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Sample records for psychological distress family

  1. Understanding Associations among Family Support, Friend Support, and Psychological Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Briana N.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional support from family and friends is associated with lower psychological distress. This study examined whether genetic and environmental influences explain associations among family support, friend support, and psychological distress. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study and included 947 pairs of MZ, same-sex DZ, and opposite-sex DZ twins. Results showed that a genetic factor explains the relationship between friend support and psychological ...

  2. Conceptualising psychological distress in families in palliative care: Findings from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Clare M; Smith, Annetta; Forbat, Liz

    2015-07-01

    Adult palliative care patients and their family members experience significant psychological distress and morbidity. Psychosocial interventions adopting a systemic approach may provide a cogent model to improve the psychosocial care of families in palliative care. To facilitate design of these interventions, the construct of psychological distress in families in palliative care should be empirically derived. To ascertain how psychological distress is conceptualised in families receiving palliative care. A systematic review of the literature; this was followed by a thematic analysis and narrative synthesis. Using pre-defined search terms, four electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Behavioural Sciences collections) were searched with no date restrictions imposed. Pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria were then applied. A total of 32 papers were included in the review. Two findings emerged from data synthesis. First, distress is conceptualised as a multi-dimensional construct but little consensus exists as to how to capture and measure distress. Second, distress in the families within these studies can be conceptualised using a tiered approach, moving from individual non-interactive depictions of distress through gradations of interaction to convey a systemic account of distress within the family system. Thus, distress shifts from a unitary to a systemic construct. Currently, there is a paucity of research examining distress informed by family systems theories. This review proposes that distress in families in palliative care can be conceptualised and illustrated within a tiered model of distress. Further research is merited to advance current explanatory frameworks and theoretical models of distress. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Effect of family counsellling on psychological distress among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) is a haematological disorder of red blood cells, caused by mutation in the beta globin gene. Caring for patients with the disorder poses a significant psychological burden on the sufferers, the caregivers and their families, thereby affecting their quality of life. Family counselling has ...

  4. Examining behavioural coping strategies as mediators between work-family conflict and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.

  5. Psychological distress as a predictor of frequent attendance in family practice: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede

    2001-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice....... In 1990, 185 consecutive adults who consulted their primary care physician (PCP) about an illness were rated on two psychometric scales (Hopkins Symptom Check List [SCL-8] and Whiteley-7), and their annual number of face-to-face contacts with a family practice was followed until 1996. Frequent attenders.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness....

  6. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-02

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  7. Family incivility and job performance: a moderated mediation model of psychological distress and core self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sandy; Tai, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    This study extends the stress literature by exploring the relationship between family incivility and job performance. We examine whether psychological distress mediates the link between family incivility and job performance. We also investigate how core self-evaluation might moderate this mediated relationship. Data from a 2-wave study indicate that psychological distress mediates the relationship between family incivility and job performance. In addition, core self-evaluation moderates the relationship between family incivility and psychological distress but not the relationship between psychological distress and job performance. The results hold while controlling for general job stress, family-to-work conflict, and work-to-family conflict. The findings suggest that family incivility is linked to poor performance at work, and psychological distress and core self-evaluation are key mechanisms in the relationship.

  8. Family Functioning, Psychological Distress, and Well-Being in Parents with a Child Having ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyfrid Larsen Moen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Children with ADHD have difficulties regarding the regulation of their emotions and activities and of the maintenance of attention and impulse control. Families with children with ADHD encounter many challenges, and the public health nurse is highlighted as helping and supporting these families. The aim of this study was to investigate families with a child having ADHD from the parents’ perspective. A cross-sectional study was performed. In total, N = 264 parents of children with ADHD, 217 mothers and 47 fathers (48.2%, responded on a questionnaire regarding psychological distress, family sense of coherence, and family functioning. Parents with ADHD and parents with children not medicated for ADHD seemed most vulnerable. Parents’ well-being and psychological distress seem to influence family functioning the most, with the behavior of the child with ADHD and support from the community health services had importance.

  9. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of work-family conflict and job insecurity on psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambudzi, M; Javed, Z; Kaul, S; Prochaska, J; Peek, M K

    2017-05-23

    Work-family conflict (WFC) and job insecurity are important determinants of workers' mental health. To examine the relationship between WFC and psychological distress, and the co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress in US working adults. This study used cross-sectional data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for adults aged 18-64 years. The 2010 NHIS included occupational data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored Occupational Health Supplement. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent and co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress. The study group consisted of 12059 participants. In the model fully adjusted for relevant occupational, behavioural, sociodemographic and health covariates, WFC and job insecurity were independently significantly associated with increased odds of psychological distress. Relative to participants reporting WFC only, participants reporting no WFC and no job insecurity had lower odds of moderate and severe distress. Co-occurring WFC and job insecurity was associated with significantly higher odds of both moderate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.9] and severe (OR = 3.57; 95% CI 2.66-4.79) distress. Rates of WFC and job insecurity were influenced by differing factors in working adults; however, both significantly increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes, particularly when experienced jointly. Future studies should explore the temporal association between co-occurring WFC and job insecurity and psychological distress.

  11. The Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study of Family, Social, Individual and Psychological Distress Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarski, John J.; And Others

    Although there is literature on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), empirical research on family, social, and individual factors that may influence the psychological distress experienced by AIDS, Aids-Related Complex (ARC), Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV+) and worried well individuals is limited. This study explored the…

  12. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jiro Takaki; Yuri Hibino

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related ...

  13. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  14. Coping strategies and social support in the family impact of cleft lip and palate and parents' adjustment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sarah R; Owens, Jan; Stern, Melanie; Willmot, Derrick

    2009-05-01

    To examine the role of parents' coping strategies and social support in the family impact of cleft lip and palate (CLP) and levels of adjustment and psychological distress and to investigate whether a child's age, type of cleft, or other reported medical problems influenced such outcomes. A cross-sectional study. One hundred three parents of children or young adults with CLP recruited from families attending a multidisciplinary cleft lip and palate clinic. Family impact, psychological distress, and positive adjustment were assessed using validated psychological questionnaires. Findings indicated that while there were many impacts of a child's CLP, negative outcomes (family impact, psychological distress) were not high. In contrast, parents reported high levels of positive adjustment or stress-related growth as a result of their child's condition. Participants also reported high levels of social support and relied more on the use of approach rather than avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Having more support from friends and family was associated with less negative family impact, lower psychological distress, and better adjustment. Greater use of approach coping was associated with more positive adjustment; whereas, avoidant coping was associated with a greater family impact and more psychological distress. Having a younger child and/or a child with medical problems in addition to CLP was associated with a greater impact on the family. How parents cope with their child's condition and the levels of support received may have implications for caregivers, the family unit, and the delivery of more family-oriented CLP services.

  15. Psychological distress: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, Sheila H

    2004-03-01

    The term 'distress' is frequently used in nursing literature to describe patient discomfort related to signs and symptoms of acute or chronic illness, pre- or post-treatment anxiety or compromised status of fetuses or the respiratory system. 'Psychological distress' may more accurately describe the patient condition to which nurses respond than does the term 'distress'. Psychological distress is seldom defined as a distinct concept and is often embedded in the context of strain, stress and distress. This creates confusion for nurses attempting to manage the care of people experiencing psychological distress. This paper is a concept analysis of psychological distress based on Walker and Avant's (1995) criteria that identifies the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of psychological distress based upon the findings of the literature review. In addition, empirical references are identified and constructed cases presented. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid, PsychINFO, and Cancer Lit databases over the last 50 years. The purposes of this concept analysis were: (1) to establish the concept of psychological distress as a clear and distinct concept, separate from strain, stress and distress, and (2) to provide nurses with a base of knowledge from which to plan effective clinical interventions. Content analysis of the literature revealed that, although used frequently in health care literature, the origin of the concept of psychological distress has not been clearly articulated and is ill-defined. Psychological distress is a serious problem faced by many of the people whom nurses encounter on a daily basis. An understanding of the concept of psychological distress will help nurses ameliorate this problem in patients. Nursing research related to the exploration of psychological distress is also needed.

  16. Psychological flexibility as a buffer against caregiver distress in families with psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens E.; Haahr, Ulrik H.; Lyse, Hanne Grethe

    2017-01-01

    involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioural therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes. Aims: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver...... user symptoms, drug use and global functioning, psychological flexibility was a significant predictor of caregiver distress. Conclusion: Greater level of psychological flexibility in caregivers, seems to be related to lower levels of caregiver distress. This finding corresponds to studies within...

  17. Linking family cohesion and flexibility with expressed emotion, family burden and psychological distress in caregivers of patients with psychosis: A path analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Simos, Panagiotis; Triliva, Sofia; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2016-06-30

    The present study aimed to evaluate a path analytic model accounting for caregivers' psychological distress that takes into account perceived family cohesion and flexibility, expressed emotion and caregiver's burden associated with the presence of mental illness in the family. 50 first-episode and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) recruited from the Inpatient Psychiatric Unit of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was assessed in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES-IV), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of family dynamics on caregivers' psychological distress. The results showed that neither family cohesion nor family flexibility exerted significant direct effects on caregivers' psychological distress. Instead, the effect of flexibility was mediated by caregivers' criticism and family burden indicating an indirect effect on caregivers' psychological distress. These results apply equally to caregivers of first episode and chronic patients. Family interventions aiming to improve dysfunctional family interactions by promoting awareness of family dynamics could reduce the burden and improve the emotional well-being of family caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychological distress in families of victims of maritime piracy - the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziello, Antonio Rosario; Angioli, Rolando Degli; Fasanaro, Angiola Maria; Amenta, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This work has investigated the psychological status of family members of kidnapped seafarers, 5 months after their release. The goal of this study was to assess if relatives of victims of maritime piracy showed signs of psychological distress, to diagnose eventual pathologies and to measure their severity. Twelve family members (8 females and 4 males) of 4 kidnapped seafarers were examined. They were first interviewed by a semi-structured approach and then examined using the self-report questionnaire State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Five months after the relatives had been released, 42% of the family members of kidnapped seafarers obtained pathological scores in the STAI-Y questionnaire, and 33% showed depression according to the HDRS. Family members of kidnapped seafarers show significant psychopathological symptoms 5 months after relatives have been released. Symptoms may be severe enough to interfere with daily life in about one half of them. Kidnapping is a changing life experience and both victims and relatives require attention and support.

  19. Psychological Flexibility as a Buffer against Caregiver Distress in Families with Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens E. Jansen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that caregivers of persons with psychosis play an invaluable role in recovery, but unfortunately, often report high levels of distress. While cognitive models of caregiver distress have been well-supported, there is still limited knowledge of the psychological factors involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioral therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes.Aim: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver distress.Method: Within a cross-sectional design, 101 caregivers of 38 persons with first-episode psychosis in a clinical epidemiological sample completed a series of self-report measures.Results: A linear mixed model analysis found that, after controlling for caregiver socio-demographic factors, service user symptoms, drug use and global functioning, psychological flexibility was a significant predictor of caregiver distress.Conclusion: Greater level of psychological flexibility in caregivers, seems to be related to lower levels of caregiver distress. This finding corresponds to studies within a broad range of emotional disorders. There may be important clinical implications in terms of facilitating the process of acceptance through interventions from the ‘third-wave’ or contextual cognitive behavioral therapies.

  20. [Aftermath of death of a seriously ill family member: Online survey of psychological distress and care satisfaction of relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk-Fleischer, Antje; Köhler, Norbert; Brähler, Elmar; Mehnert, Anja; Götze, Heide

    2017-05-12

    Aim of the study The aim of the study was to assess the level of psychosocial distress and satisfaction with care in family caregivers after the death of a close relative. Method Anxiety and depression (HADS) of family caregivers were evaluated in both bereaved family caregivers and a comparable group from the general population. Furthermore, satisfaction with care (ZUF-8) and social support (HOPE-Module, ESSI) were assessed after the patients had died. Regression models were employed to analyze associations between psychological distress and sociodemographic and care-related variables. Results We conducted an online survey with 200 bereaved family caregivers (93% female, time since death of the relative: M=306 days). Of these, 31% were the primary caregiver. The bereaved caregivers were highly psychologically distressed (high anxiety: 41%/high depression: 35%). From the survivors' point of view, care at the end of life was partially insufficient: about one in three of the dying patients had suffered from pain and 20% had not been treated with dignity. After the relative had passed away, 44% of the bereaved caregivers did not get information about support offers; one in three missed emotional assistance. Dissatisfaction with care and support was associated with increased psychological distress, higher age and a shorter period of care. Conclusion The high level of psychological distress in bereaved family caregivers suggests high supportive care needs, which are often not met in practice. Family caregivers need to be prepared for the time after their relative's death and should be offered psychosocial support. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Loneliness and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J; Cochran, S D

    1991-05-01

    Research on relationships between loneliness and psychological symptoms has generally shown significant positive associations across a wide spectrum of psychopathologies. However, such results may be artificial, to some extent, given the high intercorrelations of typical psychopathology measures. In the current study, we examined associations between psychological symptoms, assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973) and loneliness, as measured by the UCLA-R Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), in college students. Using partial correlations to control for the confounding influence of generalized distress, relationships between loneliness and individual dimensions of distress were examined. Results indicate a significant association between loneliness and interpersonal sensitivity (low self-esteem) and depression. Other dimensions of distress were not significantly related to loneliness. In addition, no sex differences in patterns of association were observed. Results support the notion that self-blame and self-devaluation are strong correlates of loneliness.

  2. Psychological distress of parents in conflict areas: the mediating role of war atrocities, normative stressors and family resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2017-04-01

    Despite the ongoing controversy regarding which types of stressors or resources contribute to psychological distress, there has been little research examining the relationship between war trauma, normative stressors, family resources for management and psychopathology. This study investigated the differences between mothers and fathers in psychological distress, normative stressors and war atrocities experienced, and family's resources for management. It was hypothesized that a combination of risk variables and protective variables would be predictive of psychological distress in parents. Questionnaires were used with 205 Palestinian parents from Gaza Strip. Mothers had more psychiatric disorders than did fathers. Although, mothers and fathers were exposed to comparable levels of normative stressors, mothers concerns about intrafamily strains, and family legal violations were greater than they were for fathers. Results revealed that fathers possess a larger repertoire of resources for management when compared to mothers reflected in esteem and communication, mastery and health, extended family social support and financial well-being. However, mastery and health seem to buffer the effect of war traumas and normative stressors on neuroticism in both parents. The different patterns of predictor-outcome relations have practical as well as theoretical implications.

  3. Recurrent headache and interpersonal violence in adolescence: the roles of psychological distress, loneliness and family cohesion: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Synne Oien; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Zwart, John-Anker; Dyb, Grete

    2014-06-10

    Recurrent headache is the most common and disabling pain condition in adolescence. Co-occurrence of psychosocial adversity is associated with increased risk of chronification and functional impairment. Exposure to interpersonal violence seems to constitute an important etiological factor. Thus, knowledge of the multiple pathways linking interpersonal violence to recurrent headache could help guide preventive and clinical interventions. In the present study we explored a hypothetical causal model where the link between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache is mediated in parallel through loneliness and psychological distress. Higher level of family cohesion and male sex is hypothesized to buffer the adverse effect of exposure to interpersonal violence on headache. The model was assessed using data from the cross-sectional, population-based Young-HUNT 3 study of Norwegian adolescents, conducted from 2006-2008. A cohort of 10 464 adolescents were invited. The response rate was 73% (7620), age ranged from 12 and 20 years, and 50% (3832) were girls. The study comprised self-report measures of exposure to interpersonal violence, loneliness, psychological distress and family cohesion, in addition to a validated interview on headache, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Recurrent headache was defined as headache recurring at least monthly during the past year, and sub-classified into monthly and weekly headache, which served as separate outcomes. In Conditional Process Analysis, loneliness and psychological distress consistently posed as parallel mediating mechanisms, indirectly linking exposure to interpersonal violence to recurrent headache. We found no substantial moderating effect of family cohesion or sex. Loneliness and psychological distress seem to play crucial roles in the relationship between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache. To facilitate coping and recovery, it may be helpful to

  4. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  5. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  6. Communications with health professionals and psychological distress in family caregivers to cancer patients: A model based on stress-coping theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Sam

    2017-02-01

    In cancer care settings, family caregivers often experience negative or little communication with the health professionals, and this negative communication and limited health-related information causes psychological distress in family caregivers to cancer patients. The first aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between communication with health professionals and psychological distress in family caregivers. The second aim is to investigate the mediating effects of self-efficacy in this hypothetical model. A total of 1397 family caregivers were included in this research. A structural equation model was then applied, in order to examine the hypothesized model based on the stress-coping model. More negative communication with health professionals was associated with higher psychological distress. Self-efficacy in health information seeking significantly mediated the relationship between communication with health professionals and psychological distress. This study indicates that as a coping resource, self-efficacy in health information seeking, plays a significant role in reducing the effects of negative communication with health professionals on psychological distress in family caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Archetypal trajectories of social, psychological, and spiritual wellbeing and distress in family care givers of patients with lung cancer: secondary analysis of serial qualitative interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Scott A; Kendall, Marilyn; Boyd, Kirsty; Grant, Liz; Highet, Gill; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-06-09

    To assess if family care givers of patients with lung cancer experience the patterns of social, psychological, and spiritual wellbeing and distress typical of the patient, from diagnosis to death. Secondary analysis of serial qualitative interviews carried out every three months for up to a year or to bereavement. South east Scotland. 19 patients with lung cancer and their 19 family carers, totalling 88 interviews (42 with patients and 46 with carers). Carers followed clear patterns of social, psychological, and spiritual wellbeing and distress that mirrored the experiences of those for whom they were caring, with some carers also experiencing deterioration in physical health that impacted on their ability to care. Psychological and spiritual distress were particularly dynamic and commonly experienced. In addition to the "Why us?" response, witnessing suffering triggered personal reflections in carers on the meaning and purpose of life. Certain key time points in the illness tended to be particularly problematic for both carers and patients: at diagnosis, at home after initial treatment, at recurrence, and during the terminal stage. Family carers witness and share much of the illness experience of the dying patient. The multidimensional experience of distress suffered by patients with lung cancer was reflected in the suffering of their carers in the social, psychological, and spiritual domains, with psychological and spiritual distress being most pronounced. Carers may need to be supported throughout the period of illness not just in the terminal phase and during bereavement, as currently tends to be the case.

  8. Coping strategies and psychological distress among mothers of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate and the family impact of this disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Khoda, Maryam Omid; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Vatankhah, Mona

    2014-03-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the coping strategies and level of psychological distress in mothers of patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and the family impact of this disorder. Participants were mothers of 55 children or adolescents with nonsyndromic CLP recruited from families attending a CLP clinic and 2 university hospitals in Mashhad, northeast of Iran. Family impact, psychological distress, and coping strategies were assessed using validated psychological questionnaires including Family Impact Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and Coping Response Inventory. Findings revealed that mothers relied more on the use of approach-oriented rather than avoidance-oriented coping strategies. According to General Health Questionnaire scores, 38.2% of mothers showed some evidence of psychological distress, and 23.6% were suspected of having severe psychological problems. Regarding the family impact of CLP, mothers reported the greatest impact to be on the family's financial status and parental emotions. Those mothers who used avoidant coping strategies reported a greater family impact of CLP (P = 0.002). Emotional discharge and acceptance coping were significant predictors of family impact (P = 0.037 and P = 0.035, respectively). Mothers of 13- to 18-year-old patients with CLP reported greater use of problem-solving coping strategy when compared with mothers of younger patients (P = 0.006). Child's age and coping strategies were not significant predictors of the level of mother's psychological distress. Increased knowledge about how parents cope with their child's craniofacial condition may help caregivers develop a more family-oriented care approach, which is sensitive to the psychosocial needs of parents, children, and their families.

  9. Examining the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the associations between job stressors and employee psychological distress: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-08-03

    The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. This study employed a prospective design. An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Hypertension awareness and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Batty, G David; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kivimaki, Mika

    2010-09-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the association of hypertension with psychological distress, such as anxiety and depressive symptoms. The association may be because of a direct effect of the raised blood pressure, adverse effects of treatment, or the consequences of labeling. In a representative study of 33 105 adults (aged 51.7+/-12.1 years; 45.8% men), we measured levels of psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and collected blood pressure, data on history of hypertension diagnosis, and medication usage. Awareness of hypertension was confirmed through a physician diagnosis or the use of antihypertensive medication, and unaware hypertension was defined by elevated clinic blood pressure (systolic/diastolic > or =140/90 mm Hg) without previous treatment or diagnosis. In comparison with normotensive participants, an elevated risk of distress (General Health Questionnaire score > or =4) was observed in aware hypertensive participants (multivariable adjusted odds ratio: 1.57 [95% CI: 1.41 to 1.74]) but not in unaware hypertensives (odds ratio: 0.91 [95% CI: 0.78 to 1.07]). Antihypertensive medication and comorbidity were also associated with psychological distress, although this did not explain the greater risk of distress in aware hypertensives. We observed a weak curvilinear association between systolic blood pressure and distress, which suggested that distressed participants were more likely to have low or highly elevated blood pressure. These findings suggest that labeling individuals as hypertensive, rather than having elevated blood pressure, per se, may partially explain the greater levels of distress in patients treated for hypertension.

  11. Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Clark, Dustin

    2012-04-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students (N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also tested, but failed to support, a mediational model with Time 2 (mid-semester) procrastination as a hypothesized mechanism through which Time 1 (early-semester) perfectionism would affect Time 3 (end-semester) psychological distress. An alternative model with Time 2 perfectionism as a mediator of the procrastination-distress association also was not supported. Within-time analyses revealed generally consistent strength of effects in the correlations between the 3 constructs over the course of the semester. A significant interaction effect also emerged. Time 1 procrastination had no effect on otherwise high levels of psychological distress at the end of the semester for highly perfectionistic students, but at low levels of Time 1 perfectionism, the most distressed students by the end of the term were those who were more likely to have procrastinated earlier in the semester. Implications of the stability of the constructs and their association over time, as well as the moderating effects of procrastination, are discussed in the context of maladaptive perfectionism and problematic procrastination.

  12. Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…

  13. Narrating psychological distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients...

  14. Do attitude toward cancer, sense of coherence and family high risk predict more psychological distress in women referred for a breast cancer examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbar, Ora

    2003-01-01

    The study focuses on the connection between attitude toward cancer, sense of coherence and family history of breast cancer, on the one hand, and psychological distress on the other among women who are referred for breast cancer examination following a medical examination prompted by a complaint of "feeling something in the breast." A sample of 314 women referred to a breast health clinic in northern Israel completed questionnaires that measured psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory), personal resources (the Sense of Coherence Scale), and mindset (Attitude to Cancer Treatment Scale). A weak sense of coherence and a more negative attitude toward cancer (i.e., viewing victims of cancer with pity; viewing the illness as a death sentence; harboring a fear of death from cancer) predict a high level of psychological distress while awaiting an examination. A family history of breast cancer, or a first-time examination, were not found to be predictors of greater psychological distress. Learning cognitive behavioral coping skills, as well as access to information on cancer and treatment in order to change attitude toward cancer, are needed.

  15. Psychological Distress and Violence Towards Parents of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masako; Solomon, Phyllis; Yokoyama, Keiko

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between violence and psychological distress experienced by parents of patients with schizophrenia. Questionnaire data from 379 parents were analyzed. A total of 151 parents (39.8%) had not experienced violence in the past year, whereas 96 (25.3%) and 132 (34.8%) had experienced psychological violence only or physical violence, respectively. A total of 216 (57.0%) of parents reported being psychologically distressed. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk of psychological distress significantly increased with the experience of psychological and physical violence, lower household income, greater family stigma, and the increasing age of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Posttraumatic Psychological Distress and Resettlement: The Need for a Different Practice in Assisting Refugee Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Marie; Sabbah, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Social work practitioners are increasingly confronted with couples and families who have come from war-torn countries. Refugees may have experienced genocide, organized violence, ethnic wars, displacement, and losses of various kinds. Such experiences will often be carried through the post-migratory period and obscure legitimate individual and…

  17. Effect of personal characteristics, victimization types, and family- and school-related factors on psychological distress in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Lung; Kao, Senyeong; Tou, Shao-Wen; Lin, Fu-Gong

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying victimization among adolescents with intellectual disabilities and the influence of victimization experience on their mental health in Taiwan. Data on 706 adolescents from the 2011 Special Needs Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to variables comprising 7 items of psychological distress, 4 types of bullying victimization, and family-, school-, and peer-related factors. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents had experienced at least one type of victimization, and 44% of them had experienced at least two types of victimization. Exclusion (50%) and verbal bullying (70%) were the most commonly reported types. In addition, exclusion and verbal bullying were found to be significantly associated with psychological distress in these adolescents. Our findings suggest that victimization is a common experience among adolescents with disabilities, and a notable risk factor for the psychological well-being of adolescents with intellectual disabilities. However, a good relationship with parents and peers can relieve psychological distress and its effect on mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  19. The Impact of Multiple Roles on Psychological Distress among Japanese Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Honda

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that participants who had only an employment role had an increased risk of psychological distress. The degree of psychological distress was not determined solely by the number of roles. It is important to have balance between work and family life to reduce role conflict and/or role submersion, which in turn may reduce the risk of psychological distress.

  20. Effects of Rational-Emotive Hospice Care Therapy on Problematic Assumptions, Death Anxiety, and Psychological Distress in a Sample of Cancer Patients and Their Family Caregivers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka Onyechi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was a preliminary investigation that aimed to examine the effects of rational emotive hospice care therapy (REHCT on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress in a sample of cancer patients and their family caregivers in Nigeria. The study adopted a pre-posttest randomized control group design. Participants were community-dwelling cancer patients (n = 32 and their family caregivers (n = 52. The treatment process consisted of 10 weeks of full intervention and 4 weeks of follow-up meetings that marked the end of intervention. The study used repeated-measures analysis of variance for data analysis. The findings revealed significant effects of a REHCT intervention program on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress reduction among the cancer patients and their family caregivers at the end of the intervention. The improvements were also maintained at follow-up meetings in the treatment group compared with the control group who received the usual care and conventional counseling. The researchers have been able to show that REHCT intervention is more effective than a control therapy for cancer patients’ care, education, and counseling in the Nigerian context.

  1. Effects of Rational-Emotive Hospice Care Therapy on Problematic Assumptions, Death Anxiety, and Psychological Distress in a Sample of Cancer Patients and Their Family Caregivers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyechi, Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka; Onuigbo, Liziana N; Eseadi, Chiedu; Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, Amaka B; Nwaubani, Okechukwu Onyinye; Umoke, Prince C I; Agu, Fedinand U; Otu, Mkpoikanke Sunday; Utoh-Ofong, Anthonia N

    2016-09-20

    This study was a preliminary investigation that aimed to examine the effects of rational emotive hospice care therapy (REHCT) on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress in a sample of cancer patients and their family caregivers in Nigeria. The study adopted a pre-posttest randomized control group design. Participants were community-dwelling cancer patients ( n = 32) and their family caregivers ( n = 52). The treatment process consisted of 10 weeks of full intervention and 4 weeks of follow-up meetings that marked the end of intervention. The study used repeated-measures analysis of variance for data analysis. The findings revealed significant effects of a REHCT intervention program on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress reduction among the cancer patients and their family caregivers at the end of the intervention. The improvements were also maintained at follow-up meetings in the treatment group compared with the control group who received the usual care and conventional counseling. The researchers have been able to show that REHCT intervention is more effective than a control therapy for cancer patients' care, education, and counseling in the Nigerian context.

  2. Maternal psychological distress and child decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Ioakeimidi, Sofia; Midouhas, Emily; Ploubidis, George B

    2017-08-15

    There is much research to suggest that maternal psychological distress is associated with many adverse outcomes in children. This study examined, for the first time, if it is related to children's affective decision-making. Using data from 12,080 families of the Millennium Cohort Study, we modelled the effect of trajectories of maternal psychological distress in early-to-middle childhood (3-11 years) on child affective decision-making, measured with a gambling task at age 11. Latent class analysis showed four longitudinal types of maternal psychological distress (chronically high, consistently low, moderate-accelerating and moderate-decelerating). Maternal distress typology predicted decision-making but only in girls. Specifically, compared to girls growing up in families with never-distressed mothers, those exposed to chronically high maternal psychological distress showed more risk-taking, bet more and exhibited poorer risk-adjustment, even after correction for confounding. Most of these effects on girls' decision-making were not robust to additional controls for concurrent internalising and externalising problems, but chronically high maternal psychological distress was associated positively with risk-taking even after this adjustment. Importantly, this association was similar for those who had reached puberty and those who had not. Given the study design, causality cannot be inferred. Therefore, we cannot propose that treating chronic maternal psychological distress will reduce decision-making pathology in young females. Our study suggests that young daughters of chronically distressed mothers tend to be particularly reckless decision-makers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Psychological distress and intelligence in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T. W.; Antal, K.

    2016-01-01

    This study has primarily aimed to investigate first, the prevalence of psychological distress complaints among a population-representative sample of young men, second, whether psychological distress is associated with poorer performance on an intelligence test and third, whether any association...... is a purely linear function. Specifically, we have examined self-reported symptoms of psychological distress, and IQ, among 1869 young men appearing before the Danish Draft Board with a view to assessing suitability for conscription. The assessment included a 25-item questionnaire concerning a broad range...... was 0.15, but the relationship was better described by a model incorporating a negatively accelerating quadratic function and individuals above the 90th percentile on the PHS had a mean IQ of 94. This finding confirms the need to consider any general psychological distress, especially at high levels...

  4. Gender differences in psychological distress in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matud, M Pilar; Bethencourt, Juan M; Ibáñez, Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological and community-based surveys consistently report gender differences in mental health. This study examines gender differences in psychological distress by analyzing the relevance of stress, coping styles, social support and the time use. Psychological tests were administered to a convenience sample of 1,337 men and 1,251 women from the Spanish general population, aged between 18 and 65 and with different socio-demographic characteristics, although both the women and men groups had similar age and educational levels. Women had more psychological distress than men. Although psychological distress in the women and men groups have some common correlates such as more stress, more emotional and less rational coping and less social support, we find some gender differences. Work role dissatisfaction was more associated with distress in the men than in the women group. In addition, women's distress was associated with more daily time devoted to childcare and less to activities they enjoy, and men's distress was associated with more time devoted to housework and less to physical exercise. Social roles traditionally attributed to women and men - and the differences in the use of time that such roles entail - are relevant in gender differences in psychological distress. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

  6. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A ...

  7. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A total of 494 ...

  8. Psychological distress and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Lauri A.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Katz, Patricia K.; Millstein, Susan G.; Nachtigall, Robert D.; Bleil, Maria E.; Adler, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether psychological distress predicts IVF treatment outcome as well as whether IVF treatment outcome predicts subsequent psychological distress. Design Prospective cohort study over an 18-month period. Setting Five community and academic fertility practices. Patients Two hundred and two women who initiated their first IVF cycle. Interventions Women completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline and at 4, 10, and 18 months follow-up. Main Outcome Measures IVF cycle outcome and psychological distress. Results Using a binary logistic model including covariates (woman’s age, ethnicity, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, and time interval), pre-treatment depression and anxiety were not significant predictors of the outcome of the first IVF cycle. Using linear regression models including covariates (woman’s age, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, assessment point, time since last treatment cycle, and pre-IVF depression or anxiety), experiencing failed IVF was associated with higher post-IVF depression and anxiety. Conclusions IVF failure predicts subsequent psychological distress, but pre-IVF psychological distress does not predict IVF failure. Instead of focusing efforts on psychological interventions specifically aimed at improving the chance of pregnancy, these findings suggest that attention be paid to helping patients prepare for and cope with treatment and treatment failure. PMID:22698636

  9. Psychology of family business

    OpenAIRE

    Taylyakova, Feruzahon

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  10. Breast cancer and psychological distress: mothers' and daughters' traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baider, Lea; Goldzweig, Gil; Ever-Hadani, Pnina; Peretz, Tamar

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this exploratory retrospective study was to assess the effects of breast cancer diagnosis upon the psychological distress of adult breast cancer patients and their mothers, particularly mothers who experienced past trauma. Four groups of mother-daughter dyads were evaluated using self-reporting measures of psychological distress [Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)], familial support (PFS), and adjustment to cancer (MAC, IES): breast cancer patients whose mothers were Holocaust survivors (group 1), breast cancer patients with non-traumatized mothers (group 2), healthy daughters of Holocaust survivor mothers (group 3), and a control group of healthy daughters with non-traumatized mothers (group 4). Distress levels of both mothers and daughters in group 1 were significantly higher than distress levels of mothers and daughters in the other three groups. Daughters' distress levels in all four groups were found to be significantly related to mothers' distress levels, with the highest correlation found in both groups of cancer patients. The factors of having a clinically distressed mother and being a second-generation daughter contributed the most to predicting the clinical distress of the daughter. The outcomes imply that the mother's traumatic past intensifies the distressing effect of cancer diagnosis upon both the patient and her mother. The findings concerning the impact of cancer diagnosis upon the patients' non-traumatized mothers were more ambiguous. The results support the idea that in the case of breast cancer patients, a complete psychological evaluation must include not only spouses and children but also the familial background of the patient and the history of the patients' mothers.

  11. Psychological distress among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte; Bistrup, Pernille Envold; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Psychological distress is common in the cancer continuum. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of distress and to investigate the related problems and the characteristics of women with breast cancer who experienced psychological distress at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We...... thermometer' to measure psychological distress and the accompanying 'problem list' to identify related problems. Logistic regression models with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the associations between psychological distress, age, social support and domains on the problem list. RESULTS...

  12. Stigma and psychological distress in suicide survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paolo; Preti, Antonio; Totaro, Stefano; Ferrari, Alessandro; Toffol, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Suicide bereavement is frequently related to clinically significant psychological distress and affected by stigma. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between psychological distress by psychopathological domains and stigma, in a sample of individuals bereaved by suicide (suicide survivors). The data were collected between January 2012 and December 2014 and included information on sociodemographic variables (gender, age, marital status and education level) and responses to the Stigma of Suicide Survivor scale (STOSSS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). One hundred and fifty-five suicide survivors completed the evaluation and were included in the study. Levels of psychological distress in suicide survivors, as measured by BSI, were positively related to levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors, as measured by STOSSS. The association was not affected by age and gender, or by marital status, education level, days from suicide or a personal history of suicide attempt. Participants with higher scores on almost all subscales of the BSI, particularly the interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation subscales, reported the highest levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Levels of distress in subjects bereaved by the suicide of a relative or friend were positively associated with levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Specific interventions dedicated to the bereavement of suicide survivors might help to alleviate not only psychological distress but also stigma towards loss by suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  14. Psychological Distress in Acute Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, William S; Hartvigsen, Jan; Woiszwillo, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the measurement scales and levels of psychological distress reported among published studies of acute low back pain (LBP) in the scientific literature. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed scientific literature found in 8 citation index search engines (CINAHL, Embase, MANTIS, Ps...

  15. Psychological distress and symptoms among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...

  16. Psychological Distress and Emotional Expression on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarova, Natalya N; Choi, Yoon Hyung; Whitlock, Janis; Cosley, Dan; Sosik, Victoria

    2017-03-01

    Social network sites (SNS) are a novel social environment for college students with psychological distress to connect with their peers, but the nature and effects of these interactions are not well understood. This study reports findings from a Facebook study among 238 college students reporting nonspecific psychological distress using the K-6 scale. Behavioral data included Facebook status updates containing affect words written by participants within the past 60 days and the number of responses (comments and likes) each update received. The updates were also coded for depression symptoms. Self-report data included participants' self-presentational concerns, the affective valence of each post, effects of responses on mood, and satisfaction with the responses to and outcome of each status update. Higher psychological distress was associated with displaying depression language on Facebook, with higher self-presentational concerns, and with less satisfaction with audiences' responses and less overall satisfaction with the outcome of the interaction. These results offer a unique glimpse into the social world of college students with psychological distress through their everyday use of Facebook, and how the interplay of this novel environment and students' mental health impacts their social behaviors and interaction meaning-making on Facebook.

  17. Psychological Distress and Psychiatric Symptoms among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was carried out among patients attending the chest clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. ... About half of the participants suffered from somatisation, neuroticism, depression and anxiety and as regards GHQ scores, more than half (51.9%) indicated psychological distress. Likewise ...

  18. Are patients with COPD psychologically distressed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagena, EJ; Arrindell, WA; Wouters, EFM; van Schayck, CP

    This study was designed to assess the level of psychological distress in a heterogeneous group of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and compare them with the general population and psychiatric outpatients. A total of 118 patients with COPD, a random sample of 500 subjects

  19. Socio-demographic correlates of psychological distress among male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic correlates of psychological distress among male ... using the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI) depression and anxiety module. ... Psychological distress was significantly associated with a history of marital ...

  20. Help-seeking behaviours for psychological distress amongst Chinese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sing Sun

    Full Text Available The stepped care model for psychological distress has been promoted in recent years, leading to the enhancing roles of primary care professionals and alternative sources of help. However, most of the research findings come from Western countries. This study investigates help-seeking behaviours of Chinese patients among different types of professional and alternative sources for psychological distress in Hong Kong.A questionnaire survey was conducted with 1626 adult primary care attenders from 13 private and 6 public clinics, 650 (40.0% reported that they had ever experienced psychological distress. Their help-seeking behaviours, demographic background and current distress level (measured by GHQ-12 were analysed.Among the respondents with experience of psychological distress, 48.2% had sought help from professional and/or alternative sources for their distress [10.2% from professionals only, 12.6% from alternative sources only, and 25.4% from both]. Those who had sought help from professionals only were more likely to be less educated and with lower income. In contrast, those using alternative sources only were more likely to be younger, better educated, and have higher income. Allowing multiple responses, psychiatrists (22.3% was reported to be the most popular professional source, followed by primary care physicians (17.5%, clinical psychologists (12.8% and social workers/counsellors (12.0%. Family members/friends (28.6% was the top alternative source, followed by exercise/sports (21.8%, religious/spiritual support (16.9% and self-help websites/books/pamphlets (8.9%.While psychiatrists remain the most popular professional source of help to the Chinese patients in Hong Kong, primary care professionals and alternative sources also play significant roles. Distressed patients who are younger, better educated and have higher income are more likely to use alternative sources only. The outcomes need further research.

  1. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  2. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  3. Psychological distress in parents of children with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Dussel, Veronica; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, J Russel; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Feudtner, Chris; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-06-01

    Parent psychological distress can impact the well-being of childhood cancer patients and other children in the home. Recognizing and alleviating factors of parent distress may improve overall family survivorship experiences following childhood cancer. To describe the prevalence and factors of psychological distress (PD) among parents of children with advanced cancer. Cohort study embedded within a randomized clinical trial (Pediatric Quality of Life and Evaluation of Symptoms Technology [PediQUEST] study). Multicenter study conducted at 3 children's hospitals (Boston Children's Hospital, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Seattle Children's Hospital). Parents of children with advanced (progressive, recurrent, or refractory) cancer. Parental PD, as measured by the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale. Eighty-six of 104 parents completed the Survey About Caring for Children With Cancer (83% participation); 81 parents had complete Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale data. More than 50% of parents reported high PD and 16% met criteria for serious PD (compared with US prevalence of 2%-3%). Parent perceptions of prognosis, goals of therapy, child symptoms/suffering, and financial hardship were associated with PD. In multivariate analyses, average parent Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale scores were higher among parents who believed their child was suffering highly and who reported great economic hardship. Conversely, PD was significantly lower among parents whose prognostic understanding was aligned with concrete goals of care. Parenting a child with advanced cancer is strongly associated with high to severe levels of PD. Interventions aimed at aligning prognostic understanding with concrete care goals and easing child suffering and financial hardship may mitigate parental PD.

  4. Psychological distress, perceived stigma, and coping among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong HC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hui Chien Ong,¹ Norhayati Ibrahim,² Suzaily Wahab³ ¹Biomedical Science Programme, ²Health Psychology Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, ³Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. “Community rejection” was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with “positive reframing”. Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. Keywords: family caregivers, social stigma, coping skills, psychological stress, schizophrenia

  5. Psychological distress: precursor or consequence of dating infidelity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie H; Fincham, Frank D

    2009-02-01

    Research on infidelity-related distress has focused on victims with little attention to perpetrators. Two studies therefore explore the psychological functioning of individuals who have engaged in dating infidelity. Study 1 showed that, compared to faithful partners, individuals who had engaged in infidelity showed more psychological distress. Study 2 investigated the interrelationships among infidelity, psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction over time. Results suggested that initial levels of psychological distress predicted later infidelity but infidelity did not predict subsequent psychological distress. Findings are interpreted in light of the broader infidelity literature, potential mechanisms are suggested, and avenues for future research are recommended.

  6. Psychological distress in a sample of teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, I S

    1990-05-01

    This article describes a cross-sectional study of the links between job-related stressors and depressive and psychophysiologic symptoms and morale in 67 New York City teachers. The teachers' mean score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; M = 13.03) was higher than might be expected from average community residents. The teachers also tended to express dissatisfaction with their jobs. The CES-D and the Psychophysiologic Symptom Scale were correlated as highly as their reliabilities would permit, a finding consistent with the view that the CES-D and the Psychophysiologic Symptom Scale measure the same construct, nonspecific psychological distress. The correlational findings suggest that distress is distinct from job-related morale, which was indexed by measures of motivation to continue teaching and job satisfaction. The results of regression analyses, which controlled for sociodemographic factors, indicated that the level of job strain (frequency of ongoing stressors) is more closely related to psychological distress and low morale than episodic stressors, including crimes in which the teacher was victim. The regression analyses also indicated that colleague support was related to lower symptom levels and higher morale.

