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Sample records for psychological difficulties participants

  1. Associations between sports participation and psychological difficulties during childhood: a two-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Magee, Christopher A; Okely, Anthony D

    2015-05-01

    This paper assessed the associations between sports participation and the development of psychological strengths and difficulties during childhood. Two-year follow up study of a sample of 4042 Australian children who were followed from age 8 years to 10 years. Parents reported children's participation in organised sports, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Univariate general linear models were used to examine the association between changes in sports participation and psychological strengths and difficulties at 10 years, adjusting for psychological strengths and difficulties at age 8. Children who maintained participation in sport had lower rates of parent-reported psychological difficulties at 10 years compared with children who dropped out of sport. Less internalising problems were also reported for children who participated in organised sports compared to children who dropped out of sports and children who did not participate in sports. These relationships did not differ by BMI, socioeconomic status, or parental education. Greater psychological difficulties are experienced by children who drop out of sports, and greater social and emotional problems are experienced by children who drop out of sports and who do not participate in organised sports. Due consideration should be given to the quality and implementation of sporting programs to ensure that they provide benefits to mental health. Due consideration should also be given to the potential psychological difficulties being experienced by children who drop out of organised sports as a higher level of psychological difficulties may be experienced prior to or subsequent to dropout. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Psychologic, pedagogical and hygienic analysis of educational difficulties in students].

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    Ostankina, E N; Artemenkov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Educational difficulties in students are studied. Classification of the difficulties is suggested. Causes of the difficulties (outer and inner factors) are shown. Psychologic portrait of a student facing educational difficulties is presented.

  3. Young people at risk of psychosis: a user-led exploration of interpersonal relationships and communication of psychological difficulties.

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    Byrne, Rory; Morrison, Anthony P

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to qualitatively explore experiences and perceptions of interpersonal relationships and interpersonal communication among young people at risk of psychosis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using a qualitative grounded theory approach. Participants had entered into a service providing psychological interventions for young people assessed to be at a high risk of developing psychosis (Northwest UK). Our sample comprised one female and seven male participants (n = 8), ranging in age from 16 to 28 years, with a mean age of 22.4 years. Analyses identified three central themes: difficulty with interpersonal relationships and reduced opportunities for helpful communication, difficulty talking to others about psychological problems, and experiences of talking to others about psychological problems. Individuals at risk of psychosis may have experienced significant difficulties with interpersonal relationships. Such difficulties may contribute directly to the development of unusual psychological experiences, and to an inability or reluctance to communicate these to others. In addition, commonly held stigmatizing ideas associated with unusual psychological experiences may contribute to a fear among at-risk individuals that they are 'going mad', and this may lead to concealment of their difficulties, and to delayed help-seeking. For at-risk individuals, helpful communication of psychological distress offers significant benefits, including improved psychological and emotional well-being and reduced risk of psychosis. Thus, while concealment of distress may directly impact on the development of unusual psychological difficulties, communication of such difficulties may be central to recovery.

  4. Emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship between trauma exposure, post-migration living difficulties and psychological outcomes in traumatized refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Mueller, Julia; Morina, Naser

    2015-03-01

    While emotion dysregulation represents an important mechanism underpinning psychological responses to trauma, little research has investigated this in refugees. In the current study, we examined the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relationship between refugee experiences (trauma and living difficulties) and psychological outcomes. Participants were 134 traumatized treatment-seeking refugees who completed measures indexing trauma exposure, post-migration living difficulties, difficulties in emotion regulation, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and explosive anger. Findings revealed distinctive patterns of emotion dysregulation associated with each of these psychological disorders. Results also indicated that emotion regulation difficulties mediated the association between both trauma and psychological symptoms, and living difficulties and psychological symptoms. Limitations include a cross-sectional design and the use of measures that had not been validated across all cultural groups in this study. These findings underscore the key role of emotion dysregulation in psychological responses of refugees, and highlight potential directions for treatment interventions for traumatized refugees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Sleep difficulties and psychological symptoms in medicine students in Mexico].

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    Tafoya, Silvia A; Jurado, María M; Yépez, Norma J; Fouilloux, Mariana; Lara, María C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe sleep difficulties in first year medical students associated with psychopathological symptoms. A cross-sectional study in 572 Medicine students, who were assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), was performed. A 3.5% of students reported having a hard time sleeping, 6.3% had difficulty staying asleep and 11.4% waking up very early. Sleep difficulties were significantly associated with all psychopathological symptoms. The best predictors of sleep difficulties were anxiety, hostility and interpersonal sensitivity. In conclusion, the symptoms associated with stress, anger, worry, cognitive hyperarousal and hypervigilance are the best predictors for sleep difficulties in this population.

  6. Difficulties implementing a mental health guideline: an exploratory investigation using psychological theory

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    Eccles Martin P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluations of interventions to improve implementation of guidelines have failed to produce a clear pattern of results favouring a particular method. While implementation depends on clinicians and managers changing a variety of behaviours, psychological theories of behaviour and behaviour change are seldom used to try to understand difficulties in implementation or to develop interventions to overcome them. Objectives This study applied psychological theory to examine explanations for difficulties in implementation. It used a theoretical framework derived from an interdisciplinary consensus exercise to code interviews across 11 theoretical domains. The focus of the study was a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's Schizophrenia guideline recommendation that family intervention should be offered to the families of people with schizophrenia. Methods Participants were recruited from community mental health teams from three United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS Trusts; 20 members (social workers, nurses, team managers, psychologists, and psychiatrists participated. Semi-structured interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Interview questions were based on the theoretical domains and addressed respondents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions regarding the guideline. Two researchers independently coded the transcript segments from each interview that were related to each theoretical domain. A score of 1 indicated that the transcript segments relating to the domain did not appear to contain description of difficulties in implementation of the family therapy guidelines; similarly a score of 0.5 indicated possible difficulties and a score of 0 indicated definite difficulties. Results Coding respondents' answers to questions related to the three domains 'beliefs about consequences,' 'social/professional role and identity,' and 'motivation' produced the three highest total scores indicating that factors relating

  7. [The patient on hemodialysis: psychological and management difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corrado, D; Murgia, M; Agostini, T

    2013-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is a public health problem of great relevance for significant mortality and high socio-economic impact. This study purposed to assess the psychological status in patients on hemodialysis; moreover other purpose is to investigate the possible differences among the first 3 months of hemodialysis treatment replacement. The study was carried out on 12 hemodialysis patients, aged 71.6 years (range: 34-87). Mood was measured by using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) developed in 1971 by Douglas M. McNair. The overall score of mood disorders shows a total negative state in the initial phases of dialysis treatment [F (2,22) = 10.17; p <0.01] and a progressive improvement of the same, with a linear trend [F (1,11) = 12.65; p <0.05]. The model of hemodialysis patients is particularly interesting for several reasons, but especially for the possibility of crosssectional and longitudinal assessments. The aim of future studies will be to characterize and investigate the complex psycho-social variables in this category of patients, to improve their quality of life.

  8. Psychological profile of Turkish rock climbers: an examination of climbing experience and route difficulty.

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    Aşçi, F Hülya; Demirhan, Giyasettin; Dinç, S Cem

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensation seeking, physical self-perception, and intrinsic and extrinsic motives of rock climbers and to compare these psychological constructs with respect to their years of climbing experience and the difficulty of their climbing routes. 64 climbers (M age=29.1 yr., SD=6.4) voluntarily participated in this study. The Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking (AISS), Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ), and Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) were administered to the rock climbers. Analysis indicated that the mean score of rock climbers on the Novelty subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale was 33.9 (SD= 3.6) and mean value on the Intensity subscale was 29.2 (SD=5.2). The mean scores of rock climbers on the PSDQ ranged between 3.9 (SD= 1.0, Physical Activity) and 5.1 (SD= 1.1, Body Fat). Descriptive analysis indicated that the highest mean score of rock climbers on the SMS was obtained in Intrinsic motivation to Experience Stimulation (5.7, SD= 0.9). The independent sample t test showed no significant differences in sensation seeking, physical self-perception, and sport motivation with regard to years of climbing experience and route difficulty (p>.05). It may be concluded that sensation seeking in climbers is high, and they have internal motivational orientation and positive physical self-perception; their competence in climbing has no obvious relationship to these variables.

  9. Psychological difficulties among children and adolescents with ethnic Danish, immigrant or refugee background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Ingrid; Niclasen, Janni; Ryding, Else

    2014-01-01

    reporting lower levels of conduct problems than both immigrant children (P obsessive-compulsive disorder (P ...Objective: This study investigated and compared the prevalence of psychological difficulties among Danish, immigrant, and refugee children. Methods: We enrolled 332 children between the ages of 8 and 18 years (148 Danish children, 81 immigrant children, and 67 children with refugee backgrounds....... No significant differences with regard to age or gender were found among the groups. Conclusions: Our data suggest that, although immigrant children had higher levels of conduct problems than ethnic Danish children, they did not suffer from higher levels of internalizing psychological difficulties. However...

  10. Psychological Difficulties in Adolescents: the Roles of Attachment to Parents, Self-Control and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianbin

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period from childhood to adulthood when a host of physical, social, and psychological changes and increased stress take place. These changes and stresses are likely to result in a variety of psychological difficulties (e.g., emotional problems, behavioral problems, and interpersonal problems) that place adolescents at great risks of mental health disorders (e.g., bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia), which have long-term adverse influen...

  11. History of the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the abuse of their civil rights

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    Petrović Nikola M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of persons with psychological difficulties varied in different historical periods, but in its essence remained similar until today. It included an inhumane relationship towards these persons, involuntary treatment through torture, and isolation from society as a kind of punishment for their diversity. It was not until the late 19th century that the relationship of society towards these individuals started to improve gradually, but in the 21st century isolation of these individuals still remained the dominant form of acceptable social solution for the “problem”, with a somewhat more humane attitude towards them and less cruel treatment. Serbia has followed the trends of treatment of the persons with psychological difficulties from the rest of Europe for centuries, but is still lagging behind the world in the introduction of new methods of treatment. Indeed the first legal solution to regulate the human rights of these people is currently in the process of implementation. The subject of this paper is the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the violation of their civil rights. In a subject specific context the goal of the analysis was the historical review of the treatment towards persons with psychological difficulties by doctors, other practicioners and the community in general, with reference to the current situation regarding their treatment within the psychiatric institutions, as well as the legal regulations and the protection of their civil rights.

  12. Reformulating Psychological Difficulties in People with Parkinson’s Disease: The Potential of a Social Relational Approach to Disablism

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    Jane Simpson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the psychological difficulties experienced by people with Parkinson's disease (PD is dominated by individualistic neurobiological and psychological perspectives. Therefore, this opinion paper draws on a reformulation of the social model of disability, Thomas' (1999 and (2007 social relational approach to disablism, to offer an alternative way of conceptualising psychological difficulties experienced by people with PD. This opinion paper explores the ways in which socially imposed restrictions and stigma may contribute to psychological difficulties by using Thomas' (2007 concept of psychoemotional disablism. By using the lens of psychoemotional disablism, this paper demonstrates that people with PD can be exposed to stigmatising attitudes and interactions which could contribute to restrictions, feelings of shame, and psychological difficulties such as depression. Accordingly, it is argued that further attention to the link between psychological difficulties and social dimensions of disablism in PD is needed in both research arenas and clinical practice to broaden understandings and interventions for people with PD.

  13. Understandings of psychological difficulties in people with the Huntington's disease gene and their expectations of psychological therapy.

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    Theed, Rachael; Eccles, Fiona J R; Simpson, Jane

    2017-10-03

    This study sought to investigate how people who had tested positive for the Huntington's disease (HD) gene mutation understood and experienced psychological distress and their expectations of psychological therapy. A qualitative methodology was adopted involving semi-structured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). A total of nine participants (five women and four men) who had opted to engage in psychological therapy were recruited and interviewed prior to the start of this particular psychological therapeutic intervention. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using IPA whereby themes were analysed within and across transcripts and classified into superordinate themes. Three superordinate themes were developed: Attributing psychological distress to HD: 'you're blaming everything on that now'; Changes in attributions of distress over time: 'in the past you'd just get on with it'; and Approaching therapy with an open mind, commitment, and hope: 'a light at the end of the tunnel'. Understandings of psychological distress in HD included biological and psychological explanations, with both often being accepted simultaneously by the same individual but with biomedical accounts generally dominating. Individual experience seemed to reflect a dynamic process whereby people's understanding and experience of their distress changed over time. Psychological therapy was accepted as a positive alternative to medication, providing people with HD with hope that their psychological well-being could be enhanced. People with the Huntington's disease gene mutation have largely biomedical understandings of their psychological distress. This largely biomedical understanding does not, however, preclude them for being interested in the potential gains resulting from psychological therapy. The mechanisms of psychological therapy should be explained in detail before therapy and explored along with current attributions of distress. © 2017 The British

  14. Effects of Psychological and Social Work Factors on Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance and Difficulties Initiating Sleep.

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    Vleeshouwers, Jolien; Knardahl, Stein; Christensen, Jan Olav

    2016-04-01

    This prospective cohort study examined previously underexplored relations between psychological/social work factors and troubled sleep in order to provide practical information about specific, modifiable factors at work. A comprehensive evaluation of a range of psychological/social work factors was obtained by several designs; i.e., cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, prospective analyses with baseline predictors (T1), prospective analyses with average exposure across waves as predictor ([T1 + T2] / 2), and prospective analyses with change in exposure from baseline to follow-up as predictor. Participants consisted of a sample of Norwegian employees from a broad spectrum of occupations, who completed a questionnaire at two points in time, approximately two years apart. Cross-sectional analyses at T1 comprised 7,459 participants, cross-sectional analyses at T2 included 6,688 participants. Prospective analyses comprised a sample 5,070 of participants who responded at both T1 and T2. Univariable and multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were performed. Thirteen psychological/social work factors and two aspects of troubled sleep, namely difficulties initiating sleep and disturbed sleep, were studied. Ordinal logistic regressions revealed statistically significant associations for all psychological and social work factors in at least one of the analyses. Psychological and social work factors predicted sleep problems in the short term as well as the long term. All work factors investigated showed statistically significant associations with both sleep items, however quantitative job demands, decision control, role conflict, and support from superior were the most robust predictors and may therefore be suitable targets of interventions aimed at improving employee sleep. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Psychological and Behavioral Impact of Participation in Ovarian Cancer Screening

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    Michael A. Andrykowski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of costs and benefits associated with cancer screening should include consideration of any psychological and behavioral impact associated with screening participation. Research examining the psychological and behavioral impact of screening asymptomatic women for ovarian cancer (OC was considered. Research has focused upon potential negative psychological (e.g., distress and behavioral (e.g., reduced future screening participation impact of false positive (FP OC test results. Results suggest FP OC screening results are associated with greater short-term OC-specific distress. While distress dissipates over time it may remain elevated relative to pre-screening levels for several weeks or months even after clinical follow-up has ruled out malignancy. The likelihood of participation in future OC screening may also be reduced. Research focused upon identification of any beneficial impact of participation in OC screening associated with receipt of “normal” results was also considered. This research suggests that a “normal” screening test result can have psychological benefits, including increased positive affect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening. It is concluded that any psychological or behavioral harms attributable to OC screening are generally very modest in severity and duration and might be counterbalanced by psychological benefits accruing to women who participate in routine OC screening and receive normal test results.

  16. Psychological and Behavioral Impact of Participation in Ovarian Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrykowski, Michael A

    2017-03-08

    Evaluation of costs and benefits associated with cancer screening should include consideration of any psychological and behavioral impact associated with screening participation. Research examining the psychological and behavioral impact of screening asymptomatic women for ovarian cancer (OC) was considered. Research has focused upon potential negative psychological (e.g., distress) and behavioral (e.g., reduced future screening participation) impact of false positive (FP) OC test results. Results suggest FP OC screening results are associated with greater short-term OC-specific distress. While distress dissipates over time it may remain elevated relative to pre-screening levels for several weeks or months even after clinical follow-up has ruled out malignancy. The likelihood of participation in future OC screening may also be reduced. Research focused upon identification of any beneficial impact of participation in OC screening associated with receipt of "normal" results was also considered. This research suggests that a "normal" screening test result can have psychological benefits, including increased positive affect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening. It is concluded that any psychological or behavioral harms attributable to OC screening are generally very modest in severity and duration and might be counterbalanced by psychological benefits accruing to women who participate in routine OC screening and receive normal test results.

  17. Psychological problems of Iranian children and adolescents: parent report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.

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    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Fathzadeh, Heidar; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Arman, Soror; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Motavallian, Abbas

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of psychological problems Iranian children and adolescents have, using parent report form of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In a community-based study, 9636 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were selected using the multistage cluster random sampling method from five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Razavi Khorasan and East Azerbaijan. The parents completed the SDQ, which consisted of five subscales including emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and prosocial behaviors. The results revealed 21.4% of emotional problems, 32.9% of conduct problems, 20% of hyperactivity, 25.6% of peer problems, 7.6% of problems in prosocial behaviors and 16.7% of total difficulties among Iranian children and adolescents. We found that emotional problems were more prevalent among girls, while conduct problems, hyperactivity, total difficulties and problems in prosocial behaviors were more prevalent among boys. High educational level of parents was a protective factor against some psychological problems. Considering the proportion of psychological problems in Iranian children and adolescents, we need to develop and implement special policies and programs to provide appropriate mental health services.

  18. Psychosocial difficulties in alcohol dependence: a systematic review of activity limitations and participation restrictions.

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    Levola, Jonna; Kaskela, Teemu; Holopainen, Antti; Sabariego, Carla; Tourunen, Jouni; Cieza, Alarcos; Pitkänen, Tuuli

    2014-01-01

    There has been a lack of comprehensive reviews targeting specific aspects of functioning and the difficulties faced by persons with alcohol dependence. The aim of the present review was to systematically compile the existing literature on activity limitations and participation restrictions as defined in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in the context of alcohol dependence. A database search (MEDLINE and PsychINFO) was performed for studies published in English (2005-2012), examining the activity limitations and participation restrictions in alcohol dependence. Using a standardised protocol, information about the studies' characteristics and data on activity limitations and participation restrictions, their evolution, onset, determinants and associations with other variables were extracted from the studies under review. A total of 211 difficulties in activities and participation in persons with alcohol dependence were extracted from 125 papers. The spectrum of studies was wide, and their overall quality was good. A common reason for the exclusion of studies was an inconclusive definition of alcohol dependence. Issues with interpersonal interactions, economic and professional life, dealing with aggression and legal problems were the most frequently reported difficulties. Problems with high-risk behaviours and in seeking appropriate treatment were also common. The most frequent determinants of the onset and evolution of the identified difficulties were factors pertaining to the course of alcohol dependence. These difficulties were rarely the studies' focus; therefore, the data on their underlying causes and courses were limited. The results confirm that alcohol dependence profoundly affects the family and social network of the afflicted person. The treatment of alcohol dependence can contribute to the alleviation of these associated difficulties. The ICF offers a new perspective on evaluating the wide range of difficulties

  19. [Development Inventory as a Diagnosis Tool in Children with Participation Difficulties in School Activities].

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    María, Helena Rubio G

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, evidence regarding acquisition of skills or critic behaviors for school performance has increased though there it is not conclusive in terms of the effectiveness in class participation. The purpose is to define the elements implicated in the acquisition of such skills or critical behaviors and describe them from the perspective of school activities involving participation. Descriptive, observational study with a sample of 28 preschool and primary school students during September 2008 and March 2009 at a public institution in the city of Cali, Colombia. The procedure was the identification of child performance capabilities using Battell's developmental inventory to describe afterwards the repercussions on student's participation in school activities. 61.5% of the children show motor difficulties; 56% exhibit socio and personal difficulties, while 46.2% reveal adaptive difficulties. These areas are fundamental for school participation in the different activities. These children have not developed the ability for an integrated control of their muscles. They also exhibit difficulties regarding social interactions and regarding the skills necessary in the performance of daily activities. The results found in this study suggest the need to enhance the study on the relevance to develop motor, personal-social, and adaptive skills in cooperation with developmental professionals. It is necessary to know and learn strategies in cooperation with the developmental professionals. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissociation mediates the relationship between sexual abuse and child psychological difficulties.

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    Ensink, Karin; Berthelot, Nicolas; Bégin, Michaël; Maheux, Julie; Normandin, Lina

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, using structural equation modeling, a theoretical model in which dissociation is a core process mediating the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and internalizing, externalizing, and sexualized behaviour difficulties in children. A total of 290 children aged 2-12 participated in this study in Québec, Canada from 1998 to 2004, including 138 children with histories of CSA and 152 non-abused children. To assess child dissociative symptoms, internalizing and externalizing difficulties, as well as sexualized behaviour difficulties, the Child Dissociative Checklist, the Child Behaviour Checklist and the Child Sexualized Behaviour Inventory were completed by parents. Dissociation mediated the relationship between CSA and internalizing, externalizing, and sexualized behaviour difficulties, with the model explaining respectively 42.5%, 49.9% and 33.9% of the variance of these difficulties. Findings are consistent with a model where dissociation is a common pathway linking CSA and child psycho-sexual difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactional difficulties as a resource for patient participation in prenatal screening consultations in Hong Kong.

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    Kang, M Agnes; Zayts, Olga A

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we examine the interactional means by which non-native English speaking patients in Hong Kong participate in prenatal screening sessions. Using interactional sociolinguistics as the theoretical framework, we apply the concept of contextualization cues to illustrate that patients indicate their participation in the consultation through verbal and non-verbal modes. We find that non-native English speaking patients participate: (1) by displaying the interactional difficulties they are encountering and (2) by coordinating their displays of interactional difficulties with the activities of the healthcare provider. We conclude that the notion of patient participation must be expanded to take into account non-native speaking contexts; in particular, that collaborative displays of knowledge (or lack thereof) must be included as part of the definition of patient participation. While verbal contributions represent an important mode of participation in consultations, patients also participate by contextualizing their lack of understanding, which then can serve as a resource to healthcare providers in pursuing meaningful consultations. Our analysis illustrates how health care professionals' awareness of the modes of patient participation and what these modes may signal in non-native consultations can help to establish what the patient knows in the consultation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative life events, emotions and psychological difficulties as determinants of salivary cortisol in Belgian primary school children.

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    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Inge; Bammann, Karin; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Vriendt, Tineke; Iacoviello, Licia; Konstabel, Kenn; Ahrens, Wolfgang; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes whether children's life events, emotions and psychological difficulties are related to their salivary cortisol patterns and whether this is different between sexes. In 385 children (5-10 years old) participating in the ChiBS study, salivary cortisol samples were collected when waking up, 30 min and 60 min after wake up and in the evening on two consecutive weekdays. Moreover, data on children's life events, emotions and difficulties were collected. Statistical analysis was done separately for boys and girls by multilevel growth curve modelling with adjustments for age, body mass index, socio-economic status and wake up time. In boys and girls with more negative life events during the last three months, the diurnal cortisol slope was steeper (more decline). Boys with higher self-reported happiness showed lower overall, morning and evening cortisol levels. In contrast, the diurnal slope was steeper (more decline) in boys with emotional problems due to higher morning values. In girls, peer problems were associated with lower overall and morning cortisol levels. Children's salivary cortisol patterns were related to some negative life events, emotions and difficulties, although differently in boys and girls. As such, sex-differences in HPA functioning are already present in young children. Most findings support the upregulation of the cortisol response to stress, although lower morning values were found in the presence of peer problems in girls. Future studies should focus on sex differences, positive emotions and the diurnal cortisol slope. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of Subjective Difficulty and Psychological Stress by Ambient Sensing of Desk Panel Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Nana; Yamamoto, Keiko; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

    We investigate ambient sensing techniques that recognize writer's psychological states by measuring vibrations of handwriting on a desk panel using a piezoelectric contact sensor attached to its underside. In particular, we describe a technique for estimating the subjective difficulty of a question for a student as the ratio of the time duration of thinking to the total amount of time spent on the question. Through experiments, we confirm that our technique correctly recognizes whether or not a person writes something down on paper by measured vibration data at the accuracy of over 80 %, and that the order of computed subjective difficulties of three questions is coincident with that reported by the subject in 60 % of experiments. We also propose a technique to estimate a writer's psychological stress by using the standard deviation of the spectrum of the measured vibration. Results of a proof-of-concept experiment show that the proposed technique correctly estimates whether or not the subject feels stress at least 90 % of the time.

  4. Psychological problems in Iranian adolescents: application of the self report form of strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Arman, Soroor; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Salmanian, Maryam; Ahmadi, Nastaran; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Fathzadeh Gharibeh, Heydar; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Motavallian, Ali

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran. In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors. Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%), and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%). Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05). Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4), hyperactivity problems (21.5%) and overall criterion problems (17.3%); Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1%) and problems with peers (8.1%); and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%). In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12 to 14

  5. Psychological problems in Iranian adolescents: application of the self report form of strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran.In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors.Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%. Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05. Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4, hyperactivity problems (21.5% and overall criterion problems (17.3%; Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1% and problems with peers (8.1%; and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%.In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12

  6. Ecological, psychological, and cognitive components of reading difficulties: testing the component model of reading in fourth graders across 38 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The authors tested the component model of reading (CMR) among 186,725 fourth grade students from 38 countries (45 regions) on five continents by analyzing the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study data using measures of ecological (country, family, school, teacher), psychological, and cognitive components. More than 91% of the differences in student difficulty occurred at the country (61%) and classroom (30%) levels (ecological), with less than 9% at the student level (cognitive and psychological). All three components were negatively associated with reading difficulties: cognitive (student's early literacy skills), ecological (family characteristics [socioeconomic status, number of books at home, and attitudes about reading], school characteristics [school climate and resources]), and psychological (students' attitudes about reading, reading self-concept, and being a girl). These results extend the CMR by demonstrating the importance of multiple levels of factors for reading deficits across diverse cultures.

  7. Sexual Abuse Is Associated With an Abnormal Psychological Profile and Sleep Difficulty in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsing-Feng; Liu, Pei-Yi; Wang, Yen-Po; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2018-01-30

    Both sexual and physical abuse history have been reported to be associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Western countries. The impact of abuse history in IBS patients in Asia remains unclear. We aim to determine the prevalence of abuse history, its associated psychological profiles, and sleep problems among IBS patients in Taiwan. In total, 194 Rome III-defined IBS patients were invited to participate. Age- and sex- matched healthy carriers of chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C without chronic abdominal symptoms were identified as disease-controls. We administered a validated questionnaire to evaluate bowel symptoms, physical/sexual abuse history, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and sleep quality. IBS patients had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual abuse history than the disease-control group both before (16.5% vs 6.7%, P < 0.05) and after (16.0% vs 6.6%, P < 0.05) adolescence. These significant differences were mainly observed in women (13.4% vs 3.4%, P < 0.05). No difference was noted in history of physical abuse between the 2 groups. IBS patients with a history of sexual abuse had significantly higher HADS scores and higher frequencies of sleep difficulty than those without. In Taiwan, sexual abuse history was more prevalent in female IBS patients than controls. Sexual abuse history may contribute to higher anxiety/depression levels and sleep difficulties, which are commonly experienced in IBS patients. In Asia, abuse history should be obtained when approaching IBS patients to facilitate better management.

