough severity was significantly associated with less education and worse ability to speak bothered by cough and the urge to cough. Worse CQOL was significantly associated with worse depression symptoms, urinary incontinence, and ability to speak; use of self-prescribed remedies; and younger age. Significant improvements in depression and stress symptoms occurred at 3 and 6 months. Anxiety symptoms improved, particularly in the first 3 months. Improvement in cough severity was significantly associated with less education, male sex, and improvement in ability to speak and urge to cough. Improvement in CQOL was significantly associated with improvement in urinary incontinence, urge to cough, anxiety symptoms, and use of self-prescribed remedies. Using the theory of unpleasant symptoms, we have come to appreciate that managing psychological, physiological, and situational factors in addition to focusing on identifying the cause of cough is important to maximize improvement in CQOL. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological risk factors of micro- and macrovascular outcomes in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, François; Denollet, Johan

    2010-01-01

    for macrovascular disease, its association with microvascular complications remains understudied. The predictive role of other psychological risk factors such as Type D (distressed) personality and the mechanisms that possibly link depression and Type D personality with poor vascular outcomes are also still unclear...... of all-cause or vascular mortality; and (3) the behavioral and physiological mechanisms that may mediate these associations. The DiaDDZoB Study is embedded within the larger DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study, which covers a comprehensive cohort of type 2 diabetes patients treated by over 200 primary...... care physicians in South-East Brabant, The Netherlands. These patients will be followed during their lifetime and are assessed annually for demographic, clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial factors. Measurements include an interviewer-administered and self-report questionnaire, regular care laboratory...

  11. Factors that mediate between child sexual abuse and adult psychological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, S E; Martin, J L; Anderson, J C; O'Shea, M L; Mullen, P E

    1995-01-01

    The psychological outcome for a random community sample of women who had experienced significant childhood sexual abuse was assessed, using two outcome measures: (i) psychiatric morbidity (measured with the short PSE); (ii) self-esteem. Sexual abused women with a good outcome, i.e. who were not a PSE 'case' or who had high self-esteem were compared with abused women with a poor outcome. This paper describes the post-abuse factors that modified the two outcomes. In general, a range of variables, all correlated with each other in a complex manner, distinguished good outcome subjects from poor outcome subjects. Post-abuse adolescent variables included family factors (poor mother-father and parent-child relationships), high school factors (poor academic, sporting and social performance) and early pregnancy. Women who had a good adolescent relationship with their father did better than expected statistically. Sport emerged as an alternative at secondary school to academic achievement in catalysing a good psychological outcome. Adult factors included the quality of relationship with partner, which was associated with a good outcome on both measures. Current paid employment was linked to high self-esteem but not to lowered psychiatric morbidity, while the converse applied for high socio-economic status. These findings imply that different processes operate for each outcome measure. A clear recognition by the school of childhood sexual abuse may help to provide the opportunity for the girl to experience success in some arena; this in turn may protect her against the likely adult consequences of low self-esteem and increased psychiatric morbidity.

  12. Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Male Adolescents: the Role of Psychologic, Behavioral, and Demographic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.

  13. Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism

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    Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.

  14. Financial crisis and collapsed banks: psychological distress and work related factors among surviving employees--a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorradóttir, Ásta; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjörg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn

    2013-09-01

    The study considered psychological distress among surviving bank employees differently entangled in downsizing and restructuring following the financial crisis of 2008. A cross-sectional, nationwide study was conducted among surviving employees (N = 1880, response rate 68%). Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with psychological distress. In the banks, where all employees experienced rapid and unpredictable organizational changes, psychological distress was higher among employees most entangled in the downsizing and restructuring process. Being subjected to downsizing within own department, salary cut, and transfer to another department, was directly related to increased psychological distress, controlling for background factors. The associations between downsizing, restructuring, and distress were reduced somewhat by adding job demands, job control, and empowering leadership to the model, however, adding social support had little effect on these associations. Employees most entangled in organizational changes are the most vulnerable and should be prioritized in workplace interventions during organizational changes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Factors related to health-related quality of life among Chinese psychiatrists: occupational stress and psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Wang, Lie; Zhao, Qun

    2015-01-22

    Psychiatry has been considered as one of the most stressful medical specialities, and psychiatrists are likely to experience impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, few studies are available in regard to related factors of HRQOL among psychiatrists in China. This study aims to evaluate the condition of HRQOL of psychiatrists and explore its predictive factors, especially the effects of occupational stress and psychological capital. A cross-sectional, multicenter survey was conducted among psychiatrists from different regions of Liaoning province, China, during August 2013-April 2014. Self-administrated questionnaires including the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Chinese version Psychological Capital Questionnaire, effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) scale and participants' basic characteristics were distributed to 500 psychiatrists from 10 psychiatric hospitals of 8 major cities in Liaoning province. Overall, 373 psychiatrists became our final research objects. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR) was performed to explore the predictors of psychiatrists' HRQOL. The mean (SD) scores of PCS and MCS among psychiatrists were 79.78 (16.55) and 71.50 (19.24) respectively. The mean (SD) of ERR were 0.777 (0.493), and 89 (23.9%) had ERR scores above 1 (ERR > 1). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that, psychiatrists' basic characteristics that significant correlated with PCS and MCS were educational level, turnover intention, and exercise; age, weekly working hours were associated with MCS; psychiatrists' experienced occupational stress (both ERR and overcommitment), and PsyCap were significant predictors for PCS and MCS. Chinese psychiatrists experienced relatively good physical QOL but impaired mental QOL, and they experienced high level of occupational stress. For the sake of psychiatrists' HRQOL, the reduction of occupational stress should be implemented. The enhancement of PsyCap could be a new intervention

  16. Psychological Immunity Research to the Improvement of the Professional Teacher Training’s National Methodological and Training Development

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    Bredács Alice Mária

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce what kind of role is played by psychological immunity and its sub-factors and its factor values in life of the students taking part in the professional training, in their performance at school, in the improvability of the students′ strengths and weaknesses. The target of the research is to renew the methodology of the professional training through becoming acquainted with the students of the new generations more exactly. Since, the new generation has changed and it is still changing even today. Their education - training is getting more and more difficult because we do not know them enough. Teachers say that the knowledge of the students, the level of their education, mainly in the specialised secondary schools, is very low because the series of their failures can be detected and the non-attendance is also typical. Much of the students do not have any relevant prospect for the future after the specialised secondary school; they do not have any targets in the long run. The teachers in the specialised secondary schools observe that students are disinterested, they miss persistence, their control ability is very low, the EQ is decreasing and their self-knowledge is imperfect. All of them can be the source of conflicts.