  7. Sexual Abuse Victimization and Psychological Distress among Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Debra L.; Kingree, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    This study focused on sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress among 272 adolescent offenders. Female respondents reported more sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress than did their male counterparts. Furthermore, church attendance moderated the association between sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress…

  8. Psychological Distress in Norwegian Nurses and Teachers over Nine Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Nerdrum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress have been found to be high and influence negatively nurses’ and teachers’ work. In this nine-year project, we present the first longitudinal study comparing psychological distress from 1467 students and young professionals in nursing and teaching. Psychological distress was measured with GHQ 12 at the start and the end of their studies and three and six years after graduation. Both descriptive statistics and estimated models were used to assess psychological distress over time. Psychological distress increased significantly in both groups during education. The reduction of psychological distress was significant among the nurses, and they clearly showed a “healthy worker effect” when coming into clinical work. The teachers had a small and non-significant reduction in the same period and did not show a positive effect after starting pedagogical work.

  9. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Psychological Distress in Iranian International Students at an Australian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidi, Shizar; Blignault, Ilse; Hayen, Andrew; Razee, Husna

    2017-05-03

    This study investigated psychological distress in Iranian international students at UNSW Australia, and explored the psychosocial factors associated with high levels of distress. A total of 180 Iranian international students pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate degrees during 2012/2013 completed an email questionnaire containing socio-demographic items and five standardized and validated scales. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the predictors of psychological distress. Compared to domestic and international students at two other Australian universities, a significantly smaller proportion of Iranian international students scored as distressed on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Greater levels of psychological distress were associated with being female, poorer physical health, less social support, less religious involvement and spirituality, and negative attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help. Findings from this growing group of international students can help inform culturally competent mental health promotion and service provision in their host countries.

  11. Cancer-Related Psychological Distress: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundelach, Amy; Henry, Barb

    2016-12-01

    Cancer-related psychological distress, as a concept, has limited research literature substantiation. Several studies report that patients with cancer suffer from significant psychological distress; however, the description of the concept of cancer-related psychological distress has not been clearly described. Theoretical work based on the concept is also unclear. This article is a report on the concept of cancer-related psychological distress to clarify the concept as separate from non-cancer-related psychological distress and promote the use of the term in nursing practice and research across the cancer trajectory. This article used a content analysis to examine the literature. The literature review for this article used CINAHL®, PsycINFO®, and PubMed to search publications from 1999-2016. Content analysis of the literature revealed that the term psychological distress was used often with regard to distress in patients with cancer, but the concept of cancer-related psychological distress was not clearly defined. Four attributes encompass the concept of cancer-related psychological distress.

  12. Psychological distress associated with cancer screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-15

    Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Identifying psychological distress in elderly seeking health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Prafulla; Sadanand, Shilpa; Bharath, Srikala; Girish, N; Philip, Mariamma; Varghese, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Psychological distress in the elderly with various illness conditions often goes unrecognized. Since psychological distress is treatable, it is important to recognize it at the earliest to enhance recovery. This is an interim analysis of screening data of the elderly seeking health care in a hospital in India, with a focus on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), a screening instrument for psychological distress and a rationale for a higher cutoff score in help seeking elderly. A retrospective analysis of screening data of psychological distress using GHQ-12 in the elderly seeking care for neuropsychiatric conditions was carried out. Traditionally, ≥2 is considered positive for distress by GHQ-12. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define new cutoff points for psychological distress. At ≥2, 2443 (50%) of the elderly screened were recognized to be psychologically distressed. Using an ROC and optimum sensitivity and specificity measures, a cutoff score of ≥4 was observed to detect 30% of the elderly who had diagnosable mental health disorders. Female sex, illiteracy, and multiple co-morbidities were the factors that were associated with higher cutoff scores on GHQ-12 proposed here and psychiatric morbidity thereof. There is greater psychological distress among the elderly seeking health care. Hence, it is important to screen them and identify those at higher risk. Using a higher cutoff score with a standardized instrument like GHQ-12 indicated that it was statistically valid to identify those elderly with higher distress in a busy out-patient setting.

  14. Psychological distress among adults admitted to medical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Physical illness is commonly associated with psychological distress that may be a direct effect of the illness or an adjustment in coping with the physical illness or its treatment. Little is known about psychological distress of patients on general wards in developing countries. Objectives: This study aimed to ...

  15. Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Keisha McGhee

    2008-01-01

    African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

  16. The psychological distress of the young driver: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Hyde, Melissa K

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the research was to explore the role of psychological distress in the self-reported risky driving of young novice drivers. A cross-sectional online survey incorporating Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale and the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale was completed by 761 tertiary students aged 17-25 years with an intermediate (Provisional) driving licence in Queensland, Australia, between August and October 2009. Regression analyses revealed that psychological distress uniquely explained 8.5% of the variance in young novices' risky driving, with adolescents experiencing psychological distress also reporting higher levels of risky driving. Psychological distress uniquely explained a significant 6.7% and 9.5% of variance in risky driving for males and females respectively. Medical practitioners treating adolescents who have been injured through risky behaviour need to be aware of the potential contribution of psychological distress, while mental health professionals working with adolescents experiencing psychological distress need to be aware of this additional source of potential harm. The nature of the causal relationships linking psychological distress and risky driving behaviour are not yet fully understood, indicating a need for further research so that strategies such as screening can be investigated.

  17. Construal level, rumination, and psychological distress in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfin, John M; Watkins, Edward R

    2012-06-01

    Patients with a life-limiting illness, such as cancer, and their carers experience elevated psychological distress. However, the psychological mechanisms underpinning distress in palliative care have been little studied. Recent theories predict that individuals who experience increased uncertainty in the context of ongoing difficulties, such as palliative patients and their carers, will (a) think more abstractly; (b) ruminate more; and (c) be more distressed. Palliative patients (n = 36, 90% with cancer), their carers (n = 29), and age-matched controls (n = 30) completed standardized questionnaires to assess anxiety, depression, and rumination, and open-ended interviews to identify their concerns and idiosyncratic levels of rumination. Concerns were analyzed linguistically for level of abstraction. As predicted, (i) palliative patients and carers reported significantly more uncertainty, rumination, and abstract thinking than controls; (ii) uncertainty, abstractness, and rumination were associated with psychological distress. Abstraction and rumination are psychological mechanism potentially involved in increased psychological distress in palliative care. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Psychological distress in survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaro, Melissa Simon; Steinman, Milton; Kernkraut, Ana Merzel; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Lacerda, Shirley Silva

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the development of these symptoms. Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations.

  19. Perceptions and receptivity of non-spousal family support: A mixed methods study of psychological distress among older, church-going African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C; Wharton, Tracy; Mitchell, Jamie A; Matusko, Niki; Kales, Helen

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of non-spousal family support on mental health among older, church-going African American men. The mixed methods objective was to employ a design that used existing qualitative and quantitative data to explore the interpretive context within which social and cultural experiences occur. Qualitative data (n=21) were used to build a conceptual model that was tested using quantitative data (n= 401). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated an inverse association between non-spousal family support and distress. The comparative fit index, Tucker-Lewis fit index, and root mean square error of approximation indicated good model fit. This study offers unique methodological approaches to using existing, complementary data sources to understand the health of African American men.

  20. Smoking uptake is associated with increased psychological distress: results of a national longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kristie N; van der Deen, Frederieke S; Wilson, Nick; Blakely, Tony

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that smoking is associated with poorer mental health. However, the underlying mechanisms for this remain unclear. We used longitudinal data to assess whether smoking uptake, or failed quit attempts, are associated with increased psychological distress. Data were used from Waves 3 (2004/05), 5 (2006/07) and 7 (2008/09) of the longitudinal New Zealand Survey of Family, Income and Employment. Fixed-effects linear regression analyses were performed to model the impact of changes in smoking status and quit status (exposure variables) on changes in psychological distress (Kessler 10 (K10)). After adjusting for time-varying demographic and socioeconomic covariates, smoking uptake was associated with an increase in psychological distress (K10: 0.22, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.43). The associations around quitting and distress were in the expected directions, but were not statistically significant. That is, smokers who successfully quit between waves had no meaningful change in psychological distress (K10: -0.05, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.23), whereas those who tried but failed to quit, experienced an increase in psychological distress (K10: 0.18, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.40). The findings provide some support for a modest association between smoking uptake and a subsequent increase in psychological distress, but more research is needed before such information is considered for inclusion in public health messages.

  1. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kelly; Saville, Naomi; Bhandari, Bishnu; Giri, Kalpana; Ghising, Mamita; Jha, Meena; Jha, Sonali; Magar, Jananee; Roy, Rinku; Shrestha, Bhim; Thakur, Bhawana; Tiwari, Rinku; Costello, Anthony; Manandhar, Dharma; King, Michael; Osrin, David; Prost, Audrey

    2014-03-01

    There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥ 5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with interventions to address gender inequity

  2. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  3. Psychological resilience contributes to low emotional distress in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jung-Ah; Yoon, Sujung; Lee, Chang-Uk; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Chul; Song, Kyo-Young; Kim, Tae-Suk

    2013-09-01

    Although a considerable number of cancer patients suffer from emotional distress which may have an impact on their quality of life, it still remains poorly understood which psychosocial factors contribute to individual vulnerabilities to emotional distress of cancer patients. Recently, resilience has been suggested as the capacity to cope with adversities like cancer. In this study, we investigated the relationships between resilience and emotional distress in cancer patients. One hundred fifty-two cancer patients who were consecutively hospitalized for their scheduled treatments at the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital were enrolled and completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale to measure resilience and emotional distress. The relationships between the levels of psychological resilience and emotional distress were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Psychological resilience levels were negatively associated with emotional distress after controlling for relevant covariates. The highest quartile of resilience level was associated with a 90% (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03-0.34, P cancer patients, resilience was also found to be a significant protective factor for emotional distress (adjusted OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.79, P = 0.02). The present study suggests that psychological resilience may independently contribute to low emotional distress in cancer patients. The relationship between resilience and emotional distress was also significant in the subgroup of metastatic cancer patients. Psychosocial interventions to enhance resilience might provide useful approaches to overcome cancer-related emotional distress.

  4. Psychological and physical distress of cancer patients during radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    König, A

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: patients undergoing radiotherapy have physical and psychological symptoms related to the underlying disease and the treatment. In order to give the best possible support to the patients, more knowledge about the amount and the changing of distress in the course of radiotherapy is of essentially importance. Methods: The distress was measured in a consecutive sample of cancer patients (n=82) undergoing radiotherapy. Each patient was given the EORTC-QLQ-C30, the HADS and a special questionnaire which ascertain radiotherapy-specific items before starting the radiotherapy, at the onset of radiotherapy, in the third week of radiotherapy and 3 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. Results: within the first week of treatment the psychological distress of the patients is increasing; 98.8 % of the patients are 'moderate distressed', 46 % 'severe distressed'. General physical symptoms seem not to be affected by the radiotherapy, there is no changing. The distress caused by the organization of the radiotherapy is...

  5. Social support, marital adjustment, and psychological distress among women with primary infertility in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience.

  6. Association between psychological distress and a sense of contribution to society in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozaki Kenichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, mental health promotion related to psychological distress in the workplace has become a great concern, and a focus of much research attention. However, a sense of contribution to society and sense of bonding with the workplace have not been examined in relation to psychological distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether these two factors are associated with psychological distress. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1137 full-time employees who worked in systems engineering, sales, or administration at a Japanese company. Participant's sense of contribution to society, sense of bonding with the workplace, psychological distress, and qualitative job stress (quantitative and qualitative workloads, job-control latitude, and support from supervisors, co-workers and family were assessed with a questionnaire. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine associations between psychological distress and sense of contribution to society and of bonding with the workplace. Results A high sense of contribution to society was significantly associated with a high sense of bonding with the workplace (Spearman's ρ = 0.47, p Conclusions Psychological distress in the workplace was associated with sense of contribution to society. Therefore, workplace mental health promotion should consider the workers' sense of contribution to society.

  7. Psychological distress in Ghana: associations with employment and lost productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Maureen E; Sipsma, Heather L; Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Jack, Helen; Udry, Christopher; Osei-Akoto, Isaac; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-03-07

    Mental health disorders account for 13% of the global burden of disease, a burden that low-income countries are generally ill-equipped to handle. Research evaluating the association between mental health and employment in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is limited. We address this gap by examining the association between employment and psychological distress. We analyzed data from the Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey using logistic regression (N = 5,391 adults). In multivariable analysis, we estimated the association between employment status and psychological distress, adjusted for covariates. We calculated lost productivity from unemployment and from excess absence from work that respondents reported was because of their feelings of psychological distress. Approximately 21% of adults surveyed had moderate or severe psychological distress. Increased psychological distress was associated with increased odds of being unemployed. Men and women with moderate versus mild or no psychological distress had more than twice the odds of being unemployed. The association of severe versus mild or no distress with unemployment differed significantly by sex (P-value for interaction 0.004). Among men, the adjusted OR was 12.4 (95% CI: 7.2, 21.3), whereas the association was much smaller for women (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0). Extrapolating these figures to the country, the lost productivity associated with moderate or severe distress translates to approximately 7% of the gross domestic product of Ghana. Psychological distress is strongly associated with unemployment in Ghana. The findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues, particularly in low-income countries.

  8. Frustrated Fertility: Infertility and Psychological Distress among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; White, Lynn; Jacob, Mary Casey

    2003-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that women who have experienced infertility report higher psychological distress. Examines whether roles or resources condition the effects of infertility or whether its effects are limited to childless women. Infertility combined with involuntary childlessness is associated with significantly greater distress. For women in…

  9. Examining Victimization and Psychological Distress in Transgender College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effrig, Jessica C.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking transgender college students were examined with regard to victimization and psychological distress. Findings showed that transgender college students had elevated rates of distress as compared with college students who identified as men or women. Results indicated that treatment-seeking and non-treatment…

  10. Psychological Distress and Pain Reporting in Australian Coal Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy N. Carlisle

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity.

  11. Psychological distress and mortality in systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Schiffer, Angélique A

    2010-01-01

    Depression, anxiety, and type D ("distressed") personality (tendency to experience negative emotions paired with social inhibition) have been associated with poor prognosis in coronary heart disease, but little is known about their role in chronic heart failure. Therefore, we investigated whether...... these indicators of psychological distress are associated with mortality in chronic heart failure....

  12. Longitudinal relationships between workplace bullying and psychological distress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morten Birkeland Nielsen; Jørn Hetland; Stig Berge Matthiesen; Ståle Einarsen

    Objectives The aims of this study were to examine reciprocal longitudinal associations between exposure to workplace bullying and symptoms of psychological distress and to investigate how self-labeled...

  13. Cultural Consonance, Religion and Psychological Distress in an Urban Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Dressler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals approximate prototypes encoded in cultural models. Low cultural consonance is associated with higher psychological distress. Religion may moderate the association between cultural consonance and psychological distress. Brazil, with substantial variation in religion, is an important society for the examination of this hypothesis. Research was conducted in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, using a mixed-methods design. Measures of cultural consonance were derived using ethnographic methods and then applied in a survey of 271 individuals drawn from four distinct social strata. Low cultural consonance was associated with higher psychological distress in multiple regression analysis ( B = -.430, p < .001. Members of Pentecostal Protestant churches reported lower psychological distress independently of the effect of cultural consonance ( B = -.409, p < .05. There was no buffering effect of religion. Implications of these results for the study of religion and health are discussed.

  14. Features of residency training and psychological distress among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Features of residency training and psychological distress among residents in a Nigerian teaching hospital. O Esan, A Adeoye, P Onakoya, O Opeodu, K Owonikoko, D Olulana, M Bello, A Adeyemo, L Onigbogi, O Idowu, T Akute ...

  15. Psychological distress and salivary cortisol covary within persons during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole; Kooistra, Libbe; Kaplan, Bonnie

    The mechanisms whereby maternal stress during pregnancy exerts organizational effects on fetal development require elaboration. The aim of this study was to assess the plausibility of cortisol as a biological link between maternal psychological distress during pregnancy and fetal development.

  16. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    ... that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress...

  17. Physicians' and pharmacists' information provision and patients' psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Hiroko; Abe, Takeru; Hagihara, Akihito

    2017-09-01

    Providing information related to medication has many benefits for patients. However, patients' conflicting perceptions about medical information provided by physicians and pharmacists may be associated with their psychological distress regarding treatment and medication. This study investigated associations between patients' perceptions of agreement between physicians and pharmacists about medical information and improvements in their psychological distress. It also clarified the specific relationships of their perceptions with psychological distress. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Japanese community pharmacy settings. Pharmacists approached 1,500 patients visiting community pharmacies and provided them with questionnaire packages. Patients completed the questionnaires at home and returned them to the researchers by mail. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and signal detection analysis were conducted to examine associations of patients' perceptions of information agreement with improvement in psychological distress. Measures of improvement in worry and anxiety about disease, improvement in worry and anxiety about medication, and improvement in depressive mood were used to assess alleviation of psychological distress. A total of 645 patients returned the questionnaires; 628 contributed to the data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses clarified that patients' perceptions of agreement in information regarding need for medication, methods for adverse drug reaction reduction, adverse drug reaction symptoms, coping with forgetting to take medication, and advice for daily life were significantly associated with improvements in psychological distress. Furthermore, signal detection analysis showed that several combinations of patients' perceptions of agreement between physicians and pharmacists about specific medical information were also significantly associated with improvement in psychological distress. Consistent information provision by

  18. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients

  19. A multilevel analysis of long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, G P; Baker, J A; Falkner, K; Chegerova, T; Pryshchepava, A; Chegerov, V; Zevon, M; Bromet, E; Havenaar, J; Valdismarsdottir, H; Moysich, K B

    2008-11-01

    Radiation contamination and sociopolitical instability following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster have had a profound impact on Belarus. To investigate the factors that impact long-term mental health outcomes of this population almost 20 years after the disaster. Cross-sectional study. In-person interviews were conducted with 381 men and women from two geographic areas of differing radiation contamination within Belarus. Participants completed surveys of demographics, psychosocial factors and psychological distress. Individual-level characteristics were combined with household-level measures of radiation contamination exposure and family characteristics to create multilevel predictive models of psychological distress. Between-household effects accounted for 20% of variability in depression and anxiety scores, but only 8% of variability in somatization scores. Degree of chronic daily stressors showed a significant positive relationship with psychological distress, whereas mastery/controllability showed a significant inverse relationship with distress. At household level, perceived family problems, but not level of residential radiation contamination, was the best predictor of distress. Multilevel modelling indicates that long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster is better predicted by stress-moderating psychosocial factors present in one's daily life than by level of residential radiation contamination.

  20. The influence of early sexual debut and pubertal timing on psychological distress among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Ksobiech, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of early sexual debut (ESD) and pubertal timing on psychological distress from adolescence to young adulthood in Taiwan, a non-Western society with a distinct cultural and family context. Data were from a cohort sample of 15-year-olds (N = 2595) first interviewed in 2000, with four follow-ups during a 7-year period. Psychological distress was assessed by a reduced form of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised. ESD was defined by first intercourse at age 15 or younger. Multivariate analyses via growth curve modeling found a greater increase in psychological distress over time in adolescents with ESD (β = .28, p adolescents were at greater risk for the onset of psychological distress (β = .46, p adolescents with an ESD appeared to be especially likely to be distressed (β = 3.39, p adolescents became young adults (β = -.03, p influence of both ESD and pubertal timing on distress trajectories, independent of parental and family characteristics.

  1. Psychological distress in the workforce: a multilevel and longitudinal analysis of the case of regulated occupations in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cadieux, Nathalie; Marchand, Alain

    2014-01-01

    ...) were nested in individuals (n2 = 7007). Results showed that when we controlled for working conditions, family situation, the social network outside the workplace, and personal characteristics, the level of psychological distress...

  2. Treatment-related changes in children's communication impact on maternal satisfaction and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Yagmur; Vivanti, Giacomo; Uljarevic, Mirko; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-09-01

    Parents of children with autism have been found to have reduced psychological well-being that has usually been linked to the stress related to managing their child's symptoms. As children's behavior and cognitive functioning are subject to change when suitable early intervention programs are put in place, it is plausible that positive treatment-related changes in the child will have a positive impact on parental distress. We undertook an individual differences study to investigate whether maternal psychological distress is affected by the outcomes of children receiving intervention. The participants comprised 43 mothers of preschool children with ASD enrolled in an early intervention program for 12 months. Child and family factors were linked to maternal psychological distress. However treatment-related changes in children's communication, as assessed on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales II, and parenting satisfaction uniquely contributed to psychological distress above and beyond other factors. A mediation analysis indicated that mothers whose children make treatment gains in communication skills experience lower levels of psychological distress as a consequence of higher levels of parenting satisfaction. The findings highlight improvements in everyday adaptive communication skills in children with ASD impact on mothers' satisfaction and distress. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The interactive role of income (material position) and income rank (psychosocial position) in psychological distress: a 9-year longitudinal study of 30,000 UK parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Elisabeth A; Chandola, Tarani; Purdam, Kingsley; Wood, Alex M

    2016-10-01

    Parents face an increased risk of psychological distress compared with adults without children, and families with children also have lower average household incomes. Past research suggests that absolute income (material position) and income status (psychosocial position) influence psychological distress, but their combined effects on changes in psychological distress have not been examined. Whether absolute income interacts with income status to influence psychological distress are also key questions. We used fixed-effects panel models to examine longitudinal associations between psychological distress (measured on the Kessler scale) and absolute income, distance from the regional mean income, and regional income rank (a proxy for status) using data from 29,107 parents included in the UK Millennium Cohort Study (2003-2012). Psychological distress was determined by an interaction between absolute income and income rank: higher absolute income was associated with lower psychological distress across the income spectrum, while the benefits of higher income rank were evident only in the highest income parents. Parents' psychological distress was, therefore, determined by a combination of income-related material and psychosocial factors. Both material and psychosocial factors contribute to well-being. Higher absolute incomes were associated with lower psychological distress across the income spectrum, demonstrating the importance of material factors. Conversely, income status was associated with psychological distress only at higher absolute incomes, suggesting that psychosocial factors are more relevant to distress in more advantaged, higher income parents. Clinical interventions could, therefore, consider both the material and psychosocial impacts of income on psychological distress.

  4. Job strain and psychological distress among employed pregnant Thai women: role of social support and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L

    2014-08-01

    Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.

  5. Violence and psychological distress among police officers and security guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, T M; Selin, R; Summala, H; Virtanen, M

    2011-09-01

    Police officers and security guards are more exposed to violence during their work duties than the general workforce and it can damage their psychological health. Still research on specific forms of violence and a potential pathway through which violence may affect distress is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of two forms of violence with distress among police officers and security guards and whether personal worry about future violence mediates this association. Violence was specified as physically violent acts and threats or assaults with a deadly weapon. Symptoms of psychological distress were measured using the General Health Questionnaire-12 scale. Analyses of 1993 completed responses (response rate 58%) showed that the odds ratio of distress for 'physically violent acts was' 1.67 (95% CI = 1.11-2.51) and for 'threats or assaults with a deadly weapon' 1.62 (95% CI = 1.20-2.17). When personal worry about future violence was taken into account, the association between exposure to physically violent acts and distress was completely broken. Instead, with the same adjustment, the association between exposure to threats or assaults with a deadly weapon and distress held. The results indicate that the association between physically violent acts and distress is mediated by personal worry about future violence, while threats or assaults with a deadly weapon had a stronger and independent association with distress. It is concluded that there is association between violence and distress. Personal worry about future violence mediates this association.

  6. Psychological distress and its predictors in AIDS orphan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back ground: In developing countries the number of children orphaned by AIDS is growing rapidly. Consequently, the psychological well-being of these children has become a serious concern. Objectives: To assess the psychological distress of AIDS orphans as compared to non-AIDS orphan adolescents and factors ...

  7. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  8. Understanding persons with psychological distress in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsdotter, Tina; Marklund, Bertil; Kylén, Sven; Taft, Charles; Ekman, Inger

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences of persons living with psychological distress who seek help in primary care. Psychological distress is a state of emotional suffering associated with stressors and demands that are difficult to cope with in daily life. The lack of effective care for and difficulty in identifying psychological distress is frustrating for patients and health professionals alike. The aim was therefore to gain more knowledge about the experience of living with psychological distress. Twelve persons (nine women and three men) aged 23-51 years were interviewed. Analyses were based on a phenomenological hermeneutic method and indicated that psychological distress may be seen as an imbalance (incongruence) between the self and the ideal self, which slowly breaks down a person's self-esteem. This imbalance was described in three dimensions: Struggling to cope with everyday life, Feeling inferior to others and Losing one's grip on life. It seems to be associated with a gradual depletion of existential capacities and lead to dissatisfaction, suffering, poor self-esteem and lack of control. As psychological distress may be a forerunner to mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, there is a need to initiate preventive or early interventions to avoid mental, physical and emotional chaos in such patients. Patients' with psychological distress need to be involved in a person-centred salutogenic dialogue with health professionals to become aware of and strengthen their own capacities to regain health and well-being. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. Patterns of electronic cigarette use and level of psychological distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hyun Park

    Full Text Available Psychological distress has been correlated with higher levels of nicotine dependence. To date, the possible association between individuals' levels of psychological distress and e-cigarette use has not been investigated, despite the dramatic growth of e-cigarette use in the US. We examined this possible association using a nationally representative sample of US adults.A total of 36,697 adults from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS were included. The Kessler 6 scale was used to measure psychological distress. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between level of psychological distress and e-cigarette use.Both e-cigarette and cigarette use varied according to level of psychological distress as well as multiple socio-demographic characteristics. In a multivariate model, psychological distress was significantly associated with the following groups: (a exclusive e-cigarette ever-use (aOR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.6, 8.6, (b current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes (aOR = 4.6; 95% CI = 3.1, 6.7, (c former cigarette use and ever use of e-cigarette (aOR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.2, 4.8 and (d current use of cigarettes only (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.7, 2.6.These are the first data to demonstrate that, as is true for cigarettes, e-cigarette use is associated with increased levels of psychological distress. Further large-scale, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the direction of this relationship and to evaluate the long-term positive and negative consequences of such use.

  10. Psychological Distress among Individuals Whose Partners Have Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Kumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-09-01

    Cancer diagnosis influences both patients and their closest relatives. This cross-sectional study examined psychological distress among individuals whose partners had cancer in a population-based sample. Participants in the survey were citizens residing in Ohsaki City, Miyagi, Japan. Spouse pairs were identified by information of participants' relationship to the householder and address provided by municipality, and we collected self-report information on cancer history and current pain (but not the cause of pain). Psychological distress was evaluated using the Kessler 6 scale (K6). We identified 29,410 potential participants (14,705 couples), of which 23,766 (11,690 men and 12,076 women) were included in the analyses. A total of 1,374 participants (581 male and 793 female participants) had partners with history of cancer. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these participants, regardless of sex, did not show significantly higher risk of psychological distress (K6 score ≥ 13). When stratifying the analysis by partners' current pain, men whose partners had cancer and pain showed greater odds of psychological distress (odds ratio = 1.5, p = 0.04), compared with men whose partners had no cancer and had pain. However, male subjects whose partners had cancer but no pain did not show greater odds of psychological distress compared with men whose partners had no cancer and no pain. By contrast, in women whose partners had cancer, psychological distress was not associated with pain status. In conclusion, men whose partners had cancer and pain have higher risk of psychological distress, and its screening to these individuals may reduce the risk.

  11. Predictors of psychological distress in patients starting IVF treatment: infertility-specific versus general psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Uschi; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Enzlin, Paul; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2010-06-01

    The distress that couples experience in IVF treatment is well-documented though research exploring factors that might contribute to the distress is scarce and the role of infertility-specific versus more general psychological characteristics in predicting psychological distress remains unexplored. This exploratory study aimed to describe, explore and test a self-constructed conceptual framework designed to understand the relative impact of infertility-specific and general psychological characteristics, in predicting psychological distress. Validated self-report questionnaires that measured the concepts of the encompassing framework (personality characteristics self-criticism and dependency, attachment in the partner relationship, child wish, coping, intrusiveness, infertility-related stress and general psychological distress) were completed by 106 women and 102 men before starting the first IVF/ICSI treatment at a university hospital-based fertility centre. Data were analysed by hierarchical multivariate linear regression analysis and path analysis. The overall conceptual psychological framework explained 55% of the variance in psychological distress. The strongest predictors of psychological distress were general psychological characteristics: passive and active coping, self-criticism and dependency and intrusiveness. A path analysis confirmed the framework and highlighted the mediating role of coping and intrusiveness. In the final analysis, none of the infertility-specific variables significantly predicted psychological distress. The current study of patients starting IVF-treatment demonstrated that general psychological characteristics, specifically active and passive coping, personality characteristics, dependency and self-criticism and intrusiveness, are more important in predicting the variability in psychological distress than infertility-specific concerns. The results raise important questions for infertility counselling. However, the cross

  12. Women's Employment Transitions and Changes in Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk, Piotr

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe effect of employment on women's psychological well being has become animportant issue in the sociology of mental health. Although work-for-pay is thought to have an overallpostiive impact on women's psychological well being, not all women equally experience this positiveeffect. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of transitions in employment status onchanges in psychological distress among women in two types of family setting: lone parent families andmarried couple families (including common-law unions. Using a framework which combines a longitudinaldesign with a structural equation modelling multigroup analysis, the current study indicates clearlythat the employment transitions and employment stability have no uniform effect on the mental healthof all mothers. Specifically, transition into employment offers a significant reduction in feelings ofdistress only among married mothers. Single mothers, in contrast are found to experience a significantincrease in the level of distress when they move out of employment. The results of this study point tosome advantages of longitudinal research designs over cross-section designs.FrenchL'effet de l'emploi sur le bien-être psychologique des femmes est devenu unequestion importante en sociologie de santé mentale. Bien que le travail payé aitun impact positif global sur le bien-être psychologique des femmes, pas toutesles femmes éprouvent également cet effet positif. L'objectif de cette étude estd'évaluer l'effet des transitions dans le statut d'emploi sur des changements de ladétresse psychologique parmi des femmes dans deux types de famille: famillesà un seul parent et familles à couple mariés (y compris les mariages de fait. Enutilisant un cadre qui combine une analyse longitudinale avec une équationstructurale modelant plusieurs groupes, l'étude actuelle indique clairement queles transitions d'emploi et la stabilité d'emploi n'ont pas un effet uniforme sur lasant

  13. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  14. Psychological Distress and Associated Factors Among Mexican American Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recto, Pamela; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2016-12-01

    Mental health literacy is a critical component of adolescent health enabling recognition, management, and prevention of psychological distress. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors and experiencing interpersonal violence, substance use, and pregnancy are at high risk for psychological distress. Secondary analysis of data collected via a control randomized trial among Mexican American females (aged 14-18 years; N = 461) experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and sexually transmitted infection was conducted with comparisons of psychological distress by pregnancy status. At study entry, 46.4% (n = 214) self-reported ever experiencing pregnancy (ever-pregnant) while 53.6% (n = 246) self-reported never experiencing pregnancy (never-pregnant). Adolescents reporting ever-pregnancy status were older and school dropouts. However, adolescents reporting never-pregnancy experienced higher sexual risk behaviors, substance use, interpersonal violence, and psychological distress than those reporting ever-pregnancy. A higher proportion of ever- versus never-pregnant adolescents were born in Mexico and preferred Spanish language indicating less acculturation. Findings support the need for mental health literacy concerning psychological distress with consideration of implications of acculturation among adolescents experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and substance use. More never- than ever-pregnant adolescents were attending school, presenting opportunities for implementation of health promotion strategies within community health settings for mental health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Employee psychological distress and treated prevalence by indices of rurality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Scheurer, Roman W; Sheridan, Judith; Cleary, Catherine M; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-10-01

    Although there is population data on the prevalence and treated prevalence of mental disorders by urban-rural indices, there is a lacuna of information pertaining to employees. This paper examines the prevalence and treated prevalence of psychological distress in employees by urban-rural indicators. Cross-sectional employee Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire responses (n=78,726 from 58 large companies) are interrogated by indices of remoteness (Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia), psychological distress (Kessler 6) and treatment-seeking behaviours for mental health problems. The overall prevalence of moderate or high psychological distress in employees was 35.2%. The prevalence varied only slightly (maximum to minimum difference of 4.6%) by rural/remote indices. Overall treatment-seeking behaviour for psychological distress was low (22.5%). The percentage of employees seeking treatment for high levels of psychological distress was the lowest in very remote regions (15.1%). Very remote employees are less likely to access mental health treatments and may be an employee subgroup that would benefit from specific employer health interventions aimed to increase treatment-seeking behaviours. Employees in very remote Australia could benefit from specific interventions aimed to increase mental health awareness/literacy. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  17. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychological Distress in Adolescent Students from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Geetha, D; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; Thennarasu, K

    2017-06-01

    There are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among adolescents in India. This study assessed psychological distress among adolescents who attended school in Kerala, India. A total of 7560 students from 73 schools, aged 12 to 19 years completed a self-administered questionnaire that included Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and other standardised instruments to assess various domains. Mild psychological distress was reported by 10.5%, moderate distress by 5.4%, and severe distress by 4.9% of students. Older age, not living with both parents, and urban residence were significantly associated with psychological distress (p psychological distress had a higher risk of reporting academic failure, alcohol and tobacco use, suicidality, and sexual abuse. Increasing severity of psychological distress was associated with higher odds of these correlates. Psychological distress is common among adolescents and its correlates with negative outcomes suggest the need for early recognition and treatment.

  19. Maternal Psychological Distress and Offspring Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood: Findings from Over 18 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Wendy; Dion, Jacinthe; Karevold, Evalill Bølstad; Skipstein, Anni

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term prediction of psychological maladaptive (i.e., symptoms of anxiety and depression) and adaptive adjustment (i.e., self-efficacy) in emerging adult offspring from trajectories of maternal psychological distress from toddlerhood to adolescence. Method: Trajectories of maternal psychological distress (low, moderate, high, and low-rising patterns) from toddlerhood (age 1.5 years) to adolescence (age 14.5 years) were used to predict psychologica...

  20. Psychological distress amongst undergraduate students of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mental health among university students represents an important public health concern and the health of university students has been the subject of increasing focus in recent years. Available evidence suggests that there are significantly more students experiencing high levels of distress compared with the ...

  1. Psychological distress and prejudice following terror attacks in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Sun, Shaojing; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2017-08-01

    Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims. Prevalence of serious mental illness (K6 score > 18) was higher after November 2015 attacks (7.0% after the first attack, 10.2% the second, χ2 (1) = 5.67, p media use and religiosity were associated with distress, as was the interaction between event and religiosity. Distress was then associated with racism symbolism and willingness to interact with Muslims. Implications are considered for managing psychological trauma across populations, and protecting inter-group harmony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences in caregivers' psychological distress and associated factors by care recipients' gender and kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Noboru; Horiguchi, Kazuko

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we examined the level of psychological distress of Japanese caregivers according to various combinations of the gender of care recipients and the kinship of caregivers (spouse, son, daughter, or daughter-in-law). Furthermore, we explored the associated factors that could exacerbate or alleviate psychological distress. We utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design and implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey with a two-stage stratified sample of community-dwelling caregivers of frail elderly persons throughout Japan. We surveyed 1279 caregiving families, and 1020 questionnaires were completed by primary caregivers (response rate: 79.8%), with 945 respondents providing data on the Japanese version of the Kessler 6 psychological distress scale (K6). Caregivers' K6 scores varied significantly by care recipients' gender and their relationship with the caregiver. K6 scores were significantly higher among daughters-in-law caring for fathers-in-law than among daughters-in-law caring for mothers-in-law, wives caring for husbands, or daughters or sons caring for mothers. 'Negative influence of caregiving' and 'anxious about continuing caregiving' were factors that commonly exacerbated caregivers' psychological distress. Further analyses involving interactions indicated that the effects of 'anxious about continuing caregiving' and 'personal growth through caregiving' on the psychological distress of daughters-in-law varied by care recipients' gender as did the effects of an alleviating factor, 'keeping their own pace', on daughters. Psychological distress levels among family caregivers, as well as exacerbating and alleviating factors, varied depending on the gender and kinship of care recipients.

  3. Intelligence and neuroticism in relation to depression and psychological distress: Evidence from two large population cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrady, L B; Ritchie, S J; Chan, S W Y; Kerr, D M; Adams, M J; Hawkins, E H; Porteous, D; Deary, I J; Gale, C R; Batty, G D; McIntosh, A M

    2017-06-01

    Neuroticism is a risk factor for selected mental and physical illnesses and is inversely associated with intelligence. Intelligence appears to interact with neuroticism and mitigate its detrimental effects on physical health and mortality. However, the inter-relationships of neuroticism and intelligence for major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychological distress has not been well examined. Associations and interactions between neuroticism and general intelligence (g) on MDD, self-reported depression, and psychological distress were examined in two population-based cohorts: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, n=19,200) and UK Biobank (n=90,529). The Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form-Revised measured neuroticism and g was extracted from multiple cognitive ability tests in each cohort. Family structure was adjusted for in GS:SFHS. Neuroticism was strongly associated with increased risk for depression and higher psychological distress in both samples. Although intelligence conferred no consistent independent effects on depression, it did increase the risk for depression across samples once neuroticism was adjusted for. Results suggest that higher intelligence may ameliorate the association between neuroticism and self-reported depression although no significant interaction was found for clinical MDD. Intelligence was inversely associated with psychological distress across cohorts. A small interaction was found across samples such that lower psychological distress associates with higher intelligence and lower neuroticism, although effect sizes were small. From two large cohort studies, our findings suggest intelligence acts a protective factor in mitigating the effects of neuroticism on psychological distress. Intelligence does not confer protection against diagnosis of depression in those high in neuroticism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  4. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Elwér

    Full Text Available Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715 have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing

  5. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  6. Influence of different domains of social capital on psychological distress among Croatian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Social capital has been shown to have positive effects on multiple health outcomes among young people (i.e., obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases). Studies are suggesting that social capital is an important asset for the health and wellbeing of children and adolescents, including for their mental health. We sought to examine the influences of different domains of social capital - in the family, in the neighbourhood, and at school - on levels of psychological distress among high school students in Croatia. Cross-sectional survey of 3427 high school students (1688 males and 1739 females), aged 17-18 years, was carried out in the 2013/14 school year (response rate: 93.8%). Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of family, neighbourhood and school social capital on the risk of high psychological distress, measured by the Kessler-6 scale. Adjusting for age, school, gender, body mass index, self-perceived socioeconomic status, self-rated health and physical activity, high family support in school (OR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.27-0.51), high neighbourhood trust (OR 0.62; 95% CI: 0.53-0.73), high teacher-student interpersonal trust (OR 0.74; 95% CI: 0.62-0.89) and high student interpersonal trust (OR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97) was each associated with lower odds of psychological distress. When all of the social capital variables were entered simultaneously, higher social capital in each domain was inversely associated with psychological distress. Family support in school, neighbourhood trust, teacher-student interpersonal trust and student interpersonal trust were significantly inversely associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as means of mental health promotion among youth.

  7. Assessing distress in the community: psychometric properties and crosswalk comparison of eight measures of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, P J; Sunderland, M; Slade, T; Calear, A L; Carragher, N

    2017-10-02

    Many measures are available for measuring psychological distress in the community. Limited research has compared these scales to identify the best performing tools. A common metric for distress measures would enable researchers and clinicians to equate scores across different measures. The current study evaluated eight psychological distress scales and developed crosswalks (tables/figures presenting multiple scales on a common metric) to enable scores on these scales to be equated. An Australian online adult sample (N = 3620, 80% female) was administered eight psychological distress measures: Patient Health Questionnaire-4, Kessler-10/Kessler-6, Distress Questionnaire-5 (DQ5), Mental Health Inventory-5, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25), Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) and Distress Thermometer. The performance of each measure in identifying DSM-5 criteria for a range of mental disorders was tested. Scale fit to a unidimensional latent construct was assessed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Finally, crosswalks were developed using Item Response Theory. The DQ5 had optimal performance in identifying individuals meeting DSM-5 criteria, with adequate fit to a unidimensional construct. The HSCL-25 and SRQ-20 also had adequate fit but poorer specificity and/or sensitivity than the DQ5 in identifying caseness. The unidimensional CFA of the combined item bank for the eight scales showed acceptable fit, enabling the creation of crosswalk tables. The DQ5 had optimal performance in identifying risk of mental health problems. The crosswalk tables developed in this study will enable rapid conversion between distress measures, providing more efficient means of data aggregation and a resource to facilitate interpretation of scores from multiple distress scales.

  8. Help-seeking preferences for psychological distress in primary care: effect of current mental state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kate; Buszewicz, Marta; Weich, Scott; King, Michael

    2008-10-01

    There is much debate over when it is appropriate to intervene medically for psychological distress, and limited evidence on patients' perspectives about a broad range of possible treatment options. It is currently unclear whether preferences may differ for those patients with milder symptoms compared to those experiencing more severe distress. To determine patient preferences for professional, informal, and alternative help for psychological distress in primary care, and the impact of their current mental state on these. Cross-sectional survey in seven general practices across suburban/urban London. Participants were 1357 consecutive general practice attenders aged 18 years and over. The main outcome measure was the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version and a questionnaire on help-seeking preferences. Overall, only 47% of participants reported wanting 'some help' if feeling stressed, worried, or low and it was affecting their daily life. Those currently experiencing mild-to-moderate distress preferred informal sources of help such as friends/family support, relaxation/yoga, exercise/sport, or massage along with general advice from their GP and talking therapies. Self-help (books/leaflets or computer/internet) was not popular at any level of distress, and less favoured by those with mild-to-moderate distress (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.70). Those experiencing severe distress were much more likely to want talking therapies (OR = 3.43, 95% CI = 2.85 to 4.14), tablets (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 2.00 to 4.71), and support groups (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 1.72 to 5.47). People with mild-to-moderate distress appear to prefer informal sources of help and those involving human contact, compared to medication or self-help. This has implications for the implementation of potential interventions for psychological distress in primary care.

  9. Psychological distress and academic self-perception among international medical students: the role of peer social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana

    2014-11-28

    Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.