  8. Public Participation and Institutional Fit: A Social-Psychological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. DeCaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public participation plays a role in the development and long-term maintenance of environmental institutions that are well-matched to local social-ecological conditions. However, the means by which public participation impacts such institutional fit remains unclear. We argue that one major reason for this lack of clarity is that analysts have not clearly outlined how humankind's sense of agency, or self-determination, influences institutional outcomes. Moreover, the concept of institutional fit is ambiguous as to what constitutes a good fit and how such fit could be diagnosed or improved. This is especially true for "social fit," or how well institutions match human expectations and local behavioral patterns. We develop an interdisciplinary framework based on principles of human agency and institutional analysis from social psychology to address these problems. Using the concept of "institutional acceptance" as an indicator of social fit, we show how analysts can define, diagnose, and improve social fit of participatory programs. We also show how such fit emerges and is sustained over time. This interdisciplinary perspective on fit and participation has important implications for participatory approaches to environmental management and the scientific study of institutional evolution.

  9. A Literature Review Investigating the Relationship between Sports Participation and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Mitchell Kenneth

    This study investigated the connection between sport, emotion, and psychological health through an examination of the literature on sports participation and psychological health. The review found that while some of the research supports a relationship between psychological well-being and sports participation, some of it is inconclusive. Many…

  10. Health Worry, Physical Activity Participation, and Walking Difficulty among Older Adults: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of health worry (i.e., cognitive aspect of anxiety resulting from concern for health) on walking difficulty in a nationally representative sample (N = 7,527) of older adults (M age = 76.83 years). The study further tested whether physical activity mediates the effect of health worry on walking difficulty in a 6-year…

  11. Psychological Distress of Fathers Attending an Australian Early Parenting Service for Early Parenting Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Zerman, Nikki; Vittorino, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early parenting centres are in a unique position to identify and provide support to fathers experiencing mental health difficulties. However, the extent to which fathers attending these services experience mental health difficulties is not known. This study aimed to assess fathers' mental health, identify specific clinical profiles…

  12. A Study of ELL Students' Writing Difficulties: A Call for Culturally, Linguistically, and Psychologically Responsive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Show Mei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the difficulties ELL students experience in their writing development from the perspective of twenty ELL students. Through the use of questionnaires and in depth interviews, this study attempted to explore the writing needs or difficulties of ELL students. The findings indicated that…

  13. Repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life among behavioral weight management participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Erin A K; Olson, KayLoni L; Emery, Charles F

    2016-08-01

    Repressive coping has been associated with elevated risk of disease and negative health outcomes in past studies. Although a prior study of healthy men found that repression was associated with lower body mass index (BMI), no study has examined repressive coping among obese individuals. This study examined the relationship of repressive coping with BMI and obesity-relevant psychosocial factors among 104 overweight and obese participants in a behavioral weight management program. Participants completed questionnaires assessing repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life. BMI was objectively measured. Repressors reported lower stigmatization, anxiety, and depression as well as higher emotional and weight-related quality of life. Repressors and non-repressors had equivalent BMI and reported similar impairment in physical quality of life, but stigmatization moderated the relationship between repressive coping and physical quality of life (b=0.31, p=0.039), reflecting better physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization. Obese individuals who engage in repressive coping may tend to underreport psychological symptoms, social difficulties, and impairments in quality of life. Higher physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization may reflect a combined influence of coping and social processes in physical quality of life among obese individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between difficulties in psychological adjustment in young adulthood and exposure to bullying behaviour in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesar, Kristina; Barišić, Marijana; Pandža, Maja; Dodaj, Arta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between involvement in bullying in childhood and adolescence and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. A total of 249 college students completed the Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire and Trauma Symptom Checklist. The results showed significant differences in psychological adjustment among respondents who were exposed to bullying compared to respondents who were not exposed to bullying. Those exposed to bullying had significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, sleeping problems, and dissociative and traumatic symptoms compared to those who were not exposed to bullying. Respondents who were exposed to bullying in all three examined periods (the period from the first to fourth grade, the period from the fifth to eighth grade and the high school period) had higher scores on the subscale of dissociative symptoms and sexual trauma symptoms compared to respondents who were exposed through one or two periods. Victims abused in all three periods have more symptoms of anxiety and sleeping problems compared to the subjects exposed to bullying during one examination period. There were no differences in the level of depressive symptoms and sexual problems regarding the duration of bullying. Also, there were no differences in psychological adjustment between respondents who were bullied during one specific period. Bullying experiences in childhood and adolescence are connected with difficulties in psychological adjustment in young adulthood. Copyright © 2012 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  15. Using Older People's Life Stories to Teach Developmental Psychology and Aging: Benefits and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Fabà, Josep; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to design and implement an experiential learning assignment in an undergraduate developmental psychology and aging course and to explore students' perceptions of it. One hundred and forty-three first-year students enrolled in an introductory course on developmental psychology across the life span recorded, transcribed,…

  16. Narrating Psychological Distress: Associations between Cross-Clausal Integration and Mental Health Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinken, Jorg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna; Butler, Lisa; Skinner, T. Chas

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress…

  17. Participant Nonnaiveté and the reproducibility of cognitive psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Zwaan (Rolf); D. Pecher (Diane); G. Paolacci (Gabriele); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha); P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); K. Dijkstra (Katinka); R. Zeelenberg (René)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMany argue that there is a reproducibility crisis in psychology. We investigated nine well-known effects from the cognitive psychology literature—three each from the domains of perception/action, memory, and language, respectively—and found that they are highly reproducible. Not only can

  18. The relationship between difficulties in psychological adjustment in young adulthood and exposure to bullying behaviour in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Sesar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the relationship between involvement in bullying in childhood and adolescence and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. Materials and method. A total of 249college students completed the Retrospective Bullying Questionnaireand Trauma Symptom Checklist. Results. The results showed significantdifferences in psychological adjustment among respondents whowere exposed to bullying compared to respondents who were not exposedto bullying. Those exposed to bullying had significantly higherlevels of anxiety, depression, sleeping problems, and dissociative andtraumatic symptoms compared to those who were not exposed to bullying.Respondents who were exposed to bullying in all three examinedperiods (the period from the first to fourth grade, the period from the fifth to eighth grade and the high school period had higher scores on the subscale of dissociative symptoms and sexual trauma symptoms compared to respondents who were exposed through one or twoperiods. Victims abused in all three periods have more symptoms ofanxiety and sleeping problems compared to the subjects exposed tobullying during one examination period. There were no differences inthe level of depressive symptoms and sexual problems regarding theduration of bullying. Also, there were no differences in psychologicaladjustment between respondents who were bullied during one specificperiod. Conclusion. Bullying experiences in childhood and adolescenceare connected with difficulties in psychological adjustment inyoung adulthood.

  19. The Relationship between Communication Problems and Psychological Difficulties in Persons with Profound Acquired Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, John F.; Lansing, Charissa R.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-seven adults with postlingually acquired profound deafness were administered the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired and several tests of psychological functioning and adjustment. Inadequate communication strategies and poor accommodations to deafness were associated with depression, social introversion, loneliness, and social…

  20. Moral Disengagement and Emotional and Social Difficulties in Bullying and Cyberbullying: Differences by Participant Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Participant roles in traditional bullying have been well researched, and the social and emotional characteristics identified with each role are clearly documented. However, little is known about the participant roles in cyberbullying and the degree to which these correspond to traditional bullying roles. This study aims to investigate similarities…

  1. Regional strategy of preservation and strengthening of the psychological health of participants of educational relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko A.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of saving and improving psychological health of educational relations' participants can be considered crucial. This article looked at several approaches to systemic analysis of various factors influencing psychological health of educational relations' participants in a negative way. We identified these factors by the levels they emerge at, namely: the level of learner himself/herself, the level of his/her social environment (teachers and parents, as well as educational institution, municipality and region. It is only possible to save and improve psychological health of educational relations' participants if systemic risk factors are eliminated at every level. Unsolved contradictions of the higher level "descend" to lower levels and require additional efforts to eliminate their effect. The article introduces the notion of learners’ “psychological health standards” that implies a system of socio-psychological, pedagogical, administrative, and technical conditions for saving and improving psychological health.

  2. Self-reported hearing difficulties, communication strategies and psychological general well-being (quality of life) in patients with acquired hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallberg, L.R.M.; Hallberg, U.; Kramer, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. The aims were to (i) translate the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH) into Swedish and evalute its usefulness, (ii) describe hearing difficulties and psychological well-being (quality of life) and (iii) explore variables related to psychological well-being in a

  3. The difficulty of making psychology research and clinical practice relevant to medicine: experiences and observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Rodger

    2008-03-01

    Psychology and medicine research and practice have demonstrated substantial and unique bodies of knowledge designed to both improve patient care and respond to contemporary health care needs for use of evidence and cost consciousness. At their full potential they represent a significant paradigm shift in healthcare. Despite impressive successes, it is clear that we are just on the cusp of such a change. These findings have had limited impact and penetration into medical practice, particularly outside of academic medicine and large, organized systems of health care, and there are multiple examples of such limitations in various arenas of health care. There also appear to be common themes to such examples which provide us opportunities to consider how psychologists might move things ahead. They also suggest how our unique position in academic medicine can both limit our impact and provide ways of creating continued shifts in the healthcare paradigm.

  4. "Product Placement" to Widening Participation in Psychology: The Case for Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Patrick L.

    2010-01-01

    The case is made that psychology, and the British Psychological Society in particular, should make culture in all its guises (multiculturalism, diversity, ethnicities, gender, sexuality, class) part of the core curriculum of undergraduate degrees. It is suggested that this could increase participation by Black and Minority Ethnic groups (BME)…

  5. A Group Motor Skills Program for Children with Coordination Difficulties: Effect on Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra J; Staples, Kerri L

    2016-01-01

    Children with coordination difficulties are at risk of low levels of physical activity (PA) participation. This intervention examined the effects of a multidisciplinary program that emphasized parent participation on motor skill performance and PA. Ten boys (5-7 years) completed a group program consisting of conditioning exercises and activities designed to address child-selected goals. Motor proficiency and PA participation were assessed before and after the program using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and triaxial accelerometers, respectively. Rating scales captured child and parent perceptions of performance for each child's goals. TGMD-2 subtest raw scores, age equivalent and percentile scores improved, along with parent ratings of their child's performance. Six children reported skill improvements. On average, moderate to vigorous PA improved by 10 min per day although these gains were not significant. Time spent in sedentary activities was unchanged. None of the children met the Canadian PA and sedentary behaviour guidelines. The results support effectiveness of a group program to improve gross motor performance and levels of PA in children with coordination difficulties. Gains in both of these domains also have the potential to impact quality of life and reduce health risks associated with inactivity.

  6. The psychological influences on participation in Wheelchair Rugby: a social relational model of disability

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Haslett; Ben Fitzpatrick; Gavin Breslin

    2017-01-01

    Sport and exercise psychology research in disability sport seldom engages with social models of disability. As a result, the socio-historical landscape of disability is underrepresented in sport psychology research. The aim of this study is to interpret influences on participation in disability sport through the conceptual lens of the social relational model (SRM) of disability (Thomas, 1999, 2004, 2007). Ten Irish adult male athletes with physical disabilities participated in semi-structured...

  7. The impact of coping and emotional intelligence on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder from past trauma, adjustment difficulty, and psychological distress following divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanbekova, Gulnara; Chung, Man Cheung; Abildina, Saltanat; Sabirova, Raikhan; Kapbasova, Gulzada; Karipbaev, Baizhol

    2017-08-01

    Focusing on a group of Kazakh divorcees, this study examined the inter-relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from past trauma, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, adjustment difficulties, and psychiatric symptom severity following divorce. One hundred and twenty divorcees participated in the research and completed the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Brief COPE, and Fisher's Divorce Adjustment Scale Results: About 29% reported no trauma; 53%, 21%, and 26% met the criteria for no-PTSD, partial-PTSD, and full-PTSD respectively. Emotion-focused coping and managing emotions predicted adjustment difficulties. Controlling for gender, PTSD, problem-focused coping, and managing emotions predicted psychiatric symptom severity. Problem-focused coping mediated the direct effect of the path between PTSD and psychiatric symptom severity with its mediational effect being moderated by the effect of managing emotions. Following divorce, people can experience psychological distress which is influenced by the effects of PTSD from past trauma, and whether they used problem-focused coping and were able to manage their emotions.

  8. Participation restrictions in ambulatory amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: Physical and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Groenestijn, Annerieke C; Schröder, Carin D; Kruitwagen-Van Reenen, Esther T; Van Den Berg, Leonard H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of participation restrictions in ambulatory patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to identify physical and psychological contributory factors. In this cross-sectional study, self-reported participation restrictions of 72 ambulatory ALS patients were assessed using the social health status dimension (SIPSOC) of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68). Associations between SIPSOC and physical functioning, psychological factors, and demographic factors were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. Ninety-two percent of the patients reported participation restrictions; 54.9% could be explained by physical functioning; psychological factors accounted for 8.1% of the variance. Lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and helplessness were independently associated with participation restrictions. Ambulatory ALS patients have participation restrictions, which may be influenced if early ALS care is directed toward lung capacity, functional mobility, fatigue, and feelings of helplessness. Muscle Nerve 56: 912-918, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Females and Males as Participants in School Psychology Research: Data from Four Journals over 15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holverstott, Katherine M.; Ehrhardt, Kristal E.; Parish, Trisha; Ervin, Ruth; Jennings, Lanai; Poling, Alan

    2002-01-01

    The failure of many school psychology research articles to specify the sex of participants is a potentially serious problem. Without this information, one cannot ascertain to whom results should generalize or whether the sex of participants affects the variable under investigation. It is recommended that researchers routinely specify how many of…

  10. Association of participation in the supplemental nutrition assistance program and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Vanessa M; Mabli, James

    2015-06-01

    We assessed whether households' participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) was associated with improvements in well-being, as indicated by lower rates of psychological distress. We used longitudinal data for 3146 households in 30 states, collected between October 2011 and September 2012 for the SNAP Food Security survey, the largest longitudinal national survey of SNAP participants to date. Analyses compared households within days of program entry to the same households approximately 6 months later. We measured psychological distress in the past 30 days on a 6-item Kessler screening scale and used multivariable regression to estimate associations between SNAP participation and psychological distress. A smaller percentage of household heads exhibited psychological distress after 6 months of participation in SNAP than at baseline (15.3% vs 23.2%; difference = -7.9%). In adjusted models, SNAP participation was associated with a decrease in psychological distress (adjusted relative risk = 0.72; 95% confidence interval = 0.66, 0.78). Continuing support for federal nutrition programs, such as SNAP, may reduce the public health burden of mental illness, thus improving well-being among vulnerable populations.

  11. Psychological resilience and active social participation among older adults with incontinence: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kyo; Sase, Eriko; Kato, Atsushi; Igari, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-11-01

    Incontinence restricts participation in social activities among older adults. However, some older adults participate in social activities despite this condition. This study aimed to describe how older adults with incontinence could be resilient and actively participate in social activities. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 socially active older adults with incontinence (age 70-90; nine women and two men) at their homes or in private areas of day-service centres in Chiba, Japan. We coded salient narratives by using thematic analysis and extracted themes. Finally, we developed a conceptual model and illustrated the interactions among themes. We identified seven themes that affected active social participation; five of these pertained to psychological characteristics ('motivation to be socially active', 'psychological stress of incontinence', 'desire to interact with others', 'willingness to perform physical exercise', and 'confidence in managing incontinence') and the remaining two pertained to supporting environmental factors ('assistive devices' and 'accessible toilet'). Three psychological themes ('desire to interact with others', 'willingness to perform physical exercise', and 'confidence in managing incontinence') were intertwined with supporting environmental factors and increased the participants' 'motivation to be socially active'. Older adults with incontinence can actively participate in the society when they have desire to interact with others, willingness to perform physical exercise, and confidence in managing incontinence. These psychological characteristics are important for being resilient in the face of incontinence and for active social participation.

  12. Meditation awareness training (MAT) for improved psychological well-being: a qualitative examination of participant experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are reported as being efficacious treatments for a variety of psychological and somatic conditions. However, concerns have arisen relating to how mindfulness is operationalized in mindfulness-based interventions and whether its 'spiritual essence' and full potential treatment efficacy have remained intact. This qualitative study used interpretative phenomenological analysis to examine participant experiences regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of a newly designed secularized intervention called meditation awareness training (MAT) that follows a more traditional Buddhist approach to meditation. Participants (with issues of stress and low mood) reported experiencing improvements in psychological well-being due to receiving MAT. The wider implications are discussed.

  13. The psychological influences on participation in Wheelchair Rugby: a social relational model of disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Haslett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport and exercise psychology research in disability sport seldom engages with social models of disability. As a result, the socio-historical landscape of disability is underrepresented in sport psychology research. The aim of this study is to interpret influences on participation in disability sport through the conceptual lens of the social relational model (SRM of disability (Thomas, 1999, 2004, 2007. Ten Irish adult male athletes with physical disabilities participated in semi-structured interviews exploring the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in Wheelchair Rugby. Deductive thematic analysis produced four themes influenced by the social relational model: impairment effects; societal attitudes and discourse; opportunities and access; and psychological well-being. Links were made to the experience of embodied impairment, classification, oppression, inequality, media, independence, and self-efficacy. The analysis illustrates how cultural constructions of disability are inextricably linked to individual influences on participation in Wheelchair Rugby. The results indicate that in disability sport participation, the experience of social oppression, inequality and cultural stereotypes of disability can be synonymous with the personal experience of physical impairment. The implication of this research is that there is a value in sport and exercise psychology practitioners utilising the social relational model as a tool to conceptualise the lived experience of physical disability.

  14. Yoga Practice for Reducing the Male Obesity and Weight Related Psychological Difficulties-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rshikesan, P B; Subramanya, Pailoor; Nidhi, Ram

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a health disorder and increasing all over the world. It is also a cause for many non-communicable diseases. Yoga practice reduces the stress level which may improve the eating habits and help in weight reduction. To assess the final outcome of the effects after 3 months of the 14 weeks yoga training on obesity of adult male in an urban setting. This was a randomized controlled trial with parallel groups (Yoga and Control groups) on male obese. Total 80 subjects with Body Mass Index (BMI) between 25 to 35 kg/cm2 were enrolled and randomized into two equal groups in which 72 subjects (yoga n = 37 and control n=35) completed the trial. Yoga group mean age ± SD was 40.03±8.74 and Control group mean age±SD was 42.20±12.06. A 14 weeks special IAYT (Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy) yoga training was given to the Yoga group and no specific activity was given to Control group. The interim results of this study at 14 weeks were covered in another article which is under process. After the 14 weeks of yoga training the Yoga group was asked to continue the yoga practice for the next 3 months and the Control group was not given any physical activity. The final outcome is covered in this paper. The assessments were anthropometric parameters of body weight (Wt), BMI (Body Mass Index), MAC (Mid-upper Arm Circumferences of left and right arm), WC (Waist Circumference), HC (Hip Circumference), WHR (Waist Hip Ratio), SKF (Skin Fold Thickness) of biceps, triceps, sub scapular, suprailiac and cumulative skin fold thickness value), Percentage body fat based on SKF and Psychological questionnaires of PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) and AAQW (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire for Weight related difficulty). Assessments were taken after 3 months of yoga training, for both Yoga and Control groups. Within group, between group and correlation analyses were carried out using SPSS 21. Improvement in anthropometric and psychological parameters such as Wt, Percentage body fat

  15. [Art therapy for cancer patients in outpatient care. Psychological distress and coping of the participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Heide; Geue, Kristina; Buttstädt, Marianne; Singer, Susanne; Schwarz, Reinhold

    2009-02-01

    Various types of art therapy increasingly gain importance in psycho-oncology. The aim of this article is to determine whether art therapy may help decrease psychological distress and increase coping skills in cancer patients. An art therapy course for use in psycho-oncological care for outpatients was developed and implemented in a prospective observation study of the Department of Social Medicine,Leipzig University. Participants' levels of psychological distress (HADS) as well as their coping skills (TSK) were quantitatively evaluated before (t1) and after (t2) the intervention. After completion of the course mean anxiety of the participants(n = 18) had significantly decreased from 11.06 to 9.33 (p Art therapy interventions can make an important contribution to the psychological well-being of cancer patients.

  16. Social Competence and Emotional Intelligence of Future Pe Teachers and Their Participation in Psychological Workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuk Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to investigate the social competence (SC and emotional intelligence (EI of future physical education (PE teachers after targeted psychological training. Methods. PE university students completing their bachelor’s (28 third-year students and master’s degrees (31 first-year students were recruited and divided into an experimental and control group. The participants completed a questionnaire assessing SC and EI. The experimental group then participated in a series of psychological workshops (four 8-hour sessions that included Video Interaction Training and interpersonal training. The questionnaire was again administered immediately and 6 months after the workshops were completed. Results. The indicators of SC and EI were significantly higher in experimental group in both post-workshop time points. No increases were observed in the control group. Conclusions. The results justify the inclusion of interactive psychological courses in the curricula of future PE teachers.

  17. Social and psychological determinants of participation in internet-based cancer support groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2010-01-01

    observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...

  18. Predicting older adults' maintenance in exercise participation using an integrated social psychological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Crone, M.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the predictors of maintenance in organized exercise programmes. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral predictors of maintenance of exercise participation in older adults, using an integrated social psychological model. To this end, we carried out a prospective

  19. Integrating the ICF with positive psychology: Factors predicting role participation for mothers with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ruth S; Kern, Margaret L; Brusilovsky, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Being a mother has become a realizable life role for women with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying psychosocial factors that facilitate participation in important life roles-including motherhood-is essential to help women have fuller lives despite the challenge of their illness. By integrating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and a positive psychology perspective, this study examined how environmental social factors and positive personal factors contribute to daily role participation and satisfaction with parental participation. One hundred and 11 community-dwelling mothers with MS completed Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, the Short Form-36, and the Parental Participation Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses examined associations between social support and positive personal factors (environmental mastery, self-acceptance, purpose in life) with daily role participation (physical and emotional) and satisfaction with parental participation. One-way ANOVAs tested synergistic combinations of social support and positive personal factors. Social support predicted daily role participation (fewer limitations) and greater satisfaction with parental participation. Positive personal factors contributed additional unique variance. Positive personal factors and social support synergistically predicted better function and greater satisfaction than either alone. Integrating components of the ICF and positive psychology provides a useful model for understanding how mothers with MS can thrive despite challenge or impairment. Both positive personal factors and environmental social factors were important contributors to positive role functioning. Incorporating these paradigms into treatment may help mothers with MS participate more fully in meaningful life roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effects of Participation in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program on College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Michelle Judith

    2009-01-01

    The present study utilized a pre-test, post-test comparison group design to examine effects of participation in a twelve-week Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course on college students' psychological well-being (Ryff Psychological Well-Being Scale, Medium Form; Ryff, 1989, 1995, 1996), psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom…

  1. Prediction of the difficulty level in a standardized reading comprehension test: contributions from cognitive psychology and psychometrics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizuela, Armel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to identify possible predictors of the difficulty level of reading comprehension items used in a standardized psychometric test for university admission. Several potential predictors of difficulty were proposed, namely, propositional density, negations, grammatical structure, vocabulary difficulty, presence of enhancement elements (words highlighted typographically, item abstraction level and degree of similarity between correct option and relevant text to resolve the item. By Linear Logistic Test Model (Fisher, 1973 it was found that the number of propositions, the syntactic structure, and fundamentally, the presence of difficult words contributed to the prediction of the item difficulty level.

  2. Emotional and psychological effects of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia on participating physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This is a review and evaluation of medical and public literature regarding the reported emotional and psychological effects of participation in physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia on the involved physicians. Articles in medical journals, legislative investigations and the public press were obtained and reviewed to determine what has been reported regarding the effects on physicians who have been personally involved in PAS and euthanasia. The physician is centrally involved in PAS and euthanasia, and the emotional and psychological effects on the participating physician can be substantial. The shift away from the fundamental values of medicine to heal and promote human wholeness can have significant effects on many participating physicians. Doctors describe being profoundly adversely affected, being shocked by the suddenness of the death, being caught up in the patient's drive for assisted suicide, having a sense of powerlessness, and feeling isolated. There is evidence of pressure on and intimidation of doctors by some patients to assist in suicide. The effect of countertransference in the doctor-patient relationship may influence physician involvement in PAS and euthanasia. Many doctors who have participated in euthanasia and/or PAS are adversely affected emotionally and psychologically by their experiences.

  3. South Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychological mediators of faecal occult blood colorectal screening participation: A prospective test of a process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina; Szczepura, Ala; Weller, David; Gumber, Anil; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-12-01

    Although ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) correlate with health inequality, efforts to explain variance in health behavior attributable to these factors are limited by difficulties in population sampling. We used ethnicity identification software to test effects of psychological beliefs about screening as mediators of ethnicity and SES on faecal occult blood colorectal screening behavior in a no-cost health care context. Adults aged 50-67 years (N = 1,678), of whom 28% were from minority South Asian religiolinguistic ethnic groups (Hindu-Gujarati/Hindi, Muslim-Urdu and Sikh-Punjabi), participated in a prospective survey study. Subsequent screening participation was determined from medical records. Screening nonparticipation in the most deprived SES quintile was 1.6 times that of the least deprived quintile. Nonparticipation was 1.6 times higher in South Asians compared with non-Asians. A process model in which psychological variables mediated effects of ethnicity and SES on uptake was tested using structural equation modeling. Self-efficacy and perceived psychological costs of screening were, respectively, positive and negative direct predictors of uptake. Paths from Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh ethnicity, and SES on uptake were fully mediated by lower self-efficacy and higher perceived psychological costs. Paths from South Asian ethnicity to participation via self-efficacy and psychological costs were direct, and indirect via SES. SES is implicated, but does not fully account for low colorectal screening uptake among South Asians. Targeting increased self-efficacy and reduced perceived psychological costs may minimize health inequality effects. Future research should test independent effects of SES and ethnicity on lower self-efficacy and higher psychological costs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Total Participation Management: Toward Psychological Determinants of Subjective Well-Being at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to determine which management practice has the strongest influence on the subjective well-being (SWB of employees, three workplaces were assessed with reference to different levels of total participation management (TPM, an innovative approach to human resource management. The study examined whether the level of TPM is positively related with SWB, defined according to Diener’s (1984 affective and cognitive facets of work. The psychological explanation of the predicted dependence was the level of satisfaction of three basic needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness distinguished by Deci and Ryan (2000a. The hypothesis about a positive relationship between SWB and TPM was confirmed. Results indicate that the least participative company has employees with the lowest subjective well-being and with the lowest satisfaction of basic psychological needs.