  17. Psychological Factors and Cardiac Risk And Impact of Exercise Training Programs—A Review of Ochsner Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lavie, Carl J.; Milani, Richard V.; Artham, Surya M.; Gilliland, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    Although under-emphasized, substantial evidence indicates that psychological distress, especially depression, hostility, and anxiety, are risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and affect recovery following major coronary heart disease events. We review several major studies from Ochsner Medical Center demonstrating the high prevalence of psychological distress in CHD patients and the marked benefits that occur following formal cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training programs. The...

  18. Nationwide firefighter survey: the prevalence of lower back pain and its related psychological factors among Korean firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gi; Seo, Ju-Il; Kim, KyooSang; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of lower back pain (LBP) and clarify the effect of work-related psychological factors on LBP. Nationwide survey data collected from male Korean firefighters (FIFS) were used. To identify the risk factors (work-related psychological factors such as job stress and depression) affecting LBP, the χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. The prevalence of LBP was 19.3% and was highest in the emergency medical service (31.8%) part of FF job types. Within job stress, an uncomfortable physical environment, high mental job demand and organizational injustice were associated with LBP. However, inadequate social support inversely associated with LBP. Depression and high-risk alcohol drinking were related to LBP. LBP was closely related to job stress, depression and alcohol intake. Proper interventions of psychological factors should therefore be addressed to control LBP in FIFS.

  19. The Psychological Abuse of the Elderly - a Silent Factor of Cardiac Decompensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Adina Carmen; Pîslaru, Anca Iuliana; Alexa, Ioana Dana; Pancu, Adriana; Gavrilovici, Ovidiu; Dronic, Aliona

    2017-06-01

    Abuse of the elderly is a major issue debated worldwide. The most commonly identified form of abuse is the physical abuse. It is also the most frequently studied in the medical literature. However, at least six types of elder abuse are identified, and physical abuse is found in a small proportion of the cases. The consequences of abuse are frequent and, by prolonging hospitalizations, they will be associated with high costs of medical services, and patient's lack of self-confidence which, in time, may lead to social isolation, somatization, anxiety, depression, and suicide attempts. In this context, the identification and correction of psychological abuse becomes a desideratum of utmost importance for ensuring an optimal therapeutic response. This should be done by using a simple method that does not require qualified personnel, but allows the patient to be guided towards psychological consultation; this study was carried out with the help of the EASI EASI (The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index) questionnaire. We present the case of an 80-year old patient in a rural area, who has been hospitalized several times, admitted for numerous episodes of global cardiac decompensation (about four over the last year). The causes of cardiac decompensation were, systematically, non-compliance with treatment, regardless of all attempts to readjust and simplify the therapeutic schemes. The dynamic geriatric assessment showed a deterioration of the patient's mental and nutritional status and an accentuation of depression. The EASI questionnaire used during the last admission corroborated with the psychological consultation and detected several types of abuse: abandonment, negligence and financial abuse. Given that the complexity of care, the frequency of hospitalizations and the length of stay were reduced, therapeutic compliance increased and the mental and nutritional status improved after correcting the abuse.

  20. Systematic review protocol of interventions to improve the psychological well-being of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marylou; Murray, Lois; Donnelly, Michael

    2015-09-22

    The challenges and complexities faced by general practitioners are increasing, and there are concerns about their well-being. Consequently, attention has been directed towards developing and evaluating interventions and strategies to improve general practitioner well-being and their capacity to cope with workplace challenges. This systematic review aims to evaluate research evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve general practitioner well-being. Eligible studies will include programmes developed to improve psychological well-being that have assessed outcomes using validated tools pertaining to well-being and related outcomes. Only programmes that have been evaluated using controlled study designs will be reviewed. An appropriately developed search strategy will be applied to six electronic databases: the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies will be screened in two stages by two independent reviewers. A third reviewer will arbitrate when required. Pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria will be assessed during a pilot phase early on in the review process. The Cochrane data extraction form will be adapted and applied to each eligible study by two independent reviewers, and each study will be appraised critically using standardised checklists from the Cochrane Handbook. Methodological quality will be taken into account in the analysis of the data and the synthesis of results. A narrative synthesis will be undertaken if data is unsuited to a meta-analysis. The systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidance. This will be the first systematic review on this topic, and the evidence synthesis will aid decision-making by general practitioners, policy makers and planners regarding ways in which to improve GP well-being. Findings will be disseminated at general practitioner meetings

  1. Abdominoplasty Improves Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A Prospective Study

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    Kai M. M. Saariniemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, Raitasalo’s modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI, and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI 26.4. Fifty-three (83% women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women’s overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02151799.

  2. Study of the influence of psychological factors in the etiology of vocal nodules in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Uali Abeida, M; Fernández Liesa, R; Vallés Varela, H; García Campayo, J; Rueda Gormedino, P; Ortiz García, A

    2013-01-01

    The role placed by certain psychological factors such as stress and personality on the development of vocal nodules has not yet been established. The aim of this case-control type study is to analyze the relationship between these psychological factors and the presence of vocal nodules while also considering the professional and social aspects of the subjects suffering from this pathology. The case group is made up of 50 patients diagnosed with vocal nodules and with at least 6 months of evolution. The control group is made up of 50 patients diagnosed with nasal respiratory insufficiency. All the patients were examined by laryngeal stroboscopy. For the personality study, the perceived stress, and the voice use, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, Levenstein Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and Goldman Voice Use Survey were used, respectively. The subjects with vocal nodules presented a mean perceived stress score of 0.41±0.09, which was higher than that of the control group (0.35±0.06), the differences observed being statistically significant (Pvocal nodules was that of psychomotor acceleration. The mean score obtained for the scale was 51.64±8.25 in the vocal nodule group and 45.02±0.06 in the control group (Pvocal nodules scored 9.31±1.36, which was significantly higher than the score of the control group (8.07±1.24; Pvocal nodules, such as being young and working in professions considered to be of vocal risk. Perceived stress and personality features of hyperactivity and impulsivity are independent factors related to vocal nodules. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological consequences and associated risk factors among adult survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan, China. Following this disaster, several studies were conducted which assessed the degree of mental disorders in the affected population, but very few considered that several disorders may occur at the same time. This paper aims to investigate the psychological effects and risk factors among adult survivors one-year after the earthquake event. Methods 2080 adult earthquake survivors from 19 counties in the affected areas were interviewed. A stratified sampling strategy was used to collect the information. Earthquake survivors completed self-report questionnaires, which included a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist, a self-rating depression scale and a self-rating anxiety scale. Results Fifty nine percent of the participants were male. The prevalence of probable PTSD in the sample was 40.1% (based on the DSM-IV criteria). Significant differences in the demographic variables were found in the levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Anxiety levels were found to be positively correlated with depression (r = 0.438, p < 0.01) and PTSD (r = 0.322, p < 0.01). Risk factors for each symptom were also identified. Being female, having a low income level and having a low perceived level of social support were found to be the risk factors associated with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. There appeared to be no obvious relationship between the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake event and the severity of the psychological problems. Conclusions PTSD, anxiety, and depression were prevalent among the survivors. Most findings on the predictors were found to be consistent with current research. Positive adjustment and social support were found to be needed for the highest-risk population. PMID:24779914