  10. Mutual Influences Between Parental Psychological Distress and Alcohol Use and Child Problem Behavior in a Cohort of Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Green, Kerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental psychological distress, parental alcohol involvement, and child/adolescent behavior problems frequently occur together with deleterious effects on individuals and families. Extant evidence suggests that parental and child problems are related; however, less is known about the patterns and directions of their relationships over time, particularly among African Americans. This study examined mutual influences between parental psychological distress and alcohol use, and child/adolescent...

  11. Video game addiction and psychological distress among expatriate adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmus Saquib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in the International Schools in Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Students who returned signed consent forms from their parents filled out a self-administered questionnaire that included validated scales on addiction to video games, general health, and lifestyle. Results: The proportion between the sexes and the schools were roughly equal. Around 32% were overweight or obese, 75% had screen time≥2h/day, and 20% slept<5h/night. Sixteen per cent (16% were addicted to video games and 54% had psychological distress. Addiction to video games was strongly associated with psychological distress (OR=4.1, 95% CI=1.80, 9.47. Other significant correlates were female gender, higher screen time, and shorter sleep hours. Conclusions: The proportion of students with psychological distress was high. Future studies should investigate other potential correlates of distress such personal traits, family relations, and academic performance. Keywords: Video games, Addiction, Adolescent, Psychological distress, Screen time, Saudi Arabia

  12. Psychological distress may affect nutrition indicators in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, Stuart; Strodl, Esben; Harper, Catherine; Clemens, Susan; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore which demographic and health status variables moderated the relationship between psychological distress and three nutrition indicators: the consumption of fruits, vegetables and takeaway. We analysed data from the 2009 Self-Reported Health Status Survey Report collected in the state of Queensland, Australia. Adults (N = 6881) reported several demographic and health status variables. Moderated logistic regression models were estimated separately for the three nutrition indicators, testing as moderators demographic (age, gender, educational attainment, household income, remoteness, and area-level socioeconomic status) and health status indicators (body mass index, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes status). Several significant interactions emerged between psychological distress, demographic (age, area-level socio-economic status, and income level), and health status variables (body mass index, diabetes status) in predicting the nutrition indicators. Relationships between distress and the nutrition indicators were not significantly different by gender, remoteness, educational attainment, high cholesterol status, and high blood pressure status. The associations between psychological distress and several nutrition indicators differ amongst population subgroups. These findings suggest that in distressed adults, age, area-level socio-economic status, income level, body mass index, and diabetes status may serve as protective or risk factors through increasing or decreasing the likelihood of meeting nutritional guidelines. Public health interventions for improving dietary behaviours and nutrition may be more effective if they take into account the moderators identified in this study rather than using global interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological distress in morbid obesity in relation to weight history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Maria Letizia; Villanova, Nicola; Avagnina, Sebastiano; Fusco, Maria Antonia; Fatati, Giuseppe; Compare, Angelo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2007-03-01

    Very few data are available on psychological distress in morbidly obese subjects in relation to the history of their weight. In subjects with childhood obesity, psychological distress might be better than in adult-onset obesity, because of progressive adaptation to the social stigma. Psychological distress was tested in relation to BMI at age 20 years (BMI-20), weight history and somatic co-morbidities in 632 treatment-seeking, morbidly obese participants from the QUOVADIS cohort (130 men, 502 women; mean age 45.5 years). The number of dieting attempts/year, BMI increase and cumulative BMI loss since age 20 were calculated as weight cycling parameters. The Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), the Binge-Eating Scale, and the ORWELL-97 questionnaire were used to score psychometry and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Complications were quantitatively assessed by a modified Charlson's score. BMI-20 was normal in 35% of cases and >35 kg/m2 in only 14%. Psychometric scores were not different in relation to BMI-20, when corrected for age, with the exception of the General Health scale of PGWB, showing a greater distress in subjects with normal BMI-20. In most cases, the prevalence of pathological results of questionnaires showed a J-shaped curve, with participants with normal BMI-20 or those with Class II-III obesity in early adulthood having the highest prevalence of psychological/psychiatric distress and poor HRQL. Weight cycling was a risk factor for binge-eating, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in SCL-90, whereas somatic co-morbidities adversely affected most SCL-90 and all PGWB scales. Weight cycling and somatic co-morbidities, but not age of onset of obesity, are the main factors negatively influencing psychological health in treatment-seeking, morbidly obese subjects.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence in the Canadian Armed Forces: Psychological Distress and the Role of Individual Factors Among Military Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomorovsky, Alla; LeBlanc, Manon Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Unique military demands can have a significant impact upon family life. Although most Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) families are able to cope effectively with the stressors of military life, some may experience marital conflicts, contributing to spousal violence. Moreover, there is evidence that certain personal resources can buffer the impact of spousal violence on psychological distress. The present study examined the roles of spousal violence and personal resources, including coping, mastery, and social support, in the psychological distress of CAF members' spouses (N = 1,892). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that violence significantly predicted psychological distress among spouses of CAF members; although physical violence was no longer significant, emotional violence remained a unique predictor. Coping, mastery, and perceived social support, entered together, significantly predicted psychological distress among spouses, over and above the role of violence. Specifically, emotion-focused coping, mastery, and social support remained unique predictors of distress. Furthermore, perceived social support buffered the negative impact of emotional violence on psychological distress. The study has important organizational implications, illuminating the risks related to the spousal violence in the military and the psychological consequences of such violence. These results can be used to improve treatment and prevention programs, enhancing the well-being of military families. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  16. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women) from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed ...

  17. Organizational justice, psychological distress, and work engagement in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Ishizaki, Masao; Shimazu, Akihito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Tabata, Masaji; Akiyama, Miki; Kitazume, Akiko; Kuroda, Mitsuyo

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the cross-sectional association between organizational justice (i.e., procedural justice and interactional justice) and psychological distress or work engagement, as well as the mediating roles of other job stressors (i.e., job demands and job control, or their combination, effort-reward imbalance [ERI], and worksite support). A total of 243 workers (185 males and 58 females) from a manufacturing factory in Japan were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire including the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, K6 scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and other covariates. Multiple mediation analyses with the bootstrap technique were conducted. In the bivariate analysis, procedural justice and interactional justice were significantly and negatively associated with psychological distress; they were significantly and positively associated with work engagement. In the mediation analysis, reward at work (or ERI) significantly mediated between procedural justice or interactional justice and psychological distress; worksite support significantly mediated between procedural justice or interactional justice and work engagement. The effects of organizational justice on psychological distress seem to be mediated by reward at work (or ERI) while those regarding work engagement may be mediated by worksite support to a large extent, at least in Japanese workers.

  18. Stress, Coping, Social Support, and Psychological Distress among MSW Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addonizio, Frank Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…

  19. Burnout and psychological distress among nurses in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 210 nurses working in this health institution for symptoms of burnout and psychological distress. Results: High levels of burnout were identified in 42.9% of the respondents in the area of emotional exhaustion, 47.6% in the area of depersonalization and 53.8% in the area of reduced personal accomplishment, while 44.1% ...

  20. A study of personality And psychological distress among delusional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of personality and psychological distress of people living with delusional halitosis attending Oral Wellness Centre (OWC) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City over a six-month period was undertaken. Five (5) patients with age range of 18-30 years and a mean age of 24 years (SD = 4.47) ...

  1. Psychological distress among adults admitted to medical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Psychological distress among adults admitted to medical and surgical wards of a Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. *Rukundo ZG1, Nakasujja N2, Musisi S2. 1. Department of Psychiatry, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda. 2. Department of Psychiatry, Makerere University College of Health ...

  2. Psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors in Iran: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garmaroudi Gholamreza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. Methods This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Results In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4, mostly were males (53%, married (66% and had secondary school education (50%. Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. Conclusion The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake

  3. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakkas C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Can Nakkas,1 Hubert Annen,1 Serge Brand2,3 1Department of Military Psychology Studies, Military Academy at ETH Zurich, Zurich, 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods: A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility, and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results: Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion: Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for

  4. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND FEAR OF DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena IORGA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and fear are normal reactions in humans when situations are evaluating as being painful. In medical dentistry, anxiety and fear characterize in fact o problematic patient with special reactions during dental interventions and avoidance behavior, both behaviors having a great impact on patient’s dental health. The paper presents some aspects on the psychological profile of odontophobics, causes and consequences of dental fear on patient’s dental health, and some considerations on psychological interventions meant at reducing anxiety and fear during dental treatment.

  5. Psychological Distress and Hypertension: Results from the National Health Interview Survey for 2004-2013

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ojike, Nwakile; Sowers, James R; Seixas, Azizi; Ravenell, Joseph; Rodriguez-Figueroa, G; Awadallah, M; Zizi, F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I

    2016-01-01

    .... We used data from the National Health Interview Survey for 2004-2013. Hypertension was self-reported and the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess psychological distress (a score...

  6. [Psychological distress of children with progressive diseases and multiple disabilities: A crossed analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perifano, A; Scelles, R

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present the results of research conducted on the psychological distress of lysosomal-disease-affected children. Lysosomal diseases are rare genetic diseases most often leading to severe disabilities, both psychological and physiological. As frequently reported by their relatives, affected children experience nervous breakdowns, which are sometimes treated with antidepressant prescriptions. However, mental impairment as well physical disabilities can prevent children from making their pain noticed and identified by their relatives. This raises a new research question: when disabilities are severe, how should the psychological distress of affected children be identified? Recent studies on the care of children with multiple disabilities (San Salavadour 2000; Scelles 2003; Camelio 2006; Pautrel, 2009) have used the children's family and caregivers to access their feelings, considered to be translators of children's feelings because they understand their nonverbal language (Camelio, 2006). Using this methodology, four parents from the French not-for-profit association called "VML" (Vaincre les maladies lysosomales) and four professionals were involved in semi-structured interviews. The goal of these interviews was to identify signs of possible psychological suffering, the context in which those signs were expressed, the meaning and the value attributed to it by the family and caregivers, and the reaction as well as an evaluation of that reaction. Thirteen children were involved, 12 of whom were described as having shown signs of psychological distress. Six lysosomal diseases were represented. Two types of signs were reported: active signs (e.g., agitation, screaming, crying) and passive signs (e.g., no communication, withdrawal, lack of facial expression). Most of the time, passive signs were interpreted by the family and caregivers as evidence of deep psychological distress. The meanings of both types of sign were the following: fear, anxiety

  7. Psychological distress and lifestyle of students: implications for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mcnamara, Patricia Mannix

    2015-03-01

    Poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors for chronic disease and premature mortality. These behaviours are of concern among higher education students and may be linked to psychological distress which is problematic particularly for students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teaching. Understanding how risk behaviours aggregate and relate to psychological distress and coping among this population is important for health promotion. This research examined, via a comprehensive survey undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students' (n = 1557) lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire), self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). The results showed that health- risk behaviours were common, including alcohol consumption (93.2%), unhealthy diet (26.3%), physical inactivity (26%), tobacco smoking (17%), cannabis use (11.6%) and high levels of stress (41.9%). Students tended to cluster into two groups: those with risk behaviours (n = 733) and those with positive health behaviours (n = 379). The group with risk behaviours had high psychological distress and used mostly passive coping strategies such as escape avoidance. The potential impact on student health and academic achievement is of concern and suggests the need for comprehensive health promotion programmes to tackle multiple behaviours. As these students are the nurses and teachers of the future, their risk behaviours, elevated psychological distress and poor coping also raise concerns regarding their roles as future health educators/promoters. Attention to promotion of health and well-being among this population is essential. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  9. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  10. Peer pressure, psychological distress and the urge to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Tsai, Tzu-I

    2009-06-01

    Psychology and addiction research have found that cigarette smokers react with subjective and automatic responses to stimuli associated with smoking. This study examines the association between the number of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and psychological distress. We studied 1,220 adult past and current smokers drawn from a national face-to-face interview survey administered in 2004. We defined two types of cues possibly triggering a smoker to have a cigarette: peer cues and psychological cues. We used ordinary least square linear regressions to analyze smoking amount and response to peer and psychological distress cues. We found a positive association between amount smoked and cue response: peer cues (1.06, 95%CI: 0.74-1.38) and psychological cues (0.44, 95%CI = 0.17-0.70). Response to psychological cues was lower among male smokers (-1.62, 95%CI = -2.26-(-)0.98), but response to psychological cues were higher among those who had senior high school level education (0.96, 95%CI = 0.40-1.53) and who began smoking as a response to their moods (1.25, 95%CI = 0.68-1.82). These results suggest that both peer cues and psychological cues increase the possibility of contingent smoking, and should, therefore, be addressed by anti-smoking policies and anti-smoking programs. More specifically, special attention can be paid to help smokers avoid or counter social pressure to smoke and to help smokers resist the use of cigarettes to relieve distress.

  11. Peer Pressure, Psychological Distress and the Urge to Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-I Tsai

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychology and addiction research have found that cigarette smokers react with subjective and automatic responses to stimuli associated with smoking. This study examines the association between the number of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and psychological distress. Methods: We studied 1,220 adult past and current smokers drawn from a national face-to-face interview survey administered in 2004. We defined two types of cues possibly triggering a smoker to have a cigarette: peer cues and psychological cues. We used ordinary least square linear regressions to analyze smoking amount and response to peer and psychological distress cues. Results: We found a positive association between amount smoked and cue response: peer cues (1.06, 95%CI: 0.74-1.38 and psychological cues (0.44, 95%CI = 0.17-0.70. Response to psychological cues was lower among male smokers (–1.62, 95%CI = –2.26- –0.98, but response to psychological cues were higher among those who had senior high school level educations (0.96, 95%CI = 0.40-1.53 and who began smoking as a response to their moods (1.25, 95%CI = 0.68-1.82. Conclusions: These results suggest that both peer cues and psychological cues increase the possibility of contingent smoking, and should, therefore, be addressed by anti-smoking policies and anti-smoking programs. More specifically, special attention can be paid to help smokers avoid or counter social pressure to smoke and to help smokers resist the use of cigarettes to relieve distress.

  12. Psychological distress associated with home parenteral nutrition in Swedish children, adolescents, and their parents: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Ingemar; Björnestam, Berit; Finkel, Yigael

    2003-09-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is life saving in some patients with intestinal failure. Clinical experience suggests that there may be psychologic problems in HPN children, including food refusal on reintroduction of food, parent-child conflict, sibling rivalry, and disruption of family routine. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychologic distress in children with HPN and the social integration of their parents. The parents were asked to fill in three questionnaires anonymously--one regarding the HPN procedures; the Child Behavior Checklist, which provides a standardized description of children's behavioral problems, as reported by their mothers; and the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI), which in its short form comprises 30 questions about social network and social support. The Child Behavior Checklist questionnaires were returned from 20 families (80% response), and the ISSI questionnaires were returned from 21 families (84% response). Children and adolescents with HPN are quite distressed psychologically. The subscale within ISSI that measures social integration was significantly higher in the HPN group, whereas the subscale that measures adequacy of social integration did not differ between the groups. Both subscales measuring attachment were significantly lower in the HPN group. This study shows that children and adolescents with HPN are quite distressed psychologically, even though the exact reason for this may be somewhat unclear. The social integration of the parents is high, whereas attachment, which deals with deeper, emotional relations, is negatively affected.

  13. Children's psychological distress during pediatric HSCT: parent and child perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Grace; Ratichek, Sara J; Recklitis, Christopher; Syrjala, Karen; Patel, Sunita K; Harris, Lynnette; Rodday, Angie Mae; Tighiouart, Hocine; Parsons, Susan K

    2012-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be challenging to pediatric recipients and their families. Little is known about the recipients' psychological status as they initiate treatment and in the year afterwards. The purpose of this study is to describe the psychological status of 107 pediatric HSCT recipients from their parents' perspective, and to compare reports from parents and children in a subset of 55 children. We hypothesized that there would be discrepancies between parent and child report of child distress. Multi-site, prospective study of eligible child participants and their parents who completed selected modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, Childhood Version (KID-SCID) the month before and one year after HSCT. Diagnoses were threshold or subthreshold. According to parents, nearly 30% of children had anxiety disorder both before and after HSCT; approximately half of these met threshold criteria. Agreement between parents and children for anxiety disorders was poor at baseline (κ = -0.18, 95%CI = -0.33, -0.02) and fair at 12 months (κ  = 0.31, 95%CI  = -0.04, 0.66). Agreement about mood disorders was fair at baseline (10% prevalence, κ =  0.39, 95%CI = -0.02, 0.79) and moderate at 12 months (14% prevalence, κ = 0.41, 95%CI =  0.02, 0.80). Anxiety (30%) and mood (10-14%) symptoms are common in children both before and after HSCT; parent and child reports of these symptoms do not agree. Input from parents and children is recommended to identify more accurately children who may need additional intervention during and following HSCT. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Maternal Psychological Distress and Offspring Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood: Findings from Over 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Dion, Jacinthe; Karevold, Evalill Bølstad; Skipstein, Anni

    To examine the long-term prediction of psychological maladaptive (i.e., symptoms of anxiety and depression) and adaptive adjustment (i.e., self-efficacy) in emerging adult offspring from trajectories of maternal psychological distress from toddlerhood to adolescence. Trajectories of maternal psychological distress (low, moderate, high, and low-rising patterns) from toddlerhood (age 1.5 years) to adolescence (age 14.5 years) were used to predict psychological adjustment in emerging adult offspring (age 18-20 years) (n = 400). Adverse maternal distress trajectories during childhood were linked to maladaptive and adaptive adjustment in adult offspring. Consistently high maternal distress levels experienced across childhood predicted higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and lower self-efficacy than low maternal distress trajectories. Two other adverse maternal distress trajectories (consistently moderate and low-rising patterns) compared with the low trajectory predicted higher offspring depressive symptoms. The findings persisted when adjusting for potential confounders: offspring gender and maternal education, relationship status, language, and economy. The current study showed longitudinal multi-informant impact from adverse maternal distress trajectories to adult offspring maladjustment over 18 years, emphasizing the importance of early identification and prevention.

  15. Psychological distress among women suffering from couple infertility in South Africa: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, S J; Abrahams, N; Mokoena, N E; Lombard, C J; van der Spuy, Z M

    2005-07-01

    Infertility in Africa is commonly associated with negative psycho-social consequences. To date, most studies from African countries addressing these consequences have been qualitative in nature. The aim of this study was to assess psychological distress quantitatively among women suffering from couple infertility in an urban community in South Africa. The Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), a standardized instrument for the measurement of current psychological symptom status, was administered to 120 women at the time of their first presentation to an infertility clinic in a tertiary referral centre. The control group comprised 120 women presenting to local family planning clinics. In addition, socio-demographic information and data pertaining to the prevalence of abuse was captured through a structured questionnaire designed for the purpose of this study. Women suffering from involuntary childlessness scored significantly higher on all sub-scales and the global indices of distress of the SCL-90-R when compared to controls. In addition, women who reported abuse from their male partners had significantly higher scores on six of the 12 test scales when compared to infertile women in non-abusive relationships. Involuntary childlessness is associated with high levels of psychological distress. Women in abusive relationships are particularly at risk. This result is in keeping with several qualitative studies from African countries which describe infertility as an overwhelmingly negative and distressing experience. Cognizance needs to be taken of these experiences and effective interventions require medical, psychological and socio-cultural strategies.

  16. Discrimination and Psychological Distress: Gender Differences among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existing knowledge on the association between discrimination and poor mental health, very few studies have explored gender differences in this association in Arab Americans. The current study aimed to investigate whether gender moderates the association between the experience of discrimination and psychological distress in a representative sample of Arab Americans in Michigan. Using data from the Detroit Arab American Study (DAAS), 2003, this study recruited Arab Americans (337 males, 385 females) living in Michigan, United States. The main independent variable was discrimination. The main outcome was psychological distress. Covariates included demographic factors (age), socioeconomic status (education, employment, and income), and immigration characteristics (nativity and years living in United States). Gender was the focal moderator. We used multivariable regression with and without discrimination × gender interaction term. In the pooled sample, discrimination was positively associated with psychological distress [B = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-1.03, p = 0.003]. We found a significant gender × discrimination interaction in the pooled sample (B = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.01-1.59, p = 0.050), suggesting a stronger association in males than females. In our gender-specific model, higher discrimination was associated with higher psychological distress among male (B = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.33-1.42, p = 0.002) but not female (B = 0.18, 95% CI = -0.43 to 0.78, p = 0.567) Arab Americans. While discrimination is associated with poor mental health, a stronger link between discrimination and psychological symptoms may exist in male compared to female Arab Americans. While efforts should be made to universally reduce discrimination, screening for discrimination may be a more salient component of mental health care for male than female Arab Americans.

  17. Psychological Distress and Lifestyle of Malay Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Ramli Zafirah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Medical education is a laborious program which may give negative consequences on the physical and psychological health of medical students. The aims of this study were to evaluate psychological distress among Malay medical students and to assess its relationship with their lifestyle.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 221 Malay medical students. Psychological distress and lifestyle were assessed using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 and Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLPII respectively.Results: About 30.8% of Malay medical students had mild to extremely severe depressive symptoms, 62.9 % showed mild to extremely severe anxiety symptoms, and 34.9% of them had mild to extremely severe stress. The depressive subscale was significantly higher among female than male students (Z=-2.613, P=0.009. There was a significant negative correlation between total psychological distress and spiritual growth (r=-0.217, P=0.001. Depression was found not only negatively correlated with spiritual growth (r =-0.328, P=0.000 but also interpersonal relationship (r=-0.161, P=0.016. Stress was inversely correlated with physical activity (r =-0.172, P=0.011. Preclinical students had significantly better scores in health responsibility (Z=-2.301, P=0.021, interpersonal relationship (Z=-2.840, P=0.005, stress management (Z=-2.339, P=0.019, spiritual growth (Z=-2.483, P=0.013 and nutrition and diet (Z =-2.456, P=0.014 than clinical students.Conclusions: Malay medical students had significant symptoms that indicate psychological distress that related to their lifestyle. This warrants further psychiatric evaluation and management for them to be good and safe future doctors. Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Lifestyle, Medical Students

  18. Barriers to health-care and psychological distress among mothers living with HIV in Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.

  19. Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line

    Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors...... (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints.......% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together...

  20. Predictors of Psychological Distress Trajectories in the First Year After a Breast Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hee; Chun, Mison; Jung, Yong-Sik; Bae, Sun Hyoung

    2017-12-01

    Psychological distress is a significant and ongoing problem for breast cancer. These mental health problems are often neglected as they are not always properly understood. This study was performed to explore the trajectory of psychological distress over 1 year since breast cancer surgery and to identify the associated factors for the trajectory. One hundred seventeen women who underwent surgery for breast cancer completed the psychological distress thermometer and problem lists from after surgery to 12 months after surgery. Information on their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was also obtained. Group-based trajectory modeling was performed to identify the distinct trajectories of psychological distress. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine predictors of psychological distress trajectories. A two-group linear trajectory model was optimal for modeling psychological distress (Bayesian information criterion = -777.41). Group-based trajectory modeling identified consistently high-distress (19.4%) and low-decreasing distress (80.6%) trajectories. Old age, depression, nervousness, and pain were significant predictors of consistently high-distress trajectory. Our results indicate that distinct trajectory groups can be used as a screening tool to identify patients who may be at an increased risk of psychological distress over time. Screening for psychological distress during disease diagnosis is important and necessary to identify patients who are at an increased risk of elevated distress or at risk of experiencing psychological distress over time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Mechanisms involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govia, Ishtar O.

    The mental health of ethnic minorities in the United States is of urgent concern. The accelerated growth of groups of ethnic minorities and immigrants in the United States and the stressors to which they are exposed, implores academic researchers to investigate more deeply health disparities and the factors that exacerbate or minimize such inequalities. This dissertation attended to that concern. It used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the first survey with a national representative sample of Black Caribbeans, to explore mechanisms that involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States. In a series of three studies, the dissertation investigated the role and consequence of (1) chronic discrimination, immigration factors, and closeness to ethnic and racial groups; (2) personal control and social support; and (3) family relations and social roles in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans. Study 1 examined how the associations between discrimination and psychological distress were buffered or exacerbated by closeness to ethnic group and closeness to racial group. It also examined how these associations differed depending on immigration factors. Results indicated that the buffering or exacerbating effect of ethnic and racial group closeness varied according to the type of discrimination (subtle or severe) and were more pronounced among those born in the United States. Using the stress process framework, Study 2 tested moderation and mediation models of the effects of social support and personal control in the association between discrimination and distress. Results from a series of analyses on 579 respondents suggested that personal control served as a mediator in this relationship and that emotional support exerted a direct distress deterring function. Study 3 investigated sex differences in the associations between social roles, intergenerational family relationship perceptions and distress. Results

  2. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.

  3. Relationship Violence and Psychological Distress Among Low-income Urban Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Terrence D.; Mossakowski, Krysia N.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the association between relationship violence and psychological distress among low-income urban women. Extending prior research, we considered the effects of relationship violence within the context of other chronic stressors that are common in the lives of these women. Using data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project (1999), a probability sample of 2,402 low-income women with children living in low-income neighborhoods in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio...

  4. Specific attitudes which predict psychology students' intentions to seek help for psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Coralie J

    2014-03-01

    Although many postgraduate psychology programs address students' mental health, there are compelling indications that earlier, undergraduate, interventions may be optimal. We investigated specific attitudes that predict students' intentions to seek treatment for psychological distress to inform targeted interventions. Psychology students (N = 289; mean age = 19.75 years) were surveyed about attitudes and intentions to seek treatment for stress, anxiety, or depression. Less than one quarter of students reported that they would be likely to seek treatment should they develop psychological distress. Attitudes that predicted help-seeking intentions related to recognition of symptoms and the benefits of professional help, and openness to treatment for emotional problems. The current study identified specific attitudes which predict help-seeking intentions in psychology students. These attitudes could be strengthened in undergraduate educational interventions promoting well-being and appropriate treatment uptake among psychology students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effects of a multi-component dyadic intervention on the psychological distress of family caregivers providing care to people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prick, A.J.C.; de Lange, J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Pot, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Earlier research showed that multi-component dyadic interventions - including a combination of intervention strategies and addressing both the person with dementia and caregiver - have a beneficial impact on the mental and physical health of people with dementia and their family

  6. Psychological distress of female caregivers of significant others with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Cassidy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the role of time since diagnosis and whether the care recipient was a child, a parent, or a spouse, on caregiver’s perceptions of the caring role, with a group of 269 female cancer caregivers. Questionnaire measures were used to explore psychological and social resources and psychological distress. Analysis of variance and hierarchical multiple regression were used and identified significant effects of time since diagnosis and care recipient. This study concludes that a more tailored approach to understanding the needs of caregivers is required particularly in terms of time since diagnosis and care recipient, in order to provide more effective support.

  7. Sharing, liking, commenting, and distressed? The pathway between Facebook interaction and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhong; Lee, Kye-Hyoung

    2013-10-01

    Studies on the mental health implications of social media have generated mixed results. Drawing on a survey of college students (N=513), this research uses structural equation modeling to assess the relationship between Facebook interaction and psychological distress and two underlying mechanisms: communication overload and self-esteem. It is the first study, to our knowledge, that examines how communication overload mediates the mental health implications of social media. Frequent Facebook interaction is associated with greater distress directly and indirectly via a two-step pathway that increases communication overload and reduces self-esteem. The research sheds light on new directions for understanding psychological well-being in an increasingly mediated social world as users share, like, and comment more and more.

  8. Listening as a method of addressing psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alun Charles; Cutcliffe, John R

    2009-04-01

    This paper discusses the values of therapeutic listening and ways that emotional difficulties can impact palliative nurses' abilities to provide psychological care. Recent literature indicates that providing psychological care can burden some healthcare professionals including nurses; who may lack the necessary competencies or organizational resources to carry out their roles. References drawn from the databases: all EBM reviews, British Nursing INDEX, CINAHL, PSYCH INFO and MEDLINE and EMBASE are discussed. Psychological care is considered critical to providing holistic care. Yet the literature suggests engaging in such work makes emotional demands on the professionals attempting to carry it out and is associated with psychological difficulties including burnout. Clinical supervision can help reduce the distress caused by emotionally charged situations. Thoughtful clinical supervision can also contribute to safe and effective health care. Nursing would benefit from understanding more about the effects on healthcare professionals of repeated exposure to emotionally charged situations and benefits that clinical supervision can offer to health care.

  9. Psychological distress in health sciences college students and its relationship with academic engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Liébana-Presa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychological distress and its relationship with academic engagement (absorption, dedication and vigor, sex and degree among students from four public universities. Method: A non-experimental,comparative correlational, quantitative investigation without intervention. Study population: 1840 nursing and physical therapy students. The data collection tool used was a questionnaire. Results: A 32.2% prevalence of psychological distress was found in the subjects; a correlation between vigor and psychological distress was found for all of the subjects and also for women. High absorption and dedication scores and low psychological distress scores predicted higher vigor scores. Conclusion: The risk of psychological distress is high, especially for women. Women seem to have a higher level of psychological distress than men. Vigor, energy and mental resilience positively influence psychological distress and can be a vehicle for better results during the learning and studying process.

  10. Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer: a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231

  11. Experiences of Psychological Distress and Sources of Stress and Support During Medical Training: a Survey of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Katherine M; Barrett, Tessa; Landine, Jeff; McLuckie, Alan; Soh, Nerissa Li-Weh; Walter, Garry

    2016-02-01

    The authors examine the prevalence of psychological distress, the stressors experienced, and the supports used by medical students and residents during their medical training at a Canadian university. This study used an online survey that included a standardized instrument to evaluate psychological distress (Kessler-10) and Likert-based survey items that examined stress levels related to family relationships, living accommodations, commuting, finances, and program requirements. Depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation were also measured, as were supports accessed (e.g., counseling) and students' perceptions of the overall supportiveness of the university. Non-parametric descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of psychological distress, sources of stress, and supports accessed. Surveys were received from 381 students (37% response). Most students (60%) reported normal levels of psychological distress on the K10 (M = 19.5, SD = 6.25), and a subgroup reported high to very high levels of psychological distress. A small number also reported substance use, symptoms of depression, and/or suicidal ideation. These results indicate that students experience psychological distress from a number of stressors and suggest that medical schools should act as key partners in supporting student well-being by promoting self-care, educating students on the risks of burnout, and developing programs to support at-risk students.

  12. Cumulative exposure to childhood stressors and subsequent psychological distress. An analysis of US panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Burström, Bo; Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Pebley, Anne R

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that childhood stress increases the risk of poor mental health later in life. We examined the effect of childhood stressors on psychological distress and self-reported depression in young adulthood. Data were obtained from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the national Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a survey of US families that incorporates data from parents and their children. In 2005 and 2007, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was supplemented with two waves of Transition into Adulthood (TA) data drawn from a national sample of young adults, 18-23 years old. This study included data from participants in the CDS and the TA (n = 2128), children aged 4-13 at baseline. Data on current psychological distress was used as an outcome variable in logistic regressions, calculated as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Latent Class Analyses were used to identify clusters based on the different childhood stressors. Associations were observed between cumulative exposure to childhood stressors and both psychological distress and self-reported depression. Individuals being exposed to three or more stressors had the highest risk (crude OR for psychological distress: 2.49 (95% CI: 1.16-5.33), crude OR for self-reported depression: 2.07 (95% CI: 1.15-3.71). However, a large part was explained by adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative exposure to childhood stress on psychological distress. The important role of adolescent depression in this association also needs to be taken into consideration in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among diabetes mellitus adults in the Jilin province in China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Psychological disorders are common in diabetes mellitus (DM patients, and the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress and to determine the influence factors associated with psychological distress among DM patients in the Jilin province of China. Methods and Materials Multistage, stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 was used to assess psychological status with the total score of ≥4 as the threshold for psychological distress. Results A total of 1,956 subjects with DM were included in the study. Out of this total diabetic participants, 524 (26.8% had psychological distress. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that low educational level, divorce or separation from one’s spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, being aware of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are positively associated with psychological distress (all P < 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed a high rate of psychological distress among DM population in Jilin province. Low educational level, divorce or separation from one’s spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, awareness of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are all associated with psychological distress among our study subjects. Interventions to control these factors are needed to address the psychological problems among diabetics in Jilin Province.

  14. Family therapy and clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The results of a survey of 111 clinical psychologists in the Republic of Ireland along with some comparable data from US and UK surveys were used to address a series of questions about the link between family therapy and clinical psychology. Family therapy was not a clearly identifiable sub-specialty within clinical psychology in Ireland. Family therapy theoretical models were used by more than a quarter of the Irish sample to conceptualize their work but by less than a tenth of US and UK res...

  15. Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components with Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome (MetS and psychological distress are hypothesized to have a bidirectional relationship. According to their high prevalence in most populations, appraisal of this theory would be of great clinical and research interest. Methods. Data were available as part of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP. A total of 9553 men and women aged ≥19 years from three counties in central Iran were selected. Measurements consisted of serologic tests, anthropometrics, and self-reported 12-item general health questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to find the association between MetS, MetS components, and distress level. Results. The mean age of 9553 participants (50% male was 38.7 ± 15.8 years. After adjusting for demographic factors, MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.37, central obesity (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15–1.49, and hypertension (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.42–1.70 were associated with high distress level. However, after adding smoking status and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to the adjustment factors, hypertension (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.53–1.98 and central obesity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.17–1.55, but not the MetS, remained significantly associated with distress level. Conclusion. The presence of association between the MetS as well as its key components and high distress level signifies the importance of integrating psychological assessment and intervention in the standard management of MetS patients.

  16. Infertility and psychological distress: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greil, A L

    1997-12-01

    This essay reviews the literature on the social psychological impact of infertility, paying special attention to the relationship between gender and the infertility experience. It is convenient to divide the literature into articles which explore the possibility that infertility may have psychological causes (Psychogenic Hypothesis) and those which examine the psychological consequences of infertility (Psychological Consequences Hypothesis). The psychogenic hypothesis is now rejected by most researchers, but a related hypothesis, which states that stress may be a causal factor in infertility, is worthy of exploration. The descriptive literature on the psychological consequences of infertility presents infertility as a devastating experience, especially for women. Attempts to test the psychological consequences hypothesis have produced more equivocal results. In general, studies which look for psychopathology have not found significant differences between the infertile and others. Studies which employ measures of stress and self-esteem have found significant differences. The psychological consequences literature is characterized by a number of flaws, including over sampling of women, small sample size, non-representative samples, failure to study those who have not sought treatment, primitive statistical techniques, and an over-reliance on self-reports. Studies on infertility and psychological distress need to take into consideration both the duration of infertility and the duration of treatment. Finding an appropriate set of "controls" is a particularly intractable problem for this area of research. In general, the psychological distress literature shows little regard for the social construction of infertility. By taking what should be understood as a characteristic of a social situation and transforming it into an individual trait, the literature presents what is essentially a medical model of the psycho-social impact of infertility. Most researchers conclude that

  17. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  18. Differences in Psychological Distress and Esteem Based on Sexual Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepler, Dustin; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 791 college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years were administered a series of measures to determine their sexual identity development status, global self-esteem, global psychological distress, sexual-esteem and sexual distress. As hypothesized, results indicated no significant difference in terms of psychological distress,…

  19. Lifestyle and Mental Health Correlates of Psychological Distress in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hackman, Christine L.; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: College students are at an increased risk of mental distress. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mental and lifestyle factors differed according to self-reported levels of psychological distress. Design and setting: A self-report questionnaire comprising the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale, Revised Life…

  20. The effects of a multi-component dyadic intervention on the psychological distress of family caregivers providing care to people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prick, Anna-Eva; de Lange, Jacomine; Twisk, Jos; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2015-12-01

    Earlier research showed that multi-component dyadic interventions - including a combination of intervention strategies and addressing both the person with dementia and caregiver - have a beneficial impact on the mental and physical health of people with dementia and their family caregivers. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a multi-component dyadic intervention, which is a translated and adapted version of an intervention that has been shown to be effective in the US by Teri et al. (2003), was performed. The effects on caregivers' mood (primary outcome), burden, general health, and salivary cortisol levels (secondary outcomes) were studied. Community-dwelling people with dementia and their family caregivers (N = 111 dyads) were randomly assigned. The experimental group received eight home visits during three months, combining physical exercise and support (psycho-education, communication skills training, and planning of pleasant activities). Both the physical exercise and support component were directed at both the person with dementia and the caregiver. The comparison group received monthly information bulletins and phone calls. There were three measurements at baseline (prior to the intervention), at three months, and at six months into the intervention. Data were analyzed with Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) based on an intention-to-treat analysis of all available data. All analyses showed no benefits of the intervention over time on any of the outcomes. The negative results might be explained by the translation and adaptation of the intervention that has been shown to be effective in the US: the intervention was shortened and did not include cognitive reframing. However, only the health effects on people with dementia and not on caregivers were studied in the US. Several other factors might also have played a role, which are important for future studies to take into account. These are: the usual health care in the country or region of implementation

  1. Financial Distress with Family Farm Transfer in Six European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van K.H.M.; Veen, van der H.B.; Venema, G.S.

    2004-01-01

    Many potential young farmers face the difficult choice between farming or a city career. An important criterion in this decision is the financial distress that goes with farming. Using data for the 1990s, the present study compared the financial distress after take-over of family farms by the next

  2. Structural neighbourhood conditions, social cohesion and psychological distress in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Özcan; Prins, Richard G; Voorham, Toon A J J; van Lenthe, Frank J; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Neighbourhood inequalities in psychological distress are well reported, but underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The main purposes of this study were to investigate associations between structural neighbourhood conditions and psychological distress, and to explore the potential mediating role of neighbourhood social cohesion. Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged ≥ 16 years (response 49%) from the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Structural environmental factors under study were neighbourhood socio-economic status (SES), neighbourhood green, urbanity and home maintenance. Neighbourhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighbourhood level by using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations of neighbourhoods characteristics with psychological distress, adjusted for individual level characteristics. High neighbourhood SES and neighbourhood social cohesion were associated with decreased psychological distress. Adjusted for individual level characteristics and neighbourhood SES, only neighbourhood social cohesion remained significantly associated with psychological distress. Neighbourhood social cohesion accounted for 38% of the differences in the association between neighbourhood SES and psychological distress. High neighbourhood social cohesion is significantly associated with decreased psychological distress among residents of the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Reducing neighbourhood inequalities in psychological distress may require increasing social interactions among neighbourhood residents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. The dyadic effects of coping and resilience on psychological distress for cancer survivor couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Won; Shon, En-Jung; Paek, Minso; Daly, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the actor and partner effects of coping and resilience characteristics on psychological distress in cancer survivors and their spouses and to examine the mediating role of resilience characteristics in the relationship between coping and psychological distress. A total of 91 breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivor-spouse dyads were recruited from the University Hospital Registry in Cleveland, Ohio. Standardized questionnaires that assessed psychological distress, reframing and acquiring social support coping, and resilience characteristics were used. The actor-partner interdependence mediation model demonstrated that the resilience of the survivors and spouses was a strong predictor of their personal psychological distress. Survivors' and spouses' own resilience mediated the association between their reframing coping and psychological distress. However, only the survivor model confirmed the mediating effect of resilience characteristics in the relationship between social support coping and psychological distress. In addition, spouse psychological distress was influenced by survivor resilience, indicating a spouse-partner effect in the relationship between resilience characteristics and psychological distress. Our findings provide insight into the relationships between coping, resilience characteristics, and psychological distress at the individual and dyadic levels. Enhancing cancer survivors' and their spouses' positive thoughts and available external resources can improve resilience and, in turn, reduce their psychological distress of couples coping with cancer.

  4. Health-promoting Lifestyles and Psychological Distress Associated with Well-being in Community Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu Ping; Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Wang, Chien Shu; Pan, Li Hsiang

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the associations among health-promoting behaviors, psychological distress, and well-being among community residents. Well-being measurement was examined through health-promoting behaviors and psychological distress. From March 1 to October 31, 2016, a total of 383 community residents were assessed in their health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), psychological distress (K10) and wellbeing (SWLS and PWB). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that interpersonal relations, physical activity, and psychological distress accounted for 21% of the variance in life satisfaction (SWLS). Interpersonal relations, nutrition, stress management, spiritual growth and psychological distress accounted for 53% of the variance in psychological well-being (PWB). Findings may assist mental health professionals in enhancing health-promoting behaviors and reduce the psychological distress of community residents to improve well-being.

  5. Using health psychology to help patients: common mental health disorders and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-22

    This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients. Consideration of a patient's psychological health is therefore important for all nurses providing holistic care. Awareness of the symptoms of psychological distress, good communication skills and simple screening instruments can be used by nurses to assess patients' mental health. The cognitive and behavioural risk factors associated with depression and anxiety are also explored, as an understanding of these can help nurses to provide appropriate care.

  6. Money or mental health: the cost of alleviating psychological distress with monetary compensation versus psychological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2010-10-01

    AbstractMoney is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world - improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth.

  7. Does education buffer the impact of disability on psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandemakers, Jornt J; Monden, Christiaan W S

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates whether education buffers the impact of physical disability on psychological distress. It further investigates what makes education helpful, by examining whether cognitive ability and occupational class can explain the buffering effect of education. Two waves of the 1958 British National Child Development Study are used to test the hypothesis that the onset of a physical disability in early adulthood (age 23 to 33) has a smaller effect on psychological distress among higher educated people. In total 423 respondents (4.6%) experienced the onset of a physical disability between the ages of 23 and 33. We find that a higher educational level cushions the psychology impact of disability. Cognitive ability and occupational class protect against the effect of a disability too. The education buffer arises in part because individuals with a higher level of education have more cognitive abilities, but the better social position of those with higher levels of education appears to be of greater importance. Implications of these findings for the social gradient in health are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mindful Walking in Psychologically Distressed Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this randomized, controlled study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mindful walking program in patients with high levels of perceived psychological distress. Methods. Participants aged between 18 and 65 years with moderate to high levels of perceived psychological distress were randomized to 8 sessions of mindful walking in 4 weeks (each 40 minutes walking, 10 minutes mindful walking, 10 minutes discussion or to no study intervention (waiting group. Primary outcome parameter was the difference to baseline on Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS after 4 weeks between intervention and control. Results. Seventy-four participants were randomized in the study; 36 (32 female, 52.3 ± 8.6 years were allocated to the intervention and 38 (35 female, 49.5 ± 8.8 years to the control group. Adjusted CPSS differences after 4 weeks were −8.8 [95% CI: −10.8; −6.8] (mean 24.2 [22.2; 26.2] in the intervention group and −1.0 [−2.9; 0.9] (mean 32.0 [30.1; 33.9] in the control group, resulting in a highly significant group difference (. Conclusion. Patients participating in a mindful walking program showed reduced psychological stress symptoms and improved quality of life compared to no study intervention. Further studies should include an active treatment group and a long-term follow-up.