  5. From question-behaviour effects in trials to the social psychology of research participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The 'question-behaviour effect' (QBE) has attracted much recent attention within health psychology, where it has also been referred to as the 'mere measurement' effect. There are other conceptualisations of similar phenomena in related disciplines. This paper explores the implications of the QBE for the safety of inferences about intervention effectiveness within the context of randomised controlled trials evaluating health behaviour change interventions. It draws attention to poorly understood mechanisms by which bias is introduced with conventional thinking about trial design and analysis. The threat to valid inference on intervention effectiveness posed by the QBE applies even when its effects are small and regardless of the specific content of the QBE. The nature of the resulting bias does not fit well within existing bias classification schemes, such as that proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration. The QBE is one possible consequence of research participation and it is suggested that the social psychology of research participation is very much underdeveloped. Possible future directions for health psychology research in this area are considered.

  6. Psychological benefits for cancer patients and their partners participating in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Kathryn; Garland, Sheila N; Carlson, Linda E

    2010-09-01

    Cancer patients experience many negative psychological symptoms including stress, anxiety, and depression. This distress is not limited to the patient, as their partners also experience many psychological challenges. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programs have demonstrated clinical benefit for a variety of chronic illnesses, including cancer. This is the first study to report MBSR participation with partners of cancer patients. This study examined the impact of an 8-week MBSR program for 21 couples who attended the program together on outcomes of mood disturbance, symptoms of stress, and mindfulness. Significant reductions for both patients and partners in mood disturbance (pMBSR participation couple's scores on the Profile of Mood States and C-SOSI were more highly correlated with one-another. Post-intervention, partners' mood disturbance scores were significantly positively correlated with patients' symptoms of stress and negatively correlated with patients' levels of mindfulness. Overall, the MBSR program was helpful for improving psychological functioning and mindfulness for both members of the couple. Several avenues of future research are suggested to further explore potential benefits of joint couple attendance in the MBSR program. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Self-reported hearing difficulties, communication strategies and psychological general well-being (quality of life) in patients with acquired hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Lillemor R M; Hallberg, Ulrika; Kramer, Sophia E

    2008-01-01

    The aims were to (i) translate the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH) into Swedish and evalute its usefulness, (ii) describe hearing difficulties and psychological well-being (quality of life) and (iii) explore variables related to psychological well-being in a Swedish population. Seventy-nine consecutive patients, referred to the hearing clinic for hearing examination and audiological rehabilitation, formed the study sample. Along with pure-tone audiometry, the AIADH, the Psychological General Well-being index and the Communication Strategies Scale were used. Men had significantly worse hearing on the high frequencies (2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz) than women but their quality of life was significantly higher than for women. Men scored significantly lower on 'auditory localization' and adopted non-verbal communication strategies less often than women. A stepwise regression analysis showed that 'maladaptive behaviours' and 'intelligibility in quiet' explained 48% of the variance in quality of life. Psychosocial consequences of hearing loss, such as lowered quality of life, cannot be predicted from audiometric data alone. The adverse relationship between maladaptive behaviour and quality of life emphasizes the relevance of developing training programs aiming to improve coping with the consequences of a hearing impairment. The AIADH may be useful in assessing self-reported difficulties among patients with hearing problems, but needs to be further developed in terms of psychometric evaluations and reliability testings based on a larger representative sample.

  8. Are children's psychological self-concepts predictive of their self reported activity preferences and leisure participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Hana; Brown, Ted

    2014-06-01

    Participation in leisure and play activities is recognised as an important outcome in occupational therapy for children. To investigate whether children's psychological self-concept are predictive of their activity preferences and leisure participation. A group of 38 healthy children aged 10-14 years from Victoria, Australia completed the Piers-Harris Self Concept Scale (Piers Harris-2) and the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment/Preferences for Activities of Children (CAPE/PAC). Correlation and regression analyses were completed to investigate the predictive relationships between the Pier Harris-2 and the CAPE/PAC. The Piers Harris-2 Intellectual and School Status subscale was found to be predictive of children's Overall Enjoyment of Participation as measured on the CAPE, explaining 21.9% of the total variance (β = 0.566, P activities as measured by the PAC, explaining 18.9% of the total variance (β = -.435, P Activities subscale (β = -.476, P ≤ 0.01) and 14.6% of the PAC Preferences for Skill-Based Activities subscale (β = 0.382, P ≤ 0.05) while age made unique contributions to the PAC Social Activities subscale (β = -0.418, P ≤ 0.01) explaining 17.5% of its total variance. This study provides evidence that children's psychological self-concept, age and gender are predictive of components of children's activity preferences and leisure participation. In particular, participation enjoyment is influenced by their perceived self-esteem and how well they do at school. Further investigation of this topic is recommended. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Statistical and Epistemological Issues in the Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy of Pharmaceutical, Psychological, and Combination Treatments for Women's Sexual Desire Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L; Basson, Rosemary; Brotto, Lori A; Graham, Cynthia A; Stephenson, Kyle R

    2017-04-03

    We were grateful to receive responses from Leonore Tiefer, Anita Clayton and Robert Pyke, and Richard Balon and Robert Segraves, to our commentary (Brotto et al., 2016 ) on Pyke and Clayton ( 2015 ). These commentaries raise a number of substantive statistical and epistemological issues relating to the evaluation of treatment efficacy in pharmaceutical, psychological, and combination treatments for sexual desire difficulties and caution researchers to remain mindful of sources of bias as we do the science. In what follows, we discuss each of these issues in turn in hopes of encouraging our field to adopt the highest possible standards when carrying out and interpreting treatment outcome research.

  10. Broadening Participation in the Life Sciences with Social–Psychological Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Priniski, Stacy J.; Canning, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have recently documented the positive effects of social–psychological interventions on the performance and retention of underrepresented students in the life sciences. We review two types of social–psychological interventions that address either students’ well-being in college science courses or students’ engagement in science content. Interventions that have proven effective in RCTs in science courses (namely, utility-value [UV] and values-affirmation [VA] interventions) emphasize different types of student values—students’ perceptions of the value of curricular content and students’ personal values that shape their educational experiences. Both types of value can be leveraged to promote positive academic outcomes for underrepresented students. For example, recent work shows that brief writing interventions embedded in the curriculum can increase students’ perceptions of UV (the perceived importance or usefulness of a task for future goals) and dramatically improve the performance of first-generation (FG) underrepresented minority students in college biology. Other work has emphasized students’ personal values in brief essays written early in the semester. This VA intervention has been shown to close achievement gaps for women in physics classes and for FG students in college biology. By reviewing recent research, considering which interventions are most effective for different groups, and examining the causal mechanisms driving these positive effects, we hope to inform life sciences educators about the potential of social–psychological interventions for broadening participation in the life sciences. PMID:27543632

  11. Perceptions and difficulties in the use of participative methodologies and formative evaluation in science of physical activity degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Castejón Oliva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the process of adapting teaching skills within the framework of the European Higher Education Area, particularly with the introduction of Degree in Physical Activity and Sport Science from Universidad Autónoma of Madrid. The objective is to analyze the perceptions and difficulties of the teachers and students on participatory methodologies and formative evaluation systems. Data sources are from documentary analysis of the tutorials for the subjects, individual interviews with the teachers (n=4 and group interviews with the students (n=12. The results show inconsistencies between what is proposed and implemented by the teachers, and how students perceive.

  12. Aging and low back pain among exercise participants: a follow-up study with psychological adaptation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Kadivar, Zahra; Guillory, Stephen A; Isaza, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    This study is a follow-up to a study previously published in this journal that reported the moderating function of exercise exertion amid the relationship between age and low back pain (LBP) among consistent exercise participants. The current study analyzed factors of psychological adaptation as potential mediators within the age--LBP relationship. Measures of psychological adaptation included psychological vulnerability, avoidant coping, resilient coping, and perceived resilience. The sample reported slightly moderate psychological vulnerability; a moderate extent of avoidant coping and resilient coping; and high resilience. Age inversely correlated with psychological vulnerability and avoidance coping. LBP correlated inversely with avoidant coping. Avoidant coping positively mediated (enhanced) age's effect on LBP. Results from this follow-up analysis highlight the importance of understanding and testing psychological factors in models with age and a physical health outcome.

  13. Psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing Alzheimer's disease biomarkers to research participants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemelmans, S A S A; Tromp, K; Bunnik, E M; Milne, R J; Badger, S; Brayne, C; Schermer, M H; Richard, E

    2016-11-10

    Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosure are. This systematic review therefore examines the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing genetic and nongenetic AD-related biomarkers to cognitively healthy research participants. We performed a systematic literature search in eight scientific databases. Three independent reviewers screened the identified records and selected relevant articles. Results extracted from the included articles were aggregated and presented per effect group. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the data synthesis. None of the identified studies examined the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers. All studies but one concerned the disclosure of APOE genotype and were conducted in the USA. Study populations consisted largely of cognitively healthy first-degree relatives of AD patients. In this group, disclosure of an increased risk was not associated with anxiety, depression or changes in perceived risk in relation to family history. Disclosure of an increased risk did lead to an increase in specific test-related distress levels, health-related behavior changes and long-term care insurance uptake and possibly diminished memory functioning. In cognitively healthy research participants with a first-degree relative with AD, disclosure of APOE ε4-positivity does not lead to elevated anxiety and depression levels, but does increase test-related distress and results in behavior changes concerning insurance and health. We did not find studies reporting the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers and only one study included people without a family history of AD. Empirical studies on the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers

  14. Strengthening the educational value of undergraduate participation in research as part of a psychology department subject pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Anne; Franklin, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Participating in research must be an educational experience for students in order to ethically justify its inclusion as a requirement in college courses. Introductory Psychology students (N = 280) completed a written class assignment describing their research participation as a means to enhance this educational mission. Approximately half of students spontaneously mentioned something positive about the significance of the research or what they learned, with the remainder providing neutral, mixed, or negative comments. Students could articulate clearly and knowledgeably about the research in which they had participated. Such an assignment is an effective means to foster an understanding of the science of psychology.

  15. Screening for psychological well-being in childhood cancer survivors: a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of the strength and difficulties questionnaire as a parent-proxy report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Drew, Sarah; Deluca, Cinzia R; McCarthy, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the feasibility of utilizing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a brief psychosocial screener among survivors of pediatric cancer. Participants were parents of a child/adolescent diagnosed with cancer who were off treatment (n = 35) and a subset of adolescents (n = 14). Parent-proxy report using the SDQ was significantly associated with the Child Health Questionnaire. Parents who self-reported long-term uncertainty about their child's illness were more likely to report child psychosocial difficulties. A trend for concordance between patient and parent-proxy report of the SDQ was observed. These preliminary results highlight the potential utility of the SDQ as a screening tool for detection of child/adolescent psychosocial well-being. Further research, with larger samples, is needed to support these results.

  16. A Study of the Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Political Participation among University Professors: research subject: University of Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Masoudnia; Nejat Mohammadifar; Golmorad Moradi; Atefeh Foroughi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   Political Participation is one of the main discussions in political sociology and political development in all countries. It is considered as an aspect of political development that can also support the political organizations to achieve democracy. In fact, the degree of political participation is a mean to know whether governments are logical or not.   The main goal of this study is to examine social-psychological causes influencing political participation of Isfahan Universit...

  17. Psychological changes among Muslim students participating in a faith-based school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David

    2013-12-01

    Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution to school-time changes in PA among Muslim adolescents. Forty-three (27 girls, 16 boys; M(age) = 12.3 +/- 1.0 years) students at 1 Islamic middle school participated. Prebaseline and postprogram enjoyment and motivation were measured using the shortened PA Enjoyment Scale and the Situational Motivation Scale, respectively. Pedometer step counts were measured daily during a 2-week baseline and 8 weeks of Virtual Umra. The Reliable Change Index and Cohen's d were used to analyze individual- and group-level changes in enjoyment and motivation, respectively. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) was used to analyze program and gender effects over time. Partial correlations examined the relationships between psychological correlates and PA change. One third of the sample expressed greater enjoyment postprogram (p .05; range, d = - 0.02 to 0.32). RM-MANOVA revealed that boys increased their steps, whereas girls reduced their step number through the program. Enjoyment increased and extrinsic motivation and amotivation decreased. Partial correlations revealed that enjoyment and more self-determined behavioral regulations were positively associated with non-physical education (PE)-day PA change; only intrinsic motivation was positively associated with PE-day PA change. Virtual Umra was associated with increased enjoyment of PA but needs further modification to more positively impact girls' PA.

  18. The relationship of hardiness, sense of coherence, sports participation, and gender to perceived stress and psychological symptoms among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirka, N

    2000-03-01

    This study addresses the issue of why under conditions of stress some people stay physically and psychologically healthy while others become ill. Being able to deal with stress, to cope with the pressures of daily life, and yet stay healthy, is seen as a function of such factors as physical health, psychological health, constitutional predisposition, social support, exercise habits, and personality. This study examined the moderating effects of the personality constructs of hardiness and sense of coherence, sports participation (college varsity athletes and college nonathletes), and gender on the relationship between perceived stress and psychological symptoms. College varsity athletes (n = 135) and college nonathletes (n = 135), all undergraduates at New York University, completed four questionnaires: Hardiness Scale, Sense of Coherence Scale, Daily Hassles Scale, and Profile of Mood States. Participants also completed a background questionnaire providing basic demographic data. Psychological symptoms and perceived stress were the criterion variables: hardiness, sense of coherence, sports participation, and gender were the predictor variables. Correlational analyses were applied to the resulting data and used to answer and to test the research hypotheses. There was a significant positive correlation between perceived stress and psychological symptoms among college varsity athletes and college nonathletes. There was a significant positive correlation between the personality scales of Hardiness and Sense of Coherence for both college varsity athletes and college nonathletes. When controlling for gender, college varsity athletes scored significantly higher on hardiness, scored slightly higher on sense of coherence, and reported significantly less perceived stress and significantly fewer psychological symptoms than the college nonathletes. Comparing by gender, no statistically significant mean differences were found on the four main variables. A significant negative

  19. Differences between participants and non-participants in an RCT on physical activity and psychological interventions for older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, MJG; Hochstenbach, JBM; Brouwer, WH; de Greef, MHG; Zijlstra, GAR; van Jaarsveld, E; Kempen, GIJM; van Sonderen, E; Ormel, J; Mulder, T

    Background and aims: Volunteer bias in intervention studies on successful aging has been poorly explored. This paper investigated differences between participants and non-participants of the Groningen Intervention Study on Successful Aging (GISSA) over a wide range of demographic, physical,

  20. Participant dropout as a function of survey length in internet-mediated university studies: implications for study design and voluntary participation in psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Internet-mediated research has offered substantial advantages over traditional laboratory-based research in terms of efficiently and affordably allowing for the recruitment of large samples of participants for psychology studies. Core technical, ethical, and methodological issues have been addressed in recent years, but the important issue of participant dropout has received surprisingly little attention. Specifically, web-based psychology studies often involve undergraduates completing lengthy and time-consuming batteries of online personality questionnaires, but no known published studies to date have closely examined the natural course of participant dropout during attempted completion of these studies. The present investigation examined participant dropout among 1,963 undergraduates completing one of six web-based survey studies relatively representative of those conducted in university settings. Results indicated that 10% of participants could be expected to drop out of these studies nearly instantaneously, with an additional 2% dropping out per 100 survey items included in the study. For individual project investigators, these findings hold ramifications for study design considerations, such as conducting a priori power analyses. The present results also have broader ethical implications for understanding and improving voluntary participation in research involving human subjects. Nonetheless, the generalizability of these conclusions may be limited to studies involving similar design or survey content.

  1. Using the WHO-ICF with talking mats to enable adults with long-term communication difficulties to participate in goal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joan; Boa, Sally

    2012-03-01

    The World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF) provides a framework that helps rehabilitation staff to take a holistic view of the patient. However, it is used predominantly by professionals rather than by active participation on behalf of the person with the disability. In addition, the language used within the framework can be difficult for patients to understand. In order to address these issues the Activities and Participation section of the ICF has been adapted by using graphic symbols. It has been used in conjunction with Talking Mats(™ 1 ), a low-tech communication framework, to help adults with long-term conditions participate in goal setting. This paper describes how this was done and provides examples from clinical practice. The paper discusses how this combined framework can empower people with communication difficulties and long-term conditions to become active participants in the rehabilitation process by identifying their own goals, indicating changing priorities and tracking their progress.

  2. Linear mixed-effects models for within-participant psychology experiments: an introductory tutorial and free, graphical user interface (LMMgui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magezi, David A

    2015-01-01

    Linear mixed-effects models (LMMs) are increasingly being used for data analysis in cognitive neuroscience and experimental psychology, where within-participant designs are common. The current article provides an introductory review of the use of LMMs for within-participant data analysis and describes a free, simple, graphical user interface (LMMgui). LMMgui uses the package lme4 (Bates et al., 2014a,b) in the statistical environment R (R Core Team).

  3. Dynamic Assessment of Reading Difficulties: Predictive and Incremental Validity on Attitude toward Reading and the Use of Dialogue/Participation Strategies in Classroom Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-José; Lara, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic Assessment (DA) has been shown to have more predictive value than conventional tests for academic performance. However, in relation to reading difficulties, further research is needed to determine the predictive validity of DA for specific aspects of the different processes involved in reading and the differential validity of DA for different subgroups of students with an academic disadvantage. This paper analyzes the implementation of a DA device that evaluates processes involved in reading (EDPL) among 60 students with reading comprehension difficulties between 9 and 16 years of age, of whom 20 have intellectual disabilities, 24 have reading-related learning disabilities, and 16 have socio-cultural disadvantages. We specifically analyze the predictive validity of the EDPL device over attitude toward reading, and the use of dialogue/participation strategies in reading activities in the classroom during the implementation stage. We also analyze if the EDPL device provides additional information to that obtained with a conventionally applied personal-social adjustment scale (APSL). Results showed that dynamic scores, obtained from the implementation of the EDPL device, significantly predict the studied variables. Moreover, dynamic scores showed a significant incremental validity in relation to predictions based on an APSL scale. In relation to differential validity, the results indicated the superior predictive validity for DA for students with intellectual disabilities and reading disabilities than for students with socio-cultural disadvantages. Furthermore, the role of metacognition and its relation to the processes of personal-social adjustment in explaining the results is discussed.

  4. Socio-Psychological Aspects of Grassroots Participation in the Transition Movement: An Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Biddau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a case study investigating the socio-psychological aspects of grassroots participation in a Transition Town Movement (TTM community initiative. We analyzed the first Italian Transition initiative: Monteveglio (Bologna, the central hub of the Italian TTM and a key link with the global Transition Network. A qualitative methodology was used to collect and analyze the data consisting of interviews with key informants and ethnographic notes. The results provide further evidence supporting the role of social representations, shared social identities, and collective efficacy beliefs in promoting, sustaining, and shaping activists’ commitment. The movement seems to have great potential to inspire and engage citizens to tackle climate change at a community level. Grassroots engagement of local communities working together provides the vision and the material starting point for a viable pathway for the changes required. Attempting to ensure their future political relevance, the TTM adherents are striving to disseminate and materially consolidate inherently political and prefigurative movement frames – primarily community resilience and re-localization – within community socio-economic and political frameworks. However, cooperation with politics is perceived by most adherents as a frustrating and dissatisfying experience, and an attempted co-optation of the Transition initiative by institutions. It highlights a tension between the open and non-confrontational approach of the movement towards institutions and their practical experience. Corresponding to this tension, activists have to cope with conflicts, contradictions, and ambivalence of social representations about community action for sustainability, which threaten the sense of collective purpose, group cohesion and ultimately its survival.

  5. Physical and psychological symptoms and learning difficulties in children of women exposed and non-exposed to violence: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Niclas; Lindqvist, Kent; Gådin, Katja Gillander; Bråbäck, Lennart; Danielsson, Ingela

    2011-02-01

    To analyse the association between violence against mothers and the health of their children as reported by the mothers. The data originate from a multistage sampling health-questionnaire survey, distributed to a representative sample of women in Sweden. The health of 283 children (aged 0-18 years), as reported by women who had been exposed to violence at home or outside home during the past 12 months, was compared with that of 4,664 children of non-exposed mothers. Odds ratios regarding most registered physical symptoms showed that children of violence-exposed mothers had a significant higher risk of ill health than children of non-exposed mothers. Regarding psychological symptoms and learning difficulties, the odds were raised for girls for most symptoms, but not for boys. A twofold increase in health-care utilisation and an overall general increase in the risk of pharmaceutical consumption were shown for both girls and boys of exposed mothers. This population-based study shows an increased risk of poorer health amongst boys and girls aged 0-18 years, as reported by mothers exposed to violence.

  6. Effect of Participation in Aerobic Dancing Classes on Psychological Well-Being of Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Behzadnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent decades, the positive psychology considered as an ability of human being which are provided appropriate studies in well-being and happiness domains. In this way, the purpose of current research was to identify the effect of aerobic dancing on psychological well-being of non-athletic male students. Materials and Methods: The research method was of a quasi-experimental nature in the form of a time-series design using experimental and control groups. 40 non-athlete students (21.6±1.82 years old from General physical Education 1 course in Birjand University were randomly selected and assign to two groups. The Ryff's scales of psychological well-being were used to analyze the psychological well-being parameters in the pre-test and post-test of training. The training protocol was including 12 weeks, and 3 seasons (60 minutes per week that each subject in experimental group received 15 minutes warm-up, 30 minute aerobic training and 15 minutes cool-down and relaxation training. Results: The results of repeated measure analysis of variance indicated significant differences in psychological well-being and its subdivisions in the 3 phases of tests in the experimental group (p<0.01. Moreover, the results of t-test showed the positive influence of 12 weeks aerobic training on psychological well-being of the student boys (first post-test, p<0.001; second post-test, p<0.001, and well-being scores of aerobic group was higher than control group. Conclusion: The result of the present research emphasizes the factors affecting on psychological well-being as well as its ways to promote of well-being. Implications of these findings are discussed among exercise psychologists.

  7. Job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities: the role of basic psychological need fulfillment and workplace participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored associations between workplace participation, need fulfillment and job satisfaction. A total of 117 persons with intellectual disabilities, recruited from a Dutch care organization, were interviewed on need fulfillment at work and job satisfaction. Data on workplace participation was obtained from staff. Questionnaires were based on well-established instruments. Basic psychological need fulfillment predicted higher levels of job satisfaction. Level of workplace participation was not associated with need fulfillment or job satisfaction. Allowing workers with intellectual disabilities to act with a sense of volition, feel effective, able to meet challenges, and connected to others is essential and contributes to job satisfaction. It is needed to pay attention to this, both in selection and design of workplaces and in support style. Implications for rehabilitation Knowledge on factors that contribute to job satisfaction is necessary to improve employment situations and employment success of people with intellectual disabilities. In order to achieve job satisfaction, it is essential that workplaces allow for fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence of people with intellectual disabilities. People with intellectual disabilities are able to report on their needs and satisfaction, and it is important that their own perspective is taken into account in decisions regarding their employment situation.

  8. Using Controversial Mock Trials in "Psychology and Law" Courses: Suggestions from Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Harvey, James; McNamara, Rebecca; Svoboda, Andrea; Gulbrandson, Raina; Hendren, Jennifer; Greedy, Tiffany; Leybold, Christie

    2002-01-01

    Describes a mock trial focused on Jack Kevorkian and an euthanasia case that was included in a psychology and law course. Discusses the course format, provides the reactions to the mock trial by students and consultants, and includes suggestions for improving the mock trial. (CMK)

  9. [The psychological predictors of the participation of hypertension patients in low-sodium diet therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aĭvazian, T A; Taravkova, I A; Zaĭtsev, V P; Suvorov, Iu I; Tairova, O S

    1990-01-01

    According to the Multifactorial rating scale, the Russian version of Mini-Mult, the Luscher color test and the "Quality of Life" test data the noncompliance patients were characterized by tension, anxiety, irritability, fatigue, low mood, interpersonal relations problems accompanied by the lowering of psychosocial adaptation and quality of life. On the basis of an objective psychological assessment the mathematic formulas for prediction of noncompliance as well as compliance towards hyposodium dietetic therapy have been elaborated.

  10. A Rasch Analysis of Grammatical Difficulty : What Influences Item Difficulty?

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuko, Nishitani; Kyoto Sangyo University

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the difficulty order of 38 grammar structures obtained from an analysis of multiple-choice items using a Rasch analysis. The participants were 872 Japanese university students, whose TOEIC scores ranged from 200 to 875. The difficulty order of the 38 structures was displayed according to their Rasch difficulty estimates. This study also demonstrated the difficulty of writing items testing the knowledge of the same grammar point that show similar Rasch difficulty estima...

  11. Psychological resources, appraisals, and coping and their relationship to participation in spinal cord injury: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Claudio; Müller, Rachel; Post, Marcel W M; van Leeuwen, Christel M C; Werner, Christina S; Geyh, Szilvia

    2014-09-01

    To test the Spinal Cord Injury Adjustment Model and gain a better understanding about whether and how the psychological resources general self-efficacy (SE), purpose in life (PIL), appraisals, and coping influence participation in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional data collection within the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort. Community setting. Persons with SCI (N=516) who are ≥ 16 years old and living in the community in Switzerland. Not applicable. Participation was measured with the restrictions subscale of the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation, General SE with the General Self-Efficacy Scale, PIL with the Purpose in Life Test-Short Form, appraisals with the Appraisal of Life Events Scale, and coping with the Brief COPE. General SE (r=.32) and PIL (r=.23) were associated with less participation restrictions. The initial model yielded a poor model fit. The modified final model had an acceptable fit (χ(2)11=36.2; P<.01; root mean square error of approximation=.067 [90% confidence interval: .045-.09]; comparative fit index=.98). A total of 15% of the variance of participation was explained. In the final model, general SE had a moderate direct effect (β=.24) and mediated effects via threat appraisal and challenge appraisal and humor on participation, indicating a partial mediation effect. The association between PIL and participation was indirect: challenge appraisal and humor acted as mediators. The results only partly support the double-mediating effect as suggested in the SCI adjustment model because both direct and indirect effects on participation were observed. Individuals with higher general SE and PIL perceive less participation restrictions. General SE seems an appropriate target to enhance participation. Longitudinal studies are needed to support our findings. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Social Psychology of Citizenship, Participation and Social Exclusion: Introduction to the Special Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Stevenson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special thematic section is to bring together recent social psychological research on the topic of citizenship with a view to discerning the emerging trends within the field and its potential contributions to the broader interdisciplinary area of citizenship studies. Eight papers spanning diverse theoretical traditions (including social identity, social representations and discursive approaches apply an array of methods to consider different aspects of citizenship across a variety of cultural and national contexts. Some focus on individuals’ perceptions and discussions of citizenship, others examine the group dynamics which flow from these understandings, and the rest examine the potential for citizenship to exclude as well as include marginalised communities. While diverse, the contributions share some core commonalities: all share a concern in trying to understand citizenship from the perspective of the citizen; all conceptualise citizenship as an active and reflective process occurring between members of a community; and all highlight the irreducibly social and collective nature of the experience and practice of citizenship in everyday life. We propose that these elements of convergence have the potential to give the social psychology of citizenship a solid basis and recognisable profile in order to contribute to the broader arena of citizenship studies.