  4. The psychological problems and related influential factors of left-behind adolescents (LBA) in Hunan, China: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Ye; Mengmeng, Lv; Lezhi, Li; Ting, Mao; Jingping, Zhang

    2017-09-02

    Due to lack of companionship of parents, compared with non left behind children, left behind children (LBC) suffer from more psychological problems compared with children live with their parents. The aim of this study was to explore the mental health status and the relationship among psychological problems and the related factors of LBC. Adopting delaminating-random-group sampling and using region, county, village (town) as sampling framework, we utilized Demographic Data Recording Form, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Scale of APGAR, Perceived Social Support Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Self-Esteem Scale and Scale of Mental Health for Chinese Middle-school Student to assess 1309 left behind child in junior middle school students' mental health in Hunan. Statistic description, Structural equation model was adopted to analyze the data. There was a significant difference in score of psychological problems between LBC and non-LBC(F = 18.224, Pself-esteem (PC = 0.10); social support (PC = -0.02), passive coping (PC =0.07) and active coping PC = -0.04) affected psychological problems directly. Psychoticism (P) (PC = 0.11), Neuroticism (N) influenced psychological problems of LBC both directly (PC = 0.04) and indirectly through affecting self-esteem (PC: P:-1.87; N: -0.83), while Extraversion/Introversion (E) (PC = 0.21) only impact psychological problems indirectly through self-esteem. Altogether, these variables accounted for 50.2% of total variance of psychological problems (F = 130.470, P = 0.000) for LBC. In this research we proved that LBC have more sever psychological problems than non-LBC. We also identified the direct and indirect influential factors of psychological problems of LBC. The findings had important implications for prevention policies and interventions to promote mental health of LBC.

  5. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  6. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  7. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A; Moulson, Margaret C

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  8. Recruitment strategies shouldn’t be randomly selected: Empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Andrea Sugden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: 1 recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy, 2 recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and 3 differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script. The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: 1 some scripts were more successful than others and 2 we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  9. Focal hand dystonia in musicians: phenomenology, etiology, and psychological trigger factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2009-01-01

    NARRATIVE REVIEW: Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder, which manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. In many cases, the disorder terminates the careers of affected musicians. Approximately 1% of all professional musicians are affected. In the past, focal dystonia (FD) was classified as a psychological disorder. Over time, the problem was classified as a neurological problem. Although the specific pathophysiology of the disorder is still unclear, it appears the etiology is multifactorial. While there may be a family history, neurophysiological, physical, and environmental factors, trauma and stress contribute to the phenotypic development of FD. This manuscript analyzes the evidence supporting the potential contribution of the emotional brain systems in the etiology of focal hand dystonia in musicians. In addition, the psychological findings from a large descriptive study comparing healthy musicians, musicians with dystonia, and musicians with chronic pain. Information about psychogenic characteristics might be used to modify intervention strategies and music instruction to reduce the incidence of musician's dystonia.

  10. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

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    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  11. Influence of psychological factors on pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium. A longitudinal study

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    Dolores Marín Morales

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze different psychological factors (personality, psychiatric symptoms, pregnancy worries, beliefs about delivery, locus of control, coping styles and its relation to clinical symptomatology and the presence of complications during pregnancy, quality of life indicators, perception and coping with labour pain, type of delivery, neonatal well-being indicators, delivery satisfaction, maternal bond development and care of the baby and presence of post-partum depression.To achieve this we will develop a prospective correlational longitudinal study. The sample will be composed by pregnant women from the area 9 from the Madrid Community that voluntarily accept the inclusion in this research.Structured questionnaires will be used to evaluate all the psychological variables in the following moments in time:- during the first and third trimester the following variables will be assessed: personality, psychiatric symptoms, pregnancy worries, delivery beliefs, locus of control, coping styles, first trimester physical sintomatology, quality of life indicators,- during the inmediate post-partum: pain during labour and after delivery, childbirth satisfaction,- during the puerperium: post-partum depression and anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, child bond, neonatal care, personality, psychiatric symptomatology.From the clinical record the following data will be obtained: sociodemographic variables, and parameters related to pregnancy evolution, delivery and puerperium that are relevant to the research.

  12. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults

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    Harada Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 ± 13.0 years, who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social (social support, health professional advice, environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area, and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs·hour per week, respondents were divided into two categories–recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive–according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Results When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55–2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82–4.08 and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14–2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01–1.99 for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06–1.97 for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09–2.36 for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33–0.67 and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25–0.97 were negatively associated with meeting the physical

  13. Attachment styles and demographic factors as predictors of sociocultural and psychological adjustment of Eastern European immigrants in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polek, Elżbieta; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ten Berge, Jos M F