  9. Mindful walking in psychologically distressed individuals: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teut, M; Roesner, E J; Ortiz, M; Reese, F; Binting, S; Roll, S; Fischer, H F; Michalsen, A; Willich, S N; Brinkhaus, B

    2013-01-01

    Background. The aim of this randomized, controlled study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mindful walking program in patients with high levels of perceived psychological distress. Methods. Participants aged between 18 and 65 years with moderate to high levels of perceived psychological distress were randomized to 8 sessions of mindful walking in 4 weeks (each 40 minutes walking, 10 minutes mindful walking, 10 minutes discussion) or to no study intervention (waiting group). Primary outcome parameter was the difference to baseline on Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) after 4 weeks between intervention and control. Results. Seventy-four participants were randomized in the study; 36 (32 female, 52.3 ± 8.6 years) were allocated to the intervention and 38 (35 female, 49.5 ± 8.8 years) to the control group. Adjusted CPSS differences after 4 weeks were -8.8 [95% CI: -10.8; -6.8] (mean 24.2 [22.2; 26.2]) in the intervention group and -1.0 [-2.9; 0.9] (mean 32.0 [30.1; 33.9]) in the control group, resulting in a highly significant group difference (P mindful walking program showed reduced psychological stress symptoms and improved quality of life compared to no study intervention. Further studies should include an active treatment group and a long-term follow-up.

  10. Evaluation of a screening programme for psychological distress in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasso, Gabriella; Di Leo, Silvia; Caruso, Anita; Decensi, Andrea; Beccaro, Monica; Berretta, Laura; Bongiorno, Laura; Cosimelli, Maurizio; Finelli, Stefania; Rondanina, Gabriella; Santoni, Wissya; Stigliano, Vittoria; Costantini, Massimo

    2010-12-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the feasibility of a screening procedure for psychological distress in cancer survivors. Consecutive series of 339 cancer patients from three centres were requested to fill in two questionnaires measuring psychological distress (PDI) and social support (MOSS). Psychological intervention was offered to patients with significant degree of distress. Most patients accepted to be screened (72.0%; n = 244), and a subgroup (16.0%) showed high psychological distress. A higher ratio of distressed patients was observed among those with lower social support (P = 0.017). A significant (P psychological distress and social support was observed. A psychological intervention was offered to patients with high psychological distress, but only 15.6% completed it. Results from this study provide both some insights into the characteristics of psychological distress and some input on issues that may arise when implementing a screening procedure for psychological distress in cancer survivors. Further research is needed to assess both the clinical significance of distress and the most appropriate tools to carry out screening procedures within the target population.

  11. Using health psychology to help patients: common mental health disorders and psychological distress

    OpenAIRE

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how health psychology can be used by nurses to help patients experiencing common mental health problems and psychological distress. Mental health problems are common and are associated with poor outcomes, especially for patients with comorbid physical health conditions. Mental health problems are associated with unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, overeating and excessive alcohol use, which will result in poorer outcomes for patients...

  12. Psychological distress and quality of life of palliative cancer patients and their caring relatives during home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Heide; Brähler, Elmar; Gansera, Lutz; Polze, Nina; Köhler, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    Palliative patients and their family caregivers were interviewed at the beginning of home care in personal interviews at home in regard to their psychological distress as well as their quality of life. Quality of life was collected with the palliative module EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (patients) and the Short Form-8 Health Survey (caregivers). The psychological distress was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the extent of social support with the Oslo 3-items social support scale. Two multiple regression models were employed to examine factors associated with psychological distress. Data from 106 palliative patients (39.6 % female) and their family caregivers (67.9 % female) were included in the analysis. Every fourth patient had clinically relevant anxiety levels and half of the palliative patients had clinically symptomatic depression scores. The main symptoms of the patients were: fatigue, loss of appetite, pain, and shortness of breath. Patients' and caregivers' anxiety and depression scores were significantly correlated (anxiety r = 0.386, depression r = 0.416). Thirty-three percent of caregivers suffered from high anxiety and 28 % from depression. Spousal caregivers had higher psychological distress than other caregivers. Other relevant factors for higher distress were high financial burden and low social support. There was hardly any family member receiving professional psychological support. In palliative patients, depressive symptoms should not be judged as a normal attendant of the terminal illness situation. Instead, patients should be referred to appropriate support services for pharmacological or psychological treatment. Spousal caregivers and caregivers who are socially not well integrated are in particular need of support. Attention to the financial burden of family caregivers is also very important. Due to the existing correlation between the psychological situation of palliative patients and their caring relatives, couples must

  13. Prevalence and related factors of psychological distress among cancer inpatients using routine Distress Thermometer and Chinese Health Questionnaire screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Yu-Jie; Chiu, Nien-Mu; Wang, Liang-Jen; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Wu, Ming-Kung; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wu, Yi-Shan; Lee, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines suggest routine screening for distress among cancer patients for immediate early psychiatric care. However, previous studies focusing on routine screening for psychological distress among cancer inpatients in Taiwan are scant. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and related factors of psychological distress and mental illness among cancer inpatients in Taiwan. This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review in a general hospital in southern Taiwan. Cancer inpatients were regularly screened by nursing staff using the Distress Thermometer and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire. Positive screening results on either instrument were followed by a non-commanded referral to psychiatrists for clinical psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Of the 810 participants in this study, 179 (22.1%) were recognized as having psychological distress. Younger age (odds ratio [OR] =1.82), having head and neck cancer (OR =2.43), and having not received chemotherapy (OR =1.58) were significantly related to psychological distress. Among the 56 patients (31.3%) with psychological distress who were referred to psychiatrists, the most common mental illness was adjustment disorder (n=22, 39.2%), followed by major depressive disorder (n=13, 23.2%), depressive disorder not otherwise specified (n=6, 10.7%), and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (n=4, 7.1%). Our study indicated that cancer inpatients with psychological distress were more likely to be younger in age, have head and neck cancer, and have not received chemotherapy. The most common psychiatric disorder was adjustment disorder. Early detection of psychological distress and prompt psychiatric consultation and management are very important for cancer inpatients.

  14. Prevalence of psychological distress: How do Australia and Canada compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Joanne C; Lin, Elizabeth; Shawyer, Frances; Russell, Grant; Inder, Brett; Patten, Scott; Meadows, Graham

    2017-05-01

    To compare equivalent population-level mental health indicators in Canada and Australia, and articulate recommendations to support equitable mental health services. These are two somewhat similar resource-rich countries characterized by extensive non-metropolitan and rural regions as well as significant areas of socioeconomic deprivation. A cross-national epidemiology and equity study: primary outcome was Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) in recent national surveys. A secondary outcome was mental disorders rate since these surveys were 5-years apart. Elevated distress, defined by K10 scores (0-40 range) of 12 and over, affected 11.1% Australians and 12.0% Canadians. Elevated distress in both countries affected more people in the lowest income quintile (21-27%) compared to the richest (6%). In the lowest income quintile, 1-in-4 Australians and 1-in-5 Canadians reported elevated distress - twice the national average in both countries. Australians in the lowest income quintile (over 5 million people) have a significantly higher risk by over a 5% for elevated distress compared to their low-income Canadian counterparts. After adjusting for effects of age and gender, the relative odds in the lowest quintile compared to richest was 6.4 for Australians and 3.5 for Canadians, which remained significantly different thus confirming greater inequity in Australia. Mental disorders affected approximately 1-in-10 people in both countries. This adds to the mental health prevalence monitoring in these two countries by supporting an overall prevalence of elevated distress in approximately 1-in-10 people. It supports large-scale public health interventions that target elevated distress in people with low incomes to order to achieve the biggest impact, and, to reduce the greater inequity in mental health indicators in Australians, policy-makers should consider eliminating gap-fees as they are illegal in Canada. As encouraged by World Health Organization, we highlight the

  15. Assessment of work intensification by managers and psychological distressed and non-distressed employees: a multilevel comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Larsen, Anelia; Vinding, Anker Lund; Nielsen, Peter; Fonager, Kirsten; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Ryom, Pia; Omland, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Work intensification is a popular management strategy to increase productivity, but at the possible expense of employee mental stress. This study examines associations between ratings of work intensification and psychological distress, and the level of agreement between compared employee-rated and manager-rated work intensification. Multi-source survey data were collected from 3,064 employees and 573 company managers from the private sector in 2010. Multilevel regression models were used to compare different work intensification ratings across psychological distress strata. Distressed employees rated higher degree of total work intensification compared to non-distressed employees, and on three out of five sub ratings there were an increased prevalence of work intensification in the case group. In general, there was poor agreement between employee and company work intensification rating. Neither manager-rated work intensification nor employee/manager discrepancy in work intensification ratings was associated with psychological distress. Distressed employees had a higher total score of employee/manager agreed work intensification, and a higher prevalence of increased demands of labour productivity. This study demonstrates higher ratings of employee/manager agreed work intensification in distressed employees compared to non-distressed employees, challenging previous findings of reporting bias in distressed employees' assessment of work environment.

  16. Parental divorce and adult psychological distress: evidence from a national birth cohort: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, B; Power, C; Hope, S

    1997-10-01

    An association was found between childhood parental divorce and adult psychological distress in a British national birth cohort at ages 23 and 33. No moderating effects were found for gender, age at separation, or remarriage of the custodial parent. Participants who were young adults when their parents divorced also showed increased levels of symptomatology, whereas those who experienced parental death in childhood showed no increased risk. An interaction between parental divorce and own divorce in women, giving particularly high symptom levels, arose from a selection process in those from divorced families of origin only, with high 23-year scores predicting subsequent divorce. Own divorce was associated with an increase in distress between age 23 and 33, but this was irrespective of family of origin.

  17. Persistence of psychological distress and correlated factors among patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikura, Kanako; Yamashita, Aya; Sugimoto, Taro; Kishimoto, Seiji; Matsushima, Eisuke

    2016-02-01

    Many patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) suffer from psychological distress associated with dysfunction and/or disfigurement. Our aim was to evaluate the ratio of patients with persistence of psychological distress during hospitalization and identify the predictors of persistence or change in psychological distress among HNC patients. We conducted a single-center longitudinal study with self-completed questionnaires. We evaluated psychological distress (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS) and functional level (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Scale; FACT-H&N) among patients during hospitalization at the Medical Hospital of Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Of 160 patients, 117 (73.1%) completed the questionnaire at both admission and discharge. Some 42 (52.5%) patients reported persistent psychological distress. The physical well-being of patients with continued distress was significantly lower than that of other patients (21.7 ± 4.7, 19.4 ± 6.1, 19.5 ± 5.4; p < 0.01), and the emotional well-being of patients with continued distress was significantly lower than that in patients with no distress and reduced distress (22.3 ± 3.5, 20.5 ± 2.5; p < 0.01). Significant of results: Impaired physical and emotional function appears to be associated with persistent psychological distress among HNC patients. Psychological interventions focused on relaxation, cognition, or behavior may be efficacious in preventing such persistent distress.

  18. Psychological Distress, Service Utilization, and Prescribed Medications among Youth with and without Histories of Involvement with Child Protective Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Hayley A.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Wekerle, Christine; Danielson, Anna Marie; Mann, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress, service utilization, and prescriptions for medications between adolescents with histories of family involvement with child protective services (CPS) and adolescents without such involvement. Data on 3,497 students were obtained from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario…

  19. Parent perspectives of clinical psychology access when experiencing distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Sam; Smith, Ian; Turl, Emma; Arnold, Emma; Msetfi, Rachel M

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 to 30% of parents experience mental health difficulties within their child's first year, but only a small proportion go on to access specialist services. This is despite growing evidence around the positive benefits of psychosocial interventions for both parents and children. Previous research highlights facilitators and barriers to generic healthcare services for mothers with postnatal depression. The current study adopted a qualitative methodology to explore parents' own perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to clinical psychology specifically. Seven women took part in the study, most of whom had no previous involvement with specialist mental health services. A thematic analysis of interview data suggested six key themes in relation to the research question: 'The importance of connecting', 'Pressing the danger button', 'I'm not mad', 'More round care', 'Psychological distress as barrier' and 'Making space, making sense'. These are presented alongside a consideration of the clinical implications for community-based practitioners, including clinical psychologists.

  20. Childhood sexual abuse characteristics, intimate partner violence exposure, and psychological distress among women in methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Malitta; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa

    2012-10-01

    Traumatic experiences and their biopsychosocial sequelae present complex challenges in substance use treatment. For women with substance use problems, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence exposure (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and overall psychological distress are often co-occurring concerns. To address gaps in knowledge and to strengthen practice regarding these critical issues in substance use treatment, we drew upon cross-sectional and longitudinal data from baseline and 12-month interviews with a random sample of 416 women in methadone treatment to examine relationships between CSA characteristics, particularly the presence of force and involvement of family, IPV, and mental health concerns. Although CSA involving force and family was not associated with IPV as hypothesized, it was associated with increased risk of PTSD and overall psychological distress. The multivariate findings underscore the psychological vulnerabilities associated with CSA involving force and family and suggest that drug use and financial circumstances may be important targets to reduce IPV risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A systematic review of help-seeking interventions for depression, anxiety and general psychological distress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Brewer, Jacqueline L

    2012-01-01

    .... Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-seeking attitudes, intentions or behaviours for depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress...

  2. Breast cancer, psychological distress and life events among young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoham-Vardi Ilana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 1983, studies have suggested an interaction between the severe life events, psychological distress and the etiology of Cancer. However, these associations are still under dispute. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between life events, psychological distress and Breast Cancer (BC among young women. Methods A case control study. The study population included 622 women, under the age of 45 years. 255 were diagnosed for BC, and 367 were healthy women. A validated Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI and Life Event Questionnaire were used. Results The cases presented significantly higher scores of depression compared to the controls and significant lower scores of happiness and optimism. A significant difference was found when comparing the groups according to the cumulative number of life events (two or more events. A multivariate analysis suggest that exposure to more than one life event is positively associated with BC [Odds Ratio(OR :1.62 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.09–2.40], and that a general feeling of happiness and optimism has a "protective effect" on the etiology of BC. (OR-0.75, 95% CI:0.64–0.86. Conclusion Young women who were exposed to a number of life events, should be considered as a risk group for BC and treated accordingly.

  3. Coping and psychological distress in young adults with advanced cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, K. M.; Maciejewski, P. K.; Fasciano, K.; Greer, J.; Partridge, A.; Kacel, E. L.; Block, S.; Prigerson, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how young adults (YAs) cope with cancer or the relationship between coping and psychological distress in YAs with advanced cancer. Structured clinical interviews with 53 YAs (20–40 years) with advanced cancer assessed coping methods, depression, anxiety, and grief. A principal components factor analysis identified underlying coping factors. Regression analyses examined the relationship between these coping factors and depression, anxiety, and grief. Six coping factors emerged and were labeled as: Proactive, Distancing, Negative Expression, Support-seeking, Respite-seeking, and Acceptance coping. Acceptance and Support-seeking coping styles were used most frequently. Coping by Negative Expression was positively associated with severity of grief after controlling for depression, anxiety, and confounding variables. Support-seeking coping was positively associated with anxiety after controlling for depression and grief. This study was limited by cross-sectional design, small sample size, and focus on YAs with advanced cancer. YAs with advanced cancer utilize a range of coping responses that are uniquely related to psychological distress. PMID:22285777

  4. Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality and psychological distress in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Fontanals, Alba; García-Blanco, Susanna; Portell, Mariona; Pujol, Jesús; Poca-Dias, Violant; García-Fructuoso, Ferran; López-Ruiz, Marina; Gutiérrez-Rosado, Teresa; Gomà-I-Freixanet, Montserrat; Deus, Joan

    2016-09-01

    Personality can play an important role in the clinical symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM). The aim of this study is to identify personality profiles in FM patients and the possible presence of personality disorder (PD) from the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), and to assess whether personality dimensions are related to psychological distress in FM. The sample consisted of 42 patients with FM and 38 healthy controls. The TCI-R, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Short-Form-36 Health Survey, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and McGill Pain Questionnaire were administered. The personality profile of the FM group based on the TCI-R is defined by high Harm Avoidance (HA), low Novelty Seeking (NS), and low Self-Directedness (SD). Only one-third of patients with FM present a possible psychometric PD, principally from Cluster C. In the FM group, HA and SD are associated positively and negatively, respectively, with indicators of emotional distress. Patients with higher HA present higher perceived pain intensity rated via a verbal-numerical scale while Determination (SD2) reduced the perceived level of pain induced by the stimulus. NS is negatively related to the number of work absences caused by FM. The study suggests that HA and SD play an important role in psychological distress in FM. The fact that SD is prone to modification and has a regulatory effect on emotional impulses is a key aspect to consider from the psychotherapeutic point of view. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Adolescent psychological distress, unemployment, and the Great Recession: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have shown a link between psychological distress in early life and subsequent higher unemployment, but none have used sibling models to account for the unobserved family background characteristics which may explain the relationship. This paper uses the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 data to examine whether adolescent psychological distress in 2000 predicts higher unemployment over 2000-11, whether this relationship changed in the period following the Great Recession, and whether it is robust to adjustment for family effects. 7125 cohort members (2986 siblings) self-reported their mental health in 2000 and employment activities over 2000-11. This association was examined using Probit and ordinary least squares regressions controlling for intelligence, physical health, other sociodemographic characteristics and family background. After adjustment for covariates and compared to those with low distress, highly distressed adolescents were 2.7 percentage points (32%) more likely to be unemployed, 5.1 points (26%) more likely to be unemployed or out of the labor force and experienced 11 weeks (28%) more unemployment. The impact of high distress was similar to a one standard deviation decrease in intelligence, and double the magnitude of having a serious physical health problem, and these estimates were robust to adjustment for family fixed-effects. The highly distressed were also disproportionately more likely to become unemployed or exit the labor force in the years following the Great Recession. These findings provide strong evidence of the unemployment penalty of early-life psychological distress and suggest that this relationship may be intensified during economic recessions. Investing in mental health in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationships between physical violence, verbal abuse and women’s psychological distress during the postpartum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROMITO, PATRIZIA; POMICINO, LAURA; LUCCHETTA, CHIARA; SCRIMIN, FEDERICA; TURAN, JANET MOLZAN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between violence in the post-partum period and mothers’ psychological distress. Method Three hundred and fifty two women responded to a questionnaire after the birth, at the Trieste Hospital (Italy), and 292 of them responded to a telephone interview 8 months later. Psychological distress was evaluated with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); partner and family violence were evaluated with a 28-item scale. Results Eight months post-partum, 10% of women were experiencing violence either from the partner or from another family member; 5% showed high psychological distress. Multivariate analyses show that, after adjustment for covariates, the OR for depressive symptoms was 19.17 for women experiencing partner or family violence. Being dissatisfied with their working situation, hospitalisation of the baby and pre-pregnancy mental health were also significantly associated with high GHQ scores Conclusion These results stress the relationship between violence in post-partum and maternal psychological distress. Measures aimed to identify and end violence against women around pregnancy could contribute to the improvement of women’s mental health post-partum. PMID:19533491

  7. Infancy and pediatric cancer: an exploratory study of parent psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, L; Eyles, D; Hulbert, C; Bretherton, L; McCarthy, M C

    2017-03-01

    Research on the psychological experiences of parents of infants within pediatric oncology is sparse. This study examined rates and indicative risk factors for psychological distress in parents where there is either an infant patient or infant sibling of a patient. Participants were mothers (n = 41) and fathers (n = 25) of infants under 2 years who either had a cancer diagnosis (n = 37; infant patients) or was an infant sibling of an older child with cancer (n = 29; infant siblings) recruited from a single oncology center. There were 21 couple dyads. Parents completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales short form and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. Mothers (47.5%) and fathers (37.5%) reported elevated, cancer-related posttraumatic stress symptoms. Rates of depression (12.2% of mothers and 12.0% of fathers) and anxiety symptoms (17.1% of mothers and 8.0% of fathers) were lower. Compared with parents of infant patients, parents of infant siblings reported significantly higher rates of depressive symptoms and trends toward higher rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms and anxiety symptoms. Parent anxiety was higher with increased time post diagnosis. No demographic or illness-related variables were associated with psychological distress, with the exception of the number of children in the family. Parent-child relationships are of fundamental importance during infancy. This study provides novel data highlighting the psychological impact for parents when a cancer diagnosis is made during this critical developmental period, including the contribution of family structure to parental distress. Results provide further support for applying a traumatic stress framework when exploring parent experiences of pediatric cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Coping orientation and psychological distress in healthcare professionals: The utility of appraising coping acceptability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morimoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Hironori; Tanaka, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    ...., engagement versus disengagement) and appraisal of coping acceptability ( ACA ) on psychological distress, taking into account the individuals' job specificity and the psychological climate in their work environment. A cross...

  9. Prevalence of psychological distress in elderly hypertension patients in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ringoir (Lianne); S.S. Pedersen (Susanne); J.W. Widdershoven (Jos); V.J.M. Pop (Victor)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Recent guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention advocate the importance of psychological risk factors, as they contribute to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, most previous research on psychological distress and cardiovascular factors has focused

  10. Prevalence of psychological distress in elderly hypertension patients in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringoir, E.J.M.; Pedersen, S.S.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention advocate the importance of psychological risk factors, as they contribute to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, most previous research on psychological distress and cardiovascular factors has focused on selected

  11. Prevalence of psychological distress in elderly hypertension patients in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringoir, L; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Widdershoven, J W M G

    2013-01-01

    Recent guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention advocate the importance of psychological risk factors, as they contribute to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, most previous research on psychological distress and cardiovascular factors has focused on selected populatio...

  12. Association of anxiety, depression, and psychological distress in people with and without functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Adibi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of FD is less in males than females, but psychological links were stronger in males. Thus, it is essential to consider and detect the psychological distress in these patients.

  13. A 12-YEAR TREND OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS: NATIONAL STUDY OF FINNISH UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Airi Oksanen; Katri Laimi; Katja Björklund; Eliisa Löyttyniemi; Kristina Kunttu

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore changes in the prevalence of psychological distress and co-occurring psychological symptoms among 19-34 years old Finnish university students between the years 2000 and 2012...

  14. Distributive justice, procedural justice, and psychological distress: the moderating effect of coworker support and work autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Vincent; Salek, Salwa; Aubé, Caroline; Morin, Estelle M

    2009-07-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the perception of injustice at work may increase psychological health-related problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of coworker support and work autonomy on the relationships between both distributive and procedural justice and psychological distress. Results, on the basis of responses to questionnaires given to 248 prison employees, show that coworker support moderates the relationships between both forms of justice and psychological distress. Specifically, these relationships are weakened when employees benefit from a high level of coworker support. Furthermore, work autonomy moderates the relationship between procedural justice and psychological distress but not the relationship between distributive justice and psychological distress. Thus, procedural injustice is less likely to increase psychological distress when the level of work autonomy is high. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Comparing social group identifications and socioeconomic deprivation as predictors of psychological distress: Evidence from a Scottish primary care sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cientanni, Fabia; Power, Kevin; Sani, Fabio; Wright, Christopher; Baty, Frances; Hustings, Kerry; Morgan, David; Tanner, Gary

    2017-12-01

    Social group identification and socioeconomic deprivation have both been linked to self-reported depressive symptoms in general population samples; however, no study to date has explored the strength of the joint predictive value of these factors within a mental health population. The current study explored the impact of social group identifications and socioeconomic deprivation, together with important clinical and demographic variables, on psychological distress in a Scottish mental health sample. Participants (N = 976) were recruited from referrals to a computerized cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT) programme in Scotland, 'Beating the Blues' (BtB) over a 25-month period. Participants completed the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) as a measure of psychological distress and three versions of the group identifications scale (GIS), one for each of three groups: family, community, and a social group of choice. Demographic information and clinical information were collected on commencing BtB. Higher numbers of group identifications were significantly associated with lower psychological distress. Additionally, increased socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with more severe psychological distress; however, interestingly, the association was not as strong as that of group identifications. Identifying with fewer social groups predicts more severe psychological symptom presentations, even more so than living in a greater state of socioeconomic deprivation. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Resources, stressors and psychological distress among older adults in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Scant information exists on the complex interaction between resources and stressors and their subsequent influence on the psychological distress of older adults in India. Within the framework of resource theory, the present study examined the various pathways through which resources and stressors influence psychological distress by testing four models - the independence model, the stress-suppression model, the counteractive model and the resource-deterioration model. The independence model posits that resources and stressors have a direct relationship with psychological distress. The stress-suppression model hypothesizes that stressors mediate the influence of resources on psychological distress. The counteractive model postulates that stressors mobilize resources, which in turn influence psychological distress. The resource-deterioration model states that stressors deplete resources and subsequently exacerbate distress. In the present study, resources include social support, religiosity and mastery; stressors include life events, abuse and health problems. Psychological distress was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale and Geriatric Depression Scale. Interviews were conducted among 400 adults aged 65 years and above, randomly selected from the electoral list of urban Chennai, India. The battery of instruments was translated into Tamil (local language) by back-translation. Structural Equation Modeling was conducted to test the three models. The results supported the stress-suppressor model. Resources had an indirect, negative relationship with psychological distress, and stressors had a direct, positive effect on distress. As such there is a need to identify and strengthen the resources available to older adults in India.

  17. HIV-related stigma and psychological distress: the harmful effects of specific stigma manifestations in various social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Pryor, John B; Bos, Arjan E R; Hoogendijk, Robert; Muris, Peter; Schaalma, Herman P

    2009-11-13

    Recent research has shown that experiences of stigmatization have an adverse impact on the psychological well being of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Most studies investigating this relationship employ an aggregate measure of stigma. Although this approach provides useful information about the psychological implications of HIV-related stigma in general, it neglects to acknowledge the possibility that some manifestations in specific settings may be psychologically more detrimental than others. The present study examines which specific stigma experiences are most strongly related to psychological distress across a number of social settings. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 667 PLWHA in the Netherlands. We examined participants' experiences of 11 manifestations of HIV-related stigma in six social settings. Linear regression analyses were conducted to determine which setting-specific manifestations best predict psychological distress after controlling for marital status, education and health status. Three manifestations in family settings, namely receiving advice to conceal one's status, being avoided and being treated with exaggerated kindness, and one manifestation in healthcare settings, namely awkward social interaction, best predicted psychological distress in PLWHA. Manifestations of HIV-related stigma vary according to setting. Certain manifestations in specific social settings impact the psychological well being of PLWHA more than others. In this study, certain experiences of stigmatization with PLWHA's families and in healthcare settings were more strongly related to psychological distress than experiences occurring in other social settings. These findings suggest that stigma reduction interventions focusing on these influential settings may benefit the psychological well being of PLWHA.

  18. Long-term psychological distress in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer adhering to regular surveillance: a risk profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Timman, Reinier; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad

    2013-03-01

    Some women at risk for hereditary breast cancer are at increased risk of psychological distress. In order to tailor support for individual women, the availability of a tool enabling the identification of psychologically vulnerable women at an early stage is warranted. The objectives of this study were (1) to explore long-term psychological distress in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer adhering to regular surveillance, and (2) to identify women being vulnerable for long-term psychological distress, defined in terms of a multifactorial risk profile. General distress and cancer-related distress were assessed at baseline (T0) and after 5-8 years (T1) in 197 high-risk women adhering to breast cancer surveillance. Coping styles, occurrence of breast cancer in the family of origin, breast cancer risk perception, and frequency of breast self-examination, as assessed at T0, were examined as predictor variables for long-term distress (T1). Across time, women reported a significant reduction in intrusion and avoidance. Intrusion levels were increased among women who had lost a first-degree relative to breast cancer. Predictors of increased long-term distress were passive and palliative coping styles, excessive breast self-examination, and overestimation of breast cancer risk. On the other hand, coping through fostering reassuring thoughts was predictive for decreased long-term distress. On the basis of the identified risk profile, it is possible to identify vulnerable women at an early stage, who then may be offered additional and individually tailored support. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Psychological health of military children: Longitudinal evaluation of a family-centered prevention program to enhance family resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; MacDermid, Shelley W.; Milburn, Norweeta; Mogil, Catherine; Beardslee, William

    2014-01-01

    Family-centered preventive interventions have been proposed as relevant to mitigating psychological health risk and promoting resilience in military families facing wartime deployment and reintegration. This study evaluates the impact of a family-centered prevention program, Families OverComing Under Stress Family Resilience Training (FOCUS), on the psychological adjustment of military children. Two primary goals include: 1) Understanding the relationships of distress among family members using a longitudinal path model to assess relations at the child and family level, and 2) Determining pathways of program impact on child adjustment. Multilevel data analysis using structural equation modeling was conducted with de-identified service delivery data from 280 families (505 children ages 3-17) in two follow-up assessments. Standardized measures included Service Member and Civilian parental distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, PTSD Checklist – Military), child adjustment (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device). Distress was significantly related among the service member parent, civilian parent and children. FOCUS improved family functioning, which in turn significantly reduced child distress at follow-up. Salient components of improved family functioning in reducing child distress mirrored resilience processes targeted by FOCUS. These findings underscore the public health potential of family-centered prevention for military families, and suggest areas for future research. PMID:23929043

  20. Psychological health of military children: longitudinal evaluation of a family-centered prevention program to enhance family resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; MacDermid, Shelley W; Milburn, Norweeta; Mogil, Catherine; Beardslee, William

    2013-08-01

    Family-centered preventive interventions have been proposed as relevant to mitigating psychological health risk and promoting resilience in military families facing wartime deployment and reintegration. This study evaluates the impact of a family-centered prevention program, Families OverComing Under Stress Family Resilience Training (FOCUS), on the psychological adjustment of military children. Two primary goals include (1) understanding the relationships of distress among family members using a longitudinal path model to assess relations at the child and family level and (2) determining pathways of program impact on child adjustment. Multilevel data analysis using structural equation modeling was conducted with deidentified service delivery data from 280 families (505 children aged 3-17) in two follow-up assessments. Standardized measures included service member and civilian parental distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, PTSD Checklist-Military), child adjustment (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device). Distress was significantly related among the service member parent, civilian parent, and children. FOCUS improved family functioning, which in turn significantly reduced child distress at follow-up. Salient components of improved family functioning in reducing child distress mirrored resilience processes targeted by FOCUS. These findings underscore the public health potential of family-centered prevention for military families and suggest areas for future research. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Rumination, Sexual Orientation Uncertainty, and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Borders, Ashley; Guillén, Luis A; Meyer, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between uncertainty about sexual orientation, rumination, and psychological distress in university students. We hypothesized that increased rumination would mediate associations between higher sexual orientation uncertainty and greater psychological distress. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these associations might differ for self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) versus heterosexual emerging adults. A sample of 207 university students completed qu...

  2. Emotional Intelligence, Social Coping, and Psychological Distress among Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among emotional intelligence, social coping, and psychological distress were investigated in a sample of 624 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. A mediation-effect model specifying that emotional intelligence had an effect on psychological distress mediated by social coping was hypothesized and tested using structural equation…

  3. Current Parental Attachment: Its Relation to Perceived Psychological Distress and Relationship Satisfaction in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Evan; Lyddon, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Examined relationship of current parental attachment to symptoms of psychological distress and satisfaction in romantic relationships among 157 undergraduate students. Current parental attachment was found to be significantly associated with psychological distress. No such association was found between parental attachment and relationship…

  4. Adjustment Problems, Self-Efficacy, and Psychological Distress among Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The relationships among adjustment problems, self-efficacy, and psychological distress were investigated in a sample of 207 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. A mediation-effect model specifying that adjustment problems had an effect on psychological distress mediated by self-efficacy was hypothesized and tested using structural equation…

  5. Romantic Relationships, Relationship Styles, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Distress among Chinese and Australian Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies…

  6. Comment on ‘Psychological distress in patients with cancer: is screening the effective solution?'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Boenink; O Visser; P.C. Huijgens; J Dekker; A.T.F. Beekman; E.H. Collette; H Bomhof-Roordink; prof Berno van Meijel; A.M. Braamse; F.J. Snoek; M.H.M. van der Linden; H.M. Verheul

    2013-01-01

    Screening for psychological distress in patients with cancer is currently being debated in the British Journal of Cancer. Screening has been recommended, as elevated levels of distress have been consistently observed and clinicians tend to overlook the need of psychological support (Carlson et al,

  7. Predictors of Psychological Distress and Well-Being in a Sample of Australian Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Miles; Pittolo, Chris; Kirby, Dianne; Dluzewska, Teresa; Marlin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found university students report higher levels of psychological distress compared to the general population. Our aim was to investigate the degree to which personality and contextual factors predict psychological distress and well-being in students over the course of a semester. We also examined whether resilience-building…

  8. A Latent Class Regression Analysis of Men's Conformity to Masculine Norms and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Owen, Jesse; Shea, Munyi

    2012-01-01

    How are specific dimensions of masculinity related to psychological distress in specific groups of men? To address this question, the authors used latent class regression to assess the optimal number of latent classes that explained differential relationships between conformity to masculine norms and psychological distress in a racially diverse…

  9. A longitudinal study of stress and psychological distress in nurses and nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger; Gardiner, Eric; Hogston, Richard; Gibson, Helen; Stimpson, Anne; Wrate, Robert; Deary, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how differences in life events and stress contribute to psychological distress in nurses and nursing students. Stress is an issue for nursing students and qualified nurses leading to psychological distress and attrition. A longitudinal study using four time waves was conducted between 1994-1997. Measures were taken of stress, life events and psychological distress in addition to a range of demographic data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, linear modelling and mixed-effects modelling. The study was set in Scotland, UK and used newly qualified nurses and nursing students from four university departments of nursing over four years. The study was initiated with 359 participants (147 nurses and 212 nursing students) and complete data were obtained for 192 participants. Stress levels, psychological distress and life events are all associated within time and across time. At baseline, life events and stress contributed significantly to psychological distress. The pattern of psychological distress differed between the nursing students and the newly qualified nurses with a high level in the nurses after qualifying and starting their career. Stress, individual traits, adverse life events and psychological distress are all interrelated. Future lines of enquiry should focus on the transition between being a nursing student and becoming a nurse. Stress and psychological distress may have negative outcomes for the retention of nursing students in programmes of study and newly qualified nurses in the nursing workforce.

  10. Telephone Crisis Support Workers' Psychological Distress and Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2018-01-01

    In order to respond to crises with appropriate intervention, crisis workers are required to manage their own needs as well as the needs of those they respond to. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine whether telephone crisis support workers experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress and are impaired by elevated symptoms. Studies were identified in April 2015 by searching three databases, conducting a gray literature search, and forward and backward citation chaining. Of 113 identified studies, seven were included in the review. Results suggest that that telephone crisis support workers experience symptoms of vicarious traumatization, stress, burnout, and psychiatric disorders, and that they may not respond optimally to callers when experiencing elevated symptoms of distress. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the paucity and methodological limitations of available data. While the most comprehensive search strategy possible was adopted, resource constraints meant that conference abstracts were not searched and authors were not contacted for additional unpublished information. There is an urgent need to identify the impact of telephone crisis support workers' role on their well-being, the determinants of worker well-being in the telephone crisis support context, and the extent to which well-being impacts their performance and caller outcomes. This will help inform strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and their delivery of support to callers.

  11. The assessment and management of family distress during palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaider, Talia; Kissane, David

    2009-03-01

    In the advanced stages of illness, families manage multiple caregiving demands while facing the emotional task of preparing for the loss of their loved one. Palliative care settings are well suited to identifying families at risk for elevated distress, and providing support as they navigate this process. This review summarizes current research in the assessment and management of family distress at the end of life. The recent literature on families of terminally ill cancer patients has provided a more precise description of the relational and cultural factors that contribute to family distress. Studies eliciting the perspectives of family members on what is needed at the end of life affirm the importance of supportive communication and continuity of psychosocial care into bereavement. Other developments include efforts to establish guidelines for conducting family meetings in the palliative care setting, and to train palliative care practitioners in family-centered assessment techniques. Finally, there is a limited but growing evidence base for the utility of delivering family-focused psychosocial interventions during palliative care. The knowledge gained from current research on what is most salient to family members during palliative care is critical for ensuring effective delivery of supportive services and collaborative engagement in those services.

  12. Psychological Distress and Coping amongst Higher Education Students: A Mixed Method Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students. Methods This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire) and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire) of a total sample (n = 1557) of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59) provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping. Results A significant percentage (41.9%) of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between “escape-avoidance” and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity. Conclusion The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and

  13. Psychological distress and coping amongst higher education students: a mixed method enquiry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Deasy

    Full Text Available Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students.This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire, coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire of a total sample (n = 1557 of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59 provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping.A significant percentage (41.9% of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between "escape-avoidance" and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity.The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students. It also

  14. Psychological distress and coping amongst higher education students: a mixed method enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students. This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire) and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire) of a total sample (n = 1557) of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59) provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping. A significant percentage (41.9%) of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between "escape-avoidance" and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity. The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students. It also

  15. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; McMillan, Susan C

    2016-11-02

    Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping), and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning), behavioral (pain-related distress), and demographic characteristics. Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  16. Acculturative Stress, Psychological Distress, and Religious Coping Among Latina Young Adult Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Nicole; Dillon, Frank R; Rose Verdejo, Toni; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-02-01

    Religion is a source of strength in Latina/o culture during challenging life transitions, such as the immigration process. Guided by a sociological stress-process model, this study examines relations between dimensions of religious coping, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among 530 young Latina women (ages 18-23 years) who recently immigrated to the United States (i.e., approximately 12 months prior to assessment). Higher levels of acculturative stress were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Negative religious coping (i.e., the tendency to struggle with faith) moderated the relation between acculturative stress and psychological distress. Participants experiencing higher levels of acculturative stress reported greater psychological distress when they indicated more negative religious coping. Positive religious coping (i.e., the tendency to relate to faith with comfort and certainty) was not linked with acculturative stress or psychological distress. Implications for culturally tailored counseling interventions for this underserved and understudied population are discussed.

  17. Poor sleep quality in Australian adults with comorbid psychological distress and physical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David; Paterson, Jessica L; Happell, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    A population-based questionnaire study of 1,818 Australian adults investigated associations of sleep quality with psychological distress and comorbid physical health disorders. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System assessed psychological distress and physical health. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index assessed sleep quality. Participants with physical illness or psychological distress had increased odds for reporting poor sleep quality, compared to those with no illness (odds ratios [ORs] = 2.22, for both; 95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 1.53-3.23 and 3.54-10.36, respectively), but those with comorbid illness had markedly higher odds for poor sleep quality (OR = 11.99, 95% CI = 7.90-18.20). Adults with comorbid psychological distress and physical health disorders are at substantially increased risk of poor sleep quality.

  18. Religion, Purpose in Life, Social Support, and Psychological Distress in Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G; Ma, Hui; Al Shohaib, Saad

    2016-06-01

    We examined the relationship between religious involvement and psychological distress and explored the mediating effects of social support and purpose in life in university students in western, mid-western, and eastern China. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1812 university students was conducted. The Purpose in Life scale, Duke Social Support Index, and Religious Commitment Inventory-10 were administered, along with Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test two models of the mediation hypothesis, examining direct, indirect, and total effects. Model 1 (with direction of effect hypothesized from religiosity to psychological distress) indicated that religious involvement had a direct effect on increasing psychological distress (β = 0.23, p purpose in life and social support (β = -.40, p purpose in life and social support that then lead to lower psychological distress.

  19. Effect of Changing Work Stressors and Coping Resources on Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Gu, Yiyang; Han, Rui; Jiang, Yu; Guan, Suzhen; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether or not changing work stressors and coping resources affect the risk of psychological distress. A baseline evaluation of work stressors and coping resources and mental health was assessed for 4362 petroleum industry workers after 12 years. Increased task and organizational stressors were associated with an elevated risk of psychological distress. Decreased task stressors, increased job control, and increased coping resources were associated with a reduced risk of psychological distress. Increased coping also had a buffering effect on increased work stressors and psychological distress. Gender-specific differences were observed in the factors influencing mental health. The findings indicated that reducing gender-specific task and organizational stressors, and promoting coping resources at work may help prevent the onset of psychological distress.