  13. Swallowing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007543.htm Swallowing difficulty To use the sharing features on this page, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  14. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003075.htm Breathing difficulty To use the sharing features on this page, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  15. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  16. A national study predicting licensed social workers' levels of political participation: the role of resources, psychological engagement, and recruitment networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jessica A

    2008-10-01

    The social work literature is replete with studies evaluating social workers' direct practice interventions, but strikingly few have assessed how well social workers are faring in the political arena. This study tests a major theoretical model, the civic voluntarism model, developed to explain why some citizens become involved in politics, whereas others do not. The study sample consisted of 396 randomly selected social workers licensed in 11 states, all of whom completed a 25-minute telephone survey. Social workers were surveyed to determine the role of the following variables in explaining social workers' political activity levels-resources needed to participate, psychological engagement, and attachment to recruitment networks. The results indicate that the civic voluntarism model was significant and accounted for 42 percent of the variance. The strongest predictors of social workers' political activity were NASW membership and political interest. This study provides empirical support for the idea that being connected to social networks and having a psychological engagement with politics are crucial factors in explaining social workers' political participation. Implications for social work education are included.

  17. Youth political participation and gender constitution: a question for developmental psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Santos Lopes De Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The predominant modes of subjectivity in contemporary youth, defined according to consumption, may collaborate for the preponderance of forms of subjective organization not committed with the social and political participation. This paper focuses on discussing the role of political participation to the subjective constitution and citizenship construction of adolescents and youth. The relationship between identity and political commitment are discussed considering two case studies extracted of data of a previous research project in the field of gender diversity. The focus of the analysis is to understand if and how the experience within political activism acts over developmental trajectories and constitution of subjectivity of activists, considering narratives of self-presentation, in interview settings.

  18. Psychosocial factors associated with male sexual difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Connaughton, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The role of medical conditions, childhood experiences, and psychological and relationship factors in the development and maintenance of male sexual difficulties is not well understood. Using self-report questionnaires, the current study examined how these factors are associated with male sexual difficulties overall, as well as for each of four separate problems (low sexual desire, erectile difficulties, premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation). The participants for the study were 331 Australian men from the general population, all of whom were in cohabiting heterosexual relationships and had experienced one or more of the aforementioned sexual problems. Data were collected via an online survey between January 2010 and April 2011. The results demonstrated that medical factors as well as current psychological factors (e.g., performance anxiety) were most likely associated with each male sexual difficulty. These findings are in contrast to those obtained with women, where relationship factors are strongly related to female sexual problems. They would suggest that the targets for sex therapy may be different for men and women, with medical problems and performance anxiety being the primary targets for men.

  19. Private landowners and environmental conservation: a case study of social-psychological determinants of conservation program participation in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drescher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of biodiversity and continued provision of ecosystem services increasingly relies on environmental conservation on private lands. Despite a multitude of past studies, our knowledge of the motives, opportunities, and challenges of private land conservation, especially on nonworking lands, where financial incentives are less relevant, remains incomplete. A key reason is that a variety of theoretical approaches, resulting in diverging study results, have been used to investigate private land conservation. To help remedy this problem, the current study rigorously examined several established social-psychological determinants of proenvironmental behaviors and developed a comprehensive model, which merged elements from previous studies, to investigate landowner participation in a government-sponsored private land conservation program for nonworking lands. The results are based on analysis of a mailed survey of 800 program-eligible landowners. Contrasting program participants with nonparticipants, we elicited information such as about values, worldviews, socio-demographic characteristics, and property attributes that led landowners to participate in this conservation program. The results of our study illustrate the complex relationships among values, worldviews, norms, attitudes, and behaviors emphasizing the importance of proenvironmental worldviews and of formal education for increasing the likelihood of enrollment in this government-sponsored private land conservation program. Against expectation, neither personal norms, household income, political leaning, nor the size of the eligible property area were found to be important in directly determining the decision to enroll in this conservation program. However, an association of political leaning with stated personal obligation for private land conservation was found. Our results highlight the relationship between formal education and achievement of private land conservation goals

  20. Sports participation in an urban high school: academic and psychologic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M; Juszczak, L; Friedman, S B

    1996-05-01

    To study positive and negative correlates of sports participation in inner-city youth. We distributed anonymous questionnaires to 838 students in gym classes of an urban New York City High School. Forty five percent of students were male and 55% female, with mean age 16.0 years; 64% in grades 9-10, and 36% in grades 11-12; 63% black, 27% Hispanic, and 10% other; and 30% A/B students, 38% C students, and 32% D/F students. All students reported some involvement in sports: 37% in 1-2 sports, 29% in 3-4 sports 24% in > or = 5 sports; 20% played on local teams, and 12% on junior or senior varsity. Approximately one-third each reported no weekday sports participation (30%), 1-2 hours per day (34%), or > or = 3 hours (36%); and 34% reported no participation on weekends, 26% reported 1-2 hours per day, and 40% > or = 3 hours. Basketball, volleyball, baseball, and weight lifting were the most common sports. Enjoyment, recreation, and competition were the most commonly reported reasons for participation. While 86% of subjects considered school "extremely" or "very" important, 35% considered sports "extremely" or "very" important. However, many believed they would "definitely" or "probably" receive an athletic scholarship (52% males, 20% females). Males reported more (p sports. Sports involvement was not statistically associated with academic performance or scores on either the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale or Depression Self Rating Scale. Steroid use, at least once, was reported by 11% of males and 4% of females. Thirteen percent of students (21% males, 6% females) tried to gain weight for sports and 20% of both males and females tried to lose. Sports injuries within the past year were reported by 15% of students, and approximately three-quarters could correctly answer each of five questions about basic first aid. The data indicate that most of these urban youth had athletic involvement, many had unrealistic expectations for their futures, and some utilized unhealthy behaviors

  1. The experience of participation in a brief cognitive behavioural group therapy for psychologically distressed female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdottir, J; Champion, J D; Skärsäter, I

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the experience of participation in four sessions of cognitive behavioural group therapy for psychological distress for female university students' (n = 19), aged 22-45 years. Data were gathered with semi-structured interviews during March and April 2008 and analysed according to thematic content analysis. The results identified four themes: 'Gaining knowledge and understanding', 'Becoming more balanced and positive in thinking', 'Feeling more self-confident and in control' and 'Opportunities for practice and in-depth reflections'. Future recommendations include an increase in sessions from four to five, with one booster session to follow-up on newly acquired skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Psychological Adjustment and Levels of Self Esteem in Children with Visual-Motor Integration Difficulties Influences the Results of a Randomized Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Apter, Alan; Ratzon, Navah Z.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates how much the effects of intervention programs are influenced by pre-existing psychological adjustment and self-esteem levels in kindergarten and first grade children with poor visual-motor integration skills, from low socioeconomic backgrounds. One hundred and sixteen mainstream kindergarten and first-grade children, from low…

  3. Sport participation and its association with social and psychological factors known to predict substance use and abuse among youth: A scoping review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Heather J.; Camir?, Martin; Wade, Terrance J; Cairney, John

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport literature (2000?2014) on psychological and social outcomes relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the literature on sport participation and psychological and social outcomes to identify factors that c...

  4. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Discrepancies between Turkish mothers' and adolescents' reports of adolescents' emotion regulation difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıtaş, Dilek; Gençöz, Tülin

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine discrepancies between Turkish mothers' and adolescents' reports in terms of adolescents' difficulties in emotion regulation. In addition, the mediating role of mothers' own emotion regulation difficulties between mothers' psychological symptoms and the discrepancy on reports of adolescents' difficulties in emotion regulation was examined. A total of 595 first-year high school students (300 females and 295 males) whose ages ranged between 14 and 17 years participated in the study. In addition, 365 mothers (61.34%) completed the questionnaires. Mean age of mothers was 41.86 years (standard deviation = 5.02) ranging from 32 to 61 years. The results revealed that adolescents tended to report higher levels of difficulties in emotion regulation for themselves as compared with mothers' report, and girls reported more difficulties for their emotion regulation than boys. It was also found that mothers' own emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relation between mothers' psychological symptoms and discrepancy on reports of adolescents' emotion regulation difficulties. Mothers may be less likely to endorse their children's emotion regulation difficulties since they cannot observe various aspects of their children's emotion regulation. On the other hand, the mothers' perception of their children's emotion regulation could be affected from their own emotion regulation difficulties, which could be a result of their psychological problems. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The interplay between customer participation and difficulty of design examples in the online designing process and its effect on customer satisfaction: mediational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Hui-Yun; Huang, I-Chiang

    2009-04-01

    In the current consumer-centric economy, consumers increasingly desire the opportunity to design their own products in order to express more effectively their self-image. Mass customization, based on efficient and flexible modulization designs, has provided individualized products to satisfy this desire. This work presents an experiment employed to demonstrate that customer participation leads to higher satisfaction. Specifically, the increment in customer satisfaction due to participation is greater when an easy example is provided than when either no example or a difficult one is provided. Additionally, self-congruity plays a mediating role on the customer participation-satisfaction relationship, and this mediating effect varies across different levels of the design example provided in the design process. When an easy design example is present, customer participation has a direct effect on satisfaction, in addition to the indirect effect of self-congruity. When a difficult example is provided, customer participation does not have incremental effects on either self-congruity or customer satisfaction. Finally, when no design example is shown to customers, contrary to our expectation, participation still enhances customer satisfaction due to an increased sense of self-congruity.

  7. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Sex, and Activity Deficit over Time: A Longitudinal Analysis of Participation Trajectories in Children with and without Coordination Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Veldhuizen, Scott; Missiuna, Cheryl; Faught, Brent E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are known to participate in active play less than typically developing children. However, it is not known whether the activity deficit between children with and without DCD widens or diminishes over time. Method: Data were obtained from a large, prospective cohort study of children…

  8. Adopted youth and sleep difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radcliff Z

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zach Radcliff, Allison Baylor, Bruce Rybarczyk Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: Sleep is a critical component of healthy development for youth, with cascading effects on youth’s biological growth, psychological well-being, and overall functioning. Increased sleep difficulties are one of many disruptions that adopted youth may face throughout the adoption process. Sleep difficulties have been frequently cited as a major concern by adoptive parents and hypothesized in the literature as a problem that may affect multiple areas of development and functioning in adopted youth. However, there is limited research exploring this relationship. Using a biopsychosocial framework, this paper reviews the extant literature to explore the development, maintenance, and impact of sleep difficulties in adopted youth. Finally, implications for future research and clinical interventions are outlined. Keywords: adoption, sleep, youth

  9. It Isn’t All Just Fun and Games: Collegiate Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Risk for Generalized and Sexual Harassment, Psychological Distress, and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. PMID:27771523

  10. A Bump on a Bump? Emerging Intuitions Concerning the Relative Difficulty of the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.; Schlegel, Esther

    2010-01-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined how intuitions about the relative difficulties of the sciences develop. In Study 1, familiar everyday phenomena in physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, and economics were pretested in adults, so as to be equally difficult to explain. When participants in kindergarten, Grades 2, 4, 6, and 8, and college were…

  11. Do People With Psychosis Have Specific Difficulties Regulating Emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Hartmann, Maike; Köther, Ulf; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    actively modifying emotions. The difficulties in emotion regulation reported by the participants with psychosis were comparable with those reported by the participants with depression, and they occurred for all types of negative emotions likewise. The difficulties in using specific ER skills related to awareness, understanding and acceptance are a promising target for psychological treatment of psychosis. Interventions that are aimed specifically at increasing these skills need to be further developed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a

  13. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R

    2013-08-15

    There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a form of leisure time PA for children

  14. Sport participation and its association with social and psychological factors known to predict substance use and abuse among youth: A scoping review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather J.; Camiré, Martin; Wade, Terrance J.; Cairney, John

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport literature (2000–2014) on psychological and social outcomes relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the literature on sport participation and psychological and social outcomes to identify factors that could help explain this link. Psychological and social factors were selected as they play a paramount role in understanding youth alcohol and drug use. Fifty-nine articles were identified and included in the review. The literature generally supported connections between sport and positive psychological and social outcomes, including self-esteem, self-regulation, general life skills, and pro-social behaviour. Yet limitations in the methods and measures limit the ability to draw conclusions from the literature. In addition, the diversity of youth and sport was generally ignored in the literature. This article suggests a number of directions for future research that might improve our understanding of how sport impacts psychological and social outcomes along with alcohol and illicit drug use. PMID:26692895

  15. Sport participation and its association with social and psychological factors known to predict substance use and abuse among youth: A scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather J; Camiré, Martin; Wade, Terrance J; Cairney, John

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a scoping review of the sport literature (2000-2014) on psychological and social outcomes relevant to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Prior reviews report that sport is related to increased alcohol use and reduced illicit drug use among youth, yet provide little guidance regarding the mechanisms that can explain this relationship. We reviewed the literature on sport participation and psychological and social outcomes to identify factors that could help explain this link. Psychological and social factors were selected as they play a paramount role in understanding youth alcohol and drug use. Fifty-nine articles were identified and included in the review. The literature generally supported connections between sport and positive psychological and social outcomes, including self-esteem, self-regulation, general life skills, and pro-social behaviour. Yet limitations in the methods and measures limit the ability to draw conclusions from the literature. In addition, the diversity of youth and sport was generally ignored in the literature. This article suggests a number of directions for future research that might improve our understanding of how sport impacts psychological and social outcomes along with alcohol and illicit drug use.

  16. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is

  17. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R

    2013-12-07

    The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the cross

  18. Promoting work participation of non-permanent workers with psychological problems: An evidence-based approach to occupational health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audhoe, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Unemployed and temporary agency workers and workers with expired fixed-term contracts are a particularly vulnerable group, at risk for sickness absence and prolonged work disability due to psychological problems. These workers who are without an employment contract, are also known as non-permanent

  19. Assessing the predictive power of psychological empowerment and health literacy for older patients' participation in health care: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Gabriele; Rothenfluh, Fabia; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-02-20

    Research has confirmed a positive link between patient involvement in decision-making and improvements in health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the roles of psychological empowerment and health literacy on the elderly's willingness to engage in treatment decisions. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a randomly selected sample of Swiss adults aged 65-80 years old (N = 826). Multivariate logistic regression was applied to determine the contribution of health literacy, psychological empowerment, and trust in physician on participants' preference to be active, collaborative or passive in decision-making. Most of the survey respondents preferred some participation in dealing with health related decisions (collaborative: 51%, and active: 35.6%). More than two-thirds of the sample was satisfied with their current involvement in medical decision-making (72.7%). Roughly one-fifth (18.8%) wished to attain a more active engagement than currently experienced, and the remainder of the sample preferred the opposite (8.5%). Due to higher reported levels of psychological empowerment and health literacy, Swiss-German seniors significantly preferred and assumed higher participation in medical decisions than Swiss-Italians. Psychological empowerment correlated with older adults' preferred and perceived involvement in medical decision-making. However, health literacy only predicted actual involvement in the last treatment decision that had to be made, differentiating only the active from the passive involvement group. Additionally, this research showed that health literacy mediated the relationship between psychological empowerment and the actual involvement in the last treatment decision that had to be made by the participant. Trust in physician and age appeared to be barriers to involvement, whereas education served as a facilitator. As older adults' health literacy plays a role in individuals' willingness to attain an active role in health

  20. Personality, Political Attitudes and Participation in Protests: The Direct and Mediated Effects of Psychological Factors on Political Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Ednaldo Aparecido Ribeiro; Julian Borba

    2016-01-01

    Studies combining psychology and political science have shown that personality traits such as extroversion and openness to experiences are conditioning factors of political activism. However, the mechanisms through which this effect occurs are still poorly understood. Aiming to advance this topic, this article presents the results of an investigation that looked to analyse the mediated effects of personality traits in the Brazilian context, taking as mediating conditioning factors various att...

  1. Psychological type profile of religiously committed male and female Canadian Baptist youth: a study among participants at tidal impact

    OpenAIRE

    Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 479 female and 274 male religiously committed Canadian youth over the age of 11 years completed the Adolescent Form of the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTSA) within the context of a weeklong mission and service event sponsored by the Convention of Atlantic Baptist Churches. The data demonstrated strong preferences for intuition among both males (75%) and females (66%), and strong preferences for feeling among both males (86%) and females (92%). Females demonstrated stronger...

  2. Subtle visuomotor difficulties in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Maria A; Navarra, Jordi; Fernández-Prieto, Irune; Olives, Jaume; Tort, Adrià; Valech, Natalia; Coll-Padrós, Nina; Molinuevo, José L; Rami, Lorena

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (Pre-AD) present nonimpaired cognition, as measured by standard neuropsychological tests. However, detecting subtle difficulties in cognitive functions may be necessary for an early diagnosis and intervention. A new computer-based visuomotor coordination task (VMC) was developed to investigate the possible presence of early visuomotor difficulties in Pre-AD individuals. Associations between VMC task performance and AD biomarkers were studied. The influence of ApoE status on participants' performance was addressed, as well as the relationship between performance and subjective cognitive decline (SCD). Sixty-six cognitively normal (CN) elders (19 Pre-AD and 47 control participants [CTR]) and 15 patients with AD performed the VMC task, which consisted in executing visually guided goal-directed movements that required the coordination of the visual and motor systems. All participants underwent ApoE analysis and lumbar puncture. CN participants also completed an extensive standard neuropsychological battery. Despite presenting normal cognition in standard tests, Pre-AD participants exhibited higher response times (RTs) to complete the VMC task than CTR (p < .01). Besides, patients with AD showed higher RTs than CTR (p < .001) and Pre-AD (p < .05), and more errors than CTR (p < .005). RTs in ApoE4 carriers were higher than that observed in ApoE4 noncarriers (p < .01). In CN individuals, RTs were related to amyloid β-protein 42 (AB42) biomarker (p < .01) and informant-rated SCD (p < .01). The VMC task is able to discriminate Pre-AD from CTR individuals. Moreover, VMC results are associated with AB42 levels in CN individuals, suggesting that visuomotor dysfunction may be a sensitive marker of Pre-AD. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Emotion Regulation Difficulties Moderate the Association Between Heavy Episodic Drinking and Dating Violence Perpetration Among College Men

    OpenAIRE

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Cherf, Nicholas; Gulati, Natasha K.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2016-01-01

    Because of high rates of heavy drinking and dating violence (psychological or physical aggression toward a dating partner) among college men, we examined whether emotion regulation difficulties moderated the association between heavy drinking and dating violence perpetration. One hundred and fifty-eight men were recruited from a large northwestern US university between April 2014 and August 2014. Participants completed an online survey that assessed their emotion regulation difficulties as we...

  4. A Comparative Study on American and Turkish Students? Self Esteem in Terms of Sport Participation: A Study on Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiter, Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted in order to compare self-esteem of American students with Turkish students in terms of the sport participation at the universities. For this purpose, a total of 460 students (M age = 19,61 ± 1,64) voluntarily participated in the study from two universities. As data collection tool, Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem…

  5. Predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8-12 years from eight...... measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation...... model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain...

  6. It isn't all just fun and games: Collegiate participation in extracurricular activities and risk for generalized and sexual harassment, psychological distress, and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Difficulties with contraception and voluntary pregnancy termination: a survey carried out at the hopital Saint-Louis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, D; Dreyfus, R; Chemama, D

    1986-06-01

    A 1985 prospective study at the Saint-Louis Hospital in Paris indicated that 138 of 252 abortions (53.8%), were associated with problems of contraception and 114 were not. The percentages of cases involving problems with contraception varied from 34% to 58.2% according to the physicians participating in the study. Despite the very subjective nature of the estimates, at least 1/3 of abortions at this hospital are associated with difficulties in contraception. In 64 of 138 cases, the problems were caused by psychological factors, including ambivalent desire for pregnancy in 24 cases, psychological refusal of contraception in 15 cases, psychological immaturity in 4 cases, various psychological problems in 4 cases, and a psychological factor associated with some other difficulty in 17 cases. Among the various psychological problems were 1 woman using abortion as a contraceptive method who had undergone 9 abortions and 1 case of cultural resistance to contraception. Among the 17 cases where the psychological problem was associated with some other difficulty there were 7 cases of ambivalent desire for pregnancy, 4 cases of psychological refusal of contraception, and 6 cases of various psychological problems. Among these cases, available contraceptive methods were contraindicated or poorly tolerated apart from the psychological difficulty. Among the 74 cases of contraceptive difficulty not associated with psychological factors were: 12 cases of nulliparity and nontoleration of combined oral contraceptives (OCs); 22 cases of nulliparity and OCs contraindicated or inadvisable; 22 cases of OCs and IUDs contraindicated, inadvisable, or refused; 5 cases of IUD failure with OCs not possible; 2 cases of failure of local methods with other methods not possible; and 11 cases of various difficulties including 4 of difficulties of communication for linguistic reasons and 7 cases of repeated forgetting or incorrect taking of pills. It is not known whether the 252 cases in this survey

  8. Personality, Political Attitudes and Participation in Protests: The Direct and Mediated Effects of Psychological Factors on Political Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Aparecido Ribeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies combining psychology and political science have shown that personality traits such as extroversion and openness to experiences are conditioning factors of political activism. However, the mechanisms through which this effect occurs are still poorly understood. Aiming to advance this topic, this article presents the results of an investigation that looked to analyse the mediated effects of personality traits in the Brazilian context, taking as mediating conditioning factors various attitudes and subjective dispositions commonly found in the literature, such as interest in politics and subjective political efficacy. Using the Latin American Public Opinion Project data, the hypothesis was tested that personality influences behaviour, since it favours the development of a number of attitudes that function as basic factors conditioning civic engagement. The results indicate the significant mediated effects of extroversion and openness to experience, especially with regard to political knowledge.

  9. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Won

    2016-02-24

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33) who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28) on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV), Natural Killer cell (NK cell) activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS), depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.

  10. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33 who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28 on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV, Natural Killer cell (NK cell activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS, depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.

  11. Meaning-Making through Psychological Autopsy Interviews: The Value of Participating in Qualitative Research for Those Bereaved by Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyregrov, Kari Madeleine; Dieserud, Gudrun; Hjelmeland, Heidi Marie; Straiton, Melanie; Rasmussen, Mette Lyberg; Knizek, Birthe Loa; Leenaars, Antoon Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Too often ethical boards delay or stop research projects with vulnerable populations, influenced by presumed rather than empirically documented vulnerability. The article investigates how participation is experienced by those bereaved by suicide. Experiences are divided into 3 groups: (a) overall positive (62%), (b) unproblematic (10%), and (c)…

  12. Mathematics difficulties & classroom leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    . The findings suggest that the teachers’ pedagogical choices and actions support an active learning environment for students in diverse learning needs, and that the teachers practise dimensions of inclusive classroom leadership that are known to be successful for teaching mathematics to all students. Despite......This article investigates possible links between inclusion, students, for whom mathematics is extensively difficult, and classroom leadership through a case study on teaching strategies and student participation in four classrooms at two different primary schools in Denmark. Three sets of results...... are presented: 1) descriptions of the teachers’ classroom leadership to include all their students in the learning community, 2) the learning community produced by stated and practiced rules for teaching and learning behavior, 3) the classroom behavior of students who experience difficulties with mathematics...

  13. Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia A; Narayan, Gopalakrishnan

    2003-03-01

    This study examined whether participation in school team sports, exclusively or in combination with other extracurricular activities, is associated with higher levels of psychosocial functioning and healthy behavior than participation in other extracurricular activities alone or nonparticipation. The study sample includes 50,168 ninth grade public school students who completed an anonymous, voluntary statewide survey in 2001. Students were classified into four groups based on their participation in sports and other activities (such as clubs, volunteer work, band, choir, or music lessons): neither, both, other activities only, and sports only. Odds ratios for the group involved in both types of activities were significantly higher than those for all the other groups for all healthy behaviors and measures of connectedness, and significantly lower for all but one of the unhealthy behaviors. Students involved in sports, alone or in combination with other activities, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for exercise, milk consumption, and healthy self-image, and significantly lower odds for emotional distress, suicidal behavior, family substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse victimization. Students involved in other activities, alone or in combination with sports, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for doing homework and significantly lower odds for alcohol consumption, marijuana use, and vandalism. The finding that abuse victims appeared to avoid sports but not other group activities raises concern and merits further research. Considering the potential benefits of participation in sports and other activities, more research is needed to identify and overcome barriers or deterrents, particularly for youth from low-income families.

  14. A Study of Women’s Attitude towards Sport Participation and its Effective Socio-Psychological Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Siroos Ahmadi; Saeed Kargar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Today, sport is considered as a basic need in all over the world. Participation in sport activities professionally, until recently was a male activity and women had no significant contribution in sport activities. After World War II, however, women's disposition to sport activities changed, because of factors such as improvements in leisure time, living standards, attention to health and fitness, mass media effects, paying more attention to sport achievements, and change in tr...

  15. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea; Heart failure - orthopnea ... does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions that lead to ...