    2008-10-01

    The present study examined the relationship between adult attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment of Polish, Russian, and Hungarian immigrants (N = 631) to Dutch society. In addition, it also examined the relationship between demographic factors and adjustment and compared the predictive value of attachment styles and demographic factors for immigrants' adjustment. The Attachment Style Questionnaire was used to assess respondents' attachment. Psychological adjustment was measured with the Psychological Health Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Sociocultural adjustment was measured with the Social Support List - Interactions scale. Two scales for measuring identification and contact with the native and with the Dutch culture were developed and used as indicators of cultural adjustment. We found relations between attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Secure attachment was positively related (ppsychological and sociocultural adjustment, fearful attachment was negatively (ppsychological adjustment, and more negatively with identification with the Dutch culture than with identification with the native culture. Preoccupied attachment was negatively related (ppsychological adjustment and to identification with the Dutch culture. Dismissing attachment was weakly negatively related (padjustment. Correlation patterns across the three immigrants' samples indicate that dismissing individuals remain relatively indifferent towards their native and the Dutch culture. Regarding demographic factors we found that education and age at immigration were positively associated with psychological and sociocultural adjustment, and length of residence appeared to be positively related to sociocultural adjustment. In general, demographic factors showed a stronger association with sociocultural than with psychological adjustment. Regression analysis revealed that attachment styles were better predictors of immigrants' psychological

  14. Age Differences in the Association of Severe Psychological Distress and Behavioral Factors with Heart Disease

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    Liang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the risk factors of serious psychological distress (SPD and behavioral factors for heart disease separately stratified as young (18–44 years, middle aged (45–64 years, and elderly (65 years or older. A total of 3,540 adults with heart disease and 37,703 controls were selected from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential undercoverage and nonresponse biases. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of the factors with heart disease at different ages. The prevalence of SPD was 8% in cases and 4% in controls, respectively. For young adults, SPD and higher federal poverty level (FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease while for middle-aged adults, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, and unemployment were associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In addition, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, unemployment, White, and lower FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease in elderly. Our findings indicate that risk factors for heart disease vary across all ages. Intervention strategies that target risk reduction of heart disease may be tailored accordingly.

  15. Review article: the influence of psychology and human factors on education in anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Ronnie; Flin, Rhona

    2012-02-01

    We look at the changing nature of medical education in the developed world with particular reference to those areas of the new curriculum frameworks which have introduced topics from the psychosocial realm. Research in the branch of psychology dealing with human factors has developed a useful body of working knowledge which applies to other industries where humans interact with the complex systems in which they function. Some findings are already being applied to facets of anesthesia performance, including situation awareness, effective teamwork, countermeasures against active errors and latent pathogens, and limitations of human performance. However, existing lessons and practices from industrial or military research may not translate directly into effective strategies for anesthesiologists. Collaborative studies between psychologists and clinicians should continue in order to provide the anesthetic curriculum with an effective body of knowledge for each role of the anesthesiologist. Although individual anesthesiologists have made important contributions in this field, such material has not been formally incorporated into the curricula serving anesthesiologists in the developed world. There is a gap between the human factors psychologists now know and the human factors anesthesiologists need to know. As that gap closes, anesthesiologists may come to think more like human factor psychologists as well as biomedical scientists.

  16. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  17. Family constellation seminars improve psychological functioning in a general population sample: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, Jan; Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Rochon, Justine; Wild, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2013-10-01

    The study examined the efficacy of nonrecurring family constellation seminars on psychological health. We conducted a monocentric, single-blind, stratified, and balanced randomized controlled trial (RCT). After choosing their roles for participating in a family constellation seminar as either active participant (AP) or observing participant (OP), 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10; 79% women) from the general population were randomly allocated to the intervention group (IG; 3-day family constellation seminar; 64 AP, 40 OP) or a wait-list control group (WLG; 64 AP, 40 OP). It was predicted that family constellation seminars would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 2-week and 4-month follow-ups. In addition, we assessed the impact of family constellation seminars on psychological distress and motivational incongruence. The IG showed significantly improved psychological functioning (d = 0.45 at 2-week follow-up, p = .003; d = 0.46 at 4-month follow-up, p = .003). Results were confirmed for psychological distress and motivational incongruence. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides evidence for the efficacy of family constellation in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Phenomenology of the psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents, depending on various factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nutskova E.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as...

  19. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. © RSNA, 2015.

  20. Improving Middle School Students' Subjective Well-Being: Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Intervention Targeting Small Groups of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Rachel A.; Suldo, Shannon M.; Ferron, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Most interventions intended to improve subjective well-being, termed "positive psychology interventions" (PPIs), have neglected to include relevant stakeholders in youth's lives and have not included booster sessions intended to maintain gains in subjective well-being. The current study investigated the impact of a multitarget,…

  1. Social and Psychological Factors Related to Risk of Eating Disorders Among High School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfoukha, Marwa M; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Banihani, Manar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) has increased among adolescents in Arabic and Western countries. The purposes are to identify the risk of ED and psychosocial correlates of risk of ED among high school girls in Jordan. The researchers employed a cross-sectional, correlational design using 799 high school girls from governmental and private schools in the central region of Jordan. The results indicate that prevalence of the risk of ED was 12%. The risk of ED had significant and positive correlation with body shape dissatisfaction, self-esteem, psychological distress, and pressure from family, peers, and media ( p self-esteem, negative peer pressure, and being young were significant predictors of the risk of EDs. Risk of ED is highly prevalent among high school girls, and school nurses need to adopt a model of care addressing the risk factors while caring for high school girls.

  2. Generating pedestrian trajectories consistent with the fundamental diagram based on physiological and psychological factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Narang

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crowds often have been modeled as many-particle system including microscopic multi-agent simulators. One of the key challenges is to unearth governing principles that can model pedestrian movement, and use them to reproduce paths and behaviors that are frequently observed in human crowds. To that effect, we present a novel crowd simulation algorithm that generates pedestrian trajectories that exhibit the speed-density relationships expressed by the Fundamental Diagram. Our approach is based on biomechanical principles and psychological factors. The overall formulation results in better utilization of free space by the pedestrians and can be easily combined with well-known multi-agent simulation techniques with little computational overhead. We are able to generate human-like dense crowd behaviors in large indoor and outdoor environments and validate the results with captured real-world crowd trajectories.

  3. Some further studies on the prediction of experimental colds in volunteers by psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Phillpotts, R J; Wallace, J

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the incidence of colds in volunteers, exposed experimentally to various rhinovirus and influenza virus challenges, confirmed an earlier report that assessments of virus shedding show a higher degree of infection by rhinovirus in Introverts than they do in Extroverts. The influenza trials however did not show such an effect. In addition, people with higher scores on a widely used self-report inventory of mild psychoneurotic symptoms tended to show more evidence of increased nasal secretion after infection by either type of virus. The specific scale showing the latter effect most clearly was that of Obsessional Symptoms. Taking account of these psychological factors greatly increased the sensitivity of a study of the beneficial effects of interferon.