  20. Psychological distress among victimized women on probation and parole: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Seana; Engstrom, Malitta; Hall, Martin T; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K

    2015-07-01

    Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of victimized women (N = 406) on probation and parole differentiated by levels of general psychological distress. The 9 primary symptom dimensions from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were used individually as latent class indicators (Derogatis, 1993). Results identified 3 classes of women characterized by increasing levels of psychological distress; classes were further differentiated by posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, cumulative victimization, substance use and other domains of psychosocial functioning (i.e., sociodemographic characteristics; informal social support and formal service utilization; perceived life stress; and resource loss). The present research was effective in uncovering important heterogeneity in psychological distress using a highly reliable and easily accessible measure of general psychological distress. Differentiating levels of psychological distress and associated patterns of psychosocial risk can be used to develop intervention strategies targeting the needs of different subgroups of women. Implications for treatment and future research are presented. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among women on probation and parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Katherine M; Engstrom, Malitta; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K

    2015-03-01

    The present analysis was guided by a gendered pathways-based theoretical model and examined relationships between childhood victimization and current attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among 406 women with histories of victimization who were on probation and parole in an urban Kentucky county. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use. Additionally, we examined the mediational role that attachment plays in relationships between childhood victimization and both psychological distress and substance use. The data fit the models properly. Psychological distress was significantly predicted by childhood victimization, and adult attachment partially mediated this relationship. Childhood victimization did not significantly predict substance use; however, attachment did. The findings suggest that attachment may be an important factor to further understand and address in relation to psychological distress and substance use among women with histories of victimization who are involved in the criminal justice system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash: A systematic review of preventative interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Rebecca; Tran, Yvonne; Gopinath, Bamini; Cameron, Ian D; Craig, Ashley

    2016-11-01

    Psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash (MVC) is prevalent, especially when the person sustains an associated physical injury. Psychological distress can exhibit as elevated anxiety and depressive mood, as well as presenting as mental disorders such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). If unmanaged, psychological distress can contribute to, or exacerbate negative outcomes such as social disengagement (e.g., loss of employment) and poor health-related quality of life, as well as contribute to higher costs to insurers. This systematic review summarises current research concerning early psychological intervention strategies aimed at preventing elevated psychological distress occurring following a MVC. A systematic review of psychological preventative intervention studies was performed. Searches of Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were used to locate relevant studies published between 1985 and September 2015. Included studies were those investigating MVC survivors who had received an early psychological intervention aimed at preventing psychological distress, and which had employed pre- and post- measures of constructs such as depression, anxiety and disorders such as PTSD. Searches resulted in 2608 records. Only six studies investigated a psychological preventative intervention post-MVC. Interventions such as injury health education, physical activity and health promotion, and therapist-assisted problem solving did not result in significant treatment effects. Another six studies investigated psychological interventions given to MVC survivors who were assessed as sub-clinically psychologically distressed prior to their randomisation. Efficacy was varied, however three studies employing cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) found significant reductions in psychological distress compared to wait-list controls. Psychological interventions aimed at preventing psychological distress post

  3. To what degree do shoulder outcome instruments reflect patients' psychologic distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Hak; Noh, Jung Ho; Oh, Joo Han; Baek, Goo Hyun; Gong, Hyun Sik

    2012-12-01

    Psychologic distress contributes to symptom severity in patients with several musculoskeletal disorders. While numerous shoulder outcome instruments are used it is unclear whether and to what degree psychologic distress contributes to the scores. We asked (1) to what degree shoulder outcome instruments reflect patients' psychologic distress, and (2) whether patients who are strongly affected by psychologic distress can be identified. We prospectively evaluated 119 patients with chronic shoulder pain caused by degenerative or inflammatory disorders using the Constant-Murley scale, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. To evaluate psychologic distress, we measured depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale and pain anxiety using the Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale (PASS). Demographic and clinical parameters, such as pain scores, ROM, and abduction strength, also were measured. We then assessed the relative contributions made by psychologic distress and other clinical parameters to the quantitative ratings of the three shoulder outcome instruments. Quantitative ratings of shoulder outcome instruments correlated differently with psychologic distress. Constant-Murley scores did not correlate with psychologic measures, whereas SST scores correlated with PASS (r = 0.32) and DASH scores correlated with PASS and CES-D (r = 0.36 and r = 0.32). Psychologic distress contributed to worsening SST and DASH scores but not to Constant-Murley scores. DASH scores were more strongly influenced by pain anxiety and depression than the other two outcome instruments. Shoulder outcome measures reflected different psychologic aspects of illness behavior, and the contributions made by psychologic distress to different shoulder outcome instruments apparently differed. Physicians should select and interpret the findings of shoulder outcome instruments properly by considering their psychologic

  4. The impact of caring for an adult with intellectual disability and psychiatric comorbidity on carer stress and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, F; Shanahan, S; Fitzsimons, E; O'Malley, G; Mac Giollabhui, N; Bramham, J

    2016-06-01

    Given that carers of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and carers of individuals with psychiatric disorders experience elevated levels of stress and psychological distress, carers of individuals with both ID and a comorbid psychiatric disorder are potentially at even greater risk for psychological difficulties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychological well-being of carers of adults with a dual diagnosis compared with carers of adults with intellectual disability alone. Four-hundred and forty-two questionnaires were sent to four community services and seventy-five family carers of adults with intellectual disability responded. Psychological well-being of carers was assessed using the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress - Friedrich edition (QRS-F) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Comorbid psychopathology for their family member with ID was assessed using the Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behaviour (RSMB). Twenty-four percent of the individuals with ID were reported to have comorbid psychopathology. Between-group analyses compared carers of people with ID and comorbid psychopathology to carers of people with ID alone. Regression analyses examined the relationship between psychopathology and other care-related variables to carer stress and psychological distress. Carers of people with ID and comorbid psychopathology were found to have significantly higher levels of stress and psychological distress than carers of people with ID alone. Autism was found to be the only significant predictor of both stress and psychological distress among measures of psychopathology. Additional comorbid psychopathology in individuals with intellectual disability has a significant impact on their carers' psychological well-being. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Workplace gender composition and psychological distress: the importance of the psychosocial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwér, Sofia; Johansson, Klara; Hammarström, Anne

    2014-03-10

    Health consequences of the gender segregated labour market have previously been demonstrated in the light of gender composition of occupations and workplaces, with somewhat mixed results. Associations between the gender composition and health status have been suggested to be shaped by the psychosocial work environment. The present study aims to analyse how workplace gender composition is related to psychological distress and to explore the importance of the psychosocial work environment for psychological distress at workplaces with different gender compositions. The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort with a registered workplace in 2007 when the participants were 42 years old (N=795). Questionnaire data were supplemented with register data on the gender composition of the participants' workplaces divided into three groups: workplaces with more women, mixed workplaces, and workplaces with more men. Associations between psychological distress and gender composition were analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic position, previous psychological distress, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Logistic regression analyses (including interaction terms for gender composition and each work environment factor) were also used to assess differential associations between psychosocial work factor and psychological distress according to gender composition. Working at workplaces with a mixed gender composition was related to a higher likelihood of psychological distress compared to workplaces with more men, after adjustments for socioeconomic position, psychological distress at age 21, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Psychosocial work environment factors did not explain the association between gender composition and psychological distress. The association between gender composition and psychological distress cannot be explained by differences in the perception of the

  6. The role of personal characteristics in the relationship between health and psychological distress among kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, Torben; Niesing, Jan; Stewart, Roy E.; Westerhuis, Ralf; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2012-01-01

    Although kidney transplantation improves overall quality of life and physical functioning, improvements of psychological distress are often modest. However, apparent stressors such as comorbidity are only weakly associated with psychological distress and their impact differs considerably between

  7. Coping as a Multifaceted Construct: Associations With Psychological Outcomes Among Family Members of Mechanical Ventilation Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Nandita; Huff, Nidhi G; Cox, Christopher E; Ford, Dee W

    2016-09-01

    To develop and evaluate a preliminary multifaceted model for coping among family members of patients who survive mechanical ventilation. In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, we interviewed family members of mechanically ventilated patients at the time of transfer from the ICU to the hospital ward. We constructed a theoretic model of coping that included characteristics attributable to family members, family-clinician rapport, and patients. We then explored relationships between coping factors and symptoms of psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress). Fifty-six family members of survivors of mechanical ventilation. Psychological distress measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Posttraumatic Stress Scale. Optimism measured using the Life Orientation Test scale, resiliency by Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and social support using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System inventory. Family members had moderate levels of psychological distress with median total Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale equal to 14 (interquartile range, 5-20) and Posttraumatic Stress Scale equal to 22 (interquartile range, 15-31). Among family member characteristics, greater optimism (p = 0.001, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; p = 0.010, Posttraumatic Stress Scale), resilience (p = 0.012, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and social support (p = 0.013, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were protective against psychological distress. On the contrary, characteristics of family-clinician rapport such as communication quality and presence of conflict did not have any associations with psychological distress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore coping as a multifaceted construct and its relationship with family psychological outcomes among survivors of mechanical ventilation. We found certain family characteristics of coping such as optimism, resilience, and social support to be

  8. Preoperative psychological distress, coping and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Zengzeng; Wang, Weili

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of preoperative psychological distress and its relationship with coping style and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer. Being newly diagnosed with cancer can be a source of psychological distress. Understanding the preoperative psychological distress may contribute to the development of appropriate interventions. This is a descriptive correlational survey study. The study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Anhui province, China. A total of 165 patients with gastric cancer completed a battery of self-report questionnaires including the Distress Thermometer, the revised Chinese version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach 22 and the Cancer Coping Modes Questionnaire. The prevalence of clinically significant preoperative psychological distress was 76·97% in this group. Statistically significant correlations were identified between the distress score and stomach pain, eating restrictions and anxiety subscale. Positive associations were found between the distress scores and four subdimensions of coping (avoidance and suppression, resignation, fantasy and catharsis), whereas a negative association was found between the distress scores and one subdimension of coping (Confrontation). There were also significant differences in the quality of life and coping style of patients who had different psychological distress statuses. These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of preoperative psychological distress among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Patients with clinically psychological distress were more likely to have poor quality of life and to demonstrate negative coping styles. Nursing professionals need to carefully assess the psychological status of patients with gastric cancer. Tailored interventions can be administered to help these patients appropriately cope with the disease and to enhance their quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors in Brazil and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alice Vilas Boas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental health in work domain?”. This paper assesses psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors working in these two countries and test for their differences. The sample consists of 354 Brazilian professors and 317 Canadian professors. Data were collected through an on-line questionnaire assessing the following mental health indicators: anxiety, depression, loss of control, general positive affect and emotional ties. We compared the components of psychological distress and psychological well-being to analyse their relations. Additionally, we compared these components with work-life balance indicator. Reliability analyses demonstrated that all tested components are consistent to evaluate mental health. There are small mean differences between Brazilian and Canadian professors in all five components of mental health, but these differences are not statistically significant. Mean differences for work-life balance, gender, age, and bias of conformity are statistically different, although the size effects are small. Linear regression analysis, step by step, controlled for life events, showed that general positive affect, anxiety and emotional ties predict 31.5% of the scores of work-life balance. Additionally, we observed that Brazilian professors find more balance between professional and private life than do their Canadian colleagues. Promoting mental health is a challenge for public management sector, thus, public managers and governmental organizations can

  10. The Relationship of Body Image with Psychological Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Moradi Manesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.

  11. Palliative Care Providers' Practices Surrounding Psychological Distress Screening and Treatment: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Elissa; Eghan, Claude; Moran, Sheila; Herr, Keela; Reid, M Carrington

    2017-01-01

    To investigate how inpatient palliative care teams nationwide currently screen for and treat psychological distress. A web-based survey was sent to inpatient palliative care providers of all disciplines nationwide asking about their practice patterns regarding psychological assessment and treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and responses, and analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether certain disciplines were more likely to utilize specific treatment modalities. A total of N = 236 respondents were included in the final analyses. Providers reported that they encounter psychological distress regularly in their practice and that they screen for distress using multiple methods. When psychological distress is detected, providers reported referring patients to an average of 3 different providers (standard deviation = 1.46), most frequently a social worker (69.6%) or chaplain (65.3%) on the palliative care team. A total of 84.6% of physicians and 54.5% of nurse practitioners reported that they prescribe anxiolytics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to patients experiencing psychological distress. This study revealed significant variability and redundancy in how palliative care teams currently manage psychological distress. The lack of consistency potentially stems from the variability in the composition of palliative care teams across care settings and the lack of scientific evidence for best practices in psychological care in palliative care. Future research is needed to establish best practices in the screening and treatment of psychological distress for patients receiving palliative care.

  12. Psychological distress and personality factors in takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J

    2016-09-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This study examined whether patients with TTC have higher levels of psychological distress (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, general anxiety), illness-related anxiety and distinct personality factors compared with healthy controls and patients with heart failure. Patients with TCC (N = 18; mean age 68.3 ± 11.7 years, 77.8 % women) and two comparison groups (healthy controls: N = 19, age 60.0 ± 7.6, 68.4 % women and patients with chronic heart failure: N = 19, age 68.8 ± 10.1, 68.4 % women) completed standardised questionnaires to measure depression (PHQ‑9), perceived stress (PSS-10), general anxiety (GAD-7), illness-related anxiety (WI-7) and personality factors (NEO-FFI and DS-14). Psychological measures were obtained at 23 ± 18 months following the acute TTC event. Results showed that patients with TCC had higher levels of depressive symptoms (5.2 ± 5.2 vs. 2.5 ± 2.4, p = 0.039) and illness-related anxiety (2.1 ± 1.7 vs. 0.7 ± 1.3, p = 0.005) compared with healthy controls. Patients with TCC did not display significantly elevated perceived stress (p = 0.072) or general anxiety (p = 0.170). Regarding personality factors, levels of openness were lower in TCC compared with healthy controls (34.2 ± 4.3 vs. 38.2 ± 5.6, p = 0.021). No differences between TCC and heart failure patients were found regarding the psychological measures. TCC is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, more illness-related anxiety and less openness compared with healthy controls. These data suggest that TCC is associated with adverse psychological factors that may persist well after the acute episode.

  13. Towards a better understanding of caregiver distress in early psychosis: a systematic review of the psychological factors involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Gleeson, John; Cotton, Sue

    2015-02-01

    We sought to review empirical studies of psychological factors accounting for distress in caregivers of young people with early psychosis. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we included studies that empirically tested psychological models of caregiver distress in early psychosis by searching the following databases up until March 2014: PsycINFO, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). This was followed by additional manual searches of reference lists and relevant journals. The search identified 15 papers describing 13 studies together comprising 1056 caregivers of persons with early psychosis. The mean age of caregivers was 47.2years (SD=9.8), of whom 71.5% were female and 74.4% were parents. Nine different psychological variables were examined in the included studies, which were categorised in the following non-mutually exclusive groups: coping, appraisal/attribution and interpersonal response. There was considerable data to support the link between distress and psychological factors such as avoidant coping, appraisal and emotional over-involvement. However, the possibilities of drawing conclusions were limited by a number of methodological issues, including cross-sectional data, small sample sizes, confounding variables not being accounted for, and a wide variation in outcome measures. The strengths of the review were the systematic approach, the exclusion of non-empirical papers and the rating of methodological quality by two independent raters. Limitations were that we excluded studies published in languages other than English, that data extraction forms were developed for this study and hence not tested for validity, and that there was a potential publication bias in favour of significant findings. A better grasp of the psychological factors accounting for caregiver distress early in the course of illness may help us understand the trajectory of distress. This is an important step in preventing long-term distress in caregivers and

  14. The Impacts of Household Financial Stress, Resilience, Social Support, and Other Adversities on the Psychological Distress of Western Sydney Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of psychological distress among parents in Western Sydney households and examined its relationship with household financial, family and life stressors, and potential resilience factors. As part of a longer-term study, parents from Western Sydney, New South Wales (NSW, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI in May 2011 (N=439. Respondents were primary caregivers of at least one child (aged 4–16. Responses were weighted to reflect the Western Sydney population. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between parent experiences of stressor and resilience factors and reported psychological distress. Overall, 10.7% (95% CI: 7.8, 14.5 reported experiencing high/very high levels of psychological distress. Multivariate analysis indicated that financial hardship factors formed the strongest associations with psychological distress particularly housing and job security factors and, specifically, inability to meet mortgage/rent payments (OR=5.15, 95% CI: 1.74–15.25, p=0.003, poor self-rated health (OR=4.48, 95% CI: 1.88–10.64, p=0.001, adult job loss (OR=3.77, 95% CI: 1.33–10.66, p=0.013, and other family/life events (OR=2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.03, p=0.037. High personal resilience was common within this parent population and was a significant protective factor for high psychological distress (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.06–0.34, p<0.001. The findings support the development of targeted interventions to promote parent coping strategies in the context of household financial hardship.

  15. Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2011-08-01

    To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

  16. Childhood disadvantage, education, and psychological distress in adulthood: A three-wave population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed

    2018-03-15

    We assessed the mediating role of education in the association between childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood using longitudinal data collected in three waves, from 1994 to 2008, in the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a cohort that is representative of men and women from Tromsø. Education was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and psychological distress in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. Ordinary least square regression analysis was used to assess the associations between childhood disadvantage, education, and psychological distress in adulthood. The indirect effects and the proportion (%) of indirect effects of childhood disadvantage (via education) on psychological distress in adulthood were assessed by mediation analysis. Childhood disadvantage was associated with lower education and higher psychological distress in adulthood (p childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood was mediated by education. Childhood disadvantages were measured retrospectively. The association between childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood is primarily independent of education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Musculoskeletal disorders, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan

    2017-01-01

    Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.

  18. The relationship between reproductive work and sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in regard to psychological distress in men and women in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal; Montero-Piñar, María Isabel; Escribá-Agüir, Vicenta

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that some sociodemographic factors, such as marital status, employment status or social class, can affect mental health in different ways for each gender. However, up until now, few research projects have tried to ascertain if the role that reproductive work or psychosocial factors play in mental health is different for men and women. The aim of this study is to assess the differences between men and women in terms of how reproductive work, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors are linked to psychological distress in Spain. A cross-sectional study of 29,478 male and female adults using data gathered for the Spanish National Health Survey 2006 was carried out. Psychological distress was measured using the GHQ-12. The independent variables analyzed were: sociodemographic, psychosocial (family functionality and functional social support) and those related to reproductive work (living with or being in charge of different types of people needing care and number of hours devoted to caregiver tasks). Different independent logistic regression models were developed for men and women. In general, with the exception of men who were more prone to psychological distress if they were signed off work for 3 months or more, no major differences were observed regarding the effect of sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics on psychological distress. With regard to reproductive work, the likelihood of psychological distress doubles in both sexes when the person lives with someone who needs care. In women, a greater number of hours devoted to caring for another person is associated with an increase in distress. Men play a less frequent role in caregiving, but the impact on psychological distress is similar to that in women. Women experienced more psychological distress when they had to live with or be in charge of a disabled person or different types of persons needing care, while men were not affected by this. Major differences have been identified in

  19. Psychological distress in informal caregivers of patients with dementia in primary care: course and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsje, Petra; Hems, Marleen A P; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Bor, Hans; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2016-08-01

    The course of psychological distress in informal caregivers of patients with dementia has been investigated in longitudinal studies with conflicting outcomes. We investigated the course and determinants of psychological distress in informal caregivers of patients with dementia in primary care. In this prospective observational cohort study, data were collected at baseline, after 9 and 18 months. We assessed cognition and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of the patient (Mini-Mental State Examination and Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and psychological distress (Sense of Competence Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale and General Health Questionnaire 12-tem version) of the informal caregivers. Determinants for the course of psychological distress were caregivers' age, gender and relationship with the patient, patients' cognition and NPS, participation in a care program and admission to long-term care facilities (LTCF). With linear mixed models, the course over time for psychological distress and its determinants were explored. We included 117 informal caregivers, of whom 23.1% had a high risk for depression and 41.0% were identified to be likely to have mental problems at baseline. We found a stable pattern of psychological distress over time. Higher frequency of NPS, informal caregivers' age between 50 and 70 years and being female or spouse were associated with higher psychological distress. For patients who were admitted to a LTCF during the study psychological distress of the informal caregivers improved. GPs should focus on NPS in patients with dementia and on caregivers' psychological distress and be aware of their risk for depression and mental problems, specifically to those who are spouse, female or between 50 and 70 years of age. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Psychological Distress among Urban Adults: The Moderating Role of Neighborhood Social Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Özcan; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Prins, Rick G; Voorham, Toon A J J; Burdorf, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Various studies have reported socioeconomic inequalities in mental health among urban residents. This study aimed at investigating whether neighborhood social cohesion influences the associations between socio-economic factors and psychological distress. Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged 16 years and older from 211 neighborhoods in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was the dependent variable (scale range 10-50). Neighborhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighborhood level using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to investigate cross-level interactions, adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, between individual characteristics and social cohesion with psychological distress. The mean level of psychological distress among urban residents was 17.2. Recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits reported higher psychological distress (β = 5.6, 95%CI 5.2 to 5.9) than those in paid employment. Persons with some or great financial difficulties reported higher psychological distress (β = 3.4, 95%CI 3.2 to 3.6) than those with little or no financial problems. Socio-demographic factors were also associated with psychological distress, albeit with much lower influence. Living in a neighborhood with high social cohesion instead of low social cohesion was associated with a lower psychological distress of 22% among recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits and of 13% among citizens with financial difficulties. Residing in socially cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the influence of lack of paid employment and financial difficulties on psychological distress among urban adults. Urban policies aimed at improving neighborhood social cohesion may contribute to decreasing socio-economic inequalities in mental health.

  1. Risk of psychological distress in partners with functional disability among older Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Naoki; Tomata, Yasutake; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2018-01-26

    The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association of psychological distress with a partner's disability in an older Japanese population, as well as the effect modification of social support on this association. The baseline survey was carried out between 1 December and 15 December 2006, and included 6809 participants from whom we collected data regarding functional disability and psychological distress. We defined functional disability as certification for long-term care insurance in Japan, and psychological distress as a Kessler 6 score of ≥10 out of 24. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for increased psychological distress according to the categories of functional disability among partners. Stratified analyses were also carried out to investigate whether social support significantly affected the association between a partner's functional disability and psychological distress. The multiple-adjusted OR for psychological distress was 1.48 (95% CI 1.06-2.04) among participants whose partners had functional disabilities (vs those whose partners did not have functional disabilities). In the social support-stratified analysis, a significant association with psychological distress was observed among participants lacking social support for help with their daily housework (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.23-4.83), but not among those with social support (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.79-1.72); P for interaction = 0.03). A partner with functional disability conferred a significantly higher risk of psychological distress on older Japanese individuals, and this association was modified by social support. We conclude that social support might buffer psychological distress in this population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Exploring associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compen, F R; Adang, E M M; Bisseling, E M; Van der Lee, M L; Speckens, A E M

    2017-12-04

    The mental burden of cancer might elicit additional health care utilization. However, it is unclear how psychiatric disorder and psychological distress relate to health care utilization. Therefore, this study explores associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization. It was hypothesized that presence of psychiatric disorder and psychological distress was associated with increased health care utilization and costs. The current study consisted of secondary analyses of baseline data of a larger randomized controlled trial. Two hundred forty-five mixed-cancer patients with at least mild symptoms of psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-T ≥ 11) were mainly recruited via online media, participating centers and patient associations. Patients were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) for depressive, anxiety, and/or adjustment disorder. Psychological distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Retrospective self-reported health care utilization in the past 3 months was collected. Associations between predictors and health care utilization in terms of incidence rate ratios (IRR) and costs per category (mental, primary, somatic, and complementary) were assessed by negative binomial, logistic, and gamma regression. Eighty-nine (36.3%) patients suffered from psychiatric disorder, which was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.63) and costs (OR = 3.11). We observed a nonsignificant trend of somatic health care utilization in patients with psychiatric disorder. Psychological distress was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.09) and costs (OR = 1.09). Psychological distress was also associated with complementary health care utilization (IRR = 1.03). Psychiatric disorder and psychological distress were associated with mental health care use and costs. Psychological distress was associated

  3. Screening for psychological distress in follow-up care to identify head and neck cancer patients with untreated distress.

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    Krebber, Anne-Marie H; Jansen, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate screening in follow-up care to identify head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with untreated psychological distress. From November 2009 until December 2012, we investigated the use of OncoQuest (a touch screen computer system to monitor psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) and quality of life (HRQOL; EORTC QLQ-C30 and H&N35 module) in routine follow-up care. Patients who screened positive for psychological distress (HADS-T >14, HADS-A >7, or HADS-D >7) were asked whether they received psychological or psychiatric treatment. During the study period of 37 months, OncoQuest was used by 720 individual HNC patients, of whom 714 had complete HADS data. Psychological distress was present in 206 patients (29 %). Of those patients who fulfilled in- and exclusion criteria (n = 137), 25 received psychological treatment (18 %). Receipt of psychological treatment was significantly related to a higher score on the HADS total scale (19.6 vs. 16.9; p = 0.019), a lower (worse) score on the EORTC QLQ-C30 scale emotional functioning (46.0 vs. 58.6; p = 0.023), a higher (worse) score on fatigue (58.2 vs. 46.4; p = 0.032), problems with sexuality (44.1 vs. 34.4; p = 0.043), oral pain (43.8 vs. 28.8; p = 0.011) and speech problems (37.0 vs. 25.3; p = 0.042). Screening for psychological distress via OncoQuest is beneficial because 82 % of HNC patients identified with an increased level of distress who do not yet receive mental treatment were identified. Patients who did receive treatment reported more distress and worse quality of life, which may be explained because patients with more severe problems maybe more inclined to seek help or might be detected easier by caregivers and referred to supportive care more often.

  4. Prevalence and occupational predictors of psychological distress in the offshore petroleum industry: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Tvedt, Sturle Danielsen; Matthiesen, Stig Berge

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of psychological distress and stressors in the work environment as prospective predictors of distress, among employees in the offshore petroleum industry. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were employed to examine longitudinal relationships between stressors and distress in a randomly drawn sample of 741 employees from the Norwegian petroleum offshore industry. Time lag between baseline and follow-up was 6 months. Work environment stressors included safety factors, leadership, and job characteristics. The prevalence of psychological distress was 9 % at baseline and 8 % at follow-up. All investigated work environment factors correlated with subsequent distress. In bivariate logistic regression analyses, caseness of distress was predicted by baseline distress, near miss accidents, risk perception, poor safety climate, tyrannical leadership, laissez-faire leadership, job demands, and workplace bullying. After adjustment for baseline distress, control variables, and other predictors, laissez-faire leadership (OR = 1.69; 95 % CI: 1.12-2.54) and exposure to bullying (OR = 1.49; 95 % CI: 1.07-2.10) emerged as the most robust predictors of subsequent distress. The findings show that the prevalence of psychological distress is lower among offshore employees than in the general population. Although offshore workers operate in a physically challenging context, their mental health is mainly influenced by stressors in the psychosocial work environment. This highlights the importance of developing and implementing psychosocial safety interventions within the offshore industry.

  5. Time-lagged relationships between leadership behaviors and psychological distress after a workplace terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2016-05-01

    The impact of leadership practices on employee health may be especially evident after extreme events that have physical, psychological, or material consequences for the members of an organization. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the association between leadership behavior and psychological distress in employees who had experienced a workplace terror attack. Ten and 22 months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack targeting their workplace, ministerial employees (n = 2272) responded to a questionnaire assessing fair, empowering, supportive, and laissez-faire leadership, as well as psychological distress. Cross-sectional and time-lagged associations between the constructs were tested using structural equation modeling. Cross-sectionally, higher levels of supportive leadership were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Longitudinally, negative relationships were found between psychological distress and subsequent ratings of fair and empowering leadership. Supportive leadership was associated with employees' psychological health after trauma, but seems not to have long-term effects on subsequent psychological distress. Rather, psychological distress may lead the employees to perceive their leaders as more negative across time.

  6. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress was examined. Participants included 204 hospital nurses and 142 salespeople, who were used as a comparison group. Participants completed measures of coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress. Hospital nurses reported more psychological distress than did salespeople. Moreover, distancing coping was correlated with high psychological distress in both nurses and salespeople, and reassessing coping was correlated with low psychological distress in nurses. For nurses only, constructive coping appeared to be an effective strategy for reducing psychological distress. It is important for nurses to understand the role of constructive coping in nurse–patient communication and interaction. Keywords: nurse, relationships with patients, interpersonal stress, coping behavior, job stress

  7. Psychological Distress and Sources of Stressors amongst Medical and Science Undergraduate Students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S Radeef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between medical and science undergraduate students and to assess the sources of stressors that are attributing to it. Methods: A sample of 697 undergraduate students participated in this study, in which 501 were medical students and the remaining 196 were Science students. Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The students were given a list of possible sources of stress which were chosen depending on previous studies. Results: The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 32.6%. Science students showed a significantly higher rate and mean score of psychological distress than medical students, and the mean score was significantly higher during the clinical phase rather than the pre-clinical phase in medical students. Overall, female students had a significantly higher mean score than males, however although the mean score was higher in females it was only significant in the pre-clinical phase. In addition to academic and psychological stressors, factors such as reduced holidays, lack of time for relaxation, and limitation of leisure/entertainment time were among the top ten stressors reported by the students. Conclusions: Psychological distress is common among university students, and it is higher among science students than medical students. Academic and psychological factors can be considered as sources of stressors which may precipitate psychological distress among college students.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Post-Traumatic Growth and Psychological Distress in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

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    Stefano Occhipinti

    Full Text Available The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer-related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self.

  9. Patient perception of disease control and psychological distress

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    Mazzotti E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eva Mazzotti,1 Claudia Sebastiani,1 Paolo Marchetti1,21Division of Oncology and Dermatological Oncology, Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata, Istituto di Ricerca e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, 2Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Saint Andrew Hospital, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, ItalyBackground: Risk perception and efficacy beliefs affect health behavior. The aim of this study was to measure cancer severity and curability (as proxy for risk perception and efficacy beliefs, respectively and their association with clinical and psychosocial variables. Methods: A consecutive sample of cancer patients were recruited and assessed for sociodemographic and medical data, patient perception of cancer severity and curability, and quality of life. The main outcome measures were the depression and anxiety components as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results: Subjective and objective measures of severity and curability were found to be associated. The perception of one’s own disease as severe and difficult to cure, as opposed to severe but curable, was strongly associated with depression (OR = 6.93; P = 0.048 when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Factors independently associated with anxiety were the perception of difficulty to cure (OR = 15.73; P = 0.018, having religious beliefs (OR = 49.74; P = 0.013, and metastasis (OR = 18.42; P = 0.015, when adjusted for sex, marital status, site of cancer, and time from diagnosis. Differences in curability beliefs did not affect any quality of life domain.Conclusion: Patients and clinicians may have different perceptions of disease and treatment. The perception of control and curability must be taken into account to identify cancer patients who are suffering most and require special medical care, as these factors have an effect on depression and anxiety.Keywords: cancer, curability, patient perception, perceived control, psychological distress

  10. Development Contexts, Psychological Distress, Social Self- Esteem and School Violence from a Gender Perspective in Mexican Adolescents

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    María Elena Villarreal-González

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between three development contexts -family, school and community-, and school violence, examining psychological distress and social selfesteem from a gender perspective in Mexican adolescents. To test these relationships, 1,285 Mexican students between 12 and 18 years of age in secondary (n = 634 and high school (n = 651 were recruited. To analyze these relationships, Structural Equation Modeling With EQS was used. Results showed that familial context is directly related to school violence, and that school and community context is indirectly related to school violence through social self-esteem and psychological distress. Finally, results and their possible implications regarding gender are discussed.

  11. Mutual Influences Between Parental Psychological Distress and Alcohol Use and Child Problem Behavior in a Cohort of Urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrak, Katarzyna A; Green, Kerry M

    2016-10-01

    Parental psychological distress, parental alcohol involvement, and child/adolescent behavior problems frequently occur together with deleterious effects on individuals and families. Extant evidence suggests that parental and child problems are related; however, less is known about the patterns and directions of their relationships over time, particularly among African Americans. This study examined mutual influences between parental psychological distress and alcohol use, and child/adolescent problem behavior over a 10-year period (N = 459), using data from a prospective cohort study of urban African Americans. Using structural equation modeling, we found statistically significant effects between young adult parents' alcohol use and later adolescent problem behavior, as well as child problem behavior and parental alcohol use 10 years later, even after taking into account potential extraneous influences. Findings also demonstrated continuity in parental and child behaviors over time, and several contemporaneous associations. These findings have potential implications for intervention planning among African American families.

  12. Clinical predictors of psychological distress in patients presenting for evaluation of a spinal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubs, Michael D; Hung, Man; Adams, Jacob R; Patel, Alpesh A; Lawrence, Brandon D; Neese, Ashley M; Brodke, Darrel S

    2014-09-01

    Psychological distress has been shown to adversely affect the treatment outcomes of many spinal disorders. Most physicians do not routinely use psychological screening questionnaires. Additionally, physicians have not performed well when assessing patients for psychological distress while using clinical impression alone. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical factors that most accurately predict the presence of psychological distress in patients presenting for the evaluation of a spinal disorder. This is a retrospective study. Three hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients presented for an initial evaluation of a spinal disorder at a tertiary spine clinic. Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS), and distress risk assessment method (DRAM). Three hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients presenting for the evaluation of a spinal disorder with a completed DRAM, ODI, and VAS were evaluated. The DRAM was used to classify the patients' level of psychological distress. Clinical variables such as history of depression, use of antidepressants, use of other psychotropic medications, history of surgery, and history of chronic pain syndromes along with ODI and VAS scores were used to develop a model to predict a patient's level of psychological distress. Our model was highly accurate (92%), sensitive (92%), and specific (95%) in predicting a patient's level of psychological distress. If patients' VAS is 4 or 5, their ODI is less than 45, and they are not on any psychotropic medications, they likely will fall into the normal group. Patients with a VAS greater than 7, currently taking antidepressants or other psychotropic medications, an ODI greater than 58, and a history of surgery are likely to fall into the higher distressed categories of distressed depressive or distressed somatic. A patient's clinical history, ODI, and VAS scores can predict their level of psychological distress. In general, patients with higher VAS pain scores, higher

  13. Psychological distress and coping strategies among women with incurable lung cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Chien; Liao, Wei-Yu; Sun, Jia-Ling; Ko, Jen-Chung; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2017-10-10

    Limited research has focused on women with lung cancer (LC) although they are recognized as the most vulnerable to psychological distress. This study explored in-depth the psychological distress experienced by women with incurable LC and analyzed the coping strategies with which they manage that distress. A qualitative methodology with in-depth interviews was employed for 34 women with advanced or recurrent LC. An inductive data-driven thematic analysis was applied to analyze transcripts. Psychological distress was an iterative process for the women. Four themes were identified: shock regarding the diagnosis, distress regarding cancer treatment and its side effects, the facing of a recurrent or progressive disease, and persistent struggle with the life-limiting disease. Various coping strategies applied by the women to manage psychological distress were grouped into four themes: relying upon social support, focusing on positive thoughts, avoidance-based strategies, and religious faith and acceptance. Women with incurable LC experienced substantial iterative psychological distress throughout the illness, regardless of length of illness at time of interview. They applied multiple forms of coping. The findings enrich the limited existing literature on this understudied population and provide direction for the future development of interventions to improve their psychological well-being.

  14. Psychological distress, anxiety and depression among nursing students in Greece

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    Sapountzi-Krepia D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usually observed that nursing students undergo tremendous stress during various stages oftheir course but the knowledge about the stress process and depressive symptoms in this population is limited. TheAim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, anxiety and depression amongnursing students in Greece. For that purpose 170 nursing students (34 males, 136 females of the Department of Nursingof the Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki completed 3 self-report questionnaires, the General HealthQuestionnaire (GHQ, the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. The mean agewas 21.5 years. No difference in stress and depression on the basis of gender was observed. Our results showed that thescores on the GHQ, BDI and STAI tend to increase in the year 2 and 3. The majority of students reported relatively highscores on the GHQ suggesting increased psychiatric morbidity. 52.4% of students experienced depressive symptoms(34.7% mild, 12.9% moderate and 4.7% severe. The scores on the state scale were higher in the years 2 and 3, whilethe majority of students who had no or mild stress was observed in the first and the last year. Low stress personalitytraits were also observed in the first and the last year. However, no significant differences between the four years wereobserved. Our results suggest that nursing students experience different levels of stress and depression and that thesefactors are positively correlated.

  15. Coping and psychological distress in mothers of adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaser, Sarah S; Linsky, Rebecca; Grey, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe coping in mothers of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to examine the association among mothers' diabetes-related stress and coping strategies and maternal psychological distress (e.g., symptoms of anxiety and depression), adolescent adjustment (e.g., symptoms of depression, quality of life), diabetes-related family conflict, and glycemic control. One hundred and eighteen mother-adolescent dyads completed measures of diabetes-related stress, coping, symptoms of anxiety and depression, quality of life, and family conflict. Data on glycemic control were collected from adolescents' medical charts. Single/divorced mothers and mothers of color were significantly more likely to use disengagement coping strategies (e.g., avoidance) than White and married/partnered mothers. Mothers' use of primary control coping (e.g., problem solving) and secondary control coping (e.g., acceptance) strategies was related to fewer symptoms of anxiety (r = - .51, -.39) and depression (r = - .32, -.37) and less family conflict (r = - .22, -.30, all p coping strategies was related to greater symptoms of anxiety (r = .30) and depression (r = .27, both p coping was found to mediate the relationship between diabetes-related stress and maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression. Maternal coping was not significantly associated with adolescent outcomes. The ways in which mothers of adolescents with type 1 diabetes cope with diabetes-related stress are associated with psychological distress and family conflict. By identifying and improving mothers' coping through screening and targeted interventions, we may have the potential to improve both maternal and adolescent outcomes.

  16. [Parenthood and cancer: dyadic analysis of psychological distress and -health-related quality of life of cancer parents with minor children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Franziska; Krattenmacher, Thomas; Bergelt, Corinna; Bierbaum, Anna-Lena; Christine Ernst, Johanna; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Keller, Monika; Klitzing, Kai V; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was the analysis of psychological distress and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of parents with minor children during curative resp. palliative treatment.Cross-sectional design with a sample of N=89 parent dyads. Dyadic analysis of demographic, illness and family variables via mixed linear models.Patients and healthy partners indicated psychological distress on different subscales. Intradyadic correlations were small-moderate. Most important predictors of psychological distress and HRQoL were treatment stadium, gender, family functioning, and employment status.Dependent on demographic variables, psychooncological support was evident mainly for parents in palliative care and for families with dysfunctional functioning. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Does pre-operative psychological distress affect patient satisfaction after primary total hip arthroplasty?

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    Nolan John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are concerns that pre-operative psychological distress might be associated with reduced patient satisfaction after total hip replacement (THR. Methods We investigated this in a multi-centre prospective study between January 1999 and January 2002. We dichotomised the patients into the mentally distressed (MHS ≤ 56 and the not mentally distressed (MHS > 56 groups based on their pre-operative Mental Health Score (MHS of SF36. Results 448 patients (340 not distressed and 108 distressed completed the patient satisfaction survey. Patient satisfaction rate at five year was 96.66% (415/448. There was no difference in patient satisfaction or willingness to have the surgery between the two groups. None of pre-operative variables predicted five year patient satisfaction in logistic regression. Conclusions Patient satisfaction after surgery may not be adversely affected by pre-operative psychological distress.

  18. Association between psychological distress and cancer type in patients referred to a psycho-oncology service

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavelle, C

    2017-06-01

    Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (χ2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress of middle-aged and older women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among older women living with HIV in comparison to their male counterparts and younger women and to identify the sociodemographic and disease-related factors associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 508 HIV-infected patients (65 older women, 323 women aged below 50 years, and 120 older men) recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. Data regarding psychological distress were collected using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Seven older women (10.8%), eight older men (6.7%), and 61 younger women (18.9%) reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Overall, younger women reported significantly higher psychological distress than older men. The odds of having clinically significant psychological distress score were significantly lower for older women reporting sexual transmission, while for younger women, having other co-infections was a significant correlate of higher psychological distress. Younger women were 2.67 (95% CI: 1.22-5.84) times more likely to report psychological distress than were older men. The odds were not significantly different from older women. This study shows that older women do not differ substantially from younger women and older men in terms of psychological distress. The results reinforce, however, that mental health interventions should be tailored to reflect individuals' circumstances as well as developmental contexts. Moreover, they draw attention to the importance of examining resilience characteristics in older adults to understand the mechanisms behind 'successful ageing' while living with HIV.

  20. Illness perceptions account for variation in positive outlook as well as psychological distress in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Sandra; Norton, Sam; Hughes, Lyndsay D; Chilcot, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Psychological distress in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, and appears highly related to patients' illness perceptions. This study aimed to investigate the association between illness perceptions, psychological distress, positive outlook and physical outcomes in RA. Two hundred and thirty patients aged >18 years and prescribed at least one disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) were recruited from outpatient clinics across Hertfordshire (England). Patients completed a questionnaire that assessed psychological distress and positive outlook (depression, anxiety and positive outlook scale), illness perceptions (IPQ-R) and functional disability (health assessment questionnaire). Information regarding prescribed medication and disease activity [disease activity score (DAS28)] was collected from medical notes. Psychological distress, but not positive outlook, was associated with functional disability and DAS28. After controlling for sex, age and DAS28, perceptions of greater symptomatology (identity) and lesser understanding of RA (coherence) were significantly associated with increased psychological distress. Perceptions of greater treatment control were associated with greater positive outlook, but only for those with low DAS28. Coherence was also associated with positive outlook. These findings indicate that illness perceptions may influence psychological distress and positive outlook in RA patients, and may therefore be a useful basis for future psychological interventions.

  1. Gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Afsheen; Masud, Yusra; Mazahir, Shama

    2016-03-01

    This research explored the gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. In Pakistan, psychological states of patients with burns have not been widely studied, women making up as the neglected section of society lag far behind in availing the needful health facilities. It was hypothesized that there would be significant gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. The sample of the study consisted of 50 patients with burns, obtained from four different hospitals of Lahore. In order to investigate resilience and psychological distress, the State Trait Resilience Scales (Hiew, 2007) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (Kessler, 2001) were used. In addition to these, self-constructed demographic questionnaire was administered. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Independent sample t-test was conducted to find gender differences in resilience and psychological distress. The findings from the current research revealed that there were significant gender differences in resilience and psychological distress of patients with burns. The insightful findings from the current research carry strong implications for the clinicians, psychologists and policy makers who can help to develop and implement the rehabilitation programs for the affected population and can launch resilience promoting programs that would help them in coping with burns in effective manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza

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    Stevens Garry J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22, compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p Conclusion Although, methodologically, this study had good internal validity, it has limited generalisability because it was not possible to identify, bound, or sample the target population accurately. However, this study is the first to collect psychological distress data from an affected population during such a disease outbreak and has potential to inform those involved in assessing the potential psychological impacts of human infectious diseases, such as pandemic influenza.