  16. Evaluation of quality of life and psychological aspects of Parkinson's disease patients who participate in a support group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Ribeiro Artigas

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that can dramatically impair patient quality of life (QoL.Objective:To analyze the QoL, motor capacity, depression, anxiety and social phobia of individuals who attended a patient support group (PSG compared to non-participants.Methods:A cross-sectional study was performed. The sample consisted of 20 individuals with PD who attended a PSG and another 20 PD patients who did not attend a support group for PD patients, serving as the control group (nPSG. All patients answered questionnaires on motor capacity (UPDRS, QoL (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire- PDQ-39, depression (Beck Depression Inventory, anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and social phobia (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. To determine data distribution, the Shapiro-Wilk test was performed. For comparison of means, Student's t-test was applied. In cases of asymmetry, the Mann-Whitney test was employed. To assess the association between the scales, Pearson's correlation coefficient (symmetric distribution and Spearman's coefficient (asymmetric distribution were applied. For the association between qualitative variables, Pearson's Chi-squared test was performed. A significance level of 5% (p≤0.05 was adopted.Results:Individuals in the PSG had a significantly better QoL (p=0.002, and lower depression (p=0.026, anxiety (p<0.001 and social phobia (p=0.01 scores compared to the nPSG.Conclusion:The participation of PD patients in social activities such as support groups is associated with better QoL and fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety and social phobia.

  17. Sleep difficulties and academic performance in Norwegian higher education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Amie C; Sivertsen, Børge; Hysing, Mari; Vedaa, Øystein; Øverland, Simon

    2017-12-01

    Sleep difficulties are common among university students and may detrimentally affect academic outcomes. Despite this, remarkably little information is currently available during this critical developmental period of early adulthood, and thus, the direct effect on measurable domains of academic ability and proficiency is equivocal. To evaluate the associations between difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) and subjective and objective academic performance in a large sample of university students. A total of 12,915 students who participated in large student survey in Norway from 24 February 2014 to 27 March 2014. DIMS was assessed by the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25), and academic outcomes included failed examinations, delayed study progress, and school-related self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale). Difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep was independently associated with increased odds for poor school performance for all academic outcomes. Reporting 'extreme' DIMS was associated with increased odds of reporting delayed study progress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.57, p academic outcomes as well as poorer self-rated academic proficiency among higher education students. Amelioration of sleep difficulties may improve overall academic performance and health outcomes in affected students. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Evaluating the User Experience of Exercising Reaching Motions With a Robot That Predicts Desired Movement Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2016-01-01

    The notion of an optimal difficulty during practice has been articulated in many areas of cognitive psychology: flow theory, the challenge point framework, and desirable difficulties. Delivering exercises at a participant's desired difficulty has the potential to improve both motor learning and users' engagement in therapy. Motivation and engagement are among the contributing factors to the success of exercise programs. The authors previously demonstrated that error amplification can be used to introduce levels of challenge into a robotic reaching task, and that machine-learning algorithms can dynamically adjust difficulty to the desired level with 85% accuracy. Building on these findings, we present the results of a proof-of-concept study investigating the impacts of practicing under desirable difficulty conditions. A control condition with a predefined random order for difficulty levels was deemed more suitable for this study (compared to constant or continuously increasing difficulty). By practicing the task at their desirable difficulties, participants in the experimental group perceived their performance at a significantly higher level and reported lower required effort to complete the task, in comparison to a control group. Moreover, based on self-reports, participants in the experimental group were willing, on average, to continue the training session for 4.6 more training blocks (∼45 min) compared to the control group's average. This study demonstrates the efficiency of delivering the exercises at the user's desired difficulty level to improve the user's engagement in exercise tasks. Future work will focus on clinical feasibility of this approach in increasing stroke survivors' engagement in their therapy programs.

  19. Adolescent Bullying and Sleep Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Hunter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether adolescents who report having been bullied, being bullies, or report both being a bully and being bullied experience more sleep difficulties than children uninvolved in bullying. The study drew upon cognitive theories of insomnia, investigating whether the extent to which young people report worrying about bullying can moderate associations between victimization and sleep difficulties. Participants were 5420 adolescents who completed a self-report questionnaire. Pure Victims (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.07, 2.75], Pure Bullies (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.16, 2.81], and Bully-Victims (OR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.17, 4.92] were all more likely to experience sleep difficulties when compared to uninvolved young people. The extent to which young people reported worrying about being bullied did not moderate the links between victimization and sleep difficulties. In this way, bullying is clearly related to sleep difficulties among adolescents but the conceptual reach of the cognitive model of insomnia in this domain is questioned.

  20. Difficulties in Balint groups: a qualitative study of leaders' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger

    2010-11-01

    Balint groups (BGs) are a means of enhancing competence in the physician-patient relationship and are also regarded as beneficial for GPs' mental health. However, voluntary BGs are still few, some members terminate their participation, and problems are reported in obligatory groups in residency programmes. This raises questions about possible negative aspects of BGs. To examine difficulties in BGs as experienced by BG leaders. Qualitative study using interviews. Eight BG leaders from five countries were interviewed. The interviews focused on the informants' experiences of difficulties in their groups and were analysed with a systematic text-condensation method. Three categories of difficulties emerged from the analysis: 1) the individual physician having needs, vulnerabilities, and defences; 2) the group (including the leader) having problems of hidden agendas, rivalries, and frames; and 3) the surrounding environment defining the conditions of the group. BGs were found to fit into modern theories of small groups as complex systems. They are submitted to group dynamics that are sometimes malicious, and are exposed to often tough environmental conditions. Professionally conducted BGs seem to be a gentle, efficient method to train physicians, but with limitations. Participation of a member demands psychological stability and an open mind. BGs need support from the leadership of healthcare organisations in order to exist.

  1. One-parent family as agent of socialization: interrelation of mother’s conception of child’s psychological well-being and her strategies of coping with difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinskaya E.P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of psychological characteristics of one-parent families. The family, in which a child is brought by one parent, now is becoming an important independent object of socio-psychological research. According to authors’ opinion, the subject of importance is not only the specifics of individual psychologi- cal characteristics of single-parent families, but also the interaction of these impor- tant characteristics. The authors chose the following socio-psychological variables for investigation: the mother’s perception of psychological well-being of her child, the nature of her coping strategies and style of upbringing. The authors revealed a variety of social and psychological characteristics of single-parent families. Thus, the parent strategy of positive reformulation of problems is involved as a way to see the positive aspects of the situation in the family and the relationship with the child on case of the lack of consistency in style of education and lack of inhibitions; and active coping strategies — with a focus on promotion rather than punishment in the child's behavior regulation. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project № 14-18-00598 «Patterns and mechanisms of positive socialization in modern children and teenagers».

  2. Towards a new analytical approach to the challenges of communication difficulties and aquired brain damage in everyday practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    in everyday life. A sense-making-in-practice approach may help form a new discourse. How may a new analytical approach be designed? May ‘communication’ be described as ‘participation abilities’, using the framework from language psychology combined with discursive psychology and the conventions......The approach of language psychology is grounded in the persons communicating; where as the approach of discursive psychology is grounded in social interaction. There is a lack of scientific knowledge on the social/communicative/interactional challenges of communication difficulties and brain injury...... of ethnomethodology? I draw on Roy Harris’ integrational linguistics’ approach (1998; 2009) to communication and communication abilities as I investigate how agreement on a micro-level is accomplished through participation and initiatives in interactions (Goodwin, 2003). I examine excerpts from a study I have been...

  3. An Exploratory Investigation of the Effects of a Cultural Orientation Programme on the Psychological Well-Being of International University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, N. J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A group of foreign graduate students (n=29) who participated in a study skills and cultural orientation program at a British university found that in comparison with a group not participating (n=26), and contrary to expectation, participating students had more homesickness and psychological difficulties. The findings cast doubt on the common view…

  4. Psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna M; Bogdanowicz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe specific psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia and compare them with psychological resources of adults without developmental dyslexia. Potential differences were analyzed in visual-spatial, creative, and motivational abilities. No evidence was found for either creative, or visuospatial superiority in adults with developmental dyslexia. The results suggest, however, that visual-spatial processing of nonverbal material by adults with developmental dyslexia allows them to efficiently execute tasks that are based on sequential material. Moreover, the participants with specific difficulties in reading and writing exhibited a significantly higher level of aspirations than their peers without such difficulties with a comparable level of educational achievement. These results suggest that succeeding in different fields by highly functioning adult dyslexics may depend on personality and motivational factors, rather than cognitive factors. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  5. The role of emotion regulation on social participation following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Clare L; Phillips, Louise H; Johnston, Marie; Whyte, Maggie; MacLeod, Mary J

    2015-06-01

    Following stroke, individuals often experience reduced social participation, regardless of physical limitations. Impairments may also occur in a range of cognitive and emotional functions. Successful emotion regulation, which has been identified as important in psychological adaptation to chronic illness, is associated with better perceived psychological well-being and social functioning. However, there is little evidence about the effect of stroke on emotion regulation difficulties, and associated impact on important outcomes in recovery from stroke. The objectives were (1) to determine whether people who have had a stroke reported greater difficulties in emotion regulation than controls and (2) to establish whether emotion regulation difficulties relate to social participation. 75 stroke and 40 healthy participants completed measures of emotion regulation (DERS), social participation (Modified Functional Limitation Profile [mFLP], WHOQoL-Bref) and activity limitations (mFLP). Stroke participants were seen at the acute stage (63 days post-stroke) for Study 1 and 18 months post-stroke for Study 2. In Study 1, acute-stage stroke patients had significant impairments on impulse control, awareness of emotions, and strategies for emotion regulation. There was also evidence that emotion regulation difficulties (impulse control, awareness and clarity about emotions) were associated with social participation in the stroke sample, even after controlling for potential confounders. In Study 2, there was evidence that, in the chronic-stage post-stroke, difficulties with strategy and acceptance of emotions were associated with social participation restrictions. Whilst emotion regulation as a whole in the acute phase predicted social participation in the chronic phase of stroke, no one domain of emotion regulation was a significant predictor of social participation >1 year later. These results indicate that multiple aspects of emotion regulation are impaired following stroke

  6. Urination - difficulty with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003143.htm Urination - difficulty with flow To use the sharing features on this page, ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ...

  7. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. Objective The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. Methods We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. Results On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: “positive emotion,” “negative emotion,” “anxiety,” “anger,” “sadness,” “first person singular,” “negation,” “swear words,” and “death.” Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. Conclusions We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the

  8. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2017-03-20

    Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: "positive emotion," "negative emotion," "anxiety," "anger," "sadness," "first person singular," "negation," "swear words," and "death." Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the emotion-related language usage of depression community members are improving either

  9. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand...... in a healthcare system. From our perspective, further sociological and pedagogical investigations in educational cultures across settings and specialties could inform our understanding of and knowledge about pitfalls in residents’ and doctors’ socialization into the healthcare system....

  10. Poor sleep after military deployment: associations with mental health difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E J F; Greenberg, N; Jones, N

    2016-08-19

    Sleep difficulties, alcohol use and mental illness are often related; military studies suggest that post-deployment is a high-risk period for sleep problems. To examine the prevalence of post-deployment sleep difficulties in UK Armed Forces (UKAF) personnel and associations with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and any mental disorder (AMD) symptoms. A prospective, self-report, observational study of UKAF members returning from Afghanistan, questionnaire data were collected immediately following and 6 months post-deployment. A total of 1636 participants provided study data at both time points. Twenty-three per cent of personnel reported sleep difficulties at follow-up; 11% reported sleep-related interference with daily functioning. Sleep problems were significantly associated with AUD and AMD. Initial post-deployment sleep problems were predictive of AMD but not AUD at follow-up. The disclosure of alcohol misuse and mental ill-health in UKAF personnel is often inhibited by stigmatizing beliefs; detection could be enhanced by inquiring about sleep problems which may be less stigmatizing than direct enquiries about alcohol misuse and psychological well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Links between emotion perception and social participation restriction following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Clare L; Phillips, Louise H; Johnston, Marie; Radlak, Bogumila; Hamilton, Steven; McLeod, Mary Joan

    2014-01-01

    Stroke can cause impairment in emotion perception, but the social consequences of these problems have not been explored to date. In a group of patients with stroke, this study investigated whether difficulties in emotion perception related to social participation and quality-of-life. It also assessed whether these relationships remained significant when controlling for activity limitations. Individuals 1 year post-stroke (n = 28) and control participants (n = 40) were assessed on emotion perception across different modalities. Activity limitations, social participation, and multiple domains of quality-of-life were assessed in patients. Participants with stroke were impaired on emotion perception compared to controls. Emotion perception problems in stroke were significantly correlated with social participation and psychological aspects of QoL, but not with activity limitations. The strong relationships of emotion perception with social participation and psychological aspects of QoL following stroke may have implications for post-stroke outcomes.

  12. Quality of life and psychological affect related to sport participation in children and youth athletes with physical disabilities: A parent and athlete perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Deborah R; Malone, Laurie A

    2016-07-01

    Adapted sport, with its recreational, therapeutic, and competitive characteristics is increasingly serving as a forum through which to develop and maintain physical and psychological functioning, promote good health by developing a healthy lifestyle, and enhance health related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction of persons with disabilities. This study examined the relationship between athlete and parent perceptions of health related quality of life (HRQoL) and the relationship between the athletes' perceived HRQoL and subjective exercise evaluations. A total of 70 youth athletes with physical disabilities (Mage = 15, SD = 2.92) and a parent completed the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Participants also completed the subjective exercise experience scale (SEES) prior to and immediately after a sport practice. Athletes with disabilities reported higher perceptions of HRQoL than their parents reported for them on physical (t = 4.42, p = .000), emotional (t = 2.78, p = .006) and social (t = 3.26, p = .000) functioning subscales with moderate to high effect sizes (d = .81, .51-1.30, respectively). Positive well-being subscale from the SEES was significantly related to overall HRQoL (r = .49, p = .001) and was a significant predictor (R(2) = .238, F Change = 13.42 (1, 42) p = .001) of overall HRQoL. Since parents, specifically for younger children, primarily make decisions about program and therapeutic treatments, understanding differences in perceptions of HRQoL between parent and athlete is essential to improving athlete recruitment and structuring program interventions directed at improving HRQoL and emotional well-being of children with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling the Structure of the Relationship Between Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Positive and Negative affect Sleep Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Amiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Poor quality sleep is very common in modern societies and has a significant negative impact on psychological and physiological Dimensions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate correlational relationships and draw up a positive and negative affect mediation model between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and quality of sleep.   Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the participants of the study were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Then, the difficulty questionnaire was distributed in emotion regulation, affective and negative and sleep quality among the participants . Collected data was analyzed for descriptive, correlation, structural equation modeling to investigate the research objectives.   Results: The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the difficulty components of emotion regulation and negative emotion with poor sleep quality and positive correlation between positive affection and high sleep quality (p <0.01. Also, the pattern of structural equation modeling indicates the role of mediating positive and negative affects in the relationship between the difficulty in regulation of emotion and sleep quality . Conclusions: The results supported the hypothesis that the difficulty in regulation of emotion interferes with the quality of sleep, and positive affection can have a moderating role in this regard.    

  14. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  15. Exercise on Prescription. Effect of attendance on participants' psychological factors in a Danish version of Exercise on Prescription: a study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Thomas V G; Puggaard, Lis; Roessler, Kirsten K

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many countries exercise prescriptions are used to facilitate physical activity in a sedentary population with or in risk of developing lifestyle diseases. Some studies show a positive effect of exercise prescription on specific lifestyle diseases. Others only show moderately positi...... of Exercise on Prescription, which apart from the psychological concepts (the patient's perspective) covers the effectiveness, the organization, and the health economy....

  16. Perception on mathematical difficulties in senior adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Crespo Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance that Life Long Learning currently has, entails reinforcing educational policies in adults and older adults. We have studied the perception about the difficulties of calculation in older adults who are participating in educational activities. In the same way, we analyze which are the factors that influence to a greater extent in a negative perception on the mathematical difficulties. The sample is 448 subjects. The questionnaire is a Likert scale. On the data obtained, we point out that, in general terms, they consider that they are not slow in carrying out calculation operations and that they have no difficulty understanding the mathematical concepts. Likewise, we found correlation (p <0.001 in factors that lead us to affirm that they perceive more difficulties in the calculation, as well as those who have carried out primary studies and whose occupation is focused on the housekeeping.

  17. Participação dos pais no nascimento em maternidade pública: dificuldades institucionais e motivações dos casais Fathers' participation in childbirth at a public hospital: institutional difficulties and motivations of couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Mello de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A participação dos pais no nascimento, presente na humanização da assistência ao parto, afina-se com o crescente envolvimento dos homens nos cuidados com as crianças. Possibilita o suporte psicossocial à gestante, o compartilhamento da experiência pelo casal e a formação de vínculo pai-bebê. Procurando conhecer o impacto desta experiência entre os pais numa maternidade pública no Rio de Janeiro, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa etnográfica, em duas etapas: observação-participante do trabalho de parto e do parto, e onze entrevistas com pais participantes do parto. A participação dos pais se mostrou atravessada por: dificuldades institucionais; motivações das mães e dos pais; representações sociais sobre parto e paternidade; e exclusão dos pais nos serviços de saúde reprodutiva e pediátrica. A presença dos pais não foi valorizada pela equipe nem como suporte à gestante nem como evento da paternidade. O estudo indica: a necessidade de incentivo à participação dos pais no pré-natal, parto, pós-parto e nas consultas pediátricas; a preparação das equipes para trabalho com as famílias; a ampliação da discussão social sobre paternidade e a formulação de políticas trabalhistas que garantam a presença dos pais nos serviços de saúde.Participation by fathers in the process of childbirth, an aspect of the humanization of obstetric care, helps foster the fathers' involvement in raising their children. This participation provides psychosocial support for pregnant women during labor and delivery, sharing of the experience by the couple, and father-child bonding. The focus of this ethnographic research was the impact of this process on fathers participating in childbirth at a State hospital in Rio de Janeiro, with two stages: participant observation of labor and delivery and eleven interviews with fathers who had been present at delivery. Fathers' participation was influenced by: the motivation of mothers and fathers

  18. The psychology of participation and interest in smart energy systems : Comparing the value-belief-norm theory and the value-identity-personal norm model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems can be reduced if people would participate in smart energy systems. Little is known about which factors motivate people to actually participate in smart energy systems. We tested the factors that influence individuals’ interest and actual participation in smart energy systems.

  19. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  20. Therapy for Child Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…

  1. Does the processing fluency of a syllabus affect the forecasted grade and course difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, R Kim

    2012-06-01

    Processing fluency is known to affect a variety of cognitive assessments, but most research has not examined such effects in the context of a real-life experience. In the first experiment, college students, enrolled in either a statistics or cognitive psychology course, read a course syllabus which varied in the clarity of its font and frequency of its vocabulary. Based on the syllabus, students then forecasted their final course grade and the course's difficulty. Despite methodological similarity to other fluency experiments and adequate statistical power, there were no significant differences in forecasts across fluency conditions. Fluency may be discounted in a task which provides information that affects people's lives. This interpretation was bolstered by a second experiment whose participants were students in a statistics course. These students read the cognitive course's syllabus and forecasted better grades and less difficulty in the cognitive course when the font of the syllabus was more clear than unclear.

  2. On the study and difficulties of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    De Morgan, Augustus

    2005-01-01

    One of the twentieth century's most eminent mathematical writers, Augustus De Morgan enriched his expositions with insights from history and psychology. On the Study and Difficulties of Mathematics represents some of his best work, containing points usually overlooked by elementary treatises, and written in a fresh and natural tone that provides a refreshing contrast to the mechanical character of common textbooks.Presuming only a knowledge of the rules of algebra and Euclidean theorems, De Morgan begins with some introductory remarks on the nature and objects of mathematics. He discusses the

  3. Psicologia Clínica e aprendizagem significativa: relatando uma pesquisa fenomenológica colaborativa Clinical psychology and meaningful learning: report on a participative phenomenological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Martins de Macêdo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é resultado de uma experiência de um grupo de estudo em pesquisa fenomenológica em psicologia. O grupo foi formado em abril de 1998 e encerrado em março de 1999, sob a orientação da autora. Em encontros semanais ou quinzenais de duas a três horas eram discutidos textos sobre fenomenologia e a influência desta no saber e na pesquisa em psicologia, com destaque para a área clínica. A pesquisa serviu para possibilitar aos membros aprenderem o método fenomenológico pela vivência do próprio método, além de ter viabilizado um estudo clínico do processo de aprendizagem significativa vivenciado pelos participantes.This article is the result of a study-group experience on phenomenological research upon psychology. Such group was formed in April 1998, and ended in March 1999, being under the author’s guidance during that time. During weekly and bi-weekly meetings of two or three hours time, texts about phenomenology and its influence upon knowledge and in psychology research have been discussed, emphasizing the clinical area. The research served as an opportunity to the group members learn about the phenomenological method through real life experiences, as well as to develop a clinical study on the meaningful learning process.

  4. Symptoms of disease and psychological adaptation in Brazilian scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Catarina Correia; Maia, Ângela Costa

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the prevalence and impact of symptoms of scleroderma in Brazilian patients and to describe their satisfaction with medical care and psychological symptoms. One-hundred and twenty eight Brazilian scleroderma patients participated in an online survey by filling out a Portuguese version of the Canadian Scleroderma Patient Survey of Health Concerns and Research Priorities. The mean age of participants was 38 years old (SD = 12.33), and most of the participants were females (n = 108, 88%). Hardening/tightening of skin, itchy skin and joint pain were symptoms reported as being most frequent, whereas muscle pain and difficulty climbing stairs were symptoms reported as having a higher impact. Participants reported dissatisfaction regarding the medical care. Psychological evaluations suggested that participants who scored above clinical values for depression was significantly high (90%; n = 77). In addition, 48% (n = 42) of participants fit the clinical criteria for anxiety disorder, and 40% (n = 35) of participants fit the clinical criteria of social phobia. Finally, body image disturbance was reported by 69% (n = 88) of participants. The physical and psychological symptoms associated with scleroderma have a significant impact on patient quality of life. The Brazilian patients in the current sample report higher levels of dissatisfaction with medical care than patients from Canada and European countries. These Brazilian patients also report more psychopathology, particularly symptoms of depression. The current results suggest that there is a need for professionals to consider and attend to the individual problems of scleroderma patients.

  5. Active citizenship and acquired neurological communication difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Bennett, Amanda; Cairney, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    People with communication impairments may face barriers to civic participation, with resulting marginalisation of individuals who wish to be actively involved. The investigation aimed to explore the experience of civically engaged adults with acquired neurological communication difficulties. Six people with acquired neurological communication difficulties were interviewed. Discussion included the definition of active citizenship, their civic involvement, motivations, related barriers and facilitators. Qualitative analysis was undertaken, with data categorised, coded and examined for recurring themes. All participants were active in disability-related organisations and four undertook wider civic roles. Motivations included activity being out with the home and wanting to effect change for themselves and the populations they represented. Disability group meetings were more positive experiences than broader community activities, which were associated with fatigue and frustration, commonly resulting from communication difficulties and unmet support needs. All participants identified a need for professional and public educational about disability and communication and made recommendations on content, methods and priority groups. For these participants civic engagement had positive and negative dimensions. Speech and language therapists should promote reduction of the barriers that impede the active citizenship rights of people with communication support needs. Civic participation may be a relevant measure of outcome in communication impaired populations.

  6. Differences between family caregivers and people with dementia in recognizing the difficulties encountered in the lives of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dementia brings new difficulties in the lives of people with this disorder. It is important that family caregivers accurately recognize these difficulties to help their family members live fulfilling lives. Based on information gathered from people with dementia, family caregivers, and nurses providing medical care to this population, this study compared the differences in perspectives related to the difficulties associated with dementia between the family member with dementia and the family caregiver.Methods The primary participants in this investigation were 106 people with dementia and their family caregivers. Participants with dementia were 65 years and older who were receiving home care in Tokyo. Participants were interviewed about their difficulties while family caregivers completed a questionnaire with basic information regarding people with dementia. Additionally, the nurse providing medical care to the person with dementia completed a questionnaire about the medical care. In this study, difficulties in the lives of people with dementia was defined as impediments in life due to dementia. Difficulties were classified according to 12 symptoms based on responses that appeared frequently in the interviews. The 12 symptoms were pain, hallucinations/delusions, aggressive behavior, memory loss, disorientation, communication impairment, anxiety/confusion, toileting problems, gait disturbance, dietary deficiency, sleep disorder, and social withdrawal. Additional information was gathered and analyzed that included diagnosis and severity of dementia, need for long-term care, core symptoms of dementia, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and delirium.Results The family caregiver's perspective about the difficulties encountered in the life of their family member with dementia was often different from the perspective of the associated family member. No family caregivers recognized that pain was a difficulty, and there were only a

  7. Internet-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological Distress Experienced by People With Hearing Problems: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Peter; Hesser, Hugo; Weineland, Sandra; Bergwall, Kajsa; Buck, Sonia; Hansson-Malmlöf, Johan; Lantz, Henning; Lunner, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    Psychological distress and psychiatric symptoms are prevalent among people with hearing loss or other audiological conditions, but psychological interventions for these groups are rare. This article describes the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial for evaluating the effect of a psychological treatment delivered over the Internet for individuals with hearing problems and concurrent psychological distress. Participants who are significantly distressed will be randomized to either an 8-week Internet-delivered acceptance-based cognitive behavioral therapy (i.e., acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]), or wa it-list control. We aim to include measures of distress associated with hearing difficulties, anxiety, and depression. In addition, we aim to measure acceptance associated with hearing difficulties as well as quality of life. The results of the trial may further our understanding of how to best treat people who present problems with both psychological distress and hearing in using the Internet.

  8. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jared

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…

  9. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

  10. Sexual touching and difficulties with sexual arousal and orgasm among U.S. older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Adena M

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about the non-genitally-focused sexual behavior of those experiencing sexual difficulties. The objective of this study was to review the theory supporting a link between sexual touching and difficulties with sexual arousal and orgasm, and to examine associations between these constructs among older adults in the United States. The data were from the 2005-2006 National Social Life Health and Aging Project, which surveyed 3,005 community-dwelling men and women ages 57-85 years. The 1,352 participants who had had sex in the past year reported on their frequency of sexual touching and whether there had been a period of several months or more in the past year when they were unable to climax, had trouble getting or maintaining an erection (men) or had trouble lubricating (women). Women also reported how often they felt sexually aroused during partner sex in the last 12 months. The odds of being unable to climax were greater by 2.4 times (95% CI 1.2-4.8) among men and 2.8 times (95% CI 1.4-5.5) among women who sometimes, rarely or never engaged in sexual touching, compared to those who always engaged in sexual touching, controlling for demographic factors and physical health. These results were attenuated but persisted after controlling for emotional relationship satisfaction and psychological factors. Similar results were obtained for erectile difficulties among men and subjective arousal difficulties among women, but not lubrication difficulties among women. Infrequent sexual touching is associated with arousal and orgasm difficulties among older adults in the United States.