  4. [Psychological violence against women: What factors increase the risk of this kind of intimate partner abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranoff, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Using data from Argentina's National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women's vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less "formal" long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.

  5. Psychological violence against women: What factors increase the risk of this kind of intimate partner abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Safranoff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from Argentina’s National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women’s vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less “formal” long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.

  6. Which is the dominant factor for perception of rheumatic pain: meteorology or psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Hasan Fatih; Sezer, Ilhan; Firat, Mehmet Z; Kaçar, Cahit

    2011-03-01

    It is believed that there is an association between the weather and rheumatic symptoms. We aimed to investigate what kind of association is present and what are the factors which determine the nature of this association. Fifty-six subjects with rheumatic disease (31 RA, 15 SpA, 10 OA) who live in Antalya were followed between December 2005 and July 2006. Patients were asked to fill diaries which contain questions regarding the symptoms of their rheumatic diseases everyday. In every monthly visit, disease activity measurement, laboratory assessment and Beck depression inventory assessment were recorded. The symptomatic and psychological measurements were matched with the meteorological data of Antalya Regional Directorate of Meteorological Service of Turkish State. Correlation of symptoms with weather variables was investigated. Contributory effect of weather and of psychologic factors on symptom scores were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Eighty-four percent of subjects belive in an association between weather and rheumatism, while 57% claimed to have ability to forecast weather. The maximum correlation coefficient between weather and arthritis symptoms was -0.451 and the maximum contribution of weather on symptoms was 17.1%. Arthritis symptoms were significantly contributed by Beck depression score. The belief about presence of weather-arthritis association was found to be stronger than its statistical power. Our results did not prove or rule out the presence of weather-rheumatism association. As long as the scientific attempts result in failure, the intuitive support in favour of the presence of weather-arthritis association will go on forever.

  7. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Relationships Between Spiritual Well-Being, Quality of Life, and Psychological Factors Before Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sara J; Chen, Yiyi; Paik, Kyungjeen; Mirly, Brandy; Thomas, Charles R; Hung, Arthur Y

    2016-12-30

    Given shifting trends of religious identities in the USA, better understanding the impact of patients' religious identities on health-related quality of life (QOL) may help tailor the use of psychological interventions. Men with prostate cancer (N = 43) completed measures of quality of life (QOL), spiritual well-being in two domains (i.e., Faith and Meaning/Peace), psychological state, and psychological trait before undergoing radiotherapy. We hypothesized that (1) higher existential Meaning/Peace would correlate with higher QOL and psychological trait protective factors (e.g., Agreeableness) and that (2) higher existential Meaning/Peace would correlate with lower depression, anxiety, and Neuroticism (i.e., a psychological trait risk factor). We did not anticipate similar relationships between religious Faith and QOL, depression, anxiety, or psychological traits and consider related analyses to be exploratory in nature. Meaning/Peace was indeed negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and Neuroticism. Meaning/Peace was positively correlated with Physical, Social, Functional, and Emotional well-being, as well as Extraversion. Religious Faith was positively associated with Functional well-being, but not the other state, trait, or QOL domains. In sum, prostate cancer patients' sense of existential Meaning/Peace prior to radiotherapy was associated with well-being in many domains, whereas religious Faith appeared less so.

  9. Fear of crime in Belgrade: Testing a socio-demographic and social-psychological factors model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wealth of research practice, the conceptualization of fear of crime and the ways in which this fear is measured remain the subject of intense theoretical debate in criminological and sociological disciplines. Taking as a starting point the need for a theoretical explanation of fear of crime and the existing research which has confirmed the relevance of the model which integrates socio-demographic and social-psychological factors, a study was conducted in order to examine the predictive capabilities of these factors and compare the results with those of similar studies in the region. The analysis was based on the data obtained in the course of the regional research project 'Fear of Crime in Large Cities', carried out in 2009 in the capital cities of former Yugoslav republics on a multistage random sample using the method of in-home interview. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was applied on a sample of 397 adult respondents residing in urban parts of Belgrade in order to draw conclusions on how the variables of the integrated model can help explain the differences in the level of fear of crime. Fear of crime, as a dependent variable, was measured using six vignettes after the reliability and unidimensionality of the construct was confirmed. The results of the regression analysis showed that the proposed model was able to account for 42% of the differences in fear of crime. With regard to the socio-demographic variables (introduced in the first step and accounting for 31% of the variance, it was determined that women express the greatest fear of crime as they avoid being alone in their neighbourhoods at night, visit nearby friends less frequently and believe that the streets, shops, and woods in their immediate surroundings are not safe. Regarding the social-psychological variables (which accounted for the additional 11% of the variance, a higher level of fear was found in persons who believe that other people pose a threat to

  10. Improving the Quality of Experience Journals: Training Educational Psychology Students in Basic Qualitative Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Keefer, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of teaching basic qualitative methodology to preservice teachers enrolled in an educational psychology course in the quality of observation journals. Preservice teachers enrolled in an educational psychology course requiring 45 hr of field experience were given qualitative methodological training as a part of the…

  11. Improving Athletes' Perspectives of Sport Psychology Consultation: A Controlled Evaluation of Two Interview Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, B.; Dickens, Y.; Lancer, K.; Covassin, T.; Hash, A.; Miller, A.; Genet, J.

    2004-01-01

    Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of…

  12. The course of nonspecific work-related upper limb disorders and the influence of demographic factors, psychologic factors, and physical fitness on clinical status and disability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsden-Besseling, M.D. van; Bergh, K.A. van den; Staal, J.B.; Bie, R.A. de; Heuvel, W.J.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the course of nonspecific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD) and the influence of sociodemographic factors, psychologic factors, and physical fitness on clinical status and functional disability. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with cross-sectional analysis among

  13. The Course of Nonspecific Work-Related Upper Limb Disorders and the Influence of Demographic Factors, Psychologic Factors, and Physical Fitness on Clinical Status and Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijsden-Besseling, Marjon D.; van den Bergh, Karien A.; Staal, J. Bart; de Bie, Rob A.; van den Heuvel, Wim J.

    Objective: To assess the course of nonspecific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD) and the influence of sociodemographic factors, psychologic factors, and physical fitness on clinical status and functional disability. Design: Retrospective cohort study with cross-sectional analysis among

  14. Power Factor Improvement in Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENKATESAN, G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM drive is a variable speed motor drive system with unique characteristics. The switching of voltage into the phase winding and pulsating AC input current leads to low power factor and high harmonic contents. In this paper, the power factor is improved using boost converter. The hardware results are taken for a DC input voltage of 60 V to the SRM with different load currents. From the results, it is found that the total current harmonic distortion and individual current harmonics are less with Power Factor Controller (PFC. The power factor of the circuit is improved with the proposed power factor controller.