  3. Poor Sleep Quality, Psychological Distress, and the Buffering Effect of Mindfulness Training During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Laraia, Barbara; Coleman-Phox, Kimberly; Bush, Nicole; Suresh, Madhuvanthi; Thomas, Melanie; Adler, Nancy; Epel, Elissa; Prather, Aric A

    2017-01-06

    Poor sleep quality is common in pregnancy and associated with increased psychological distress, which has adverse consequences for families. Emerging theory suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may help reduce cognitive and emotional reactivity to stressful events. The current study examines the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on the relationship between poor sleep quality and increased depression symptom severity and perceived stress during pregnancy. Additionally, we explored the prevalence of poor sleep quality in this unique sample and the impact of intervention on sleep quality. Participants were 215 ethnically diverse, overweight and obese, predominantly low-income pregnant women drawn from a study examining the impact of an 8-week mindfulness-based program (Mindful Moms Training; MMT) to reduce excessive gestational weight gain, stress, and depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Participants reported global sleep quality, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress at baseline and postintervention. Most participants (63%) were categorized as poor sleepers at baseline. MMT participants did not experience significantly greater improvement in sleep quality compared to TAU participants. Baseline poor global sleep quality predicted increased depression symptom severity for all participants. Baseline poor global sleep quality predicted increased perceived stress for the TAU group only; this association was not evident in the MMT group. Poor sleep quality is prevalent in overweight and obese predominantly low-income pregnant women. Poor sleep quality was associated with worsening psychological distress, but mindfulness training significantly attenuated the influence of poor sleep on perceived stress.

  4. Prevalence and associations of psychological distress in Australian junior medical officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michelle W; Li, Wenlong E; Llewellyn, Anthony; Cyna, Allan M

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological distress in Australian junior medical officers (JMO) and investigate the determinants associated with psychological distress over a 3-year (2014-2016) period. JMO were surveyed using the 2014-2016 JMO Census (n = 220, 399 and 466 each year; response rate approximately 15%). Levels of psychological distress were assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A K10 ≥ 25 was chosen to indicate high psychological distress, and this determinant was compared to various demographic and work-related factors. Australian JMO experience a high level of psychological distress (mean: 18.1, median 16.0). There were no differences in demographical variables, such as age, gender, marital status, dependants and between postgraduate years 1 and 2. Increasing hours worked per week was associated with a higher K10, with every hour worked increasing odds by 3%. Attitudinal items, including feeling unwilling to study medicine again, feeling poorly trained and experiences of bullying, were related to high psychological distress. Coping strategies like exercise and spending time with friends correlated positively with lower distress, while time off work, frequent alcohol use, smoking and drug use were associated with increased distress levels. Of those with a high K10, 54.5% indicated that they did not use any form of professional support; 17.83% expressed that given their time again, they would not choose to study medicine. A focused approach to JMO support and education regarding significant risk factors identified is likely to assist health policies that aim to improve the mental well-being of Australian JMO. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. The association between material living standard and psychological distress: results from a New Zealand population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, James; Wells, J Elisabeth; Mulder, Roger

    2014-12-01

    People with a low material living standard experience more psychological distress than those with a high living standard, but previous studies suggest the size of this difference is modest. To measure the association between living standard and psychological distress using a multidimensional measure of living standard, the Economic Living Standard Index (ELSI). Adults aged 25-64 years (n = 8,465) were selected from a New Zealand community survey. Logistic regression models were used to compare household income and ELSI scores as risk factors for high psychological distress, defined as a K10 score of 12 or over. In the population, the prevalence of high psychological distress was 5.8%. The prevalence of high distress increased steeply with decreasing living standard. In the most deprived decile according to ELSI score, 24.3% had high distress, compared to 0.8% in the least deprived decile. For household income, high distress was present in 15.9% of people in the lowest decile and 2.2% of the highest decile. In fully adjusted models, ELSI score remained significantly associated with high distress but household income was not. The mental health disparity between those at opposite ends of the social spectrum is very large. Comprehensive measures such as the ELSI give a more accurate estimate of this disparity than household income. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Health Insurance Status and Psychological Distress among US Adults Aged 18-64 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. An Ecosystems and Vulnerable Populations Perspective on Solastalgia and Psychological Distress After a Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Eisenman; Sarah McCaffrey; Ian Donatello; Grant Marshal

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relationship between psychological distress and relative resource and risk predictors, including loss of solace from the landscape (solastalgia), one year after the Wallow Fire, in Arizona, United States. Solastalgia refers to the distress caused by damage to the surrounding natural environment and it has not been examined for its relationship to...

  8. Does high tobacco consumption cause psychological distress? A mendelian randomization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Petersen, Christina B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that smoking influences mental health negatively. This study investigated whether high tobacco consumption is causally related to psychological distress in a Mendelian randomization design, using a variant in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA3...... variable for tobacco consumption. Three dimensions of psychological distress were studied: Stress, fatigue, and hopelessness. Analyses with the CHRNA3 genotype were stratified by smoking status. Results: Self-reported amount of smoking was associated with all three dimensions of psychological distress......, homozygotes and heterozygotes for the CHRNA3 genotype had higher tobacco consumption than noncarriers. Nevertheless, the CHRNA3 genotype was not associated with psychological distress neither in current nor in former or never-smokers. For instance among current smokers, the OR for stress was 1.02 (95% CI 0...

  9. Psychological distress and coping amongst higher education students: a mixed method enquiry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    .... An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students...

  10. Psychological Distress and the Use of Clinical Preventive Services by Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Szu-Hsuan; Adepoju, Omolola E; Kash, Bita A; DeSalvo, Bethany; McMaughan, Darcy K

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we explored whether psychological distress plays a role in the use of recommended clinical preventive services among community-dwelling older adults. The sample is drawn from respondents 65 years and older who participated in the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Logistic regressions with selected covariates were entered in the model to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the independent effect of psychological distress on the utilization of each of five preventive services. With the exception of breast cancer screening where the uptake of preventive services was significantly lower for older adults with psychological distress (OR = 0.57, p < .001), uptake of other key preventive measures revealed no significant utilization differences between older adults with and without psychological distress. The results suggest that adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines may be increased by improving recognition and treatment of emotional health problems in older women.

  11. Patterns of Gender Equality at Workplaces and Psychological Distress: e53246

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sofia Elwér; Lisa Harryson; Malin Bolin; Anne Hammarström

    2013-01-01

    ... that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress...

  12. Financial problems and psychological distress: Investigating reciprocal effects among business owners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorgievski, M.J.; Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Veen, van der H.B.; Giesen, C.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Building on conservation of resources theory and the dynamic equilibrium model, this three-wave longitudinal study among 260 Dutch agricultural business owners (1-year time intervals) investigated reciprocal relationships between the financial situation of the business and psychological distress.

  13. Psychological distress and work stress in correctional officers: a literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bezerra, Cláudia de Magalhães; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Constantino, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a review of literature based on a survey of national and international journals on psychological distress and stress in the work of correctional officers between 2000 and 2014...

  14. Factors Associated With Presenteeism and Psychological Distress Using a Theory-Driven Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.

  15. Sex differences in mediating and moderating processes linking economic stressors, psychological distress, and drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis Brown, Robyn; Richman, Judith A

    2012-09-01

    Given the recent downturn in the U.S. economy, we considered in this study the processes linking economic stressors, psychological distress, and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking). Data were drawn from a mail survey of a national sample of 663 respondents. Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether psychological distress mediates the associations between economic stressors and the alcohol-related outcomes considered and whether these associations varied by gender. Controlling for correlations among the outcomes and the effects of the sociodemographic control variables, psychological distress was found to partly explain the association between economic stressors and problematic drinking. The mediating effects on problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than women. The findings demonstrate the utility of considering interrelationships among alcohol-related outcomes and, in this context, reveal the circumstances in which gender matters most for understanding the associations among economy-related stressors, psychological distress, and drinking.

  16. Somatosensory amplification mediates sex differences in psychological distress among cardioverter-defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Baumert, Jens; Kolb, Christof

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether female patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) report more psychological distress than male patients, and whether somatosensory amplification mediates this relationship. Design: Consecutive ICD patients (N = 241; 33% women) participating in...

  17. Psychological Distress and Sources of Stressors Amongst Medical and Science Undergraduate Students in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali S Radeef; Ghasak G.Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between medical and science undergraduate students and to assess the sources of stressors that are attributing to it. Methods: A sample of 697 undergraduate students participated in this study, in which 501 were medical students and the remaining 196 were Science students. Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The students were given a list of possible sources of stres...

  18. Psychological Distress and Sources of Stressors amongst Medical and Science Undergraduate Students in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali S Radeef; Ghasak G.Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between medical and science undergraduate students and to assess the sources of stressors that are attributing to it. Methods: A sample of 697 undergraduate students participated in this study, in which 501 were medical students and the remaining 196 were Science students. Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The students were given a list of possible sources of stres...

  19. Higher education and psychological distress: a 27-year prospective cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännlund, Annica; Hammarström, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Research identifies a positive link between education and a reduction of psychological distress, but few studies have analysed the long-term impact of education on psychological distress. This study followed the same cohort for 27 years, investigating the association between education and adult psychological distress. Further, it discuss whether the link can be understood through the mediating mechanisms of social and labour-market resources, furthermore, if the mechanisms operate differently for men and women. A 27-year prospective cohort study was performed at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 43. The cohort consisted of all students (n = 1083, of which 1001 are included in this study) in their final year of compulsory school in Sweden. Data were collected through comprehensive questionnaires (response rate 96.4%), and analysed with OLS regression, with psychological distress at age 21, 30 and 43 as dependent variable. Baseline psychological distress, measures of social and labour-market resources, and possible educational selection factors were used as independent variables. To compare the overall magnitude of educational differences, a kappa index was calculated. A positive relation between higher education and less psychological distress was found. When becoming older this relation weakens and a link between social and labour-market resources and psychological distress is observed, indicating that education in a long-term perspective operates through the suggested mechanisms. Additionally, the mechanisms work somewhat differently for men than for women: labour-market resources were significant for men and social resources were important for women. higher education is positively linked to less psychological distress, and the link can somewhat be understood through the mechanisms of social and labour-market resources.

  20. Life after cancer: how does public stigma increase psychological distress of childhood cancer survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ah; Yi, Jaehee

    2014-12-01

    Public stigma is a major source of stress for cancer survivors. However, factors that buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of public stigma on psychological distress have not been elucidated. This study examined how perceived public stigma affects psychological distress as mediated by cancer disclosure, internalized reactions to stigma, and social support availability. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in South Korea. The study sample was 223 adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed before the age of 19 and currently between 15 and 39 years old. Psychological distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Structural equation modeling was used with 1000 bootstrap samples. The goodness of model fit was acceptable. Public stigma perceived by cancer survivors influenced psychological distress via cancer disclosure, internalized shame, and social support availability. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted higher levels of internalized shame and self-blame and lower levels of social support availability, which subsequently increased psychological distress. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted lower levels of disclosure about cancer history and experiences. Cancer disclosure indirectly ameliorated psychological distress by reducing internalized shame. This study offers evidence that cognitive and social factors play important roles in mediating the effects of perceived public stigma on psychological distress in Korean cancer survivors. A greater understanding of factors that influence psychological distress may help psychosocial oncology service providers to identify childhood cancer survivors in need of psychosocial services and provide them with appropriate resources and interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extending family nursing: concepts from positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Karen

    2010-11-01

    This article identifies the burgeoning field of positive psychology as an important extension to the knowledge base of family nursing. Representing a new emphasis from the traditional social and human sciences, which have largely focused on problem- and deficit-based approaches, positive psychology focuses on optimal functioning and is an ideal complement to the strengths-based orientation of family nursing. Domains of positive psychology are presented and exemplars of supporting research offered. Finally, suggestions are given for ways to apply concepts from positive psychology to family nursing practice, research, and education.

  2. Weight Status and Psychological Distress in a Mediterranean Spanish Population: A Symmetric U-Shaped Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Villalobos Martínez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI and psychological distress in 563 inhabitants of Málaga (South of Spain. Participants were classified in four categories of BMI: Underweight (BMI <18.5 Kg/m2, Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.99 Kg/m2, Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.99 Kg/m2 and Obesity (BMI >30 Kg/m2. Psychological distress was measured with the Spanish version of the Derogatis’ Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R. We observed a symmetric U-shaped relationship between weight status and psychological distress in all SCL-90-R dimensions (p for quadratic trend <0.001 for both men and women. Participants with extreme weight showed the worst psychological status, and participants with normal weight exhibited the best. We found no statistically significant differences between underweight and obese participants in 9 of the 10 SCL-90-R dimensions analyzed among men, and in 8 of the 10 dimensions among women. Underweight and obese participants showed no gender differences in psychological distress levels. Psychological treatment of Mediterranean people with extreme weight, should consider underweight and obese patients at the same level of psychological distress.

  3. Weight status and psychological distress in a Mediterranean Spanish population: a symmetric U-shaped relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Elena Villalobos; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mariscal, Alberto; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Navajas, Joaquín Fernández-Crehuet

    2014-04-21

    Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity) should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress in 563 inhabitants of Málaga (South of Spain). Participants were classified in four categories of BMI: Underweight (BMI 30 Kg/m2). Psychological distress was measured with the Spanish version of the Derogatis' Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R). We observed a symmetric U-shaped relationship between weight status and psychological distress in all SCL-90-R dimensions (p for quadratic trend psychological status, and participants with normal weight exhibited the best. We found no statistically significant differences between underweight and obese participants in 9 of the 10 SCL-90-R dimensions analyzed among men, and in 8 of the 10 dimensions among women. Underweight and obese participants showed no gender differences in psychological distress levels. Psychological treatment of Mediterranean people with extreme weight, should consider underweight and obese patients at the same level of psychological distress.

  4. Breast cancer patients' topic avoidance and psychological distress: the mediating role of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Caughlin, John P

    2011-05-01

    Avoiding communication about cancer is common and is likely to have negative psychological health consequences for patients, yet the connection between topic avoidance and psychological well-being is not well understood. This study of women with breast cancer examined coping behaviors as mediating mechanisms through which their cancer-related topic avoidance might affect their psychological distress. Consistent with predictions, greater levels of patient topic avoidance were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Results indicated that topic avoidance may decrease patients' use of emotional support and increase patients' self-blame, each of which may lead to higher levels of psychological distress.

  5. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  6. Effect of CYP1A1 gene polymorphism and psychological distress on seminal analysis parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditi; Koner, Bidhan Chandra; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Prasad, Sudha; Jamatia, Elvia; Masroor, Mirza; Singh, Vijay Kumar

    2016-05-24

    Psychological factor alters fertility hormones and contributes to male infertility. Anxiety and depression are common manifestations of psychological distress. Cytochrome P-4501A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes xenobiotics and fertility hormones that influence male fertility. The effect of CYP1A1 polymorphism on male fertility has remained controversial. The present study was designed to assess the effect of psychological distress and CYP1A1 polymorphisms and their interactions on parameters of seminal analysis. Eighty male partners of infertile couples were evaluated for level of distress using Hospital anxiety and depression score (HADS) questionnaire. As per WHO guidelines (2010), sperm count, motility and morphology were assessed and subjects were classified as (a) subjects having normal sperm characteristics and (b) subjects having abnormal sperm characteristics. CYP1A1 polymorphisms were detected by ASO-PCR. The significant odd's ratio indicates that psychological distress (OR:10.54; CI:3.72-29.84; P psychological distress, CYP1A1*4 and CYP1A1*2C polymorphisms significantly affect but do not interact among them to influence sperm parameters. It is concluded that CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and psychological distress act independently but do not interact with each other in pathogenesis of male infertility.

  7. The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Psychological Distress in Canadian Adults With ADD/ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Emily; Fowler, Ken; Hesson, Jacqueline

    2016-06-10

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in individuals self-reporting a diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD)/ADHD. This correlational study encompasses cross-sectional data from 488 male and female adults (20-64 years) who reported that they have been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Adults with ADD/ADHD and high incomes have significantly lower K10 scores than Canadians with ADD/ADHD and low incomes. Income, but not education, was significant in predicting psychological distress among the sample. Canadian adults with ADD/ADHD have an increased risk for developing psychological distress and comorbid psychiatric disorders. The findings suggest that negative outcomes associated with ADD/ADHD are not necessarily pervasive. High income may serve as a protective factor for psychological distress among adults with ADD/ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Rumination in migraine: Mediating effects of brooding and reflection between migraine and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Szabo, Edina; Kocsel, Natalia; Edes, Andrea; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Magyar, Mate; Kovacs, David; Zsombok, Terezia; Elliott, Rebecca; Anderson, Ian Muir; William Deakin, John Francis; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between migraine and psychological distress has been consistently reported in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. We hypothesised that a stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as rumination would mediate the relationship between migraine and psychological distress. Design and Main Outcomes Measures: Self-report questionnaires measuring depressive rumination, current psychological distress and migraine symptoms in two independent European population cohorts, recruited from Budapest (N = 1139) and Manchester (N = 2004), were used. Structural regression analysis within structural equation modelling was applied to test the mediational role of brooding and reflection, the components of rumination, between migraine and psychological distress. Sex, age and lifetime depression were controlled for in the analysis. Migraine predicted higher brooding and reflection scores, and brooding proved to be a mediator between migraine and psychological distress in both samples, while reflection mediated the relationship significantly only in the Budapest sample. Elevated psychological distress in migraine is partially attributed to ruminative response style. Further studies are needed to expand our findings to clinical samples and to examine how rumination links to the adjustment to migraine.

  9. Alexithymia and psychological distress in fibromyalgia: prevalence and relation with quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Lorys; Tesio, Valentina; Colonna, Fabrizio; Molinaro, Stefania; Leombruni, Paolo; Bruzzone, Maria; Fusaro, Enrico; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Torta, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic syndrome characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain associated with other symptoms like fatigue, stiffness, non-restorative sleep and psychological distress that strongly affects the quality of life in FM patients. While the psychological distress has been widely explored in FM, only a few studies investigated alexithymia, an emotional dysregulation trait. Evaluate the prevalence of alexithymia and psychological distress and their impact on patients quality of life. A battery of tests assessing alexithymia, depression, anxiety, emotional distress symptoms and the health related quality of life (HRQoL) was filled out by 55 female FM patients. After having analysed their prevalence, two regression analyses were performed in order to evaluate the role that alexithymia, depression, anxiety, emotional distress and pain characteristics have on quality of life of FM patients. Results showed that a clinically relevant level of psychological distress was present in more than half of our sample, whereas alexithymic traits were present in 20% of the patients. Regression analyses showed that pain intensity, depression and current pain were the variables that best contribute to explain the physical component of the HRQoL while anxiety, depression and pain intensity were the variables that mainly contributed to explain the mental component of quality of life. These results underline the high prevalence of alexithymia in FM patients and the great impact of psychological symptoms on FM patients HRQoL. Wholistic care of FM patients which addresses both physical and psychological symptoms is needed.

  10. Psychological distress and the perception of radiation risks: the Fukushima health management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuriko; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Out of the 180,604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59,807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42-1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32-1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94-2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress.

  11. Psychological distress is influenced by length of stay in resettled Iraqi refugees in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Smith, Mitchell; Eagar, Sandy; Stone, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress has been well identified in recently resettled refugee groups; however, evidence on psychological distress over time is not conclusive. Australia has welcomed a large refugee population in recent decades, including Iraqis who currently form one of the largest groups being resettled in Australia. This study aimed to explore psychological distress in two samples of Iraqi refugees, those who recently arrived (n = 225, average length of stay = 0.55 months) and those with a longer period of resettlement (n = 225, average length of stay = 58.5 months). To assess general symptoms of anxiety and depression, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was employed. Associations between participants' demographic characteristics and psychological distress levels were examined. A significant difference between groups, t (441) = -2.149, p = 0.0324, was found, indicating that study participants with longer periods of resettlement were experiencing higher levels of psychological distress than recent arrivals. Our findings have implications for both for government and non-government funded organisations who should consider the provision of assistance programs beyond the initial arrival period.

  12. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Methods Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232 receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping, and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning, behavioral (pain-related distress, and demographic characteristics. Results Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. Conclusions It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  13. Green tea consumption is associated with lower psychological distress in a general population: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozawa, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nakaya, Naoki; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Kakizaki, Masako; Sone, Toshimasa; Nagai, Masato; Sugawara, Yumi; Nitta, Akemi; Tomata, Yasutake; Niu, Kaijun; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2009-11-01

    Although green tea or its constituents might reduce psychological stress, the relation between green tea consumption and psychological distress has not been investigated in a large-scale study. Our aim was to clarify whether green tea consumption is associated with lower psychological distress. We analyzed cross-sectional data for 42,093 Japanese individuals aged > or =40 y from the general population. Information on daily green tea consumption, psychological distress as assessed by the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale, and other lifestyle factors was collected by using a questionnaire. We used multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, history of disease, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, time spent walking, dietary factors, social support, and participation in community activities to investigate the relation between green tea consumption and psychological distress. We classified 2774 (6.6%) of the respondents as having psychological distress (Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale > or =13/24). There was an inverse association between green tea consumption and psychological distress in a model adjusted for age and sex. Although the relation was largely attenuated when possible confounding factors were adjusted for, a statistically significant inverse association remained. The odds ratio (with 95% CI) of developing psychological distress among respondents who consumed >/=5 cups of green tea/d was 0.80 (0.70, 0.91) compared with those who consumed Green tea consumption was inversely associated with psychological distress even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  14. Work factors and psychological distress in nurses' aides: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambs Kristian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses' aides (assistant nurses, the main providers of practical patient care in many countries, are doing both emotional and heavy physical work, and are exposed to frequent social encounters in their job. There is scarce knowledge, though, of how working conditions are related to psychological distress in this occupational group. The aim of this study was to identify work factors that predict the level of psychological distress in nurses' aides. Methods The sample of this prospective study comprised 5076 Norwegian nurses' aides, not on leave when they completed a mailed questionnaire in 1999. Of these, 4076 (80.3 % completed a second questionnaire 15 months later. A wide spectrum of physical, psychological, social, and organisational work factors were measured at baseline. Psychological distress (anxiety and depression was assessed at baseline and follow-up by the SCL-5, a short version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Results In a linear regression model of the level of psychological distress at follow-up, with baseline level of psychological distress, work factors, and background factors as independent variables, work factors explained 2 % and baseline psychological distress explained 34 % of the variance. Exposures to role conflicts, exposures to threats and violence, working in apartment units for the aged, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that were reported to result in less support and encouragement were positively associated with the level of psychological distress. Working in psychiatric departments, and changes in the work situation between baseline and follow-up that gave lower work pace were negatively associated with psychological distress. Conclusion The study suggests that work factors explain only a modest part of the psychological distress in nurses' aides. Exposures to role conflicts and threats and violence at work may contribute to psychological distress in nurses' aides

  15. Psychological distress and its correlates among dental students: a survey of 17 Colombian dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon; Mafla, Ana Cristina; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sánchez-Molina, Marisol; Gallego-Gómez, Clara Liliana; Vélez-Jaramillo, Luis Fernando; Tamayo-Cardona, Julián Andrés; Pérez-Cepeda, David; Vergara-Mercado, Martha Ligia; Simancas-Pallares, Miguel Ángel; Polychronopoulou, Argy

    2013-06-26

    Links between the demanding nature of studies in the health sciences, students' personality traits and psychological distress have been well-established. While considerable amount of work has been done in medicine, evidence from the dental education arena is sparse and data from Latin America are lacking. The authors conducted a large-scale investigation of psychological distress among dental students in Colombia and sought to determine its curriculum and student-level correlates. The Spanish version of the Derogatis' Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R) was administered to all students officially registered and attending classes or clinics in 17 dental schools in 4 geographic districts of Colombia between January and April 2012. Additional information was collected on participants' socio-demographic information and first career choice, as well as school's characteristics such as class size. The Global Severity Index (GSI) score, a measure of overall psychological distress, served as the primary analytical endpoint. Analyses relied on multilevel mixed-effects linear and log-binomial regression, accounting for study design and sample characteristics. A total of 5700 dental students completed the survey, a response rate of 67%. Pronounced gradients were noted in the association between socio-economic status and psychological distress, with students in higher strata reporting fewer problems. After adjustment for all important covariates, there was an evident pattern of increasing psychological distress corresponding to the transition from the didactic, to the preclinical and clinical phases of training, with few differences between male and female students. Independent of other factors, reliance on own funds for education and having dentistry as the first career choice were associated with lower psychological distress. Levels of psychological distress correlated with students' socio-economic and study-level characteristics. Above and beyond the influence of person

  16. Effects of an Integrated Stress Management Program (ISMP) for Psychologically Distressed Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunah; Lee, Hyangkyu; Kim, Hyunlye; Noh, Dabok; Lee, Hyunhwa

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an integrated stress management program (ISMP) on college life stress, stress coping, psychological distress, and cortisol among male college students. Out of 137 initially enrolled students, 99 participants were identified as distressed subjects and randomly assigned to either the ISMP or control group. Ultimately, 84 participants (43: experimental, 41: control) completed pretest-posttest. The experimental group received eight 2-hr sessions over 4 weeks. Stress and psychological distress decreased significantly, whereas stress coping and cortisol did not improve significantly. Further studies with longer follow-up periods and physiological interventions are required. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in urban hospital outpatients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.

  18. A 12-year Trend of Psychological Distress: National Study of Finnish University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Airi; Laimi, Katri; Björklund, Katja; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Kunttu, Kristina

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to explore changes in the prevalence of psychological distress and co-occurring psychological symptoms among 19-34 years old Finnish university students between the years 2000 and 2012. The prevalence of perceived frequent psychological symptoms was compared in four nationwide cross-sectional student health surveys with random samples (N=11,502) in the following years: 2000 (N=3,174), 2004 (N=3,153), 2008 (N=2,750), and 2012 (N=2,425). In the time phase from 2000 to 2012, the overall psychological distress (12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12) increased from 22% to 28%, while there was also an increase in the frequently experienced psychological symptoms (depressiveness from 13% to 15%, anxiety from 8% to 13%, concentration problems from 12% to 18%, and psychological tension from 13% to 18% with a peak prevalence observed in 2008). The co-occurrence of different psychological symptoms increased as well. Psychological distress was more common in females and in older students. The findings suggest an increasing trend of frequent psychological distress among Finnish university students over the years from 2000 to 2012, with the peak prevalence occurring in 2008, which may reflect the growing multifaceted environmental demands.

  19. Potential predictors of psychological distress and well-being in medical students: a cross-sectional pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bore M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Miles Bore,1 Brian Kelly,2 Balakrishnan Nair2 1School of Psychology, 2School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Purpose: Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods: In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127 completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout; and personality traits. Results: Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion: The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. Keywords: medical student, well-being, psychological distress, personality

  20. The Effects of Sexism, Psychological Distress, and Difficult Sexual Situations on U.S. Women’s Sexual Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2011-01-01

    Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women’s HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms ---psychological distress and difficult sexual situations --- that link social discrimination to women’s sexual risk for HIV. PMID:22010804

  1. Increasing Rate of Psychological Distress in Urban Households: How Does Income Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Ghuncha

    2017-11-13

    Numerous studies suggest 'social gradient' in health, but it is less clear whether every step up the socio-economic ladder improves health by the same degree. Based on 4326 households, the present study examines the relationship between household income and psychological distress while identifying specific risk factor in different income groups. Overall, 26.5% of sampled households were reported for being distressed. Work pressure (OR 2.0, p water (OR 2.27, p care (OR 2.58, p < 0.001), and indoor noise pollution (OR 1.6, p < 0.001) in medium income group were significant predictors of psychological distress. People in lower income group are at greater risk of becoming distressed, but the higher income is not always the guarantor of psychological well-being.

  2. Chronic Psychological Distress as an Inducer of Microglial Activation and Leukocyte Recruitment into the Area Postrema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological distress can cause neuroinflammation, but the involvement of leukocytes in this inflammatory response remains unclear. The area postrema (AP) is considered a neural-immune interface because it lacks a blood-brain barrier and a site for leukocyte recruitment in neuroinflammatory conditions induced by immunological insults, but its role in chronic psychological distress has not been explored. To determine leukocyte recruitment to the AP after chronic psychological distress. Rats were exposed to cat odor for 5 consecutive days to induce distress, and, on the 6th day, their brains were dissected to perform immunohistofluorescence studies of the AP. Immune cells were identified and quantified with CD45 and CD11b markers. The distribution of neurons and immune cells was determined using TrkA and CD45 markers, respectively. Distress induced a significant increase in CD45(+) and CD11b(+) cells in the AP. Three immunophenotypes were determined in the control and distress groups: CD45(+)/CD11b(-), CD45(+)/CD11b(+) and CD45(-)/CD11b(+). CD expression, morphology and fluorescence intensity enabled the identification of different immune cell types: starting from longitudinal ramified microglia (mainly in the control group) to amoeboid microglia, monocytes and lymphocytes (mostly in the distressed group). TrkA and CD45 expression in the AP revealed the proximity between soma neurons and leukocytes. Interestingly, some CD45(+) cells expressed TrkA, with increased expression in the distressed group. The identification of microglial activation, leukocyte recruitment and the close proximity between neurons and leukocytes in the AP after chronic psychological distress exposure suggests the AP as a site for distress-induced immune responses and engraftment of leukocytes infiltrating the CNS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Comparison of multiple psychological distress measures between men and women preparing for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichman, Christina L; Ehlers, Shawna L; Wichman, Scott E; Weaver, Amy L; Coddington, Charles

    2011-02-01

    To compare multiple measures of psychological distress between men and women preparing for IVF. Retrospective cohort study. Outpatient, academic infertility clinic. One hundred sixty-two consecutive couples presenting for infertility treatment with IVF. Measures were completed as part of a routine, infertility-focused psychological evaluation, including the Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anger Inventory, and Impact of Events Scale. Scores of above psychological questionnaires. Psychological distress scores were statistically significantly higher among women than men for symptoms of depression, state anxiety, infertility specific distress, and general perceived stress. However, aside from infertility-specific distress (d = .43), effect sizes for the paired differences between females and males ranged from d = .18 to .23. Women consistently scored higher on multiple measures of psychological distress than their male partners in the context of preparing for IVF. Comparison of infertility-specific distress scores yielded the largest statistically and clinically significant difference compared with traditional measures of general depression and anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Physical Abuse, Family Environment, and Gender on the Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Lori A.; Long, Patricia J.; Miranda, Robert, Jr.; Marx, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined contributions of sexual abuse, physical abuse, family cohesion, and conflict in predicting psychological functioning of 131 adolescents receiving residential vocational training services. In addition to child sexual abuse and physical abuse, family conflict and cohesion predicted development of psychological distress and…

  5. Distress in Spouses of Service Members with Symptoms of Combat-Related PTSD: Secondary Traumatic Stress or General Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Keith D.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Blais, Rebecca K.; Markman, Howard J.; Stanley, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked with elevated psychological distress in service members’/veterans’ spouses. Researchers use a variety of terms to describe this distress, and recently, secondary traumatic stress and secondary traumatic stress disorder (STS/STSD) have become increasingly commonly used. Although STS/STSD connotes a specific set of symptoms that are linked to service members’/veterans’ symptoms, researchers often use general measures of distress or generically worded measures of PTSD symptoms to assess STS/STSD. To determine how often scores on such measures appear to be an accurate reflection of STS/STSD, we examined responses to a measure of PTSD symptoms in 190 wives of male service members with elevated levels of PTSD symptoms. Wives rated their own PTSD symptoms, and then answered questions about their attributions for the symptoms they endorsed. Fewer than 20% of wives who endorsed symptoms on the PTSD measure attributed these symptoms completely to their husbands’ military experiences. Moreover, compared with wives who attributed symptoms only to events in their own lives, wives who attributed symptoms completely or partially to their husbands’ military experiences had a greater overlap between some of their responses on the PTSD measure and their responses to a measure of general psychological distress. These results suggest that most wives of service members/veterans with PTSD experience generic psychological distress that is not conceptually consistent with STS/STSD, although a subset does appear to endorse a reaction consistent with this construct. Implications of these findings for intervention and research with this vulnerable population are discussed. PMID:21639635

  6. Race/Ethnicity and self-reported levels of discrimination and psychological distress, California, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, DeAnnah R

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between discrimination and distress among multiple racial groups because previous studies have focused primarily on either blacks or Asian Americans. The objective of this study was to assess the association between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and symptoms of psychological distress among 5 racial/ethnic groups in California. I used data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey describing an adult sample of 27,511 non-Hispanic whites, 8,020 Hispanics, 1,813 non-Hispanic blacks, 3,875 non-Hispanic Asians, and 1,660 people of other races/ethnicities. The Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale determined symptoms of psychological distress. I used a single-item, self-reported measure to ascertain experiences of racial discrimination. Reports of racial discrimination differed significantly among racial groups. Self-reported discrimination was independently associated with psychological distress after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, sex, education level, employment status, general health status, nativity and citizenship status, English use and proficiency, ability to understand the doctor at last visit, and geographic location. The relationship between discrimination and psychological distress was modified by the interaction between discrimination and race/ethnicity; the effect of discrimination on distress was weaker for minority groups (ie, blacks and people of other races/ethnicities) than for whites. Self-reported discrimination may be a key predictor of high levels of psychological distress among racial/ethnic groups in California, and race appears to modify this association. Public health practitioners should consider the adverse effects of racial discrimination on minority health.

  7. Psychological distress two years after diagnosis of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleiker, E M; Pouwer, F; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2000-01-01

    on two occasions. Two months after surgery, patients completed questionnaires measuring psychosocial variables (e.g., stressful life-events, health complaints, sleep problems, social support, subjective distress, personality factors), demographic and biomedical variables (e.g., TNM status, type...

  8. Advancing gestation does not attenuate biobehavioural coherence between psychological distress and cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbrecht, G.F.; Campbell, T.; Letourneau, N.; Kaplan, B.J.; APrON Study Team, the; Pop, V.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite little evidence to suggest that HPA axis responses to psychological provocation are attenuated during pregnancy, it is widely held that dampening of the HPA axis response to psychological distress serves a protective function for the mother and fetus. The current study was

  9. Forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among Chinese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger identification with heritage culture, a moderator), and under what situations (i.e., lower vs. higher acculturative stress, a moderator). A total of 188 Chinese international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated a significant 3-way interaction of forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, and acculturative stress on psychological distress. For those with a weaker identification with their heritage culture, when acculturative stress was higher, the use of forbearance coping was positively associated with psychological distress. However, this was not the case when acculturative stress was lower. In other words, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress when acculturative stress was lower. Moreover, for those with a stronger cultural heritage identification, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress regardless of whether acculturative stress was high or low. Future research and implications are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. A basic need theory approach to problematic Internet use and the mediating effect of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting Yat; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Li, Wang On

    2014-01-01

    The Internet provides an easily accessible way to meet certain needs. Over-reliance on it leads to problematic use, which studies show can be predicted by psychological distress. Self-determination theory proposes that we all have the basic need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness. This has been shown to explain the motivations behind problematic Internet use. This study hypothesizes that individuals who are psychologically disturbed because their basic needs are not being met are more vulnerable to becoming reliant on the Internet when they seek such needs satisfaction from online activities, and tests a model in which basic needs predict problematic Internet use, fully mediated by psychological distress. Problematic Internet use, psychological distress, and basic needs satisfaction were psychometrically measured in a sample of 229 Hong Kong University students and structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. All indices showed the model has a good fit. Further, statistical testing supported a mediation effect for psychological distress between needs satisfaction and problematic Internet use. The results extend our understanding of the development and prevention of problematic Internet use based on the framework of self-determination theory. Psychological distress could be used as an early predictor, while preventing and treating problematic Internet use should emphasize the fulfillment of unmet needs.

  11. Factors associated with psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel

    We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-07-25

    The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years +/- SD 10-years) from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6). Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR) for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years). This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P or = 25 contacts per week (P = 0.016). The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.

  13. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline S; Ndjaboué, Ruth; Levesque, Manon; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Xavier; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Dionne, Clermont E; Mâsse, Benoît; Pearce, Neil; Brisson, Chantal

    2017-01-18

    Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD) in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05) and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73) respectively). In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  14. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems (MHP are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Methods Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Results Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05 and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73 respectively. In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. Conclusions These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  15. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Methods Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years ± SD 10-years from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6. Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years. This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. Results In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P Conclusions The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.

  16. Associations between food insecurity and the severity of psychological distress among African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nickolas L; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B

    2017-01-31

    Little research exists on the association between food insecurity and mild to moderate psychological distress (MPD) among Black/African-Americans. In this study, we assess the relationship between food insecurity with and without hunger to that of both MPD and serious psychological distress (SPD) among this population. 2009 and 2011/2012 adult public-use data from African-American respondents of the California Health Interview Survey were utilized for this study (n = 4003). Descriptive statistics were utilized to identify prevalence of psychological distress among sociodemographic and mental-health associated variables. Bivariate analyses were conducted between these variables and psychological distress using survey-weighted chi-square analyses. To evaluate the association between psychological distress, our primary exposure variable of food security, and other variables, we utilized survey-weighted multinomial logistic regression. Prevalence of mild to MPD was higher among those reporting food insecurity while SPD was highest for those with food insecurity and hunger. Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrate that while MPD was significantly associated with food insecurity, Black/African-Americans with food insecurity and hunger displayed over sixfold odds of higher serious psychological distress, as compared to those living at or above 200% federal poverty level. Our findings add to this growing segment of the literature on psychological distress and food insecurity. Further focus should be placed on improving the efficacy and reach of both formal and informal food support networks to improve the collective health and well-being of poor Black/African-American communities.

  17. Vision loss and psychological distress among Ethiopians adults: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aemero Abateneh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vision loss causes major changes in lifestyle and habits that may result in psychological distress and further reduction in the quality of life. Little is known about the magnitude of psychological distress in patients with vision loss and its variation with the normal. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate the psychological effects of vision loss and its determinants among Ethiopians. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on adults attending the Eye clinic of Jimma University Hospital. One hundred fifteen consecutive adults with visual loss at least in one eye and 115 age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision were studied. The psychological distress was measured using standardized Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Chi-square test and logistic regression were carried out and associations were considered significant at P<0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 33.4%. While psychological distress was found in 49.8% of patients who had loss of vision at least in one eye, only 18.3% of the controls had it. In the adjusted analysis, patients with vision loss had 4.6 times higher risk of suffering from psychological distress compared to patients with normal vision (AOR 4.56; 95% CI 2.16-9.62. Moreover, patients with vision loss in both eyes (AOR 4.00; 95% CI 1.453-11.015 and with worse visual acuity in the better eye (AOR 3.66; 95% CI 1.27-10.54 were significantly more likely to have psychological distress than those patients with vision loss in one eye only and good visual acuity in the better eye respectively. The cause of visual loss, pattern of visual loss, duration of visual loss and sociodemographic variables did not influence the likelihood of having psychological distress. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of psychological distress was significantly higher in patients with visual loss compared to patients with normal vision. There is a need for integration of

  18. The Effect of Acculturation and Immigration on the Victimization and Psychological Distress Link in a National Sample of Latino Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A.

    2012-01-01

    Distinct bodies of research have examined the link between victimization and psychological distress and cultural variables and psychological health, but little is known about how cultural variables affect psychological distress among Latino victims. Substantial research has concluded that Latino women are more likely than non-Latino women to…

  19. An evaluation of psychological distress and social support of survivors and contacts of Ebola virus disease infection and their relatives in Lagos, Nigeria: a cross sectional study--2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Gidado, Saheed; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Shuaib, Faisal; Adeyemi, Joseph; Uzoma, Ogbonna; Ahmed, Abubakar; Doherty, Funmi; Nyanti, Sarah Beysolow; Nzuki, Charles Kyalo; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Abdus-Salam, Ismail Adeshina; Obiako, Reginald O

    2015-08-27

    predicted by loss of family member. It is recommended that psychiatrists and other mental health specialists be part of case management teams. The clinical teams managing EVD patients should be trained on recognition of common psychological distress among patients. A mental health specialist should review contacts being monitored for EVD for psychological distress or disorders.

  20. Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label.

  1. Psychological Distress and Revictimization Risk in Youth Victims of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Samantha L; Schreier, Alayna; Meidlinger, Katie; Pogue, Jessica K; Theimer, Kate; Flood, Mary Fran; Hansen, David J

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, has been associated with increased risk for sexual revictimization in youth who have experienced child sexual abuse. The present study utilized assessment information from treatment seeking youth with histories of sexual abuse to explore specific risk indicators for revictimization-risk taking, social problems, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress-that may be indicated by self-reported distress. The relationship between initial levels of distress and change in symptoms over a 12-week course of treatment was also explored. Participants were 101 youth referred to a child-focused therapeutic group for victims of sexual abuse, 65 youth referred to an adolescent-focused group, and their non-offending caregivers. Results revealed that when combined into a distress score, depression and anxiety were associated with delinquent behaviors, interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress symptoms for child and adolescent group participants at presentation to treatment. Children exhibited improvement on measures of interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Adolescents exhibited less change over time, with significant improvement on self-reported social problems and PTSD only. Higher psychological distress was associated with less improvement in regard to negative expectations of abuse impact for child group participants. The findings suggest that distress indicates the presence of specific revictimization risk indicators, helping to identify targetable symptoms for intervention. Therefore, screening for psychological distress after discovery of sexual abuse may help detect youth at higher risk for revictimization and guide treatment.