  11. Tracking Change in Children with Severe and Persisting Speech Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Elisabeth Joy; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Standardised tests of whole-word accuracy are popular in the speech pathology and developmental psychology literature as measures of children's speech performance. However, they may not be sensitive enough to measure changes in speech output in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties (SPSD). To identify the best ways of doing this,…

  12. Task difficulty, risk, effort and comfort in a simulated driving task--Implications for Risk Allostasis Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Evans, Ben; Rothengatter, Talib

    2009-09-01

    Risk Allostasis Theory states that drivers seek to maintain a feeling of risk within a preferred range [Fuller, R., 2008. What drives the driver? Surface tensions and hidden consensus. In: Keynote at the 4th International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology, Washington, DC, August 31-September 4, 2008]. Risk Allostasis Theory is the latest version of Task-Difficulty Homeostasis theory, and is in part based on the findings of experiments where participants were asked to rate the task difficulty, feeling of risk and chance of collision of scenes shown in digitally altered video clips [Fuller, R., McHugh, C., Pender, S., 2008b. Task difficulty and risk in the determination of driver behaviour. Revue européenne de psychologie appliqée 58, 13-21]. The focus of the current research was to expand upon the previous video based experiments using a driving simulator. This allowed participants to be in control of the vehicle rather than acting as passive observers, as well as providing additional speed cues. The results support previous findings that ratings of task difficulty and feeling of risk are related, and that they are also highly related to ratings of effort and moderately related to ratings of comfort and habit. However, the linearly increasing trend for task difficulty and feeling of risk described by the previous research was not observed: instead the findings of this experiment support a threshold effect where ratings of risk (feeling of and chance of loss of control/collision), difficulty, effort, and comfort go through a period of stability and only start to increase once a certain threshold has been crossed. It is within the period of stability where subjective experience of risk and difficulty is low, or absent, that drivers generally prefer to operate.

  13. Measuring Difficulty in Platform Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Mourato, Fausto; Santos, Manuel Próspero dos

    2010-01-01

    Automatic generation of game levels improves replayability and also allows content adaptation. One important aspect to take into account in the creation of any videogame is difficulty, in particular when it is possible to adapt content. However, defining difficulty is not a straight subject. In this paper we propose a metric for game difficulty in platform levels, mostly based on users’ losing probability for each obstacle. This metric can be further used in automated processes that generate ...

  14. Difficulties with Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology Interact to Predict Early Smoking Cessation Lapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-06-01

    There is little knowledge about how emotion regulation difficulties interplay with psychopathology in terms of smoking cessation. Participants (n = 250; 53.2 % female, Mage = 39.5, SD = 13.85) were community-recruited daily smokers (≥8 cigarettes per day) who self-reported motivation to quit smoking; 38.8 % of the sample met criteria for a current (past 12-month) psychological disorder. Emotion regulation deficits were assessed pre-quit using the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer in J Psychopathol Behav Assess 26(1):41-54, 2004) and smoking behavior in the 28 days post-quit was assessed using the Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB; Sobell and Sobell in Measuring alcohol consumption: psychosocial and biochemical methods. Humana Press, Totowa, 1992). A Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was used to model the effects of past-year psychopathology, DERS (total score), and their interaction, in terms of time to lapse post-quit day. After adjusting for the effects of gender, age, pre-quit level of nicotine dependence, and treatment condition, the model revealed a non-significant effect of past-year psychopathology (OR = 1.14, CI95 % = 0.82-1.61) and difficulties with emotion regulation (OR = 1.01, CI95 % = 1.00-1.01) on likelihood of lapse rate. However, the interactive effect of psychopathology status and difficulties with emotion regulation was significant (OR = 0.98, CI95 % = 0.97-0.99). Specifically, there was a significant conditional effect of psychopathology status on lapse rate likelihood at low, but not high, levels of emotion regulation difficulties. Plots of the cumulative survival functions indicated that for smokers without a past-year psychological disorder, those with lower DERS scores relative to elevated DERS scores had significantly lower likelihood of early smoking lapse, whereas for smokers with past-year psychopathology, DERS scores did not differentially impact lapse rate likelihood. Smokers with emotion regulation

  15. Challenging future, challenging past: the relationship of social integration and psychological impairment in traumatized refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Matthis; Zumwald, Andre; Knöpfli, Bina; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Schnyder, Ulrich; Müller, Julia; Morina, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Refugees have been shown to present high prevalence rates of trauma-related mental disorders. Despite their psychological impairment, they are expected to meet high functional requirements in terms of social integration into, and financial independence from, the host society. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of mental health problems, post-migration living difficulties (PMLD), and social integration in a sample of 104 refugees seeking treatment for severe posttraumatic stress and comorbid symptoms in two outpatient clinics in Switzerland. Despite an average time of residence in Switzerland of over 10 years, participants showed poor integration and a high number of PMLD. Integration difficulties were closely associated with psychological symptoms, but not with socio-demographic parameters such as education or visa status. Psychological impairment in treatment-seeking traumatized refugees is associated with poor integration. To foster social integration, it is crucial to better understand and address the specific needs of this highly vulnerable population.

  16. Sports participation 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in athletes who had not returned to sport at 1 year: a prospective follow-up of physical function and psychological factors in 122 athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Whitehead, Timothy S; Webster, Kate E

    2015-04-01

    A return to their preinjury level of sport is frequently expected within 1 year after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, yet up to two-thirds of athletes may not have achieved this milestone. The subsequent sports participation outcomes of athletes who have not returned to their preinjury level sport by 1 year after surgery have not previously been investigated. To investigate return-to-sport rates at 2 years after surgery in athletes who had not returned to their preinjury level sport at 1 year after ACL reconstruction. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A consecutive cohort of competitive- and recreational-level athletes was recruited prospectively before undergoing ACL reconstruction at a private orthopaedic clinic. Participants were followed up at 1 and 2 years after surgery with a sports activity questionnaire that collected information regarding returning to sport, sports participation, and psychological responses. An independent physical therapist evaluated physical function at 1 year using hop tests and the International Knee Documentation Committee knee examination form and subjective knee evaluation. A group of 122 competitive- and recreational-level athletes who had not returned to their preinjury level sport at 1 year after ACL reconstruction participated. Ninety-one percent of the athletes returned to some form of sport after surgery. At 2 years after surgery, 66% were playing sport, with 41% playing their preinjury level of sport and 25% playing a lower level of sport. Having a previous ACL reconstruction to either knee, poorer hop-test symmetry and subjective knee function, and more negative psychological responses were associated with not playing the preinjury level sport at 2 years. Most athletes who were not playing sport at 1 year had returned to some form of sport within 2 years after ACL reconstruction, which may suggest that athletes can take longer than the clinically expected time of 1 year to return to sport. However, only 2

  17. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  18. Understanding Orgasmic Difficulty in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David L; Kolba, Tiffany N

    2016-08-01

    Women's primary issue with the orgasmic phase is usually difficulty reaching orgasm. To identify predictors of orgasmic difficulty in women within the context of a partnered sexual experience; to assess the relation between orgasmic difficulty and self-reported levels of sexual desire or interest and arousal in women; and to assess the interrelations among three dimensions of orgasmic response during partnered sex: self-reported time to reach orgasm, general difficulty or ease of reaching orgasm, and level of distress or concern. Drawing from a community-based sample using the Internet, 866 women were queried on a 26-item survey regarding their difficulty reaching orgasm during partnered sex. Four hundred sixteen women who indicated difficulty also responded to items assessing arousal and desire difficulties, level of distress about their condition, and their estimated time to reach orgasm. Answers to a 26-item survey on surveyed women's difficulty reaching orgasm during partnered sex. Age, arousal difficulty, and lubrication difficulty predicted difficulty reaching orgasm in the overall sample. In the subsample of women reporting difficulty, approximately half reported issues with arousal. Women with arousal problems reported greater difficulty reaching orgasm but did not differ from those without arousal problems on measurements of orgasm latency or levels of distress. Slightly more than half the women experiencing difficulty reaching orgasm were distressed by their condition; distressed women reported greater difficulty reaching orgasm and longer latencies to orgasm than non-distressed counterparts. They also reported lower satisfaction with their sexual relationship. This study indicates the importance of assessing multiple parameters when investigating orgasmic problems in women, including arousal issues, levels of distress, and latency to orgasm. Results also clarify that women with arousal problems do not differ substantially from those without arousal

  19. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  20. Men with Learning Difficulties Doing Research: Challenging Views of Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Pamela A.; Swain, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the views of men with learning difficulties living in a secure environment. Reflecting findings from a doctoral thesis based upon a research project where the participants looked at the processes and concepts of research, the dialogues within the study were analysed using critical discourse analysis. Thesis aims relevant here…

  1. University Students with Reading Difficulties: Do Perceived Supports and Comorbid Difficulties Predict Well-being and GPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna

    2016-01-01

    We examined the impact of the number of comorbid difficulties, social support, and community support on life satisfaction and academic achievement among 120 university students or recent graduates with self-reported reading difficulties. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, perceived community support, the…

  2. Parietal contributions to visual working memory depend on task difficulty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Kevin T; Berryhill, Marian E

    2012-01-01

    .... Here, we tested whether these complementary results were due to different degrees of parietal involvement as a function of WM task demands, WM task difficulty, and/or participants' WM capacity...

  3. Are humanistic and positive psychology really incommensurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Harris

    2014-01-01

    Comments on the article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" by Waterman (see record 2013-12501-001). Waterman has provided some broad-brush generalizations about differences between humanistic psychology and positive psychology, many of which do not hold in all cases, and he has pointed out some difficulties that would be involved in reconciling them. However, he has not presented any convincing argument that the two are irreconcilable. Essentially, Waterman has confounded difficulties with impossibilities by concluding these are incommensurate. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted from "Swallowing Disorders After a Stroke," Stroke Connection Magazine July/August ...

  5. Student Conceptual Difficulties in Hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Alvaro; Kahan, Sandra; Zavala, Genaro; Marti, Arturo C.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a study on the conceptual difficulties faced by college students in understanding hydrodynamics of ideal fluids. This study was based on responses obtained in hundreds of written exams complemented with several oral interviews, which were held with first-year engineering and science university students. Their responses allowed us to identify a series of misconceptions unreported in the literature so far. The study findings demonstrate that the most critical difficulties arise from...

  6. An evaluation of clinical treatment of convergence insufficiency for children with reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusek Wolfgang A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study investigates two different treatment options for convergence insufficiency CI for a group of children with reading difficulties referred by educational institutes to a specialist eye clinic in Vienna. Methods One hundred and thirty four subjects (aged 7-14 years with reading difficulties were referred from an educational institute in Vienna, Austria for visual assessment. Each child was given either 8Δ base-in reading spectacles (n = 51 or computerised home vision therapy (HTS (n = 51. Thirty two participants refused all treatment offered (clinical control group. A full visual assessment including reading speed and accuracy were conducted pre- and post-treatment. Results Factorial analyses demonstrated statistically significant changes between results obtained for visits 1 and 2 for total reading time, reading error score, amplitude of accommodation and binocular accommodative facility (within subjects effects (p Conclusions Reading difficulties with no apparent intellectual or psychological foundation may be due to a binocular vision anomaly such as convergence insufficiency. Both the HTS and prismatic correction are highly effective treatment options for convergence insufficiency. Prismatic correction can be considered an effective alternative to HTS.

  7. The Prevalence of Reading Difficulties among Children in Scholar Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosita Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the prevalence of reading difficulties among children in scholar age and analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of learners who presented reading difficulties in central Italy. A sample of 623 students 7-11 aged, was assessed with the Italian MT standardized tests. Information on gender, age, handedness, and other socio-demographic variables were also gathered. The study showed that 11% of learners presented poor comprehension skills. The reading speed difficulties were more common than the reading correctness problems: about 7% of children vs 1% were dyslexics due to slow reading. There were no significant differences regarding gender, age. However, dominant hand and the school location seemed to affect the speed difficulties and the comprehension problems. The analyses showed that attending a school located in a rural area was statistically associated with the reading difficulties. Left-handed children were more likely to be slow decoders and/or poor comprehenders. These findings may be used in the early diagnosis of poor readers. These difficulties often have a chronic progression with substantial psychosocial limitations and psychological stress, so children with reading difficulties should be identified as early as possible.

  8. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied/witnesses, and whe......PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied....../witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health....... The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...

  9. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  10. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  11. Vocational behavior analysis in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Estrella LÓPEZ PÉREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The European Higher Education Area (EHEA is supporting gain relevance of vocational guidance into the frame of University Education. In order to a better planning of this guidance we need to know his contents evaluating student vocational interests of each center. The aim of the study is to analyze the indicators of Psychology students vocational behavior and his evolution and comparing those results with data of another students population. Methodology. The 329 psychology students participants from the University of Salamanca (248 in the second year and 81 in the fifth answered the questionnaire of university biodata (Rocabert, 2005. In all cases we took a significance level of ? = 0.05 carrying out samples comparison tests using U de Mann-Whitney techniques and contingency analysis. Results: The present study found significant differences between second and fifth psychology grade students and with general university population data collected by Rocabert, Descals and Gomez (2007. In general, psychology students begin their degrees with a high level interest and motivated; they are making decisions based on the academic specialty they want to work in. However, for last year students group (fith year students we detected a lower satisfaction in their studies, more difficulties in deciding what they want to do and a greater demand of information in order to choose the advisablest option for them. Conclusions. Despite the high motivation of psychology students, the nearer is his integration into the job market the higher is the need of guidance to help them to take decisions concerning specialization or the professional world.

  12. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  13. Psychological distress, television viewing, and physical activity in children aged 4 to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Mishra, Gita

    2009-05-01

    Sedentary behavior and physical activity may be independent risk factors for psychological distress in adolescents, although there is no existing information for children. We examined the cross-sectional association between psychological distress, television and screen entertainment time, and physical activity levels among a representative sample of children aged 4 to 12 years from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey. Participants were 1486 boys and girls (mean age: 8.5 +/- 2.3 years). Parents answered on behalf of children who were required to be present. The parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and information on television and screen entertainment time, physical activity, and dietary intake of their children. An abnormally high Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties score (20-40) was found in 4.2% of the sample. Approximately 25% of the children were exposed to television and screen entertainment at least 3 hours/day. In general linear models, television and screen entertainment time per week and physical activity levels were independently associated with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties score after adjustment for age, gender, area deprivation level, single-parent status, medical conditions, and various dietary intake indicators. There was also an additive interaction effect showing that the combination of high television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity was associated with the highest Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score. Higher television and screen entertainment exposure (>2.7 hours/day) alone resulted in a 24% increase in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score in comparison with lower television and screen entertainment exposure (television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity levels interact to increase psychological distress in young children.

  14. The Relationship of Body Image with Psychological Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Moradi Manesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.

  15. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  16. Do Task Complexity Demands Influence the Learners’ Perception of Task Difficulty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sanajou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of cognitive task complexity on EFL learners’ perception of task difficulty. Learners’ perception of task difficulty is measured by a five-item task difficulty questionnaire (as in Robinson, 2001a. The participants were 76 intermediate learners which were divided into two groups. One group performed a simple task (single task and the other group performed a complex task (dual task. Having performed the tasks, the participants completed the task difficulty questionnaire. In order to see how the participants evaluated task difficulty, their ratings for each question of the questionnaire in the simple and complex tasks was compared using Mann-Whitney U. The results indicate that the complex task significantly affected learners’ perception of task difficulty in three items of difficulty, stress and interest. The results of task difficulty studies can help language educators in designing and employing more effective language teaching materials.

  17. Political participation of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p political participation (p political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.

  18. User perspectives on query difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Schütze, Hinrich

    2011-01-01

    The difficulty of a user query can affect the performance of Information Retrieval (IR) systems. What makes a query difficult and how one may predict this is an active research area, focusing mainly on factors relating to the retrieval algorithm, to the properties of the retrieval data......, or to statistical and linguistic features of the queries that may render them difficult. This work addresses query difficulty from a different angle, namely the users’ own perspectives on query difficulty. Two research questions are asked: (1) Are users aware that the query they submit to an IR system may...... be difficult for the system to address? (2) Are users aware of specific features in their query (e.g., domain-specificity, vagueness) that may render their query difficult for an IR system to address? A study of 420 queries from a Web search engine query log that are pre-categorised as easy, medium, hard...

  19. User participation in implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Benedicte; Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Systems development has been claimed to benefit from user participation, yet user participation in implementation activities may be more common and is a growing focus of participatory-design work. We investigate the effect of the extensive user participation in the implementation of a clinical...... system by empirically analyzing how management, participating staff, and non-participating staff view the implementation process with respect to areas that have previously been linked to user participation such as system quality, emergent interactions, and psychological buy-in. The participating staff...... experienced more uncertainty and frustration than management and non-participating staff, especially concerning how to run an implementation process and how to understand and utilize the configuration possibilities of the system. This suggests that user participation in implementation introduces a need...

  20. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  1. Effects of Goal Setting When Goal Difficulty Is Held Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Dennis L.; And Others

    Goal-setting has been accepted as an effective motivational tool. Whether goals should be participatively set or assigned was examined by holding goal difficulty constant in an investigation based on previous results which suggested that participants in goal-setting set more difficult goals than those for whom goals are assigned. Results suggest…

  2. P3a from visual stimuli: task difficulty effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Galen F; Gatherwright, James R; Lopez, Brian A; Polich, John

    2006-01-01

    The P3a event-related brain potential (ERP) was elicited using a visual three-stimulus oddball paradigm (target, standard, distracter) in which participants responded only to the target. Discrimination task difficulty between the target and the standard was manipulated by varying the size of the standard stimulus circle relative to a constant target stimulus circle across three conditions (easy, medium, hard). A large checkerboard pattern was employed for the distracter stimulus across all tasks. Error rate and response time increased with increases in task difficulty, so that the task difficulty manipulation was successful. Distracter P3a amplitude increased and target P3b decreased somewhat with increases in task difficulty. The findings suggest that increased perceptual discrimination difficulty between the target and standard stimuli increases P3a amplitude. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  3. Students’ conceptual difficulties in hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Suarez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a study on the conceptual difficulties faced by college students in understanding hydrodynamics of ideal fluids. This study was based on responses obtained in hundreds of written exams complemented with several oral interviews, which were held with first-year engineering and science university students. Their responses allowed us to identify a series of misconceptions unreported in the literature so far. The study findings demonstrate that the most critical difficulties arise from the students’ inability to establish a link between the kinematics and dynamics of moving fluids, and from a lack of understanding regarding how different regions of a system interact.

  4. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... as much information as the early measures combined. In the light of these results and a less than perfect early screening accuracy, a new strategy for screening is introduced and discussed. The strategy proposes multi-point screening with gradually increasing sensitivity to strike a balance between...... manageable screening procedures and outcomes and early identification of students who are most likely in need of extra resources....

  5. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  6. Students' conceptual difficulties in hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Alvaro; Kahan, Sandra; Zavala, Genaro; Marti, Arturo C.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a study on the conceptual difficulties faced by college students in understanding hydrodynamics of ideal fluids. This study was based on responses obtained in hundreds of written exams complemented with several oral interviews, which were held with first-year engineering and science university students. Their responses allowed us to identify a series of misconceptions unreported in the literature so far. The study findings demonstrate that the most critical difficulties arise from the students' inability to establish a link between the kinematics and dynamics of moving fluids, and from a lack of understanding regarding how different regions of a system interact.

  7. Participation in development activities: attitudinal and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What psychological factors determine Ghanaian employee participation in development activities in organizations? Empirical research has failed to examine psychological factors influencing employee behavior in Ghanaian organizations. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), I examine attitudinal ...

  8. Emotion Regulation Difficulties Moderate the Association Between Heavy Episodic Drinking and Dating Violence Perpetration Among College Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Cherf, Nicholas; Gulati, Natasha K; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Because of high rates of heavy drinking and dating violence (psychological or physical aggression toward a dating partner) among college men, we examined whether emotion regulation difficulties moderated the association between heavy drinking and dating violence perpetration. One hundred and fifty-eight men were recruited from a large northwestern US university between April 2014 and August 2014. Participants completed an online survey that assessed their emotion regulation difficulties as well as their past year history of heavy episodic drinking (HED; consuming 5+ drinks in 2 hours) and dating violence perpetration. Generalized linear models revealed that the positive association between HED and dating violence perpetration was stronger for men with greater impulse control difficulties and for those who reported limited access to emotion regulation strategies. In addition to continued efforts to reduce heavy drinking among college men, interventions targeting emotion regulation difficulties should be incorporated into standard dating violence intervention and prevention efforts to further reduce the likelihood of dating violence perpetration in this population.

  9. Emotion regulation difficulties in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Keong; Mogan, Christopher; Moriarty, Anna; Dowling, Nathan; Blair-West, Scott; Gelgec, Celin; Moulding, Richard

    2017-11-08

    Emotion regulation difficulties are implicated in psychological disorders but their role in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unclear. Two studies examining these difficulties in OCD are presented. A community sample (Study 1; n = 306) and a clinical OCD sample (Study 2; n = 59) completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and measures of depression, anxiety, and OCD. In Study 2, the OCD sample was compared to a matched control group (n = 59, selected from Study 1). In Study 1, OCD was positively correlated with DERS total and subscale scores, and the DERS significantly predicted OCD severity even after accounting for age, gender, depression, and anxiety. In Study 2, emotion regulation difficulties were significantly higher in the clinical sample compared to the matched control group, even after accounting for depression and anxiety. Results showed that emotion regulation difficulties in OCD cannot simply be attributed to mood difficulties. Theoretical and treatment implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Psychological aspects rehabilitation of patients with anophthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Verigo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the psychological rehabilitation of patients with anophthalmia having eye protesis as the main role on the problem. Stages of psychological reaction after eye lost and also the difficulties of adaptation of fellows with both eyesight lost is widely discussed. In order to help practitioners, recommendations on dealing this kind of patients has been given.

  11. Psychological aspects rehabilitation of patients with anophthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Verigo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the psychological rehabilitation of patients with anophthalmia having eye protesis as the main role on the problem. Stages of psychological reaction after eye lost and also the difficulties of adaptation of fellows with both eyesight lost is widely discussed. In order to help practitioners, recommendations on dealing this kind of patients has been given.

  12. Siblings of children with life-limiting conditions: psychological adjustment and sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, J M; Totsika, V; Hain, R; Hastings, R P

    2017-05-01

    This study explored psychological adjustment and sibling relationships of siblings of children with life-limiting conditions (LLCs), expanding on previous research by defining LLCs using a systematic classification of these conditions. Thirty-nine siblings participated, aged 3-16 years. Parents completed measures of siblings' emotional and behavioural difficulties, quality of life, sibling relationships and impact on families and siblings. Sibling and family adjustment and relationships were compared with population norms, where available, and to a matched comparison group of siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), as a comparable 'high risk' group. LLC siblings presented significantly higher levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties, and lower quality of life than population norms. Their difficulties were at levels comparable to siblings of children with ASD. A wider impact on the family was confirmed. Family socio-economic position, time since diagnosis, employment and accessing hospice care were factors associated with better psychological adjustment. Using a systematic classification of LLCs, the study supported earlier findings of increased levels of psychological difficulties in siblings of children with a LLC. The evidence is (i) highlighting the need to provide support to these siblings and their families, and (ii) that intervention approaches could be drawn from the ASD field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The benefits and risks of telling and listening to stories of difficulty over time: experimentally testing the expressive writing paradigm in the context of interpersonal communication between friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig Kellas, Jody; Horstman, Haley Kranstuber; Willer, Erin K; Carr, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The overarching goal of the current study was to determine the impact of talking interpersonally over time on emerging adults' individual and relational health. Using an expressive writing study design (see Frattaroli, 2006), we assessed the degree to which psychological health improved over time for college students who told and listened to stories about friends' current difficulties in comparison with tellers in control conditions. We also investigated the effects on tellers' and listeners' perceptions of each other's communication competence, communicated perspective-taking, and the degree to which each threatened the other's face during the interaction over time to better understand the interpersonal communication complexities associated with talking about difficulty over time. After completing prestudy questionnaires, 49 friend pairs engaged in three interpersonal interactions over the course of 1 week wherein one talked about and one listened to a story of difficulty (treatment) or daily events (control). All participants completed a poststudy questionnaire 3 weeks later. Tellers' negative affect decreased over time for participants exposed to the treatment group, although life satisfaction increased and positive affect decreased across time for participants regardless of condition. Perceptions of friends' communication abilities decreased significantly over time for tellers. The current study contributes to the literature on expressive writing and social support by shedding light on the interpersonal implications of talking about difficulty, the often-overlooked effects of disclosure on listeners, and the health effects of talking about problems on college students' health.

  14. Understanding Reading and Reading Difficulties Through Naming Speed Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Z. Al Dahhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although reading is an important and generative skill, it remains controversial how reading skills and reading difficulties develop. Currently, the fields of neuroscience, cognition, and education each have complex models to describe reading and elucidate where in the reading process deficits occur. We suggest that integrating the neural, cognitive, and educational accounts of reading offers the promise of transformative change in understanding reading development and reading difficulties. As a starting point for bridging the gaps among these fields, we used naming speed tasks as the basis for this review because they provide a “microcosm” of the processes involved during reading. We use naming speed tasks to investigate how incorporating cognitive psychology with neuroimaging techniques, under the guidance of educational theories, can further the understanding of learning and instruction, and may lead to the identification of the neural signatures of reading difficulties that might be hidden from view earlier in development.

  15. Difficulties in emotion regulation and risky driving among Lithuanian drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šeibokaitė, Laura; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Sullman, Mark J M; Markšaitytė, Rasa; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina

    2017-10-03

    Risky driving is a common cause of traffic accidents and injuries. However, there is no clear evidence of how difficulties in emotion regulation contribute to risky driving behavior, particularly in small post-Soviet countries. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between difficulties in emotion regulation and self-reported risky driving behavior in a sample of Lithuanian drivers. A total of 246 nonprofessional Lithuanian drivers participated in a cross-sectional survey. Difficulties in emotion regulation were assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer 2004), and risky driving behavior was assessed using the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ; Lajunen et al. 2004). Males scored higher than females in aggressive violations and ordinary violations. Females scored higher for the nonacceptance of emotional responses, whereas males had more difficulties with emotional awareness than females. More difficulties in emotion regulation were positively correlated with driving errors, lapses, aggressive violations, and ordinary violations for both males and females. Structural equation modeling showed that difficulties in emotion regulation explained aggressive and ordinary violations more clearly than lapses and errors. When controlling for interactions among the distinct regulation difficulties, difficulties with impulse control and difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior predicted risky driving. Furthermore, nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation strategies were related to less violations and more driving errors. Emotion regulation difficulties were associated with the self-reported risky driving behaviors of Lithuanian drivers. This provides useful hints for improving driver training programs in order to prevent traffic injuries.