  15. Understanding and improving patient safety: the psychological, social and cultural dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvretveit, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to provide researchers and practitioners with an overview of how organisation behaviour research (OBR) helps to understand and resolve patient safety problems in health care. The paper describes psychological, sociological and other social science theories and research which help to understand the causes of patient safety problems, how to implement change effectively and how to create an organisational culture of safety. Social science perspectives and organisational behaviour research are beginning to show why improvements in patient safety are slow, and how to make lasting and effective change. Social sciences and OBR have already helped make healthcare safer, but could make a greater contribution. Progress could be faster with greater awareness of the findings of this research and understanding of social science research paradigms. Better implementation and safer care could result from providing implementers and decision makers with more knowledge and access to social science research. More useful social science research could be developed by research funders and proposal reviewers gaining a greater understanding of social science methods and potential, and by including this research in a field made up largely of traditional experimental medical research methods. This paper provides an overview of the scientific and practical contributions of social sciences to patient safety and shows where future studies could assist understanding of current challenges and speed implementation of change.

  16. Assessment of selected psychological factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morys, Joanna M; Kaczówka, Anna; Jeżewska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the majority of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) mental health problems are demonstrated in the form of excessive anxiety and unstable emotional reactions. Emotional instability affects the wellbeing of these patients, and also their attitude towards the disease and the course of treatment. The objective of the study is to evaluate psychological factors in patients with IBD, and to compare patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and patients suffering from Crohn's disease (CD) with respect to intensity of these factors. The study included 108 patients with IBD. NEO-FFI and type-D Scale were used to evaluate personality traits. Anxiety level was measured with STAI. CECS was used to measure the patients' tendency to suppress negative emotions. In the patients with CD 45% of subjects presented type D personality. In the group of patients with UC, type D personality was found in 38%. The higher levels of neuroticism and extraversion were observed in patients with UC, whereas the patients with CD exhibited a higher level of openness to experience and agreeableness. In patients with CD the levels of state anxiety were elevated, whereas in patients with UC higher scores were both for state and trait anxiety. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of personality factors in a group of patients with CD and UC. It was found that the majority of patients with IBD suffer elevated or high sense of anxiety.

  17. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Comparison of pain, disorder, back performance, and psychological factors in patients with low back pain and radicular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Jung Hyun; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between pain intensity, lumber disability, and psychological factors in patients with low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 166 outpatients (116 female, 50 male) with chronic low back pain presenting for physical therapy participated in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: those with low back pain alone and those with both low back pain and radicular pain. Pain intensity and lumbar disability were measured using a visual analogue scale and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Psychological factors, such as self-efficiency, fear avoidance, and depression were measured using the Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and Beck Depression Index, respectively. [Results] Patients with low back pain with radicular pain had greater pain and lumber disability and lower psychological factors compared with patients with chronic low back pain alone. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate the presence of low back pain with radicular pain is more related to pain, LBP disability index, Back performance, Self-efficiency (Pain, Function, Symptom), Fear-avoidance (body, work) and depression factors than low back pain. Considering the relationships between in pain, LBP disability index, Back performance, Self-efficiency (Pain, Function, Symptom), Fear-avoidance (body, work) and depression factors in patients with low back pain, therapeutic intervention for not only pain and dysfunction, but also psychological factors is needed.

  19. Effect of Psychological Factors on the Level of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Gynecological Malignant Tumors

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    Cui-ge YU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of psychological factors on the level of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in patients with gynecological malignant tumors. Methods: Fifty-six patients with gynecological malignant tumors were selected as malignant tumor group in Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital from Jun. 2013 to Jun. 2014, and meanwhile, 56 healthy people were selected as control group at the same term. The life events, social support and coping styles of the subjects in both groups were given questionnaire survey based on life event scale (LES, social support rating scale (SSRS and trait coping style questionnaire (TCSQ. The scores of LES, SSRS and TCSQ in two groups were compared, and the correlation between the level of serum VEGF and psychological factors in malignant tumor group was analyzed. Results: Both the frequency of negative events and total frequency of life events in malignant tumor group were higher than in control group dramatically (P=0.000, 0.000, while the scores of objective support, subjective support and availability to support lower than in control group (P=0.000, 0.000, 0.001. The scores of positive coping in malignant tumor group was notably lower than in control group, but those of negative coping higher than in control group (P=0.000, P=0.000. Pearson correlation analysis displayed that the level of serum VEGF was positively correlated with the frequency of negative events and scores of negative coping (r=0.828, P=0.000; r=0.944, P=0.000, while negatively correlated with the scores of positive coping, objective and subjective support (r=-0.921, P=0.000; r=-0.951, P=0.000; r=-0.899, P=0.000. Conclusion: Negative life events, low social support and bad coping styles can all promote the increase of VEGF level in patients with gynecological malignant tumors, and are closely associated with occurrence and progression of malignant tumors.

  20. Psychosocial group interventions to improve psychological well-being in adults living with Hiv

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Ingrid; Abrahams, Naeemah; Sinclair, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Being diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and labelled with a chronic, life-threatening, and often stigmatizing disease, can impact on a person's well-being. Psychosocial group interventions aim to improve life-functioning and coping as individuals adjust to the diagnosis. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of psychosocial group interventions for improving the psychological well-being of adults living with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following electronic databases up to 14 March 2016: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in the Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2016), PubMed (MEDLINE) (1996 to 14 March 2016), Embase (1996 to 14 March 2016), and Clinical Trials.gov. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared psychosocial group interventions with versus control (standard care or brief educational interventions), with at least three months follow-up post-intervention. We included trials that reported measures of depression, anxiety, stress, or coping using standardized scales. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened abstracts, applied the inclusion criteria, and extracted data. We compared continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and pooled data using a random-effects model. When the included trials used different measurement scales, we pooled data using standardized mean difference (SMD) values. We reported trials that we could not include in the meta analysis narratively in the text. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 16 trials (19 articles) that enrolled 2520 adults living with HIV. All the interventions were multifaceted and included a mix of psychotherapy, relaxation, group support, and education. The included trials were conducted in the USA (12 trials), Canada (one trial), Switzerland (one trial), Uganda (one trial