  2. Intimate Partner Violence Victims Seeking a Temporary Restraining Order: Social Support and Resilience Attenuating Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Rupa; Novaco, Raymond W

    2016-12-01

    Social support has been found in many studies to be a protective factor for those exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), but personal resilience has received far less attention. The present study concerns 136 female IPV victims seeking a temporary restraining order (TRO) from a Family Justice Center (FJC). The relationships between IPV victimization, social support, resilience, and psychological distress were examined. Hierarchical regressions found that both perceived social support and self-reported resilience were inversely associated with distress symptoms. Higher social support was associated with lower trauma symptoms, controlling for abuse history, demographics, and resilience. Higher resilience was associated with lower mood symptoms and lower perceived stress, controlling for abuse history, demographics, and social support. No significant associations were recorded for anger symptoms. These findings suggest that fostering resilience can have important health benefits for IPV victims, above and beyond the well-known benefits of social support. Ways that resilience might be cultivated in this population and other implications for practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Video game addiction and psychological distress among expatriate adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Wahid, AbdulWaris; Ahmed, Abdulrahman Akmal; Dhuhayr, Hamad Emad; Zaghloul, Mohamed Saddik; Ewid, Mohammed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in the International Schools in Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Students who returned signed consent forms from their parents filled out a self-administered questionnaire that included validated scales on addiction to video games, general health, and lifestyle. The proportion between the sexes and the schools were roughly equal. Around 32% were overweight or obese, 75% had screen time ≥ 2 h/day, and 20% slept correlates were female gender, higher screen time, and shorter sleep hours. The proportion of students with psychological distress was high. Future studies should investigate other potential correlates of distress such personal traits, family relations, and academic performance.

  4. Psychological distress in women with breast and gynecological cancer treated with radical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Álvarez, Carmen; Hernández-Lloreda, Maria José

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare psychological distress (body image disturbance,self-esteem, depression, and anxiety) in women with breast or gynecological cancer treated by radical surgery. Additionally, another objective is to analyze the association between psychological distress and sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and social support to produce a prediction model for the outcome measures. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 100 women who had undergone radical surgery for breast or gynecological cancer. Both groups were divided into the following: younger than 50 years old and 50 years old or older. Body Image Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. Age had a significant main effect on psychological distress but the type of cancer did not.Younger women showed significantly greater distress than older women (p-valuestherapy side effects. For lower self-esteem, the variables were: being younger, post-adjuvant therapy side effects,and dissatisfaction with social support. And for higher anxiety, the sole variable included was post-adjuvant therapy side effects. Both mastectomy and hysterectomy/oophorectomy cause similar psychological distress in younger women, but mastectomy causes greater distress in older women than hysterectomy/oophorectomy.

  5. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.

  6. Psychological distress and coping in breast cancer patients and healthy women whose parents survived the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baider, Lea; Goldzweig, Gil; Ever-Hadani, Pnina; Peretz, Tamar

    2006-07-01

    Psychological distress levels of breast cancer patients whose parents were Holocaust survivors ('second-generation Holocaust' patients) were previously shown to be significantly higher than those of a matched group of patients with non-traumatized parents. In this study, we investigated whether this effect reflects only the generally higher distress levels of second-generation Holocaust women or whether breast cancer patients with traumatized parents also present lower adaptation abilities, which result in increased distress to the breast cancer diagnosis. We assessed psychological distress and measures of coping in 193 second-generation Holocaust patients diagnosed with breast cancer, 164 breast cancer patients with non-traumatized parents, 176 healthy second-generation Holocaust women, and 143 healthy women with non-traumatized parents. The main effect of cancer and the main effect of second-generation Holocaust survivor on psychological distress were found to be significant. These two factors (cancer x second generation) had a synergistic effect on the levels of depression and psychoticism. These results support the hypothesis that, at least on some psychological measures, the cumulative distressing effect of having traumatized parents and breast cancer diagnosis is higher than the effect of each factor alone.

  7. Factors associated with trajectories of psychological distress for Australian fathers across the early parenting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Cooklin, Amanda; Christensen, Daniel; Nicholson, Jan M

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the course of fathers' psychological distress and associated risk factors beyond the postnatal period. Therefore, the current study aimed to: (a) assess the course of distress over 7 years postnatally; (b) identify classes of fathers defined by their symptom trajectories; and (c) identify early postnatal factors associated with persistent symptoms. Data from 2,470 fathers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed using latent growth modelling. Fathers' psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler-6 (Kessler et al. in Arch Psychiatry 60:184-189, 2003) when their children were aged 0-1, 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7 years. Overall, distress was highest in the first postnatal year and then decreased over time. Two distinct trajectories were identified. The majority of fathers (92%) were identified as having minimal distress in the first postnatal year which decreased over time, whilst 8% had moderate distress which increased over time. Low parental self-efficacy, poor relationship and job quality were associated with 'persistent and increasing distress'. Early postnatal factors associated with fathers' persistent distress were identified, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention.

  8. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    OpenAIRE

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress wa...

  9. Minority stress, psychosocial resources, and psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Jabson, Jennifer M; Mustian, Karen M; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have examined unique factors predicting psychological distress among sexual minority (i.e., lesbian and bisexual) women postbreast cancer diagnosis. The present study assessed the association of minority stress and psychosocial resource factors with depression and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. Two hundred one sexual minority women who had ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-IV breast cancer participated in this study through the Love/Avon Army of Women. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess demographic and clinical factors, minority stress factors (discrimination, minority identity development, outness), psychosocial resources (resilience, social support), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression). These factors were included in a structural equation model, testing psychosocial resources as mediators between minority stress and psychological distress. There were no significant differences noted between lesbian and bisexual women. The final structural equation model demonstrated acceptable fit across all sexual minority women, χ2 = 27.83, p > .05; confirmatory fit index = 0.97, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.04, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.93. The model accounted for significant variance in psychological distress (56%). Examination of indirect effects confirmed that exposure to discrimination was associated with distress via association with resilience. Factors unique to sexual minority populations, such as minority stress, may be associated with higher rates of psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. However, presence of psychosocial resources may mediate relationships with distress in this population; enhancement of resilience, in particular, could be an aim of psychological intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Age and Gender Differences in Psychological Distress among African Americans and Whites: Findings from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C; Johnson, Natasha C

    2018-01-17

    Previous studies report a race and mental health paradox: Whites score higher on measures of major depression compared to African Americans, but the opposite is true for psychological distress (i.e., African Americans score higher on distress measures compared to Whites). Independently, race, age, and gender outcomes for psychological distress are well documented in the literature. However, there is relatively little research on how psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites at the intersection of their various race, age, and gender identities. This study uses data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey to examine age and gender differences in psychological distress and how much psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites. Our study findings are contrary to the paradox such that young White women (M = 3.36, SD = 1.14) and middle-aged White men (M = 2.55, SD = 3.97) experienced higher psychological distress than all other race, age, and gender groups. Psychological distress interference was relatively high among the high distress groups, except for older African American men (M = 1.73, SD = 1.05) and young African American women (M = 1.93, SD = 0.95). Implications for studies that consider cultural experiences of psychological distress, and how it impacts different demographic groups are discussed.

  11. Comparison of Psychological Distress between Type 2 Diabetes Patients with and without Proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Rie; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Mochimasu, Kazumi Dokai; Kurato, Risa; Kuwana, Susumu

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the link between proteinuria and psychological distress among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 130 patients with T2DM aged 69.1±10.3 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Urine and blood parameters, age, height, body weight, and medications were analyzed, and each patient's psychological distress was measured using the six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). We compared the K6 scores between the patients with and without proteinuria. Forty-two patients (32.3%) had proteinuria (≥±) and the level of HbA1c was 7.5±1.3%. The K6 scores of the patients with proteinuria were significantly higher than those of the patients without proteinuria even after adjusting for age and sex. The clinical impact of proteinuria rather than age, sex and HbA1c was demonstrated by a multiple regression analysis. Proteinuria was closely associated with higher psychological distress. Preventing and improving proteinuria may reduce psychological distress in patients with T2DM.

  12. Battered women's coping strategies and psychological distress: differences by immigration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Mieko

    2002-06-01

    People are rarely passive, and battered women are no exception. This study investigated the types of coping strategies women of Japanese descent (both Japan-born and U.S.-born) chose and their perceived effectiveness in dealing with their partners' violence. Japan-born respondents were significantly less likely to use "active" strategies and perceived them to be less effective than did U.S.-born respondents For the Japan-born, the more effective they perceived "active" strategies, the higher their psychological distress, whereas the more effective they perceived "passive" strategies, the lower their psychological distress. In contrast, for the U.S.-born, the higher the perceived effectiveness of "active" strategies, the lower their psychological distress, and the perceived effectiveness of "passive" strategies had little effect on their psychological distress. The complex relationship between individuals' country of birth, the choice and perceived effectiveness of coping strategies, and psychological distress calls for increased attention to the role of culture in studies of coping and domestic violence.

  13. Evaluation of psychological distress using the K6 in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Akihiko; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Nishi, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Hiroo; Uzike, Kazuhiro; Sakano, Noriko; Tanaka, Keiko; Koumoto, Kiichi

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychological distress in patients on chronic hemodialysis. A total of 72 patients on chronic hemodialysis were enrolled in this study. We evaluated psychological distress by using the K6 questionnaire, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by using the EQ-5D questionnaire, and clinical parameters. Among the 72 patients, we also evaluated changes in K6 scores in 58 patients at 1-year follow-up. The mean K6 score was 3.7 ± 3.7 and 2 subjects (2.8%) were defined as having psychological distress. K6 scores were significantly correlated with body fat percentage, albumin level, and EQ-5D scores in total subjects. K6 scores were also significantly and negatively correlated with EQ-5D scores in men and women. In the 1-year follow-up group, changes in K6 scores were weakly and negatively correlated with changes in EQ-5D scores. Psychological distress was closely associated with HRQOL in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Coping strategies for psychological distress might be useful in improving HRQOL in patients on hemodialysis.

  14. Association of participation in the supplemental nutrition assistance program and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Vanessa M; Mabli, James

    2015-06-01

    We assessed whether households' participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) was associated with improvements in well-being, as indicated by lower rates of psychological distress. We used longitudinal data for 3146 households in 30 states, collected between October 2011 and September 2012 for the SNAP Food Security survey, the largest longitudinal national survey of SNAP participants to date. Analyses compared households within days of program entry to the same households approximately 6 months later. We measured psychological distress in the past 30 days on a 6-item Kessler screening scale and used multivariable regression to estimate associations between SNAP participation and psychological distress. A smaller percentage of household heads exhibited psychological distress after 6 months of participation in SNAP than at baseline (15.3% vs 23.2%; difference = -7.9%). In adjusted models, SNAP participation was associated with a decrease in psychological distress (adjusted relative risk = 0.72; 95% confidence interval = 0.66, 0.78). Continuing support for federal nutrition programs, such as SNAP, may reduce the public health burden of mental illness, thus improving well-being among vulnerable populations.

  15. Burnout and psychological distress among nurses in a Nigerian tertiary health institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwaraji, F E; Aguwa, E N

    2014-03-01

    The role of nurses in the health care delivery system cannot be overemphasized. Nurses are needed at all levels of healthcare and the profession requires a lot of dedication, time and energy with regards to patient management and service delivery. This time investment and dedication to duty is likely to lead to burnout and psychological distress among the nurses. This study assesses the prevalence of burnout and psychological distress among nurses working in Nigerian tertiary health institution. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were used to assess 210 nurses working in this health institution for symptoms of burnout and psychological distress. High levels of burnout were identified in 42.9% of the respondents in the area of emotional exhaustion, 47.6% in the area of depersonalization and 53.8% in the area of reduced personal accomplishment, while 44.1% scored positive in the GHQ-12 indicating presence of psychological distress. Prevalence of burnout and psychological distress is high among nurses.

  16. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  17. Psychological distress and the increased risk of falling into poverty: a longitudinal study of Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2015-10-01

    To identify whether psychological distress is associated with an increased risk of falling into poverty, giving a more complete picture of how psychological distress affects living standards. Longitudinal analysis of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australian (HILDA) survey using Poisson regression models to estimate relative risk of falling into income poverty and multidimensional poverty between 2007 and 2012. The sample was limited to those who were not already in income poverty in 2007. Psychological distress was identified using the Kessler-10 (K10) scale. After adjusting for confounding factors, having moderate psychological distress increased the risk of falling into income poverty by 1.62 (95% CI 1.31-2.01, p poverty by 1.85 (95% CI 1.37-2.48, p poverty by 2.40 (95% CI 1.80-3.20, p poverty by 3.68 (95% CI 2.63-5.15, p poverty (RR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.61, p = 0.0210) and those who experienced multidimensional poverty (RR: 1.69, 95% CI 1.32-2.17, p poverty. To date, the increased risk of falling into poverty that is associated with elevated levels of psychological distress has been an overlooked burden of the condition.

  18. Afghan and Kurdish refugees, 8-20 years after resettlement, still experience psychological distress and challenges to well being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl M R; Thompson, Sandra C

    2012-04-01

    To examine the resettlement experiences and provide data of well being and psychological distress for Afghan and Kurdish refugees settled between eight and 20 years in New Zealand and Australia. Participants completed the Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and Personal Well Being Index (PWI) for subjective well being. A mixed methods approach was used, with participants also discussing during interview resettlement difficulties, quality of life (QOL) and sources of stress. Data from 81 Muslim participants is reported; all spoke English, were generally well educated with 88% having secondary or tertiary level education, and the majority of those resettled before 2001 lived in Perth. Although psychological distress levels were mostly within the low-moderate risk range, significant differences were observed by gender and employment status. Participants identified a range of ongoing stressors with unemployment of particular concern. Social isolation and a sense that they would never really 'fit in' was also reported by some. Participants particularly valued the safety and improved quality of life in their host communities. Despite their appreciation of the overall resettlement experience, too much time to introspect, separation from family, status dissonance and still occasionally feeling overwhelmed by resettlement challenges is a long-term ongoing reality for some former refugees. Former refugees continue to struggle with unemployment, possible discrimination and loss of status long-term. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Changes in Social Exclusion Indicators and Psychological Distress Among Homeless People Over a 2.5-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Straaten, Barbara; Rodenburg, Gerda; Van der Laan, Jorien; Boersma, Sandra N; Wolf, Judith R L M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2018-01-01

    Although homelessness is inherently associated with social exclusion, homeless individuals are rarely included in conventional studies on social exclusion. Use of longitudinal survey data from a cohort study on homeless people in four major Dutch cities ( n  = 378) allowed to examine: changes in indicators of social exclusion among homeless people over a 2.5-year period after reporting to the social relief system, and associations between changes in indicators of social exclusion and changes in psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations between changes in indicators of social exclusion and changes in psychological distress. Improvements were found in various indicators of social exclusion, whereas financial debts showed no significant improvement. Changes in unmet care needs, health insurance, social support from family and relatedness to others were related to changes in psychological distress. This study demonstrated improvements in various indicators of social exclusion among homeless people over a period of 2.5 years, and sheds light on the concept of social exclusion in relation to homelessness.

  20. Living Conditions and Psychological Distress in Latino Migrant Day Laborers: The Role of Cultural and Community Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, Kurt C; Ngo, Samantha; Neilands, Torsten B; Kral, Alex H

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between typically difficult living conditions and psychological distress in Latino migrant day laborers (LMDLs), with attention to the potentially protective roles of contact with family in country of origin (i.e., communication, sending money, etc.), availability of local culture (i.e., food, music, people from one's country of origin), and utilization of community resources perceived to be culturally competent (i.e., services that are respectful, able to serve Latinos, able to solve problems, in Spanish, etc.). Participants were 344 LMDLs surveyed in the San Francisco Bay Area. As hypothesized: (a) difficult living conditions were related to depression, anxiety, and desesperación [desperation], the latter a popular Latino idiom of psychological distress recently validated on LMDLs; (b) contact with family moderated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety and (c) access to local culture, and utilization of community resources, mediated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety. Implications for intervening at local and larger levels in order to provide some protection against distress built into the LMDL experience in the United States are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  1. The association of perceived abuse and discrimination after September 11, 2001, with psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Heisler, Michele

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post-September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post-September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived post-September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans.

  2. The Association of Perceived Abuse and Discrimination After September 11, 2001, With Psychological Distress, Level of Happiness, and Health Status Among Arab Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. Methods. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Results. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post–September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post–September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Conclusions. Perceived post–September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans. PMID:20019301

  3. Cognitive Distortion and Psychological Distress in Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Indicated that cognitive distortion was associated with high scores on the Minnesota Multiophasic Personality Inventory (MMPH) Depression (D), Psychasthenia (Pt), and Schizophrenia (Sc) scales, but not the Hypochondriasis (Hs) and Hysteria (Hy) scales. Cognitive distortion is likely to be an important factor in general distress but not in…

  4. Psychological distress and depression in urbanising elderly black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... distress, depression and limitation of daily activities were ... useful in assessing the prevalence and severity of dementia and depression. Several items, which screened specifically for other psychiatric entities, were added, including psychotic mani- ..... Great difficulties were encountered, since a con-.

  5. Association of Personality Traits with Psychological Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Distress: A Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to find the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress

  6. Persistent psychological distress and mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ralph A H; Colquhoun, David M; Marschner, Simone L; Kirby, Adrienne C; Simes, John; Nestel, Paul J; Glozier, Nick; O'Neil, Adrienne; Oldenburg, Brian; White, Harvey D; Tonkin, Andrew M

    2017-12-01

    A single assessment of psychological distress, which includes depression and anxiety, has been associated with increased mortality in patients with coronary heart disease, but the prognostic importance of persistence of distress symptoms is less certain. To determine whether intermittent and/or persistent psychological distress is associated with long-term cardiovascular (CV) and total mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease. 950 participants in the Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) trial completed at least four General Health Questionnaires (GHQ-30) at baseline and after ½, 1, 2 and 4 years. In a landmark analysis from 4 years, Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the risk of CV and total mortality by increasing levels of psychological distress: never distressed, sometimes any severity (GHQ score >5), persistent mild (GHQ score >5 on three or more occasions) and persistent moderate distress (GHQ score >10) on three or more occasions, over a median of 12.1 (IQR 8.6-12.5) years. The models were both unadjusted and adjusted for known baseline risk factors. Persistent moderate or greater psychological stress was reported on three or more assessments by 35 (3.7%) subjects. These patients had a higher risk of both CV death (adjusted HR 3.94, 95% CI 2.05 to 7.56, pcoronary artery disease, persistent psychological distress of at least moderate severity is associated with a substantial increase in CV and all-cause mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Psychological distress among university female students and their need for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdóttir, J; Vilhjálmsson, R

    2013-10-01

    Psychological distress among university students, especially young women, is of increasing concern. This study focuses on the prevalence of psychological distress among female university students and their need for mental health services. The analysis is based on two cross-sectional surveys, an internet survey among women students attending the University of Iceland in the spring of 2007, and a postal survey of Icelandic female adults conducted in the Fall of 2006. Psychological distress was measured with the Symptom Checklist-90 Depression and Anxiety subscales. The prevalence of above-threshold depression and anxiety among the university women students was 22.5% and 21.2% respectively. Results showed that the mean depression score was significantly lower among the students than among women of the same age in the general population. However, little less than one-third of students with elevated distress levels received any professional help. Only 1.4% of the distressed students received mental help care from nurses. The high proportion of distressed female students not receiving professional help is a challenge to the primary health-care system and the nursing profession. This also raises questions about the adequacy of the current system of health-care delivery and the potential advantages of on-campus health services, in closer proximity to the students. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Dating violence, psychological distress, and attempted suicide among female adolescents in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttar, Aliya; Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Haas, Joseph; Reese, Fritz

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of mental illness and suicide among female adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system is alarmingly high and there is a need to identify risk factors that may be amenable to intervention. This study examined the independent association between dating violence and poor mental health (psychological distress and attempted suicide) among 305 female adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system in Nevada. Overall, 28% of the sample met the criteria for clinically significant psychological distress and 18% had attempted suicide with intent to die. After controlling for well-established risk factors such as sexual orientation, childhood abuse, and substance abuse, dating violence remained independently associated with psychological distress and attempted suicide. These findings suggest that mental health programming for this population may be more effective if it includes a focus on dating violence.

  9. Social Cognition, Executive Functions and Self-Report of Psychological Distress in Huntington's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using...... a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. METHOD: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status...... psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived...

  10. Influence of Workplace Bullying on Turkish Nurses' Psychological Distress and Nurses' Reactions to Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçı, Ezgi; Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to determine the influence of bullying on nurses' psychological distress. A descriptive design was adopted. The study sample included 284 nurses of a university hospital in Izmir, Turkey. The Workplace Bullying Behavior Scale and the General Health Questionnaire were used. After the study was completed, it was determined that nurses with a master's degree were exposed to bullying more and that nurses exposed to bullying suffered higher levels of psychological distress and preferred to keep silent about it. Perpetrators of bullying were mainly head nurses. Bullying is a common workplace phenomenon, and in most cases, nurses bully each other. Bullied nurses suffer more psychological distress. Managers of health care institutions should always remember that nurses have a higher risk of exposure to bullying and that measures should be taken to support nurses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Correlates and Predictors of Psychological Distress Among Older Asian Immigrants in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Miya; Moon, Ailee

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress occurs frequently in older minority immigrants because many have limited social resources and undergo a difficult process related to immigration and acculturation. Despite a rapid increase in the number of Asian immigrants, relatively little research has focused on subgroup mental health comparisons. This study examines the prevalence of psychological distress, and relationship with socio-demographic factors, and health care utilization among older Asian immigrants. Weighted data from Asian immigrants 65 and older from 5 countries (n = 1,028) who participated in the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed descriptively and in multiple linear regressions. The prevalence of psychological distress varied significantly across the 5 ethnic groups, from Filipinos (4.83%) to Chinese (1.64%). General health status, cognitive and physical impairment, and health care utilization are all associated (p culturally effective mental health services and outreach programs.

  12. The ABC’s of Trait Anger, Psychological Distress, and Disease Severity in HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Roger C.; Hurwitz, Barry E.; Antoni, Michael; Gonzalez, Alex; Seay, Julia; Schneiderman, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background Trait anger consists of affective, behavioral, and cognitive (ABC) dimensions and may increase vulnerability for interpersonal conflict, diminished social support, and greater psychological distress. The concurrent influence anger and psychosocial dysfunction on HIV disease severity is unknown. Purpose Examine plausible psychosocial avenues (e.g. coping, social support, psychological distress) whereby trait anger may indirectly influence HIV disease status. Methods 377 HIV seropositive adults, aged 18–55 years (58% AIDS-defined) completed a battery of psychosocial surveys and provided a fasting blood sample for HIV-1 viral load and T-lymphocyte count assay. Results A second-order factor model confirmed higher levels of the multidimensional anger trait was directly associated with elevated psychological distress and avoidant coping (pmechanisms; however longitudinal study is needed to elucidate these effects. PMID:25385204

  13. Coping strategies: a prospective study of patterns, stability, and relationships with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten B; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this article are: (1) to explore patterns (clusters) of coping strategies; (2) to examine the stability of individual coping strategies and patterns of coping over time; and (3) to establish long term associations between coping and psychological distress. Coping strategies were assessed with the Brief Cope questionnaire, whereas psychological distress was measured with the ten-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, in a two-year prospective sample comprising 3,738 employees. Based on TwoStep cluster analysis of the Brief Cope, three different coping patterns were identified: low coping, engagement coping, and disengagement coping. Analyses of long-term stability indicated malleable properties for the individual coping strategies as well as the three clusters. Disengagement coping strategies in the form of self-blame and self-distraction were most strongly associated with distress at follow-up, whereas baseline distress was related to increased use of these strategies two years later. Coping patterns at baseline had no main effects on later levels of distress, but levels of distress at baseline predicted subsequent use of engagement and disengagement coping patterns. The finding that specific coping strategies are malleable suggests that it is possible to modify and develop dysfunctional strategies. The associations between disengagement coping strategies and distress indicate that this kind of coping is especially problematic with regard to mental health problems. A main contribution of this study is that it establishes cluster analytic techniques as beneficial in the assessment of coping.

  14. Psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior among university students in contemporary China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Byrne, Majella; Qin, Ping

    2017-12-06

    Psychological distress and suicidal behavior are important mental health problems among university students and warrant research to inform strategies for effective prevention in this young population. The present study aimed to assess psychological distress and suicidal behavior and to unravel their associations among university students. A total of 5972 undergraduate students, randomly selected from six universities in central China, comprised the sample. The Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess various psychological symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior. 40.7% of the university students reported positive in a least one of the 9 psychological symptom dimensions assessed by the SCL-90-R. 7.6% of the students reported suicidal behavior in the previous twelve months. The risk of suicidal behavior was significantly associated with psychological symptoms of all types, but there were notable differences by sex. For male students, depression and phobic anxiety increased the risk of suicidal behavior. Meanwhile, depression and obsessive-compulsiveness were positively associated with suicidal behavior in female students. Furthermore, increasing risk of suicidal behavior was associated with increasing positive symptom total (PST) score and a statistically significant trend was observed. Data collected from a cross-sectional survey does not allow any examination of causal inference. Psychological distress and suicidal behavior were both common among university students; and psychological distress was highly associated with suicidal behavior. The findings underscore the importance of mental health care for university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and psychological distress: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijpers Pim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Methods Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in September 2008. Additional materials were obtained from reference lists. Papers describing passive psychoeducational interventions for depression, anxiety and psychological distress were included if the research design was a randomized controlled trial and incorporated an attention placebo, no intervention or waitlist comparison group. Results In total, 9010 abstracts were identified. Of these, five papers which described four research studies targeting passive psychoeducation for depression and psychological distress met the inclusion criteria. The pooled standardized-effect size (four studies, four comparisons for reduced symptoms of depression and psychological distress at post-intervention was d = 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.40; Z = 2.04; P = 0.04; the number needed to treat: 9. Heterogeneity was not significant among the studies (I2 = 32.77, Q:4.46; P = 0.22. Conclusions Although it is commonly believed that psychoeducation interventions are ineffective, this meta-analysis revealed that brief passive psychoeducational interventions for depression and psychological distress can reduce symptoms. Brief passive psychoeducation interventions are easy to implement, can be applied immediately and are not expensive. They may offer a first-step intervention for those experiencing psychological distress or depression and might serve as an initial intervention in primary care or community models. The findings suggest that the quality of psychoeducation may be

  16. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and psychological distress: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, Tara; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Cuijpers, Pim; Christensen, Helen

    2009-12-16

    Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in September 2008. Additional materials were obtained from reference lists. Papers describing passive psychoeducational interventions for depression, anxiety and psychological distress were included if the research design was a randomized controlled trial and incorporated an attention placebo, no intervention or waitlist comparison group. In total, 9010 abstracts were identified. Of these, five papers which described four research studies targeting passive psychoeducation for depression and psychological distress met the inclusion criteria. The pooled standardized-effect size (four studies, four comparisons) for reduced symptoms of depression and psychological distress at post-intervention was d = 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.40; Z = 2.04; P = 0.04; the number needed to treat: 9). Heterogeneity was not significant among the studies (I2 = 32.77, Q:4.46; P = 0.22). Although it is commonly believed that psychoeducation interventions are ineffective, this meta-analysis revealed that brief passive psychoeducational interventions for depression and psychological distress can reduce symptoms. Brief passive psychoeducation interventions are easy to implement, can be applied immediately and are not expensive. They may offer a first-step intervention for those experiencing psychological distress or depression and might serve as an initial intervention in primary care or community models. The findings suggest that the quality of psychoeducation may be important.

  17. Social Cognition, Executive Functions and Self-Report of Psychological Distress in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Gade, Anders; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-12-28

    Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)). Correlation analyses of test performance and SCL-90-R scores were made as well as stepwise linear regression analyses with the SCL-90-R GSI score and test performances as dependent variables. We found that less psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests remained significant after controlling for age, Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale-99 total motor score and performance on tests of executive functions. Based on previous findings that insight and apathy are closely connected and may be mediated by overlapping neuroanatomical networks involving the prefrontal cortex and frontostriatal circuits, we speculate that apathy/and or impaired insight may offer an explanation for the correlation between self-report of psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests in this study.

  18. HIV-related stigma and psychological distress: the harmful effects of specific stigma manifestations in various social settings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stutterheim, S; Pryor, J.B; Bos, A.E.R; Hoogendijk, R; Muris, P; Schaalma, H.P

    2009-01-01

    ... in specific settings may be psychologically more detrimental than others. The present study examines which specific stigma experiences are most strongly related to psychological distress across a number of social settings...

  19. Gender disparities in psychological distress and quality of life among patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Corline; van den Broek, Krista C; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    A subset of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) reports psychological distress and poor quality of life (QoL). Gender is one of the factors that has been proposed to explain individual differences in these outcomes. In this viewpoint, we (1) review the evidence for gender....../depression and QoL in ICD patients (mean prevalence of women = 21%; mean age = 62 years). Our review shows that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that gender per se is a major autonomous predictor for disparities in psychological distress and QoL in ICD patients. Women had a higher prevalence of anxiety...

  20. The impact of childhood sexual abuse on psychological distress among women in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Ross A; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Long, Nigel R; MacDonald, Carol; Millar, Michelle; Clark, Bronwyn; Edwards, Howard; Petrik, Alexandra M

    2012-02-01

    In order to better understand the long-term impact of child sex abuse, this study examined the association between women's experience of abuse, health symptoms, and psychological distress in adulthood. There is limited information about child abuse outside the United States. Nine hundred sixty-one women participated in a structured interview. Participants who had experienced abuse (13%) were significantly more vulnerable to psychological distress in adulthood if they were younger, less satisfied with their standard of living, and resided in urban areas. Dissemination and evaluation of therapies for the treatment of sex abuse in the New Zealand context is warranted. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Psychological distress in patients with a left ventricular assist device and their partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Corline; Denollet, Johan; Caliskan, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Background:Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy is increasingly used in patients with advanced heart failure, and may have a significant psychological impact on both patients and their partners. Hence, we examined the distress levels of LVAD patients and their partners.Methods:Anxiety, d......Background:Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy is increasingly used in patients with advanced heart failure, and may have a significant psychological impact on both patients and their partners. Hence, we examined the distress levels of LVAD patients and their partners...

  2. Psychological distress in medical patients seeking ED care for somatic reasons: results of a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faessler, Lukas; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review is to investigate (A) currently used instruments for assessing psychological distress, (B) the prevalence of psychological distress in medical emergency department (ED) patients with acute somatic conditions and (C) empirical evidence on how predictors are associated with psychological distress. We conducted an electronic literature search using three databases to identify studies that used validated instruments for detection of psychological distress in adult patients presented to the ED with somatic (non-psychiatric) complaints. From a total of 1688 potential articles, 18 studies were selected for in-depth review. A total of 13 instruments have been applied for assessment of distress including screening questionnaires and briefly structured clinical interviews. Using these instruments, the prevalence of psychological distress detected in medical ED patients was between 4% and 47%. Psychological distress in general and particularly depression and anxiety have been found to be associated with demographic factors (eg, female gender, middle age) and illness-related variables (eg, urgency of triage category). Some studies reported that coexisting psychological distress of medical patients identified in the ED was associated with physical and psychological health status after ED discharge. Importantly, during routine clinical care, only few patients with psychological distress were diagnosed by their treating physicians. There is strong evidence that psychological distress is an important and prevalent cofactor in medically ill patients presenting to the ED with harmful associations with (subjective) health outcomes. To prove causality, future research should investigate whether screening and lowering psychological distress with specific interventions would result in better patient outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

  4. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  5. Bullying, Social Support, and Psychological Distress: Findings From RELACHS Cohorts of East London's White British and Bangladeshi Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Silva, Maria Joao; Harding, Seeromanie; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to test whether bullying in adolescents relates to poor mental health and whether social support mitigated this effect. In 2001, 28 schools in East London were randomly selected for surveys of two representative mixed ability classes: year 7 (11-12 years) and year 9 (13-14 years). Repeated measures were obtained from the same pupils 2 years later, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (total difficulties score [TDS]) as a measure of psychological distress. A simple one-level random intercepts model with measurements nested within pupils was used to investigate the effects of bullying and social support from friends and family on TDS. We also assessed whether culturally congruent friendships offered a mental health advantage. Bullying was associated with a higher mean TDS (coefficient, 95% confidence interval: White British: 2.15, 1.41-2.88; Bangladeshi: 1.65, .91-2.4); a high level of family social support was associated with a lower TDS (White British: -2.36, -3.33 to -1.39; Bangladeshi: -2.34, -3.15 to -.149). Social support from friends was helpful for White British adolescents (-1.06, -2.07 to -.04). Culturally congruent friendships offered no general advantage. Bullying is associated with psychological distress; family social support is independently associated with less psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A prospective study of psychological distress and sexual risk behavior among black adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiClemente, R J; Wingood, G M; Crosby, R A; Sionean, C; Brown, L K; Rothbaum, B; Zimand, E; Cobb, B K; Harrington, K; Davies, S

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between adolescents' psychological distress and their sexually transmitted disease/human immunodeficiency virus (STD/HIV)-associated sexual behaviors and attitudes. Sexually active black adolescent females (N = 522) completed, at baseline and again 6 months later, a self-administered questionnaire that assessed sexual health attitudes and emotional distress symptoms (using standardized measures, alpha =.84), a structured interview that assessed STD/HIV-associated sexual risk behaviors, and a urine screen for pregnancy. In multivariate analyses, controlling for observed covariates, adolescents with significant distress at baseline were more likely than their peers, after 6 months, to be pregnant (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: = 2.0), have had unprotected vaginal sex (AOR = 2.1), have nonmonogamous sex partners (AOR = 1.7), and not use any form of contraception (AOR = 1.5). Additionally, they were also more likely to: perceive barriers to condom use (AOR = 2.2), be fearful of the adverse consequences of negotiating condom use (AOR = 2.0), perceive less control in their relationship (AOR = 2.0), have experienced dating violence (AOR = 2.4), feel less efficacious in negotiating condom use with a new sex partner (AOR = 1.6), and have norms nonsupportive of a healthy sexual relationship (AOR = 1.7). The findings suggest that psychological distress is predictive over a 6-month period of a spectrum of STD/HIV-associated sexual behaviors and high-risk attitudes. Brief screening to detect distress or depressive symptoms among adolescent females can alert the clinician to the need to conduct a sexual health history, initiate STD/HIV-preventive counseling, and refer for comprehensive psychological assessment and appropriate treatment. Among adolescents receiving STD treatment, those with even moderate emotional distress may be at heightened risk for further unhealthy outcomes. STD/HIV interventions should also consider

  7. Detrimental effects of workplace bullying: impediment of self-management competence via psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eGiorgi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual’s physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001 in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study’s findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress.

  8. Detrimental Effects of Workplace Bullying: Impediment of Self-Management Competence via Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Perminienė, Milda; Montani, Francesco; Fiz-Perez, Javier; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale, and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual's physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001) in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study's findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress.

  9. Financial strain and birth weight: the mediating role of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amanda M; Christian, Lisa M

    2017-02-01

    The effects of financial strain during pregnancy have received limited attention. In addition, data examining the pathways by which SES indicators contribute to birth weight are lacking. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential pathway of psychological distress in the relationship between financial strain and birth weight. Participants consisted of 138 pregnant women who completed measures assessing financial strain, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific distress, perceived stress, and general anxiety during pregnancy (mean gestational age = 18.5, SD = 7.2). Birth outcome data were obtained via medical record review. Simple and parallel mediation models were conducted using PROCESS. Simple mediation models showed that depressive symptoms (95% CI -24.65, -0.90) and pregnancy-specific distress (95% CI -37.31, -5.91), but not perceived stress (95% CI -31.17, 4.69) or anxiety (95% CI -25.84, 5.57), served as mediators in the relationship between financial strain and birth weight. When depressive symptoms and pregnancy-specific distress were included in the same mediation model, only pregnancy-specific distress remained significant. Financial strain was positively associated with all facets of psychological distress and negatively associated with birth weight during pregnancy. The current study demonstrated the mechanistic role of pregnancy-specific distress in the link between financial strain and birth weight in a racially diverse sample. Interventions targeting pregnancy-specific distress may mitigate the effects of financial strain on birth weight. Studies examining whether pregnancy-specific distress accounts for the relationship between other types of stressor exposures and birth weight would be informative.

  10. Psychological distress and its effect on tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habteyes Hailu Tola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design: A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330 diagnosed with all types of TB who had been on treatment for 1–2 months were enrolled consecutively from 15 randomly selected health centers and one TB specialized hospital. Data on sociodemographic variables and economic status were collected using a structured questionnaire. The presence of psychological distress was assessed at baseline (within 1–2 months after treatment initiation and end point (6 months after treatment initiation using the 10-item Kessler (K-10 scale. Alcohol use and tobacco smoking history were assessed using WHO Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Australian Smoking Assessment Checklist, respectively. The current WHO TB treatment outcome definition was used to differentiate the end result of each patient at completion of the treatment. Results: The overall psychological distress was 67.6% at 1–2 months and 48.5% at 6 months after treatment initiation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that past TB treatment history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.76; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.67–8.45], being on anti-TB and anti-HIV treatments (AOR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.83–15.65, being unmarried (AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 2.45–7.53, having alcohol use disorder (AOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.25–6.99, and having low economic status (AOR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.44–7.97 were significantly associated with psychological distress at baseline. However, at 6 months after treatment initiation, only being a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patient (AOR: 3

  11. Psychological distress and its effect on tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, Habteyes Hailu; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Tol, Azar; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Kebede, Abebaw; Karimi, Mehrdad; Kassa, Desta

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330) diagnosed with all types of TB who had been on treatment for 1–2 months were enrolled consecutively from 15 randomly selected health centers and one TB specialized hospital. Data on sociodemographic variables and economic status were collected using a structured questionnaire. The presence of psychological distress was assessed at baseline (within 1–2 months after treatment initiation) and end point (6 months after treatment initiation) using the 10-item Kessler (K-10) scale. Alcohol use and tobacco smoking history were assessed using WHO Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Australian Smoking Assessment Checklist, respectively. The current WHO TB treatment outcome definition was used to differentiate the end result of each patient at completion of the treatment. Results The overall psychological distress was 67.6% at 1–2 months and 48.5% at 6 months after treatment initiation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that past TB treatment history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.67–8.45], being on anti-TB and anti-HIV treatments (AOR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.83–15.65), being unmarried (AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 2.45–7.53), having alcohol use disorder (AOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.25–6.99), and having low economic status (AOR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.44–7.97) were significantly associated with psychological distress at baseline. However, at 6 months after treatment initiation, only being a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patient (AOR: 3.02; 95% CI

  12. Coping with war trauma and psychological distress among school-age Palestinian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of the 2012 war on children's psychological distress in Gaza Strip. It was hypothesized that a) greater levels of exposure to war trauma would be associated with greater behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms; b) children who rely more on problem-focused coping will manifest less behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms whereas children who rely more on emotion-focused coping will manifest higher levels of behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms; and c) certain children's characteristics (i.e., age, gender, and family income) would be predictive of children's behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD. Participants were 205 males and females aged 9 to 16 years. Questionnaires were administered in an interview format with participants at schools. Results indicated that approximately 30 percent of the Palestinian children who were exposed to higher levels of war traumas have developed PTSD with excess risk for co-morbidity with other disorders such as emotional symptoms and neuroticism. The findings revealed that children with lower family income reported higher levels of emotion and behavioral disorders and neuroticism. While emotion-focused coping was positively associated with emotional and behavioral problems, neuroticism, and PTSD, problem-focused coping was negatively associated with neuroticism and PTSD. The clinical implications of these conclusions were discussed to formulate cognitive-behavioral coping interventions that can lead to positive outcomes in the posttrauma environment.

  13. Prenatal psychological distress and access to mental health care in the ELFE cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, M; Pambrun, E; Melchior, M; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, N M-C; Charles, M-A; Verdoux, H; Sutter-Dallay, A-L

    2015-02-01

    Pregnant women are vulnerable to the deleterious impact of environmental stressors. The aims were to identify the environmental and pregnancy characteristics independently associated with prenatal psychological distress and access to mental health care. We used data from the French cohort Étude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE), a nationally representative cohort of children followed-up from birth to adulthood. Information about prenatal psychological status and access to mental health care was collected during the maternity stay. Maternal/pregnancy characteristics independently associated with psychological distress and access to mental health care were explored using multivariate analyses. Of the 15,143 mothers included, 12.6% reported prenatal psychological distress. Prenatal distress was more frequent in women with very low economical status, alcohol/tobacco use, unplanned/unwanted pregnancy, late pregnancy declaration, multiparity and complicated pregnancy (high number of prenatal visits, prenatal diagnosis examination, obstetrical complications). Of the women reporting prenatal distress, 25% had a prenatal consultation with a mental health specialist and 11% used psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. Decreased likelihood to consult a mental health specialist was found in young women, with intermediate educational level and born abroad. Causal inferences should be made cautiously as the questionnaire did not collect information on the temporal sequence between psychological distress and associated characteristics. Women with social and obstetrical vulnerabilities are at increased risk of poor mental health during pregnancy. Improving mental health care access during pregnancy is a public health priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. BMI and psychological distress in 68, 000 Swedish adults: a weak association when controlling for an age-gender combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Study results concerning associations between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to describe the shape of the association between BMI and psychological distress in a large sample of Swedish adults. Methods Data was measured with the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), in 68,311 adults aged 18–74. Self-reported data was derived from a merger of the 2000, 2004 and 2008 Life and Health (Liv och Hälsa) questionnaires focusing general perceived distress as well as living conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to describe the association between BMI and psychological distress when controlled for age and gender in combination. Results Women reported an overall higher psychological distress than men. A significant pattern of decreasing psychological distress with increasing age emerged among women in all BMI categories. Trends of this same pattern showed for men. Small or no differences were seen in psychological distress between those in normal weight, overweight, and obesity I categories (among women: 20.4%, 18.4%, 20.5%; among men: 12.8%, 11.2%, 12.9%). For both genders, any notable increase in psychological distress appeared first in the obesity II category (among women: 27.2%. Among men: 17.8%). Conclusions Psychological distress decreases with increasing age regardless of BMI; a pattern more obvious for women. Being categorized with obesity II leads to a markedly higher psychological distress than being categorized with normal weight, overweight or obesity I. From this, we suggest that future obesity research focusing on psychological distress could investigate the role of stigma and norm susceptibility in relationships where people are evaluated through the eyes of the other. PMID:23347701

  15. Work-family enrichment and psychological health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameeta Jaga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study examines the beneficial aspects of the interface between work and family and its relationships with psychological health from a positive psychology perspective.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work-family enrichment helps to predict psychological health, specifically increased subjective well-being and decreased feelings of emotional exhaustion and depression.Motivation for the study: The burgeoning literature on the work-family interface contains little on the potentially positive benefits of maintaining work and family roles.Research approach, design and method: The authors used a descriptive research design. Employees in two national organisations in the financial retail and logistics industries completed a self-administered survey questionnaire. The authors analysed responses from those who reported both family and work responsibilities (N = 160.Main findings: Consistent with previous research, factor analysis revealed two distinct directions of work-family enrichment: from work to family (W2FE and from family to work (F2WE. Multiple regression analysis showed that F2WE explained a significant proportion of the variance in subjective wellbeing, whilst W2FE explained a significant proportion of the variance in depression and emotional exhaustion.Practical/managerial implications: The findings of this study revealed the individual and organisational benefits of fostering work-family enrichment. Contributions/value add: This study presents empirical evidence for the need to focus on the positive aspects of the work-family interface, provides further support for a positive organisational psychology perspective in organisations and hopefully will encourage further research on interventions in organisations and families.