  16. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  17. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; McMillan, Susan C

    2016-11-02

    Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping), and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning), behavioral (pain-related distress), and demographic characteristics. Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  18. Psychological well-being in women with Turner syndrome: somatic and social correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, U Wide; Bryman, I; Möller, A

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to examine possible somatic and social correlates to psychological well-being in adult women with Turner Syndrome (TS), including hormone replacement treatment Sixty-three women with a diagnosis of TS (mean age, 31.5 years) participated in a cross-sectional study, using interview data, ratings on the Psychological General Well-being (PGWB) Index, and data from medical examinations and medical records. Statistical analysis was performed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Lack of sex hormones during adult life and the presence of hearing impairment were related to lower psychological well-being, as were higher age at diagnosis, higher age at menarche or induced bleeding, higher chronological age and retrospectively reported difficulties with school subjects. Age at diagnosis and difficulties with school subjects explained 25% of the variation in psychological well-being. This study has identified some correlates to psychological well-being in women with TS, which are important when considering the clinical management of adult women with TS.

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder in an Intermediate Psychological Therapies Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Seamus; Danquah, Adam N.; Berry, Katherine; Hopper, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The intermediate psychological therapies service is provided for individuals referred with common mental health problems within the primary care psychological therapies service, but whose difficulties are longstanding and/or complex. The prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in intermediate psychological therapy services has not been…

  20. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  1. "Project Psychology": A Classroom Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Bethany K. B.; Hussey, Heather D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an original and unique series of classroom group-work activities organized as a competitive game called "Project Psychology," which was implemented in an Introduction to Psychology course. The project goals included increasing student participation, interest, content comprehension, and motivation. Fostering…

  2. Pediatric nurses' ethical difficulties in the bedside care of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwisoon; Kim, Yoonjung; Yang, Yoonseo

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric nurses experience ethically difficult situations in their everyday work. Several studies have been conducted to reveal ethical issues among pediatric nurses; we do not think their ethical difficulties have been explored sufficiently from their own perspective. This study aimed to explore the ethical difficulties faced by pediatric nurses during bedside care for hospitalized children. A phenomenological approach was used to collect and analyze interview data from 14 female pediatric nurses in South Korea. Ethical considerations: Ethical review was obtained from an ethics committee. The participants were informed about the aim of the study, and voluntary participation, anonymous response, and confidentiality were explained to them. Three themes emerged from the analysis: ethical numbness in a task-oriented context, negative feelings toward family caregivers, and difficulty in expressing oneself in an authoritative climate. We need to develop strategies to manage ethical difficulties at an institutional level. Furthermore, it is important that pediatric nurses have the opportunity to communicate with fellow nurses and other medical staff regarding ethical difficulties. In addition, cultivation of pediatric nurses' moral, ethical, and philosophical thinking patterns requires the immediate provision of continuous education in nursing ethics at the site of clinical nursing, time to discuss ethical difficulties, and other supportive measures. Findings indicated that, to provide high-quality patient-centered care, we should enhance nurses' ethical sensitivity and autonomy and improve the ethical climate in hospitals.

  3. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  4. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  5. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  6. Early adult outcomes for Irish children with behavioural difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Anne; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of Irish children and, to date, no studies reporting long-term outcome for those with behavioural disorder in childhood. This paper describes psychological and educational outcomes for a group of Irish children initially assessed at age 11 years and re-examined 10 years later. The period during which the research was conducted coincided with a time of increasing wealth in Ireland and the consequent development of psychological and educational services. To follow up and assess psychological and educational outcomes for a group of young people aged 21 years, half of whom had high levels of behavioural problems at age 11. Data were gathered at two time points for 97 children and their families. Childhood measures included psychological and behavioural functioning, IQ, family background and economic circumstances. Outcome measures assessed in young adulthood included psychological functioning, educational attainment and trouble with the law. Behavioural deviance at age 11 was found to be highly predictive of negative outcomes in early adulthood including a greater likelihood of involvement in criminal activity and less educational success. The likelihood of educational failure increased with the accumulation of risk factors including economic disadvantage and low IQ. These findings, supported in other international studies, underline the importance of behavioural difficulties in childhood for adult outcome, even in an environment of greater service and educational opportunities and access.

  7. Physiological Signal Analysis for Evaluating Flow during Playing of Computer Games of Varying Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Flow is the experience of effortless attention, reduced self-consciousness, and a deep sense of control that typically occurs during the optimal performance of challenging tasks. On the basis of the person–artifact–task model, we selected computer games (tasks with varying levels of difficulty (difficult, medium, and easy and shyness (personality as flow precursors to study the physiological activity of users in a flow state. Cardiac and respiratory activity and mean changes in skin conductance (SC were measured continuously while the participants (n = 40 played the games. Moreover, the associations between self-reported psychological flow and physiological measures were investigated through a series of repeated-measures analyses. The results showed that the flow experience is related to a faster respiratory rate, deeper respiration, moderate heart rate (HR, moderate HR variability, and moderate SC. The main effect of shyness was non-significant, whereas the interaction of shyness and difficulty influenced the flow experience. These findings are discussed in relation to current models of arousal and valence. The results indicate that the flow state is a state of moderate mental effort that arises through the increased parasympathetic modulation of sympathetic activity.

  8. Physiological Signal Analysis for Evaluating Flow during Playing of Computer Games of Varying Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Bian, Yulong; Han, Piguo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang; Chen, Yingmin

    2017-01-01

    Flow is the experience of effortless attention, reduced self-consciousness, and a deep sense of control that typically occurs during the optimal performance of challenging tasks. On the basis of the person-artifact-task model, we selected computer games (tasks) with varying levels of difficulty (difficult, medium, and easy) and shyness (personality) as flow precursors to study the physiological activity of users in a flow state. Cardiac and respiratory activity and mean changes in skin conductance (SC) were measured continuously while the participants (n = 40) played the games. Moreover, the associations between self-reported psychological flow and physiological measures were investigated through a series of repeated-measures analyses. The results showed that the flow experience is related to a faster respiratory rate, deeper respiration, moderate heart rate (HR), moderate HR variability, and moderate SC. The main effect of shyness was non-significant, whereas the interaction of shyness and difficulty influenced the flow experience. These findings are discussed in relation to current models of arousal and valence. The results indicate that the flow state is a state of moderate mental effort that arises through the increased parasympathetic modulation of sympathetic activity.

  9. Ghosts, Troubles, Difficulties, and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    not consider ‘ghosts’ or ‘haunting’ as a possible explanation. This causes difficulties when they narrate and contextualise their experience, and typically they present ambiguous narratives and stress their disbelief at and bewilderment with the experiences. Still, as I will try to show in my article......, their bewilderment and the way they use the notions ‘ghost’ and ‘haunting’ point to possible reinterpretations of these notions, so that the narrative mediation shapes not only the experience but also the ways that ‘ghosts’ and ‘haunting’ are reinterpreted in contemporary Denmark....

  10. Evaluation and treatment of students with difficulties passing the Step examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatsch, Linda

    2009-05-01

    The author designed this retrospective case series study both to systematically examine characteristics of individuals referred for treatment after multiple failures on the United States Medical Licensing Examinations (USMLE) Step 1 or 2 administered by the National Board of Medical Examiners and to evaluate treatment effectiveness in a uniform sample. Six medical students referred to rehabilitation psychology met selection criteria. All students completed the requisite neuropsychological, academic, and psychological testing to identify cognitive and emotional strengths and weaknesses. All six underwent individualized cognitive rehabilitation (CR) with a primary focus on reading fluency and accuracy. All participants improved on a quantitative measure of reading speed and accuracy, and five of the six passed their next USLME Step examination in spite of past failures. Medical students with identified difficulties on reading fluency, but no history of a learning disability, may benefit from systematic CR that addresses cognitive weaknesses related to test-taking abilities. The strong relationships between language and reading skills and the USMLE Step examinations suggest that some students may fail these examinations because of a relative weakness in language processing and reading fluency that may prohibit their successful completion of the Step examinations.

  11. Control and resistance in the psychology of lying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    Psychology's obsession with control, with manipulating the experimental situation and the behavior of participants, has often been criticized. Mainstream, experimental psychology, it is said, abuses its power in the laboratory to artificially create docile participants who fit its experimental

  12. Psychological Distress and Revictimization Risk in Youth Victims of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Samantha L; Schreier, Alayna; Meidlinger, Katie; Pogue, Jessica K; Theimer, Kate; Flood, Mary Fran; Hansen, David J

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, has been associated with increased risk for sexual revictimization in youth who have experienced child sexual abuse. The present study utilized assessment information from treatment seeking youth with histories of sexual abuse to explore specific risk indicators for revictimization-risk taking, social problems, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress-that may be indicated by self-reported distress. The relationship between initial levels of distress and change in symptoms over a 12-week course of treatment was also explored. Participants were 101 youth referred to a child-focused therapeutic group for victims of sexual abuse, 65 youth referred to an adolescent-focused group, and their non-offending caregivers. Results revealed that when combined into a distress score, depression and anxiety were associated with delinquent behaviors, interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress symptoms for child and adolescent group participants at presentation to treatment. Children exhibited improvement on measures of interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Adolescents exhibited less change over time, with significant improvement on self-reported social problems and PTSD only. Higher psychological distress was associated with less improvement in regard to negative expectations of abuse impact for child group participants. The findings suggest that distress indicates the presence of specific revictimization risk indicators, helping to identify targetable symptoms for intervention. Therefore, screening for psychological distress after discovery of sexual abuse may help detect youth at higher risk for revictimization and guide treatment.

  13. EXPLORING EFL LEARNERS’ DIFFICULTIES IN THE PRODUCTIVE SKILLS: THE CASE OF FIRST-YEAR LMD STUDENTS AT TLEMCEN UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    SAF, Salima; OUAHHOUD, Zahira Board

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to shed the light on the linguistic and the psychological reasons behind first-year EFL learners’ weaknesses and difficulties in producing the English language at the Department of English in Tlemcen University. This leads to ask the following research questions:  What are the linguistic factors which cause students difficulties ?  What are the psychological variables that influence the students’ speaking skill ? Two hypotheses were ...

  14. Emotion regulation and psychological problems among Indian college youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T P Lavanya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Study of emotion regulation strategies used by youth becomes necessary in the background of the high prevalence of emotional disorders in this population. This study examined emotion regulation and psychological problems among college youth as well as the relationship between the two. Methodology: Four hundred and nineteen students, who were divided into two groups (older adolescents, aged 16-17 years - group 1, n = 217; young adults aged 18-25 years - group 2, n = 202 participated in this exploratory study. Results: Predominantly positive emotion regulation strategies were used by group 1 (positive refocusing, refocus on planning, and positive reappraisal, respectively. The sample as a whole used more positive strategies (positive refocusing: 82% and 64% and refocus on planning: 93% and 87% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Significant correlations between emotion regulation strategies (CERQ and psychological problems (YSR/YASR were found, thereby indicating that negative emotion regulation strategies were associated with psychological problems and vice versa. Females were found to have more of anxiety problems as opposed to males with more of conduct problems. However with increase in age, increase in the percentage of psychological problems and usage of negative emotion regulation strategies was observed. Conclusion: The findings of the present study contribute to understanding the patterns of emotion regulation in various emotional disorders. Findings could also contribute to developing an intervention program to help students having difficulty in regulation of their emotions.

  15. The grounded nature of psychological perspective-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erle, Thorsten M; Topolinski, Sascha

    2017-05-01

    Psychological perspective-taking is a powerful social cognition that helps us to understand other people. It creates feelings of closeness and sympathy, motivates us to help others, and is important for positive social relationships. In contrast to the impressive knowledge about its consequences, relatively little is known about how exactly people achieve them. The present paper addresses this question from a grounded cognition perspective, drawing on recent findings on the embodiment of visuospatial perspective-taking. Visuospatial perspective-taking involves a mental transformation of one's body schema into the physical location of another person. We argue that when people psychologically "put themselves in another person's shoes," this simulation of physical proximity happens, too, and is one source of perceived closeness. In five experiments (total N = 1067), participants completed a visuospatial perspective-taking task. During half of the trials, angular disparity between the target person and the participant was high and participants had to adopt the target's visual perspective (which involves an embodied simulation). During the remaining trials, angular disparity was low and participants could solve the task egocentrically. Taking another's perspective led participants to adopt the thoughts of the target person more strongly (Experiments 1-3) and increased the perceived similarity of that person to the self (Experiment 4) and participants' liking of that person (Experiment 5). These effects were independent of task difficulty (Experiment 2), and only present during trials where an embodied transformation happened (i.e., at high angular disparities; Experiment 3). Implications for psychological and visuospatial perspective-taking research and related phenomena are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Psychological demands experienced by recreational endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify psychological demands that are commonly experienced by endurance athletes so that these demands could inform the design of performance-enhancement psychological interventions for endurance athletes. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 recreational endurance athletes of various sports (running, cycling, and triathlon), distances, and competitive levels to explore the psychological demands of training, competition preparation, and competition participation...

  17. Gifted Students' Characteristics, Persistence, and Difficulties in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejeros-Solar, M. Leonor; Gómez-Arízaga, María P.

    2015-01-01

    This study is about persistence and perceived difficulties of gifted students in college explored through sociodemographic and academic characteristics. Two hundred and nine nongifted and 45 gifted participated in the study. A persistence scale along with sociodemographic variables were used to compare both groups. The groups shared many…

  18. Improving Multiplication Strategic Development in Children with Math Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dake; Xin, Yan Ping; Harris, Karleah; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a strategic training program for improving students' performance in solving multiplication problems. The participants were 3 third graders with math difficulties. In this teaching experiment, microgenetic analysis was used to analyze improvement in students' strategic development…

  19. Hazardous alcohol use and intimate partner aggression among dating couples: the role of impulse control difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laura E; Maldonado, Rosalita C; DiLillo, David

    2014-01-01

    To date, research identifying moderators of the alcohol-intimate partner aggression (IPA) relationship has focused almost exclusively on male-perpetrated aggression, without accounting for the dyadic processes of IPA. The current study examined hazardous alcohol use and impulse control difficulties as predictors of IPA among a sample of 73 heterosexual dating couples. Both actor and partner effects of these risk factors on physical and psychological aggression were examined. Results indicated that impulse control difficulties were an important actor and partner predictor of both physical and psychological aggression. Findings supported the multiple threshold model such that the interaction between impulse control difficulties and hazardous alcohol use significantly predicted physical aggression severity. These results suggest the importance of targeting impulse control difficulties and hazardous alcohol use in IPA treatment, as well as the advantages of examining risk factors of IPA within a dyadic rather than individual framework. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Return to sport matters-longer-term quality of life after ACL reconstruction in people with knee difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbay, S R; Ackerman, I N; Russell, T G; Crossley, K M

    2017-05-01

    Many individuals experience long-term quality of life (QOL) impairment following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Factors contributing to poor QOL and psychological health >5 years after ACLR remain unclear. This study aimed to describe QOL and psychological health outcomes in people with knee difficulties (pain, symptoms, or functional limitations) 5-20 years following ACLR and identify factors explaining variability in these outcomes. Participants with knee difficulties 5-20 years following ACLR completed a battery of validated patient-reported outcomes [including the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), ACL-QOL, and the Assessment of QOL (AQoL-8D) instrument]. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify factors explaining variability in outcomes. One hundred sixty-two participants aged 38 ± 9 (mean ± SD) years completed questionnaires 9 ± 4 (range 5-20) years following ACLR. Thirty-nine percent of participants returned to competitive sport, 28% returned to a lower level, and 32% did not return to sport after ACLR. Not returning to sport after ACLR was associated with worse KOOS-QOL (β = 0.29, P = 0.001 [mean ± SD (55 ± 20)], ACL-QOL [β = 0.48, P < 0.001; (57 ± 21)], and AQoL-8D [β = 0.22, P = 0.02 (0.80 ± 0.14)]) scores. Increased body mass index (56% were overweight/obese) was related to worse QOL and more depressive symptoms. Subsequent knee surgery and contralateral ACLR were also associated with poorer QOL outcomes in these individuals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Psychology of male and female communicative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyura, Svetlana A

    2008-05-01

    The article features a brief overview of theoretical and empirical studies in communication psychology and sociability of men and women, boys and girls. Russian and foreign studies are summarized to point out that girls and women place greater emphasis on communication and interpersonal relations than do boys and men. Moreover, female communication is more emotional. The article presents the results of the author's own empirical study of male and female communicative activity. Communicative activity is viewed as a complex psychological phenomenon, a degree of the subject's willingness to interact. Communicative activity was studied with the test proposed by the Russian psychologist, Krupnov, and designed to detect the following components of communicative activity: dynamic (natural), emotional, motivational, cognitive, regulatory, productive, and two sorts of communication difficulties (operational and personal). Gender differences in communicative activity are shown on a sample of 480 participants aged 18-40 (240 men and 240 women). The article then describes communicative styles of adolescents (130 boys and 130 girls, aged 19-24). Various communicative styles are featured, including "energetic, businesslike," "conformal, emotional," "diplomatic, externally oriented" for boys and "energetic, sociable," "emotional, difficult," and "complaisant, expressive" for girls. Every person's individuality and gender identity are shown to impact their communicative style.

  2. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  3. Symptoms of emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties in the danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes--results of a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene J Kristensen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychological difficulties in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes using both child/adolescent and caregiver reports, and to investigate associations between these symptoms and metabolic control, adherence, and quality of life. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: A total of 786 children and adolescents (8-17 years recruited through the Danish Registry of Childhood Diabetes completed subscales of the Beck's Youth Inventories (BYI-Y, while 910 caregivers completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The participants also completed questionnaires assessing adherence and quality of life. BYI-Y and SDQ responses were compared with results from normative samples. RESULTS: Children with diabetes generally reported a lower level of symptoms of depression and anxiety, while older adolescents in most cases were comparable to the normative samples. However, the numbers of patients with elevated scores were similar to normative groups, especially regarding the proportion of participants with 'Extremely elevated' scores. Caregivers of children and adolescents with diabetes generally reported the prevalence of elevated scores on the SDQ to exceed the prevalence observed in the norm sample--particularly with regard to older boys. Both BYI-Y and SDQ responses were significantly correlated with HbA1c, adherence, and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: This study finds Danish children and adolescents with diabetes to report lower or comparable levels of emotional difficulties compared to norms, while caregiver reports are less positive. The results therefore support the value of a multi-informant approach to the assessment of symptoms of psychological difficulty in girls and boys with diabetes.

  4. Psychological interventions for antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Simon; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance use, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. Objectives To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of psychological interventions for people with AsPD. Search methods Our search included CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, BIOSIS and COPAC. Selection criteria Prospective, controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a psychological intervention and a control condition (either treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment). Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies. Two authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Main results Eleven studies involving 471 participants with AsPD met the inclusion criteria, although data were available from only five studies involving 276 participants with AsPD. Only two studies focused solely on an AsPD sample. Eleven different psychological interventions were examined. Only two studies reported on reconviction, and only one on aggression. Compared to the control condition, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) plus standard maintenance was superior for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study, but CBT plus treatment as usual was not superior for male outpatients with recent verbal/physical violence in another. Contingency management plus standard maintenance was superior for drug misuse for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study but not in another, possibly because of differences in the behavioural intervention. However, contingency management was superior in social functioning and counselling session attendance in the latter. A multi-component intervention utilising motivational interviewing principles, the ‘Driving Whilst Intoxicated program’, plus

  5. Difficulties experienced by families following unsuccessful treatment of Pediculosis capitis: the mothers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ozlem; Sikar-Aktürk, Aysun; Mert, Kader; Bilen, Nilgün; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the psychological and social difficulties faced by primary school children and their families, particularly from the mothers' perspective, when treatment for Pediculosis capitis fails. This descriptive study comprised 14 mothers of 19 children in the primary school in Kocaeli. The children and families were infested with lice and nits and were unsuccessfully treated with pediculicides. Data were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire with in-depth individual interviews with a qualitative approach from mothers. Seven social difficulties were experienced by children and families during treatment from the mothers' perspective, lack of support from other family members; children's exposure to verbal and physical violence; exclusion from the school and society due to stigma; children's refusal to be treated; difficulties in the physical removal of the nits; inability to pay for the pediculicide; and inappropriate physical conditions of the house. Eight psychological difficulties were experienced by children and their families: worry, upheaval, embarrassment/shame, guilt, being overwhelmed, disgust, scorn and despair. Parents and children, whose treatment for Pediculosis capitis failed, experienced many psychological and social difficulties. Further studies should be conducted to determine the relation to pediculosis management and their difficulties of chidren and families from different socio-economic levels.

  6. Research in organizational participation and cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe; Jønsson, Thomas; Rasmussen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses some different perspectives on organizational participation and presents conducted and ongoing research projects by the research unit SPARK at Department of Psychology, University of Aarhus.......This article discusses some different perspectives on organizational participation and presents conducted and ongoing research projects by the research unit SPARK at Department of Psychology, University of Aarhus....

  7. Fear of injury in gymnastics: self-efficacy and psychological strategies to keep on tumbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Melissa A; Magyar, Michelle T; Drake, Brent M

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine female gymnasts' fear of injury, their sources of self-efficacy and the psychological strategies used to overcome their fears. The participants were 10 female gymnasts aged 12 - 17 years. They had all taken part in competitive gymnastics and had experienced some type of injury during their careers. Individual interviews were conducted using a structured interview guide. Data were analysed using an inductive content analysis. The results indicated that gymnasts were most fearful of injuries because of the difficulty in returning from an injury and being unable to participate in practices and competitions while injured. Gymnasts described aspects of their past performance experience, such as success, consistency and communication with significant others, as important sources of self-efficacy. Some examples of psychological strategies used to overcome their fear of injury were mental preparation (e.g. imagery, relaxation), just "going for a skill" and the coaches' influence.

  8. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  9. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Psychological and psychopathological factors in alopecia areata

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Kuty-Pachecka

    2015-01-01

    The problems of mental disorders and psychological aspects in the condition referred to as alopecia areata in the Polish context are not well researched yet. The objective of our analyses is to present the results of the review of literature devoted to the occurrence of mental disorders and the participation of psychological factors in the aetiology of alopecia areata. Preparing the review of the research conducted hitherto and concerning the participation of psychological factors in the path...

  11. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  12. Psychological intervention following implantation of an implantable defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van den Broek, Krista C; Sears, Samuel F

    2007-01-01

    The medical benefits of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are unequivocal, but a subgroup of patients experiences emotional difficulties following implantation. For this subgroup, some form of psychological intervention may be warranted. This review provides an overview of current...

  13. Psychological stress and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...

  14. Impact on Children's Psychological Functioning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participants in the experimental group were recruited from communities facing living space and personal privacy challenges, while the participants in the comparison group came from privileged communities with relatively adequate living space. The children's psychological functioning dimensions measured were ...

  15. Psychology, economics and incentives.

    OpenAIRE

    Biel, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    This PhD. Thesis deals with the effects that psychological phenomena may have on the incentives of agents participating in economic interaction. In particular, I focus on how individuals' preference for certain distributions of welfare among others may affect their effort and other strategic decisions in a variety of contexts. The thesis consists of five chapters. The first one introduces the study. The next two chapters are theoretical and study the effects that aversion to inequity may have...

  16. Divided attention: an undesirable difficulty in memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold

    2013-10-01

    How can we improve memory retention? A large body of research has suggested that difficulty encountered during learning, such as when practice sessions are distributed rather than massed, can enhance later memory performance (see R. A. Bjork & E. L. Bjork, 1992). Here, we investigated whether divided attention during retrieval practice can also constitute a desirable difficulty. Following two initial study phases and one test phase with Swahili-English word pairs (e.g., vuvi-snake), we manipulated whether items were tested again under full or divided attention. Two days later, participants were brought back for a final cued-recall test (e.g., vuvi-?). Across three experiments (combined N = 122), we found no evidence that dividing attention while practicing retrieval enhances memory retention. This finding raises the question of why many types of difficulty during practice do improve long-term retention, but dividing attention does not.

  17. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....

  18. Leveraging Social Capital of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities through Participation on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

    2018-01-01

    Participation in social networking sites has considerable potential to leverage the individual's social capital, including persons with intellectual disabilities, whose real-world social networks are fairly limited. This study aimed to understand how individuals with intellectual disabilities use Facebook to access social capital benefits, if at all. Qualitative interviews and observations were conducted with 20 adult Facebook users with intellectual disabilities. The online participation enhanced their bonding social capital as well as contributed to their psychological well-being through increasing their online visibility, popularity and sense of belonging. At the same time, they experienced stress and frustration due to usage difficulties, which prevented them from enhancing their bridging social capital. Participation in social networking sites may also leverage bridging social capital of persons with intellectual disabilities, but they need a more accessible platform and ongoing support to ensure safe and fruitful participation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  20. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  1. Visual difficulty and employment status in the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Harrabi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to examine the relationship between visual difficulty and employment status. METHODS: The World Health Survey was conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Far vision was assessed by asking about the level of difficulty in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road (i.e. from a distance of about 20 meters. Responses included none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme/unable. Participants were asked about their current job, and if they were not working, the reason why (unable to find job, ill health, homemaker, studies, unpaid work, other. The occupation in the last 12 months was obtained. Multinomial regression was used accounting for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Of those who wanted to work, 79% of those with severe visual difficulty and 64% of those with extreme visual difficulty were actually working. People who had moderate, severe, or extreme visual difficulty had a higher odds of not working due to an inability to find a job and of not working due to ill health after adjusting for demographic and health factors (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: As the major causes of visual impairment in the world are uncorrected refractive error and cataract, countries are losing a great deal of labor productivity by failing to provide for the vision health needs of their citizens and failing to help them integrate into the workforce.