  1. Let's talk about sleep: a systematic review of psychological interventions to improve sleep in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Anja; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2018-02-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence in college students. Insomnia, nightmares and impaired sleep quality lead to several mental health issues, as well as impaired academic performance. Although different sleep programmes exist, a systematic overview comparing their effectiveness is still missing. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of psychological interventions to improve sleep in college students. Seven databases were searched from November to December 2016 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, PubMed, OpenSigle). The search string included search terms from three different topics: sleep, intervention and college students. Outcome measures included subjective as well as objective measures and focused on sleep, sleep-related and mental health variables. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. They were assigned to four intervention categories: (1) sleep hygiene, (2) cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), (3) relaxation, mindfulness and hypnotherapy and (4) other psychotherapeutic interventions. Fifteen studies were randomized controlled trials. While sleep hygiene interventions provided small to medium effects, the CBTs showed large effects. The variability of the effect sizes was especially large in the relaxation category, ranging from very small to very large effect sizes. Other psychotherapeutic interventions showed medium effects. CBT approaches provided the best effects for the improvement of different sleep variables in college students. Five studies included insomnia patients. The other three intervention categories also showed promising results with overall medium effects. In the future, CBT should be combined with relaxation techniques, mindfulness and hypnotherapy. Furthermore, the interventions should broaden their target group and include more sleep disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Enhanced psychological flexibility and improved quality of life in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densham, Sarah; Williams, Deborah; Johnson, Anne; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2016-09-01

    Psychological Flexibility (PF) is a relatively new concept in physical health. It can be defined as an overarching process of being able to accept the presence of wanted/unwanted experiences, choosing whether to change or persist in behaviour in response to those experiences. Associations between processes of PF and quality of life (QoL) have been found in long-term health conditions such as chronic pain, PF has not yet been applied to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Changes in PF, fatigue severity and QoL were examined in one hundred and sixty-five patients with CFS/ME engaged in a six-week outpatient interdisciplinary group treatment programme. Participants were assessed using a series of self-report measures at the start of the start (T1) and end of a six-week programme (T2) and at six months follow up (T3). Significant changes in PF and QoL were observed from pre-treatment (T1) to post treatment follow-up (T2 and T3); changes in fatigue severity were observed from T1 to T3 only. Controlling for fatigue severity, changes in the PF dimension of activity/occupational engagement were associated with improvement in QoL at six month follow up (T3) but not at six weeks post programme (T2). Findings indicate an interdisciplinary group treatment approach for people with CFS/ME may be associated with improved QoL, processes of PF and fatigue severity, supporting a link between PF and long term health conditions. Results highlight links between PF and patient QoL in CFS/ME and the value of interdisciplinary treatment approaches in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of socio-demographic and psychological factors affecting women’s propensity to breastfeed: an Italian cohort

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    Valentina Elisabetta Di Mattei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women.Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother’s breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusions: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.

  4. Identification of Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Affecting Women’s Propensity to Breastfeed: An Italian Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E.; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother’s breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs. PMID:27965610

  5. Psychological factors related to physical education classes as predictors of students' intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity.

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    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-Molina, Marina

    2016-04-01

    In view of the rise in sedentary lifestyle amongst young people, knowledge regarding their intention to partake in physical activity can be decisive when it comes to instilling physical activity habits to improve the current and future health of school students. Therefore, the object of this study was to find a predictive model of the intention to partake in leisure- time physical activity based on motivation, satisfaction and competence. The sample consisted of 347 Spanish, male, high school students and 411 female students aged between 13 and 18 years old. We used a questionnaire made up of the Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Satisfaction Instrument, and the competence factor in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Intention to Partake in Leisure-Time Physical Activity, all of them adapted to school Physical Education. We carried out confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models. The intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity was predicted by competence and the latter by satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation was revealed to be the best predictor of satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation should be enhanced in order to predict an intention to partake in physical activity in Physical Education students.

  6. The role of work- related physical and psychological factors on prevalence of neck/shoulder complaints among nurses: A multicentric study.

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    Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Bahrami-Ahmadi, Amir; Kadkhodaei, Hamidreza; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Amiri, Ziba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying the predisposing factors of neck and shoulder complaints and finding solutions to avoid them could improve the occupational health condition of the nurses. In this study, we aimed at determining the role of psychological and physical occupational factors in developing neck and shoulder complaints among the participants. Methods: This analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on the nurses of main hospitals of Tehran. To study the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain, the Nordic questionnaire was used, and job content questionnaire was used to assess the psychological and physical occupational factors. Data were analyzed using SPSS and statistical methods. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the qualitative variables, and chi-square test was utilized for the statistical analysis of the qualitative variables. Results: Prevalence of neck and shoulder complaints among the nurses with high physical workload was significantly higher than in those nurses with low physical workload. Unlike physical workload, the prevalence of neck and shoulder complaints was not significantly different between the nurses with low or high psychological workload. Prevalence of neck and shoulder complaints among the female nurses was significantly higher than in the male nurses. In our study, only female nurses with high physical workload had been known as independent predictors of neck and shoulder complaints. Conclusion: Those nurses who had more workload, especially physical workload, had a higher prevalence of neck and shoulder complaints, and this fact could affect their work tasks.

  7. Can a self-referral system help improve access to psychological treatments?

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    Brown, June SL; Boardman, Jed; Whittinger, Naureen; Ashworth, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Referrals for psychological treatment have been problematic for many years. Even though GPs have attempted to limit access into the small psychological treatment services, long waiting lists have developed which have deterred referrals and deferred psychological care. GPs have understandably been frustrated. In addition, the consultation rate for psychological problems is low when compared with the rate of identified mental health problems in population surveys. Possible reasons include patients' failure to recognise the problem as psychological and thus not consulting one's GP, and/or the problem not being detected by the GP. While a self-referral system may be seen as a way of trying to allow non-consulters to receive treatment, this has been viewed with some scepticism since it may allow the ‘worried well’ to access already limited services. However, a study has shown that those self-referring to advertised psychological workshops had high levels of psychological morbidity and also were more representative of the population, in terms of ethnicity, than GP referrals. The government has set up the Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme to address some of the service shortfalls by expanding the provision of psychological therapists. Notably, the IAPT programme is allowing self-referrals such that any member of the public can access the service directly, bypassing general practice. Although not available at all the sites, this represents a radical shift from the present system in which access to talking therapy is generally only available through direct referral by the GP. The implications of this new development are discussed. PMID:20423587