  16. Psychological distress and personality factors in takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J

    2016-01-01

    Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This

  17. Distress, quality of life, neuroticism and psychological coping are related in head and neck cancer patients during follow-up

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aarstad, Anne K. H; Beisland, Elisabeth; Osthus, Arild André; Aarstad, Hans J

    2011-01-01

    ... more in psychological rather than medical research. Distress is defined as "an unpleasant emotional experience of a psychological, social, or spiritual nature. Distress extends along a continuum, ranging from common normal feelings of vulnerability, sadness, and fear to problems that can become disabling, such as depression, anxiety, panic, social isolation, and ...

  18. Risk factors for longer term psychological distress in well-functioning fibromyalgia patients: a prospective study into prognostic factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulil, S. van; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological distress is a key risk factor for long-term complaints in fibromyalgia (FM). Prognostic factors for psychological distress might facilitate an early identification of patients at risk to help prevent long-term dysfunction, especially for the relatively well-functioning

  19. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress : A six-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Van Hemert, Albert M.; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W.

    Background: Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by

  20. Does Perceived Racial Discrimination Predict Changes in Psychological Distress and Substance Use over Time? An Examination among Black Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging…

  1. Piloting Psychology Annual Reviews as a Method of Measuring Psychological Distress and Quality of Life in Paediatric Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Jade; Wirz, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial distress and poorer quality of life after renal transplantation are common in children and young people. This has implications for medication adherence and survival. Posttransplant psychology annual reviews were introduced in one Paediatric Renal Service in the UK as a means of measuring psychological distress and quality of life, as well as facilitating identification of patients and parents/carers who would benefit from psychological intervention. The process of completing posttransplant psychology annual reviews is discussed within this paper. The posttransplant psychology annual review appointments identified patients experiencing depression and/or anxiety and problems in quality of life. These assessments have led to appropriate referrals to, and engagement with, the renal psychology service as well as with community tier 3 child and adolescent mental health services. The posttransplant psychology annual review will continue to be completed at this UK site and discussions will be undertaken with other paediatric renal transplant services to consider whether these could be introduced at a national level to facilitate collection of longitudinal data regarding long-term psychosocial impact of paediatric renal transplantation and its effect on quality of life.

  2. Piloting Psychology Annual Reviews as a Method of Measuring Psychological Distress and Quality of Life in Paediatric Renal Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Bamford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial distress and poorer quality of life after renal transplantation are common in children and young people. This has implications for medication adherence and survival. Posttransplant psychology annual reviews were introduced in one Paediatric Renal Service in the UK as a means of measuring psychological distress and quality of life, as well as facilitating identification of patients and parents/carers who would benefit from psychological intervention. The process of completing posttransplant psychology annual reviews is discussed within this paper. The posttransplant psychology annual review appointments identified patients experiencing depression and/or anxiety and problems in quality of life. These assessments have led to appropriate referrals to, and engagement with, the renal psychology service as well as with community tier 3 child and adolescent mental health services. The posttransplant psychology annual review will continue to be completed at this UK site and discussions will be undertaken with other paediatric renal transplant services to consider whether these could be introduced at a national level to facilitate collection of longitudinal data regarding long-term psychosocial impact of paediatric renal transplantation and its effect on quality of life.

  3. The relationships among self-care, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonim, Jessica; Kienhuis, Mandy; Di Benedetto, Mirella; Reece, John

    2015-01-01

    Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207) aged 17-41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62) across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being.

  4. Trait entitlement: A cognitive-personality source of vulnerability to psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Exline, Julie J

    2016-11-01

    Psychological entitlement is a personality trait characterized by pervasive feelings of deservingness, specialness, and exaggerated expectations. The present review expands upon this understanding by conceptualizing entitlement as a cognitive-personality vulnerability to psychological distress. A review of research is conducted, and a novel, multipart model is described by which entitlement may be seen as such a vulnerability. First, exaggerated expectations, notions of the self as special, and inflated deservingness associated with trait entitlement present the individual with a continual vulnerability to unmet expectations. Second, entitled individuals are likely to interpret these unmet expectations in ways that foster disappointment, ego threat, and a sense of perceived injustice, all of which may lead to psychological distress indicators such as dissatisfaction across multiple life domains, anger, and generally volatile emotional responses. Furthermore, in the wake of disappointment, ego threat, or perceived injustice, entitled individuals are likely to attempt to bolster their entitled self-concept, leading to a reinforcement of entitled beliefs, thereby initiating the cycle again. At each stage of this process, entitlement presents the individual with the possibility of experiencing distress, predisposes further risk factors for distress (e.g., the subsequent steps in the model), and increases the risk of interpersonal conflict, again leading to distress. A review of relevant empirical data suggests preliminary support for this conceptual model of entitlement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The relationships among self-care, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Slonim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods: The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207 aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62 across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results: Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions: The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being.

  6. Maternal Prenatal Psychological Distress and Preschool Cognitive Functioning: the Protective Role of Positive Parental Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Johnson, Katrina C

    2017-02-01

    Considerable animal research and available human studies suggest that psychological distress experienced by mothers during gestation is associated with later neurodevelopmental deficits in offspring; however, little research has examined potential protective factors that might mitigate this risk. The current study examined the impact of maternal prenatal psychological distress during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes in preschoolers (ages 2.5-5 years) and positive parenting as a potential protective factor. Mother-child dyads (N = 162, mean child age = 44 months, 49 % female) were recruited from a longitudinal cohort of women who had previously participated in a study of maternal mood disorders during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal distress was assessed with multiple measures collected throughout pregnancy. During a follow-up visit, mothers were interviewed about their psychological symptoms since the birth of the child, parenting behaviors were recorded during a parent-child interaction, and children's cognitive abilities were measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd Edition. Maternal prenatal distress significantly predicted lower general cognitive abilities; however, this relationship was strongest for children whose mothers exhibited low levels of positive engagement and not significant when mothers exhibited high levels of positive engagement. Results suggest that positive parental engagement can protect against the detrimental effects of maternal prenatal distress on preschoolers' cognitive abilities.

  7. The relationships among self-care, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress in medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonim, Jessica; Kienhuis, Mandy; Di Benedetto, Mirella; Reece, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207) aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62) across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being. PMID:26112354

  8. Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rebecca E; Bartley, Mel; Pikhart, Hynek; Stafford, Mai; Cable, Noriko

    2014-03-23

    An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n=10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent-child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0-16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter's Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect=33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health.

  9. Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n = 10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent–child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0–16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter’s Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Results Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect = 33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. Conclusions This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health. PMID:24655926

  10. Sexual identity and HIV status influence the relationship between internalized stigma and psychological distress in black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men.

  11. Emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of chronological age and subjective distance-to-death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Bodner, Ehud; Palgi, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    In light of mixed evidence regarding the associations between age, emotional complexity, and psychological distress, this study examined emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of age and subjective distance-to-death. A sample of 188 participants (age range = 29-100) rated their subjective distance-to-death and psychological distress, and reported their emotions across 14 days. Emotional complexity was unrelated to age, but negatively related to feeling closer to death. Moreover, emotional complexity was negatively related to psychological distress among those feeling closer to death. Results suggest that when death is perceived to be nearer, emotional complexity is hampered, yet becomes relevant in buffering psychological distress.

  12. Coping strategies and psychological distress in caregivers of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Mattia; Santangelo, Gabriella; Trojsi, Francesca; Di Somma, Carmela; Patrone, Manila; Femiano, Cinzia; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Trojano, Luigi; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2017-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes distress in caregivers. The present study aims to examine the association between coping strategies and psychological distress in caregivers of ALS patients. Coping strategies were assessed in 96 ALS informal caregivers by means of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Data about caregivers' demographic characteristics, levels of burden, depression and anxiety (psychological distress) were also gathered by standardised questionnaires. Patients' clinical, cognitive and behavioural disturbances were evaluated by ALS specific assessment tools. Sequential logistic regression analysis showed that emotion-oriented coping strategy was significantly associated with high levels of depressive (p ALS caregivers. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing utilisation of maladaptive coping strategies may improve well-being in ALS caregivers, and, possibly, management of symptoms in ALS patients.

  13. Trauma and psychological distress observed in journalists: a comparison of Israeli journalists and their Western counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaot, Yael; Sinyor, Mark; Feinstein, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    There is limited evidence on how reporting war influences journalists' psychological wellbeing. A significant minority of journalists may develop symptoms of emotional distress; however it is unclear whether the type and amount of distress differs between those journalists who report from potentially dangerous areas within their own country compared to those who do so from war zones in other countries. We compared indices of psychological health in 38 Israeli journalists with 38 Western journalists whose careers have been defined by work in war zones. While both groups reported high levels of exposure to traumatic events, there were no significant differences in frequency or type of exposure between the groups. Western journalists reported more frequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), intrusion-type symptoms and drank more alcohol while Israeli journalists reported higher levels of depression, anxiety and somatic distress. This pattern of results suggests that social circumstances and environmental factors may influence how different groups of individuals respond to traumatic events.

  14. Psychological Distress as a Risk Factor for Re-Victimization in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Clifford, Cynthia; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study is to examine the role of psychological distress in predicting child re-victimization across various forms including conventional crime, peer/sibling violence, maltreatment, sexual violence, and witnessed violence. Methods: Longitudinal data from the Developmental Victimization Survey, which surveyed children…

  15. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 ( SD = 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ 2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  16. Long-term psychological distress in parents of child survivors of severe meningococcal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrlich, Tirtsa R.; Von Rosenstiel, Ines A.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Gerrits, Astrid I.; Bos, Albert P.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study psychological distress in parents of child survivors of Severe Meningococcal Disease (SMD) after discharge of their child from the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). METHODS: This study approached parents of child survivors of SMD treated on the PICU between 1993-2001. Five

  17. Burnout and Psychological Distress Among Pediatric Critical Care Physicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, Asha N; Kalyanaraman, Meena; Pillai, Aravind; Raghava, Preethi S; Day, Scottie

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physician burnout, psychological distress, and its association with selected personal and practice characteristics among pediatric critical care physicians and to evaluate the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Cross-sectional, online survey. Pediatric critical care practices in the United States. Pediatric critical care physicians. None. A nonrandom sample of 253 physicians completed an online survey consisting of personal and practice characteristics, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the General Health Questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (49%; 95% CI, 43-55%; n = 124) scored high burnout in at least one of the three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and 21% reported severe burnout. The risk of any burnout was about two times more in women physicians (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4). Association between other personal or practice characteristics and burnout was not evident in this study, while regular physical exercise appeared to be protective. One third of all participants (30.5%) and 69% of those who experienced severe burnout screened positive for psychological distress. About 90% of the physicians reporting severe burnout have considered leaving their practice. Burnout is high among pediatric critical care physicians in the United States. About two thirds of the physicians with severe burnout met the screening criteria for psychological distress that suggests possible common mental disorders. Significant percentages of physicians experiencing burnout and considering to leave the profession has major implications for the critical care workforce.

  18. The influence of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity on psychological distress and sleep disturbance in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J S; Tian, J; Wu, L H

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (cipn) on psychological distress and sleep quality in cancer patients. A total of 706 cancer patients were interviewed for the study. In the 4th week of treatment, patient cipn was measured using the Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (pnq). The sleep quality and psychological distress of patients were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (psqi), the Distress Thermometer (dt), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (hads). Multiple logistic regression was applied to determine the independent effects of cipn on psychological distress and sleep disturbance in the patients. THESE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS WERE OBTAINED: 0.387 (p sleep quality in the five pnq grades were statistically significantly different (p grades were found to be associated with depression (p sleep quality (p sleep quality in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. High pnq grades were significantly associated with poor psychological status and sleep quality. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing peripheral neuropathies during chemotherapy and of adjusting treatment plans based on assessment results.

  19. Couples dealing with cancer : Role and gender differences regarding psychological distress and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, M.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Kuijer, R.G.; Wobbes, Th; Sanderman, R.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to further knowledge on gender and role (i.e. patient versus partner) differences in psychological distress and quality of life as a consequence of dealing with cancer. There is some evidence that being the patient or the caregiver makes more difference for men than

  20. "One Scar Too Many:" The Associations Between Traumatic Events and Psychological Distress Among Undocumented Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcini, Luz M; Peña, Juan M; Gutierrez, Angela P; Fagundes, Christopher P; Lemus, Hector; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-01

    Undocumented immigration often presents with multiple stressors and contextual challenges, which may diminish mental health. This study is the first to provide population-based estimates for the prevalence of traumatic events and its association to clinically significant psychological distress among undocumented Mexican immigrants in the United States. This cross-sectional study used respondent-driven sampling to obtain and analyze data from clinical interviews with 248 undocumented Mexican immigrants residing in high-risk neighborhoods near the California-Mexico border. Overall, 82.7% of participants reported a history of traumatic events, with 47.0% of these meeting the criteria for clinically significant psychological distress. After controlling for relevant covariates, having experienced material deprivation, odds ratio (OR) = 2.26, 95% CI [1.18, 4.31], p = .013, and bodily injury, OR = 2.96, 95% CI [1.50, 5.83], p = .002, and not having a history of deportation, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.17, 0.79], p = .011, were associated with clinically significant psychological distress. These results support the need to revisit health and immigration policies and to devise solutions grounded in empirical evidence aimed at preventing the negative effects of trauma and psychological distress in this population. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. Population-based Post-crisis Psychological Distress: An Example From the SARS Outbreak in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Yu-Chang Peng

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Psychological distress was significantly correlated with demographic factors and perception regarding the SARS epidemic. It is suggested that marketing of mental health education should be segmented according to age and education level, which should enhance crisis communication for newly emerging infectious diseases among community populations.

  2. Stress, Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Psychological Distress among Prospective Chinese Teachers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines teacher stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological distress in a sample of Chinese prospective teachers (n=83) in Hong Kong. Reports that the teachers experienced higher levels of symptoms in somatic problems followed by anxiety and dysphoria. Discusses self-efficacy and social support as protective factors for teacher…

  3. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  4. Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels, Psychological Distress, and Depression in 73 131 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress and depres...

  5. Perceived addiction to Internet pornography and psychological distress: Examining relationships concurrently and over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Stauner, Nicholas; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Lindberg, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, Internet pornography use is a common behavior that has risen in popularity in recent years. The present study sought to examine potential relationships between pornography use and well-being, with a particular focus on individual perceptions of pornography use and feelings of addiction. Using a large cross-sectional sample of adults (N = 713), perceived addiction to Internet pornography predicted psychological distress above and beyond pornography use itself and other relevant variables (e.g., socially desirable responding, neuroticism). This model was replicated using a large cross-sectional sample of undergraduates (N = 1,215). Furthermore, a 1-year, longitudinal follow-up with a subset of this sample (N = 106) revealed a relationship between perceived addiction to Internet pornography and psychological distress over time, even when controlling for baseline psychological distress and pornography use. Collectively, these findings suggest that perceived addiction to Internet pornography, but not pornography use itself, is uniquely related to the experience of psychological distress. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 (SD= 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship. PMID:25530980

  7. Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Psychological Distress and Infant Development: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Tough, Suzanne; Whitfield, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Infant development plays a foundational role in optimal child development and health. Some studies have demonstrated an association between maternal psychological distress and infant outcomes, although the main emphasis has been on postpartum depression and infant-maternal attachment. Prevention and early intervention strategies would benefit from…

  8. Sexual Orientation and Psychological Distress in Adolescence: Examining Interpersonal Stressors and Social Support Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Koji

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents with homosexual and bisexual orientations have higher levels of psychological distress than other adolescents. Drawing from previous studies, I hypothesize that this epidemiological pattern is due largely to the interpersonal problems that sexual minorities experience at home and at school. Analysis of longitudinal data based on a…

  9. Factor Structure of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) among Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessaha, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the 6-item version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Methods: A subsample of emerging adults, aged 18-29 (n = 20,699), from the 2013 National Survey of Drug Use and Health were used in this study. Results: Each of the models (one-factor, two-factor…

  10. HIV-Related Stigma, Social Support, and Psychological Distress Among Individuals Initiating ART in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela; Tymejczyk, Olga; Remien, Robert; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Hoffman, Susie; Melaku, Zenebe; Elul, Batya; Nash, Denis

    2018-02-16

    Recent World Health Organization HIV treatment guideline expansion may facilitate timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, large-scale success of universal treatment strategies requires a more comprehensive understanding of known barriers to early ART initiation. This work aims to advance a more comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among three known barriers to ART initiation: psychological distress, HIV-related stigma, and low social support. We analyzed cross-sectional interview data on 1175 adults initiating ART at six HIV treatment clinics in Ethiopia. Experience of each form of HIV-related stigma assessed (e.g., anticipatory, internalized, and enacted) was associated with increased odds of psychological distress. However, among those who reported enacted HIV-related stigma, there was no significant association between social support and psychological distress. Interventions to improve mental health among people living with HIV should consider incorporating components to address stigma, focusing on strategies to prevent or reduce the internalization of stigma, given the magnitude of the relationship between high internalized stigma and psychological distress. Interventions to increase social support may be insufficient to improve the mental health of people living with HIV who experienced enacted HIV-related stigma. Future research should examine alternative strategies to manage the mental health consequences of enacted HIV-related stigma, including coping skills training.

  11. Relationships among Social Support, Perceived Control, and Psychological Distress in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134…

  12. Social support and psychological distress in rheumatoid arthritis : a 4-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benka, Jozef; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Calfova, Anna; Macejova, Zelmira; Middel, Berrie; Lazurova, Ivica; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of the study was to investigate the course of psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis patients and to explore the strength of its associations with disease-related variables over time. A further aim focused specifically on the associations between social

  13. Psychological Distress Among the Community Elderly: Prevalence, Characteristics and Implications for Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Ruby B.; Patterson, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports results of a survey of elderly persons in a predominantly blue collar, New England town. Data about psychological distress and its relationship to demographic and social interaction characteristics are explored. Mental health services were not reaching elderly in need; there was minimal utilization of other helping services.…

  14. Effectiveness of Partner Social Support Predicts Enduring Psychological Distress after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Christine; Redd, William H.; Austin, Jane; Mosher, Catherine E.; Meschian, Yeraz Markarian; Isola, Luis; Scigliano, Eileen; Moskowitz, Craig H.; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Labay, Larissa E.; Rowley, Scott; Burkhalter, Jack E.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; DuHamel, Katherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors who are 1 to 3 years posttransplant are challenged by the need to resume valued social roles and activities--a task that may be complicated by enduring transplant-related psychological distress common in this patient population. The present study investigated whether transplant…

  15. Parents of Children with ASD Experience More Psychological Distress, Parenting Stress, and Attachment-Related Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Belinda M.; Newman, Louise K.; Gray, Kylie M.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2016-01-01

    There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with…

  16. Psychiatric comorbidity, psychological distress, and quality of life in gamma-hydroxybutyrate-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamal, R.M.; Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Duren, J.A. van; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the psychiatric state and psychological distress level of patients with gamma-hydroxybutyrate dependence is important to develop effective detoxification and relapse management methods. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence among gamma-hydroxybutyrate-dependent

  17. Psychiatric comorbidity, psychological distress and quality of life in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamal, R.M.; Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Duren, J.A.M. van; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the psychiatric state and psychological distress level of patients with gamma-hydroxybutyrate dependence is important to develop effective detoxification and relapse management methods. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence among gamma-hydroxybutyrate-dependent

  18. Psychometrics of the Psychological Wellbeing and Distress Screener: A Brief Measure of Youth's Bidimensional Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L.; Bolognino, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on the psychometric defensibility of the Psychological Wellbeing and Distress Screener (PWDS), which is a 10-item self-report behavior rating scale for measuring youth's bidimensional (also known as dual-factor or two-continua) mental health. The PWDS was developed using preexisting items within the Health Behavior in…

  19. Psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours among women aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhuong T; Subasinghe, Asvini K; Wark, John D; Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-12-01

    Identifying factors related to risky sexual behaviour may contribute to preventive and interventional approaches to reduce negative mental health outcomes among young women. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours in females aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted from the Young Female Health Initiative (YFHI), a study in which participants were recruited via advertisements on Facebook. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler 10 (K10) Psychological Distress Scale, and risky sexual behaviours. Data were available from 200 sexually active participants and 40 non-sexually active participants. We found that the K10 score was independently associated with sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence intervals: 1.2, 2.7; P = 0.006). Although data were collected from a small sample of young women, we found that those with underlying psychological distress may adopt risky sexual behaviours, especially if concomitantly drinking alcohol or taking drugs.

  20. Neglect and perceived stigmatization impact psychological distress of orphans in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin Hermenau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives: The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods: In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys. We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results: Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans.

  1. Maternal psychological distress and visitation to the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle M; Rossman, Beverly; Patra, Kousiki; Kratovil, Amanda; Khan, Samah; Meier, Paula P

    2015-07-01

    To examine associations between maternal neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) visitation rates, maternal psychological distress ('distress') and preterm infant outcome post-NICU discharge in a contemporary cohort of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. This was a prospective study of 69 mothers and their VLBW infants. Distress was assessed 1-month postbirth, 2 weeks prior to NICU discharge and after NICU discharge at 4-month corrected age (CA). Maternal NICU visitation rates were calculated for the first 2 weeks and 1-month postbirth as well as for the entire NICU hospitalization. Regression analyses adjusted for the impact of (i) maternal and infant characteristics and distress on maternal visitation rates and (ii) the impact of visitation on long-term maternal distress and rates of infant clinic attendance and rehospitalization. Greater number of children in the home, maternal exposure to a greater number of potentially traumatic events prior to childbirth and lower maternal anxiety consistently predicted lower visitation rate. Lower maternal visitation rate predicted higher maternal depression scores at infants' 4-month CA visit. Maternal NICU visitation rate did not predict post-NICU discharge infant clinic attendance or rehospitalization. Distress is an important predictor of visitation. In turn, visitation is associated with long-term maternal distress. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Labor market integration, immigration experience, and psychological distress in a multi-ethnic sample of immigrants residing in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana F; Dias, Sónia F

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at examining how factors relating to immigrants' experience in the host country affect psychological distress (PD). Specifically, we analyzed the association among socio-economic status (SES), integration in the labor market, specific immigration experience characteristics, and PD in a multi-ethnic sample of immigrant individuals residing in Lisbon, Portugal. Using a sample (n = 1375) consisting of all main immigrant groups residing in Portugal's metropolitan area of Lisbon, we estimated multivariable linear regression models of PD regressed on selected sets of socio-economic independent variables. A psychological distress scale was constructed based on five items (feeling physically tired, feeling psychologically tired, feeling happy, feeling full of energy, and feeling lonely). Variables associated with a decrease in PD are being a male (demographic), being satisfied with their income level (SES), living with the core family and having higher number of children (social isolation), planning to remain for longer periods of time in Portugal (migration project), and whether respondents considered themselves to be in good health condition (subjective health status). Study variables negatively associated with immigrants' PD were job insecurity (labor market), and the perception that health professionals were not willing to understand immigrants during a clinical interaction. The study findings emphasized the importance of labor market integration and access to good quality jobs for immigrants' psychological well-being, as well as the existence of family ties in the host country, intention to reside long term in the host country, and high subjective (physical) health. Our research suggests the need to foster cross-national studies of immigrant populations in order to understand the social mechanisms that transverse all migrant groups and contribute to lower psychological well-being.

  3. Concern over radiation exposure and psychological distress among rescue workers following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Yutaka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that followed caused severe damage along Japans northeastern coastline and to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. To date, there are few reports specifically examining psychological distress in rescue workers in Japan. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent concern over radiation exposure has caused psychological distress to such workers deployed in the disaster area. Methods One month after the disaster, 424 of 1816 (24% disaster medical assistance team workers deployed to the disaster area were assessed. Concern over radiation exposure was evaluated by a single self-reported question. General psychological distress was assessed with the Kessler 6 scale (K6, depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, fear and sense of helplessness with the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI, and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R. Results Radiation exposure was a concern for 39 (9.2% respondents. Concern over radiation exposure was significantly associated with higher scores on the K6, CES-D, PDI, and IES-R. After controlling for age, occupation, disaster operation experience, duration of time spent watching earthquake news, and past history of psychiatric illness, these associations remained significant in men, but did not remain significant in women for the CES-D and PDI scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that concern over radiation exposure was strongly associated with psychological distress. Reliable, accurate information on radiation exposure might reduce deployment-related distress in disaster rescue workers.

  4. Factors associated with psychological distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that lymphoedema impacts negatively on an individual, including psychological distress and body image disturbance, particularly for younger women. This study identified psychological factors associated with distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema and determined whether age moderated the specific relationship between body image disturbance and distress. Australian women (n = 166) diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphoedema were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organisation and lymphoedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online survey assessing lymphoedema-related cognitions (personal control, perceived treatment effectiveness, and consequences of lymphoedema), perceived ability to self-regulate lymphoedema-related negative affect, body image disturbance, psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), and demographic/medical information. Beliefs about the consequences, perceived effectiveness of treatment and controllability of lymphoedema, perceived ability to self-regulate negative affect, body image disturbance, and number of lymphoedema symptoms were correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that body image disturbance was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, and perceived treatment effectiveness was associated with stress. Age was a significant moderator of the relationship between body image disturbance and depression and anxiety, with older women with greater body image disturbance more distressed. Health professionals need to be aware that women diagnosed with lymphoedema are at risk of experiencing psychological distress, particularly arising from body image disturbance and beliefs that treatment cannot control lymphoedema. Furthermore, older women may be at an increased risk of anxiety and depression arising from body image disturbance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  5. Children's exposure to violence and distress symptoms: influence of caretakers' psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Ryan, Louise; Bellinger, David C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Wright, Rosalind J

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies linking violence exposure to adverse child behavior have typically relied on parental report of child symptoms without accounting for the informant's mental well-being, despite evidence that parental mental health can influence children's mental health and the parent's report of distress symptoms. We assess the influence of maternal depression on the violence exposure and child distress association in a subset of the Maternal Infant Smoking Study of East Boston, a prospective birth cohort. Mothers reported on their children's violence exposure using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence (ETV) and completed the Checklist of Child Distress Symptoms (CCDS). The children also completed the ETV survey and the self-report version of the CCDS. Linear regression was used to assess the influence of violence exposure on distress symptoms adjusting for potential confounders, first using parent's report of exposure and outcome and a second time using the child's self-report. The mediating effect of maternal depression on the violence and distress association was also tested. Among the 162 children ages 7 to 11, 51% were boys and 43% self-identified as Hispanic. When using child self-report, increased violence exposure was significantly associated with a broader range of distress symptoms (numbness, arousal, intrusion, avoidance subscales) compared to parent reported findings, which were only significantly related to the intrusion and avoidance subscales. Moreover, a significant mediation effect of maternal depression on the violence and distress association was noted only when mother's report of exposure and outcome was used. Considering both parent and child self-report of violence is necessary to obtain a complete picture of violence exposure because parents and children may be offering different, although equally valid information. The influence of maternal depressive symptoms on preadolescent's distress symptoms may be attributed to

  6. Mediating effect of coping styles on the association between psychological capital and psychological distress among Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress. Introduction PsyCap includes four categories namely self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Research has demonstrated that PsyCap and coping styles affect current psychological distress. Nevertheless, few

  7. Survey on Tuberculosis Patients in Rural Areas in China: Tracing the Role of Stigma in Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minlan; Markström, Urban; Lyu, Juncheng; Xu, Lingzhong

    2017-10-04

    Depressed patients had risks of non-adherence to medication, which brought a big challenge for the control of tuberculosis (TB). The stigma associated with TB may be the reason for distress. This study aimed to assess the psychological distress among TB patients living in rural areas in China and to further explore the relation of experienced stigma to distress. This study was a cross-sectional study with multi-stage randomized sampling for recruiting TB patients. Data was collected by the use of interviewer-led questionnaires. A total of 342 eligible and accessible TB patients being treated at home were included in the survey. Psychological distress was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Experienced stigma was measured using a developed nine-item stigma questionnaire. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the variables related to distress, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to present the strength of the associations. Finally, the prediction of logistic model was assessed in form of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). According to the referred cut-off point from K10, this study revealed that 65.2% (223/342) of the participants were categorized as having psychological distress. Both the stigma questionnaire and the K10 were proven to be reliable and valid in measurement. Further analysis found that experienced stigma and illness severity were significant variables to psychological distress in the model of logistic regression. The model was assessed well in predicting distress by use of experienced stigma and illness severity in form of ROC and AUC. Rural TB patients had a high prevalence of psychological distress. Experience of stigma played a significant role in psychological distress. To move the barrier of stigma from the surroundings could be a good strategy in reducing distress for the patients and TB

  8. Association of different forms of bullying victimisation with adolescents' psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hannah J; Chan, Gary C K; Scott, James G; Connor, Jason P; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    The frequency and emotional response to bullying victimisation are known to be associated with adolescent mental ill health. A potentially important under-investigated factor is the form of bullying. Four common forms of bullying behaviours are name-calling, physical threats or harm, rumour spreading and social exclusion. To more comprehensively understand bullying victimisation in adolescence, we examined the association of all three factors (frequency, emotional response, form) to psychological distress and emotional wellbeing. A stratified, random sample of adolescents (n = 10, 273; mean age = 14.33 years, standard deviation = 1.68 years) completed validated measures of bullying victimisation (Gatehouse Bullying Questionnaire), psychological distress (K10) and emotional wellbeing (Mental Health Inventory) in classroom time. Associations between the form of bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes were examined. Adolescents reported a high prevalence of all four forms of bullying: teased or called names (30.6%), rumour spreading (17.9%), social exclusion (14.3%) and physical threats or harm (10.7%). Victimisation was independently associated with significantly higher levels of psychological distress and reduced levels of emotional wellbeing for all forms of bullying. In particular, social exclusion had a strong association with mental ill health. Adolescents who experienced frequent bullying that was upsetting reported higher psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. Different forms of bullying victimisation were independently associated with psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. In particular, frequent and upsetting social exclusion requires a targeted and measured response by school communities and health practitioners. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest survivors in relation to gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Johan; Bremer, Anders; Herlitz, Johan; Axelsson, Åsa B; Cronberg, Tobias; Djärv, Therese; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Larsson, Ing-Marie; Lilja, Gisela; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Wallin, Ewa; Ågren, Susanna; Åkerman, Eva; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2017-05-01

    To describe health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) survivors in relation to gender. This national register study consists of data from follow-up registration of IHCA survivors 3-6 months post cardiac arrest (CA) in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to the survivors, including measurements of health status (EQ-5D-5L) and psychological distress (HADS). Between 2013 and 2015, 594 IHCA survivors were included in the study. The median values for EQ-5D-5L index and EQ VAS among survivors were 0.78 (q1-q3=0.67-0.86) and 70 (q1-q3=50-80) respectively. The values were significantly lower (p<0.001) in women compared to men. In addition, women reported more problems than men in all dimensions of EQ-5D-5L, except self-care. A majority of the respondents reported no problems with anxiety (85.4%) and/or symptoms of depression (87.0%). Women reported significantly more problems with anxiety (p<0.001) and symptoms of depression (p<0.001) compared to men. Gender was significantly associated with poorer health status and more psychological distress. No interaction effects for gender and age were found. Although the majority of survivors reported acceptable health status and no psychological distress, a substantial proportion reported severe problems. Women reported worse health status and more psychological distress compared to men. Therefore, a higher proportion of women may be in need of support. Health care professionals should make efforts to identify health problems among survivors and offer individualised support when needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rank, job stress, psychological distress and physical activity among military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). Methods This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. Results The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); “high effort and low reward” was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = −0.198; CI 95% −0.384; −0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = −0.184; CI 95% −0.321; −0.046). Conclusions The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23914802

  11. Job crafting, work engagement, and psychological distress among Japanese employees: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraya, Asuka; Shimazu, Akihito; Eguchi, Hisashi; Kamiyama, Kimika; Hara, Yujiro; Namba, Katsuyuki; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-01-01

    Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees' well-being. However, most studies on the relationship between job crafting and employees' well-being have been conducted in western countries; thus, it is unclear whether job crafting can be effectively applied to Asian cultures, such as Japan, which emphasizes group harmony. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations of self-reported job crafting with work engagement and psychological distress among employees in Japan. A questionnaire survey through the internet was conducted among all employees of a manufacturing company in Japan. We analyzed the data from 894 respondents, all employees with regular employment. Job crafting, work engagement, and psychological distress were assessed using the Japanese version of the Job Crafting Questionnaire, the Japanese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ), respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that increasing structural job resources, social job resources, and challenging job demands was significantly and positively associated with work engagement (β = 0.31, p < 0.001; β = 0.14, p < 0.001; β = 0.36, p < 0.001, respectively). For psychological distress, increasing structural job resources was significantly and negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -0.15, p < 0.001). Our study suggests that increasing structural job resources is associated with higher work engagement and lower psychological distress. In addition, increasing social job resources and challenging job demands are also associated with higher work engagement.

  12. Psychological distress in men with prostate cancer and their partners before and after cancer diagnosis: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Akira; Nakaya, Naoki; Saito-Nakaya, Kumi; Hasumi, Masaru; Takechi, Hiroyuki; Arai, Seiji; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2017-08-01

    To examine the relative risk of psychological distress of men with prostate cancer and their partners during the period before and after prostate cancer diagnosis compared with men without prostate cancer and their partners. The participants reported questionnaires on psychological distress at four time points: before prostate cancer biopsy, and at 1, 3 and 6 months following prostate cancer diagnosis. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relative risk of psychological distress. A total of 115 couples answered the questionnaires at all four time points. Men with prostate cancer showed a significantly higher risk of psychological distress compared to men without prostate cancer at 1 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-13.1), 3 (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.1-10.2) and 6 months following prostate cancer diagnosis (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 2.3-25.7). Their partners showed a significantly higher risk of psychological distress compared to the partners of men without prostate cancer at 1 month following prostate cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-6.6). Men with prostate cancer showed psychological distress during the 6 months following the cancer diagnosis. Their partners also showed psychological distress at 1 month following the cancer diagnosis. Inviting both men with prostate cancer and their partners to speak to their concerns, empathizing with them, finding the solutions together and monitoring of their psychological status regularly should be regarded as important following prostate cancer diagnosis.

  13. Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy does not increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Aleksandra A; Morawska, Alina; Bogossian, Fiona; Wittkowski, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy is a potential risk factor for various birth complications. This study aimed to explore psychological factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. Symptoms of psychological distress, individual characteristics, and medical complications were assessed at two time points antenatally in 285 women from Australia and New Zealand; birth outcomes were assessed postpartum, between January 2014 and September 2015. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation of psychological distress to adverse birth outcomes. Medical complications during pregnancy, such as serious infections, placental problems and preeclampsia, and antenatal cannabis use, were the factors most strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes, accounting for 22 percent of the total variance (p pregnancy and an orientation toward a Regulator mothering style were associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, after controlling for medical complications, these were no longer associated. Our study results indicate that antenatal depressive and/or anxiety symptoms were not independently associated with adverse birth outcomes, a reassuring finding for women who are already psychologically vulnerable during pregnancy.

  14. The report of posttraumatic growth in Malaysian cancer patients: relationships with psychological distress and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroevers, Maya J; Teo, Irene

    2008-12-01

    The challenge of a cancer diagnosis may eventually lead to the experience of positive psychological changes, also referred to as posttraumatic growth. As most research on posttraumatic growth in cancer patients has been conducted in Western countries, little is known about the experience of such positive psychological changes in non-Western countries. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of posttraumatic growth in a Malaysian sample of cancer patients. Secondly, we examined the association of posttraumatic growth with patients' report of psychological distress and their use of coping strategies. The study was conducted in 113 cancer patients. Posttraumatic growth was measured by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, coping strategies by the brief COPE, and psychological distress by the Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R). Results showed that many patients reported posttraumatic growth, mostly in the domain of appreciation of life. As hypothesized, the experience of posttraumatic growth was not significantly related to the level of psychological distress. Findings indicated that greater use of the coping strategies instrumental support, positive reframing, and humor was associated with more posttraumatic growth. Overall, this study suggests that posttraumatic growth is not only a Western phenomenon. Malaysian cancer patients show similar trends in the report of growth as well as in its correlates as their Western counterparts. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Family psychology and the psychology of men and masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F

    2017-02-01

    This article was invited to mark the 30th anniversary of the Journal of Family Psychology, which is also the 125th anniversary of APA publications. I served as the second Editor of the journal, from 1992 to 1997. I reflect on some of the similarities and differences between the journal's mission statements from 1992 and 2016, and then discuss my intellectual evolution from family psychologist to psychologist of men and masculinities, pointing out opportunities for collaboration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The direct healthcare costs associated with psychological distress and major depression: A population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Kurdyak, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The objective of our study was to estimate direct healthcare costs incurred by a population-based sample of people with psychological distress or depression. We used the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey on Mental Health and Well Being and categorized individuals as having psychological distress using the Kessler-6, major depressive disorder (MDD) using DSM-IV criteria and a comparison group of participants without MDD or psychological distress. Costs in 2013 USD were estimated by linking individuals to health administrative databases and following them until March 31, 2013. Our sample consisted of 9,965 individuals, of whom 651 and 409 had psychological distress and MDD, respectively. Although the age-and-sex adjusted per-capita costs were similarly high among the psychologically distressed ($3,364, 95% CI: $2,791, $3,937) and those with MDD ($3,210, 95% CI: $2,413, $4,008) compared to the comparison group ($2,629, 95% CI: $2,312, $2,945), the population-wide excess costs for psychological distress ($441 million) were more than twice that for MDD ($210 million) as there was a greater number of people with psychological distress than depression. We found substantial healthcare costs associated with psychological distress and depression, suggesting that psychological distress and MDD have a high cost burden and there may be public health intervention opportunities to relieve distress. Further research examining how individuals with these conditions use the healthcare system may provide insight into the allocation of limited healthcare resources while maintaining high quality care. PMID:28873469

  17. Psychological distress and coping strategies in parents of children with cancer in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkis, Najla A; Khoury, Joseph M; Mahmassani, Dina M; Ramia, Maria S; Hamadeh, Ghassan N

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) among parents of Lebanese children with cancer and to investigate the associated stressors and coping strategies. A cross-sectional study conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center-Children Cancer Center of Lebanon in 2012. Parents of all children with cancer admitted for treatment were eligible participants. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to estimate the prevalence of PD. Coping strategies were measured via the Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP). Bivariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between GHQ-12 (scores 0-36), stressors, family/social support, and coping strategies. One hundred fourteen parents (68.2%) completed the anonymous questionnaire. Based on GHQ-12, significant PD was considered among 56.0% of the parents. It was found to be significantly positively associated with the degree of family financial problems and significantly negatively associated with the child's disease duration. A significant negative relationship was also found between PD and Coping (CHIP) scale, coping pattern I (Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation), pattern II (Seeking Social Support), yet not with pattern III (Seeking Information). PD is prevalent among parents of Lebanese children hospitalized because of cancer. Screening for PD in the latter population is feasible, would identify those who are at risk for disruptive PD, and facilitate the provision of support towards better adjustment and coping. Alleviating parental PD may facilitate the realization of optimal health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Pain, sensory disturbances and psychological distress are common sequelae after treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Duriaud, Helle Molter; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    of postoperative pain, sensory disturbances, psychological distress and rehabilitation needs among Danish women with DCIS. METHODS: A total of 574 women treated for DCIS in Denmark in 2013 and 2014 were enrolled and 473 (82%) completed a detailed questionnaire on demographic factors, pain, sensory disturbances......Sequelae such as pain, sensory disturbances and psychological distress are well known after treatment for invasive breast cancer (IBC). Patients treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) receive a similar treatment as low-risk IBC. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe prevalence......, psychological aspects and rehabilitation needs 1-3 years after surgery. RESULTS: Median age was 60 years. A total of 33% of patients reported any pain and 12% reported moderate to severe pain in the area of surgery. Younger age (

  19. [Art therapy for cancer patients in outpatient care. Psychological distress and coping of the participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Heide; Geue, Kristina; Buttstädt, Marianne; Singer, Susanne; Schwarz, Reinhold

    2009-02-01

    Various types of art therapy increasingly gain importance in psycho-oncology. The aim of this article is to determine whether art therapy may help decrease psychological distress and increase coping skills in cancer patients. An art therapy course for use in psycho-oncological care for outpatients was developed and implemented in a prospective observation study of the Department of Social Medicine,Leipzig University. Participants' levels of psychological distress (HADS) as well as their coping skills (TSK) were quantitatively evaluated before (t1) and after (t2) the intervention. After completion of the course mean anxiety of the participants(n = 18) had significantly decreased from 11.06 to 9.33 (p Art therapy interventions can make an important contribution to the