  8. Subjective memory complaints, vascular risk factors and psychological distress in the middle-aged: a cross-sectional study

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    Davenport Tracey A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective memory complaints (SMC are common but their significance is still unclear. It has been suggested they are a precursor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia and an early indicator of cognitive decline. Vascular risk factors have an important role in the development of dementia and possibly MCI. We therefore aimed to test the hypothesis that vascular risk factors were associated with SMC, independent of psychological distress, in a middle-aged community-dwelling population. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the 45 and Up Study was performed. This is a cohort study of people living in New South Wales (Australia, and we explored the sample of 45, 532 participants aged between 45 and 64 years. SMC were defined as 'fair' or 'poor' on a self-reported five-point Likert scale of memory function. Vascular risk factors of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking were identified by self-report. Psychological distress was measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. We tested the model generated from a randomly selected exploratory sample (n = 22, 766 with a confirmatory sample of equal size. Results 5, 479/45, 532 (12% of respondents reported SMC. Using multivariate logistic regression, only two vascular risk factors: smoking (OR 1.18; 95% CI = 1.03 - 1.35 and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.36 showed a small independent association with SMC. In contrast psychological distress was strongly associated with SMC. Those with the highest levels of psychological distress were 7.00 (95% CI = 5.41 - 9.07 times more likely to have SMC than the non-distressed. The confirmatory sample also demonstrated the strong association of SMC with psychological distress rather than vascular risk factors. Conclusions In a large sample of middle-aged people without any history of major affective illness or stroke, psychological distress was strongly, and vascular risk

  9. Community Water Improvement, Household Water Insecurity, and Women's Psychological Distress: An Intervention and Control Study in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, E G J; Ambelu, A; Caruso, B A; Tesfaye, Y; Freeman, M C

    2016-01-01

    Over 650 million people worldwide lack access to safe water supplies, and even among those who have gained access to 'improved' sources, water may be seasonally unreliable, far from homes, expensive, and provide insufficient quantity. Measurement of water access at the level of communities and households remains crude, and better measures of household water insecurity are urgently needed to inform needs assessments and monitoring and evaluation. We set out to assess the validity of a quantitative scale of household water insecurity, and to investigate (1) whether improvements to community water supply reduce water insecurity, (2) whether water interventions affect women's psychological distress, and (3) the impacts of water insecurity on psychological distress, independent of socio-economic status, food security, and harvest quality. Measures were taken before and one to six months after a community water supply improvement in three villages in rural northern Ethiopia. Villages similar in size and access to water sources and other amenities did not receive interventions, and served as controls. Household water insecurity was assessed using a 21-item scale based on prior qualitative work in Ethiopia. Women's psychological distress was assessed using the WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Respondents were either female heads of household or wives of the heads of household (n = 247 at baseline, n = 223 at endline); 123 households provided data at both rounds. The intervention was associated with a decline of approximately 2 points on the water insecurity scale between baseline and endline compared to the control (beta -1.99; 95% CI's -3.15, -0.84). We did not find evidence of impact of the intervention on women's psychological distress. Water insecurity was, however, predictive of psychological distress (p <0.01), independent of household food security and the quality of the previous year's harvest. These results contribute to the construct validity of our

  10. Community Water Improvement, Household Water Insecurity, and Women's Psychological Distress: An Intervention and Control Study in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E G J Stevenson

    Full Text Available Over 650 million people worldwide lack access to safe water supplies, and even among those who have gained access to 'improved' sources, water may be seasonally unreliable, far from homes, expensive, and provide insufficient quantity. Measurement of water access at the level of communities and households remains crude, and better measures of household water insecurity are urgently needed to inform needs assessments and monitoring and evaluation. We set out to assess the validity of a quantitative scale of household water insecurity, and to investigate (1 whether improvements to community water supply reduce water insecurity, (2 whether water interventions affect women's psychological distress, and (3 the impacts of water insecurity on psychological distress, independent of socio-economic status, food security, and harvest quality.Measures were taken before and one to six months after a community water supply improvement in three villages in rural northern Ethiopia. Villages similar in size and access to water sources and other amenities did not receive interventions, and served as controls. Household water insecurity was assessed using a 21-item scale based on prior qualitative work in Ethiopia. Women's psychological distress was assessed using the WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Respondents were either female heads of household or wives of the heads of household (n = 247 at baseline, n = 223 at endline; 123 households provided data at both rounds. The intervention was associated with a decline of approximately 2 points on the water insecurity scale between baseline and endline compared to the control (beta -1.99; 95% CI's -3.15, -0.84. We did not find evidence of impact of the intervention on women's psychological distress. Water insecurity was, however, predictive of psychological distress (p <0.01, independent of household food security and the quality of the previous year's harvest.These results contribute to the construct validity

  11. Beyond expectation: a case for nonpersonal contextual factors in a more comprehensive approach to the placebo effect and the contribution of environmental psychology

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    Sütterlin S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Sütterlin,1,2 Lars E Egner,1 Ricardo G Lugo,1 Slawomir Wojniusz2,3 1Section of Psychology, Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Division of Surgery and Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital – Rikshospitalet, Oslo, 3Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway Abstract: Creating an optimized health care environment to maximize the probability and magnitude of placebo effects draws on a number of well-researched mechanisms such as the patient's positive expectation toward treatment outcome. Patient-centered communication styles influence expectations and can thus be considered as a form of supplemental treatment. Unconsciously processed contextual triggering and facilitating placebo effects are omnipresent in clinical settings as well as in all other social and physical environments. Contextual cues in both the social and physical domain exert influences on the recipient's emotional state and recreational experiences. While the majority of research focuses on improving the patients' expectations, classical conditioning effects of nonsocial contextual factors have been largely neglected in discussions on practical implementation of placebo-enhancing environments. Built on the empirically well-supported argument that conditioning processes act as a powerful tool to mobilize self-healing resources just as verbally induced expectations do, we argue for a stronger consideration of the effects of permanent, nonsocial and nonverbal environmental contexts. Environmental psychology is a new field of research within the psychological domain and offers a toolbox of opportunities for medical psychological research and health care practitioners to improve the treatment outcomes and benefits of health care environments. Keywords: placebo, expectation, conditioning, environmental psychology

  12. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

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    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

  13. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characte