  2. Redintegration, task difficulty, and immediate serial recall tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Gabrielle; Tolan, Georgina Anne; Tehan, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    While current theoretical models remain somewhat inconclusive in their explanation of short-term memory (STM), many theories suggest at least a contribution of long-term memory (LTM) to the short-term system. A number of researchers refer to this process as redintegration (e.g., Schweickert, 1993). Under short-term recall conditions, the current study investigated the effects of redintegration and task difficulty in order to extend research conducted by Neale and Tehan (2007). Thirty participants in Experiment 1 and 26 participants in Experiment 2 completed a serial recall task in which retention interval, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression were used to modify task difficulty. Redintegration was examined by manipulating the characteristics of the to-be-remembered items; lexicality in Experiment 1 and wordlikeness in Experiment 2. Responses were scored based on correct-in-position recall, item scoring, and order accuracy scoring. In line with the Neale and Tehan results, as the difficulty of the task increased so did the effects of redintegration. This was evident in that the advantage for words in Experiment 1 and wordlikeness in Experiment 2 decreased as task difficulty increased. This relationship was observed for item but not order memory, and findings were discussed in relation to the theory of redintegration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Does psychological adjustment of melanoma survivors differs between genders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama-Raz, Y

    2012-03-01

    Survival rates of cancer have significantly increased. However, cancer survivors face physical, psychological and social difficulties, while adjusting to post-illness status. We examined between-gender differences in the psychological adjustment (mental well-being, distress and subjective level of functioning), the putative origin of those differences, and the roles of cognitive appraisal, hardiness and attachment style in the psychological adjustment of melanoma survivors.   Our sample included 300 malignant melanoma survivors (182 women and 118 men). Most were diagnosed in stages IA and IB of the disease, and had no evidence of disease for 5 years or more. Participants completed self-report questionnaires regarding personal data, adjustment measured by sense of well-being, distress and subjective functioning, cognitive appraisal (primary and secondary) and personal resources (hardiness and attachment style).   Between-gender differences were revealed in psychological adjustment and in various components of cognitive appraisal and attachment styles. Women revealed more distress, less secondary cognitive appraisal and were more secure in attachment styles. Men showed higher secondary appraisal and were more dismissing-avoidant in attachment. No between-group differences were found in mental well-being, subjective functioning, and primary cognitive appraisal or in the global measure of hardiness.   We present social processes that seem to account for gender differences in behavior and response to stress, and psychological explanations for these findings. This study contributes to the field of psycho-oncology by identifying factors that promote adjustment among melanoma survivors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Conceptualizing Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne

    Although participation is not a new issue, it would be fair to say that consequential participation, which implies young people engaging in meaningful dialogue with adults and institutions and influencing decision-making processes in matters that concern them, is still in its infancy. This document...... aims to set the scene for discussing young people's participation in different domains that have an impact on their lives. It outlines the meaning and different interpretations of the concept of "participation" before reviewing why participation is an important issue in relation to young people...... and society. It then describes different forms, modes or qualities of participation and proposes a specific model of facilitating participatory work with young people - the IVAC approach (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change). The concept of action, types of actions aimed at initiating change and corresponding...

  5. SCHOOL DIFFICULTIES IN CABINDA/ANGOLA: WHAT DO MONOGRAPHS SAY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Canhici

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed two monographs of Pedagogy and Psychology, from ISCED/UON/Cabinda/Angola. The study was based on the Historical - Cultural perspective of Vygotsky articulated with Bakhtin's concept of speech genre. In these monographs we find a variety of senses and meanings. These senses and meanings appear as synonyms for poor school performance, school failure, learning difficulties. However, despite this diversity, we find as a common denominator the view that the difficulties are individual and from a biological background. They are located on students and their families. Thus, schooling processes in these schools in Cabinda, although they include students in schools, they also walk towards the exclusion of the same students, which tells us that the difficulties are not necessarily in learning, but in this exclusionary process of schooling. For monographs also point out the precarious working conditions of schools and teacher training, in addition to the linguistic differences between the local language and Portuguese – the language that is spoken and written in schools - as factors contributing to the exclusion of many of the students. This reveals the double face of modernity: on the one hand it includes students within schools, on the other, excludes them from the teaching-learning processes when sociocultural differences are expressed. Through our analysis we realized that in schools in Cabinda, as in many schools in Brazil, reading, writing and mathematics are taught as individual skills acquisitions and not as human activities as taught in Vygotsky.

  6. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  7. The Role of Materialism on Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties for British Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Pam; Moon, Amy; Gupta, Taveeshi; Gridley, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between materialism and social-emotional behavioural difficulties (SEBDs) was assessed by comparing a sample of adolescents receiving in-school behavioural support with adolescents not receiving any support. All participants completed the Youth Materialism Scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary logistic…

  8. Authoring Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Papazu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Samsø, Denmark's Renewable Energy Island since 1997, is world renowned for being self-sufficient in renewable energy and for having achieved energy self-sufficiency and CO2 neutrality through successful processes of public participation. In this article I seek to show how these processes of public participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear. By turning to material participation, a concept inspired by Noortje Marres and Jennifer Gabrys, the efforts put into Samsø’s energy transformation by the islanders are given specificity. While much literature on public participation foregrounds public meetings and other spaces for deliberation and debate, material participation locates participation in everyday practice and work. On Samsø, the islanders’ participation was not an add-on to the project, it was an indispensable resource in itself. Building on extensive fieldwork I analyse how the islanders came to invest their time and resources in the Renewable Energy Island project, highlighting how, by materializing energy in concrete, local projects, energy and climate change-related projects can gain community-strengthening potentialities reaching beyond goals of energy self-sufficiency.

  9. Authoring Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Samsø, Denmark's Renewable Energy Island since 1997, is world renowned for being self-sufficient in renewable energy and for having achieved energy self-sufficiency and CO2 neutrality through successful processes of public participation. In this article I seek to show how these processes of public...... participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear....... By turning to material participation, a concept inspired by Noortje Marres and Jennifer Gabrys, the efforts put into Samsø’s energy transformation by the islanders are given specificity. While much literature on public participation foregrounds public meetings and other spaces for deliberation and debate...

  10. Activities for Teaching Positive Psychology: A Guide for Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…

  11. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  12. New Parents' Psychological Adjustment and Trajectories of Early Parental Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Kotila, Letitia E; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2016-02-01

    Trajectories of parental involvement time (engagement and child care) across 3, 6, and 9 months postpartum and associations with parents' own and their partners' psychological adjustment (dysphoria, anxiety, and empathic personal distress) were examined using a sample of dual-earner couples experiencing first-time parenthood (N = 182 couples). Using time diary measures that captured intensive parenting moments, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that patterns of associations between psychological adjustment and parental involvement time depended on the parenting domain, aspect of psychological adjustment, and parent gender. Psychological adjustment difficulties tended to bias the 2-parent system toward a gendered pattern of "mother step in" and "father step out," as father involvement tended to decrease, and mother involvement either remained unchanged or increased, in response to their own and their partners' psychological adjustment difficulties. In contrast, few significant effects were found in models using parental involvement to predict psychological adjustment.

  13. New Parents’ Psychological Adjustment and Trajectories of Early Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Kotila, Letitia E.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Trajectories of parental involvement time (engagement and child care) across 3, 6, and 9 months postpartum and associations with parents’ own and their partners’ psychological adjustment (dysphoria, anxiety, and empathic personal distress) were examined using a sample of dual-earner couples experiencing first-time parenthood (N = 182 couples). Using time diary measures that captured intensive parenting moments, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that patterns of associations between psychological adjustment and parental involvement time depended on the parenting domain, aspect of psychological adjustment, and parent gender. Psychological adjustment difficulties tended to bias the 2-parent system toward a gendered pattern of “mother step in” and “father step out,” as father involvement tended to decrease, and mother involvement either remained unchanged or increased, in response to their own and their partners’ psychological adjustment difficulties. In contrast, few significant effects were found in models using parental involvement to predict psychological adjustment. PMID:27397935

  14. Oversimplifying Evolutionary Psychology Leads to Explanatory Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Chuck; Ledbetter, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on Evolutionary psychology: Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations by Confer et al. They argued that SST cannot explain the existence of either homosexuality or suicide within the human species. We contend that a sufficiently nuanced evolutionary position has no difficulties explaining either phenomenon. Also in this…

  15. "I Want to Feel Like a Full Man": Conceptualizing Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men's Sexual Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Lorraine K; Nielsen, Elly-Jean; McDermott, Daragh T; Davies, Nathan; Morrison, Todd G

    2017-12-20

    Current understandings of sexual difficulties originate from a model that is based on the study of heterosexual men and women. Most research has focused on sexual difficulties experienced by heterosexual men incapable of engaging in vaginal penetration. To better understand men's perceptions and experiences of sexual difficulties, seven focus groups and 29 individual interviews were conducted with gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 5), and heterosexual (n = 25) men. In addition, the extent to which difficulties reported by gay and bisexual men differ from heterosexual men was explored. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis applying an inductive approach. Two intercorrelated conceptualizations were identified: penis function (themes: medicalization, masculine identity, psychological consequences, coping mechanisms) and pain (themes: penile pain, pain during receptive anal sex). For the most part, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men reported similar sexual difficulties; differences were evident regarding alternative masculinity, penis size competition, and pain during receptive anal sex. The results of this study demonstrate the complexity of men's sexual difficulties and the important role of sociocultural, interpersonal, and psychological factors. Limitations and suggested directions for future research are outlined.

  16. A preliminary study of the psychological differences in infertile couples and their relation to the coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ramli; Ramli, Roszaman; Yazmie, Abdul Wahab Azantee; Khadijah, Mohd Bustaman Siti; Hayati, Mohd Yatim; Midin, Marhani; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Das, Srijit; Sidi, Hatta; Ravindran, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Studies from Western countries have observed that couples undergoing infertility treatment suffer various physical and psychological difficulties at a higher frequency than the comparable general population. These relate to treatment challenges and other psychosocial stressors, often influenced by coping style, personality factors and available support systems. There is paucity of studies in non-Western populations. The aim of this pilot investigation was to evaluate characteristics and gender differences in perceived psychological difficulties reported by infertile Malaysian couples. In particular, depression, anxiety and stress, along with correlated coping styles, were examined between spouses. Demographic information, including age, ethnicity and duration and causes of infertility, were collected from participants treated within a fertility clinic. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation (CISS) were completed to measure psychological distress and coping styles. Depression, anxiety and stress-related difficulties were reported at significantly higher frequency by wives than husbands (pcoping styles between wives and husbands. However, emotional-oriented coping style was associated with significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress (pemotional coping style was associated with greater distress in both genders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  18. Defining Grammatical Difficulty: A Student Teacher Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous second language acquisition (SLA) researchers have tried to define grammatical difficulty in second and foreign language acquisition--often as part of an attempt to relate the efficacy of different types of instruction to the degree of difficulty of grammatical structures. The resulting proliferation of definitions and the lack of a…

  19. Parallel Processing and Sentence Comprehension Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Hale, John T.; Vasishth, Shravan; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    Eye fixation durations during normal reading correlate with processing difficulty, but the specific cognitive mechanisms reflected in these measures are not well understood. This study finds support in German readers' eye fixations for two distinct difficulty metrics: surprisal, which reflects the change in probabilities across syntactic analyses…

  20. Difficulty in Understanding Statistics: Medical Students' Perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: The study was conducted to examine the characteristics of medical students vis-à-vis difficulty in understanding statistics and to explore the perceived causes of this difficulty among those affected. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional questionnairebased survey, 293 consenting final year medical students ...

  1. Sleep Difficulties in Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Henry S.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Bodnar, Laura E.; Zimmerman, Kerri L.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature on the occurrence of sleep disorders in children with developmental disabilities. Various assessment and treatment strategies for sleep difficulties are examined and issues are discussed that may influence treatment development as well as the best practices for addressing sleep difficulties. (Contains…

  2. Postoperative Feeding Difficulties after Repair of Congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, 24 (37.5%) developed feeding difficulties in the immediate post operative period. The causes of the feeding difficulties were Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) 9, Recurrent diaphragmatic hernia 8, Adhesive intestinal obstruction 4, Poor intestinal motility 2, Campylobacter enteritis, 1, Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, 1.

  3. Internal and External Difficulties in Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Jau Wei

    2012-01-01

    Certain difficulties pervade the course of moral education and in this essay a broad picture of these shall be sketched. Moral educators need to understand the problems they will face if they intend to enhance their performance; this includes knowing the limits of moral education, and not going beyond their capacities. These difficulties may be…

  4. Preterm Birth and Leisure Participation: A Synthesis of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Mazer, Barbara; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Leisure participation has been associated with happiness and well-being in children. Individuals born preterm are at greater risk for motor, cognitive and behavioral difficulties which may contribute to difficulties participating in leisure activities. This systematic review examined the current knowledge on participation in leisure activities in…

  5. Stress and suicidal ideation among adolescents having academic difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Arun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with students having academic difficulty on stress and suicidal ideas. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 75 academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with 105 students with academic difficulty and 52 students with specific learning disability (SLD. Academic functioning was assessed using teacher's screening instrument, intelligence quotient, and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences index for SLD. Stress and suicidal ideas were assessed using general health questionnaire, suicide risk-11, and Mooney Problem Checklist (MPC. Appropriate statistical methods were applied. Results: Three groups were comparable on age, gender, mother's working status, being only child, nuclear family, self-reported academic decline, and type of school. About half of adolescents reported psychological problems on General Health Questionnaire (mean score >3 in all the groups. Academically typically achieving adolescents showed higher stressors in peer relationships, planning for future and suicidal ideation compared to adolescents with academic difficulty. Adolescents face stress regarding worry about examinations, family not understanding what child has to do in school, unfair tests, too much work in some subjects, afraid of failure in school work, not spending enough time in studies, parental expectations, wanting to be more popular, worried about a family member, planning for the future, and fear of the future. Significant positive correlation was seen between General Health Questionnaire scores and all four subscales of MPC. Suicidal ideas showed a negative correlation with MPC. Interpretations and Conclusions: Adolescents experience considerable stress in multiple areas irrespective of their academic ability and performance. Hence, assessment and management of stress among adolescents must extend beyond academic difficulties.

  6. Stress and suicidal ideation among adolescents having academic difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Priti; Garg, Rohit; Chavan, Bir Singh

    2017-01-01

    Academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with students having academic difficulty on stress and suicidal ideas. In a cross-sectional study, 75 academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with 105 students with academic difficulty and 52 students with specific learning disability (SLD). Academic functioning was assessed using teacher's screening instrument, intelligence quotient, and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences index for SLD. Stress and suicidal ideas were assessed using general health questionnaire, suicide risk-11, and Mooney Problem Checklist (MPC). Appropriate statistical methods were applied. Three groups were comparable on age, gender, mother's working status, being only child, nuclear family, self-reported academic decline, and type of school. About half of adolescents reported psychological problems on General Health Questionnaire (mean score >3 in all the groups). Academically typically achieving adolescents showed higher stressors in peer relationships, planning for future and suicidal ideation compared to adolescents with academic difficulty. Adolescents face stress regarding worry about examinations, family not understanding what child has to do in school, unfair tests, too much work in some subjects, afraid of failure in school work, not spending enough time in studies, parental expectations, wanting to be more popular, worried about a family member, planning for the future, and fear of the future. Significant positive correlation was seen between General Health Questionnaire scores and all four subscales of MPC. Suicidal ideas showed a negative correlation with MPC. Adolescents experience considerable stress in multiple areas irrespective of their academic ability and performance. Hence, assessment and management of stress among adolescents must extend beyond academic difficulties.

  7. Mediating effect of stress on the association between early trauma and psychological distress in Korean college students: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Noh, D; Park, S I

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? Despite the increase of studies into the predictors of psychological distress, few have attempted to address the mediation of stress in the relationship between early trauma and psychological distress. What does this paper add to existing knowledge? In this study, college students with trauma exposure before the age of 18 years reported high levels of college life stress and psychological distress. In addition, of the subcategories of early trauma, emotional abuse was most highly correlated with current stress and psychological distress. This paper confirmed the partial mediating effect of stress between early trauma and psychological distress among Korean college students. In other words, this study found a direct effect of early trauma on current psychological distress and an indirect effect of early trauma on psychological distress mediated through life stress. What are the implications for practice? Early trauma and stress should be considered when developing interventions for college students' mental health, although individuals with trauma exposure have difficulties disclosing their traumatic event. Therefore, we suggest that stress management may be easier to apply and more effective in promoting college students' mental health than trauma-focused interventions. Research has shown that early trauma and stress may affect current psychological distress. However, few studies have attempted to address the mediation of stress between early trauma and psychological distress. This cross-sectional observational study aimed to examine the mediating effects of stress on the association between early trauma and psychological distress in Korean college students. Participants included 216 college students (51.4% male) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing early trauma, college life stress, and psychological distress. Early trauma, stress, and psychological distress were significantly correlated. Of the subcategories of early

  8. Interpersonal relations in university: what do undergraduated students in Psychology think?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Benevides Soares

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Social relations at the university are important for adaptation, experience and academic results. This article aims to identify how college students perceive their experiences in interpersonal situations in academic space. We used focus group to collect the data and content analysis to categorize and analyze the speech of the students. Participants were 13 psychology students from a public university in Rio de Janeiro city. The results allowed the categorization of situations as easy and difficult. Concerning difficult situations, we perceived the students’ difficulties in dealing with interpersonal relationships. Regarding the teacher-student relationship, difficulties were identified with the teacher’s didactics. As situations listed as easy, we highlight the students who admire their teachers, the tolerance of differences, socialization, and acceptance to work with colleagues.

  9. The Prevalence and Determinants of Desire for and Use of Psychological Support in Patients With Low Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Bonnie A; Xie, Jing; Holloway, Edith E; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Keeffe, Jill E; Fenwick, Eva K; Rees, Gwyneth

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and determinants of desire for and use of psychological support in patients with low vision. The study was cross-sectional, utilizing telephone-administered interviews. Patients were recruited from Vision Australia and the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital with visual acuity of less than 6/12 in the better eye. Measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and Impact of Vision Impairment Questionnaire. Of the total 161 participants (mean ± SD, 69.94 ± 15.76 years; 67% female), 63% desired psychological support, but only 20% reported ever receiving this. Higher levels of depressive symptoms and poorer coping in relation to vision impairment were significantly associated with desire for psychological support. Younger age, experience/s of depression, and beliefs about depression and its treatment were associated with use of professional support. Many patients with low vision desired psychological support but were not receiving this, suggesting barriers to receipt of care. This highlights the need for early screening of emotional difficulties, depression education, and easy access to psychological support within low vision services.

  10. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  11. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  12. Expressive writing and the role of alexythimia as a dispositional deficit in self-disclosure and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, D; Velasco, C; González, J L

    1999-09-01

    Psychology students were randomly assigned to a condition in which they had to write for 20 min on 3 days or for 3 min on 1 day a factual description of disclosed traumas, undisclosed traumas, or recent social events. In the case of undisclosed traumatic events, intensive writing about these events showed a beneficial effect on affect and on the affective impact of remembering the event and appraisal. Participants who wrote briefly about an undisclosed traumatic event showed a more negative appraisal. Participants who wrote intensively about a traumatic event and had a dispositional deficit in self-disclosure, measured by a Toronto Alexithymia Scale subscale, showed a positive effect on self-reported measures of affect. Difficulty in describing feelings, an alexythimia dimension, correlated with psychological health problems, emotional inhibition, and a less introspective content of written essays about the emotional events.

  13. Challenging future, challenging past: the relationship of social integration and psychological impairment in traumatized refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthis Schick

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Refugees have been shown to present high prevalence rates of trauma-related mental disorders. Despite their psychological impairment, they are expected to meet high functional requirements in terms of social integration into, and financial independence from, the host society. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of mental health problems, post-migration living difficulties (PMLD, and social integration in a sample of 104 refugees seeking treatment for severe posttraumatic stress and comorbid symptoms in two outpatient clinics in Switzerland. Results: Despite an average time of residence in Switzerland of over 10 years, participants showed poor integration and a high number of PMLD. Integration difficulties were closely associated with psychological symptoms, but not with socio-demographic parameters such as education or visa status. Conclusions: Psychological impairment in treatment-seeking traumatized refugees is associated with poor integration. To foster social integration, it is crucial to better understand and address the specific needs of this highly vulnerable population.

  14. Metacognitive effects of initial question difficulty on subsequent memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansky, Ainat; Goldsmith, Morris

    2014-10-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether relative retrieval fluency (the relative ease or difficulty of answering questions from memory) would be translated, via metacognitive monitoring and control processes, into an overt effect on the controlled behavior-that is, the decision whether to answer a question or abstain. Before answering a target set of multiple-choice general-knowledge questions (intermediate-difficulty questions in Exp. 1, deceptive questions in Exp. 2), the participants first answered either a set of difficult questions or a set of easy questions. For each question, they provided a forced-report answer, followed by a subjective assessment of the likelihood that their answer was correct (confidence) and by a free-report control decision-whether or not to report the answer for a potential monetary bonus (or penalty). The participants' ability to answer the target questions (forced-report proportion correct) was unaffected by the initial question difficulty. However, a predicted metacognitive contrast effect was observed: When the target questions were preceded by a set of difficult rather than easy questions, the participants were more confident in their answers to the target questions, and hence were more likely to report them, thus increasing the quantity of freely reported correct information. The option of free report was more beneficial after initial question difficulty than after initial question ease, in terms of both the gain in accuracy (Exp. 2) and a smaller cost in quantity (Exps. 1 and 2). These results demonstrate that changes in subjective experience can influence metacognitive monitoring and control, thereby affecting free-report memory performance independently of forced-report performance.

  15. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  16. Mastoidectomy: anatomical parameters x surgical difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Júnior, Anastácio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lowered temporal meninges and/ or anterior sigmoid sinus are contiditions that can determine surgical difficulties in performing mastoidectomy. Objective: To correlate in the tomography the extent of the prolapse of the sigmoid sinus and of temporal meninges with the surgical difficulty in the mastoidectomy. Method: The tomographic measurements of prolapse sigmoid and of temporal meninges were correlated with the presence or non-presence of the surgical difficulty observed during the mastoidectomy procedure in patients with ostomatoiditis chronic (n=30. Form of study: Contemporary cohort transverse. Results: In 10 patients were observed surgical difficulty distributed as: due to prolapse of the sigmoid sinus (n = 2 or temporal meninges prolapse (n = 7 or both (n = 1. In patients in which the surgical difficulty was due to sigmoid sinus prolapse, the tomography distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm. In patients in which surgical difficulty was due to temporal meninges prolapse, the tomographic distance to the upper plane of the petrous bone was 7 mm. Conclusion: The computerized tomography distance between the temporal meninges and the upper plane of the petrous bone 7 mm and the distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm are predictive to the surgical difficulties to perform mastoidectomy.

  17. Can athletes benefit from difficulty? A systematic review of growth following adversity in competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Karen; Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David

    2017-01-01

    Research points to the notion that athletes have the potential to benefit from difficulty. This phenomenon-otherwise known as growth following adversity-has attracted increasing attention from sport psychology scholars. In this paper, we systematically review and synthesize the findings of studies in this area to better understand: (a) how growth has been conceptualized in competitive sport, (b) the theory underpinning the study of growth in sport performers, (c) the nature of research conducted in this area, and (d) the adversity- and growth-related experiences of competitive athletes. Following the application of inclusion criteria and methodological quality assessment, 17 studies were deemed suitable for inclusion in the systematic review. The findings of these studies are reviewed and synthesized in relation to study characteristics (viz. growth terminology, theoretical underpinning, study design, participant details, and data analysis), quality appraisal, adversity-related experiences (viz. negative events and experiences, and response to negative events and experiences), and growth-related experiences (viz. mechanisms of growth and indicators of growth). To facilitate understanding of growth following adversity in competitive sport, we address the definitions and theories that have informed the body of research, discuss the associated findings related to the adversity- and growth-related experiences of competitive athletes, and outline avenues for future research. It is hoped that this review and synthesis will facilitate understanding and inform practice in this area. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-Control of Task Difficulty during Training Enhances Motor Learning of a Complex Coincidence-Anticipation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Danna, Jeremy; Thon, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze the influence of self-controlled task difficulty on motor learning. Participants had to intercept three targets falling at different velocities by displacing a stylus above a digitizer. Task difficulty corresponded to racquet width. Half the participants (self-control condition) could choose the racquet…

  19. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON VIGOTSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Cenci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed, along the text, to bring a reflection upon learning difficulties based on Socio-Historical Theory, relating what is observed in schools to what has been discussed about learning difficulties and the theory proposed by Vygotsky in the early XX century. We understand that children enter school carrying experiences and knowledge from their cultural group and that school ignores such knowledge very often. Then, it is in such disengagement that emerges what we started to call learning difficulties. One cannot forget to see a child as a whole – a student is a social being constituted by culture, language and specific values to which one must be attentive.

  20. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Methods Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232 receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping, and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning, behavioral (pain-related distress, and demographic characteristics. Results Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. Conclusions It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  1. Ambivalent participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom...... they could not give open accounts about sexual practice. Attempting to overcome these barriers, I participated in excessive nightlife activities, and as a consequence they began viewing me as a more accepting and reliable person. Although breaking down these barriers provided invaluable insight...... into their sexual culture, it also caused anxiety and troubling desires vis-à-vis informants. I discuss how anthropologists, through fieldwork are transformed from powerful seducers of informants to objects of informants' seduction. This creates dilemmas for the anthropologist whose fieldwork depends on informants...

  2. Educational Technology as a Video Cases in Teaching Psychology for Future Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pingxia; Gromova, Chulpan R.; Zakirova, Venera G.; Yalalov, Farit G.

    2017-01-01

    Relevance of the article is caused by need to form the teacher's psychological competences on the basis of life and professional situations. This article is directed to detection of the main difficulties, which students have in the course of studying psychology and efficiency of use of video cases at classes of psychology. The leading research…

  3. Auditory symptoms and psychological characteristics in adults with auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Obuchi

    2017-09-01

    We have to take notice of a subject's psychological state when they perceive their listening difficulties as a large-scale problem and feel anxious as a result. For this purpose, we should take psychological characteristics into consideration at the time of the medical examination interview before audio-psychological testing.

  4. Psychology at High School in Late Imperial Russia (1881-1917)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Although historians of Russian psychology occasionally mention the bitter squabbles over high school psychology that occurred at major conferences in the 1900s-1910s, they usually present these debates schematically and merely as a side issue, failing to engage with all the difficulties surrounding the introduction of psychology into secondary…

  5. Difficulties in Surgical Decision Making and Associated Factors Among Elective Surgical Patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Ling; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2017-12-01

    Respect for the autonomy of patients is essential in life-threatening medical decisions such as surgery. Even if a patient has the competency to make decisions, many obstacles exist that may influence his or her willingness to participate in the surgical decision-making process. The aim of this study was to explore the perceived difficulties in surgical decision making and related factors among elective surgical patients. This was a cross-sectional correlational study. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit patients from a medical center in southern Taiwan. Patients who had received elective surgery, were older than 20 years old, and were competent to make medical decisions were invited to participate. A structured questionnaire was developed by the researchers to collect demographic data, decision patterns, and perceived difficulties in surgical decision making. Acceptable validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed before data collection. Over 80% of the participants made the surgical decision by themselves or in collaboration with their family or physician. Less than 15% expected to make the surgical decision by themselves. Illness-related suffering was the greatest difficulty that participants faced. The patients who tended toward passive decision making faced greater difficulties in the dimensions of "do not understand information," "physician's lack of concern," and "difficulty in freely communicating with the physician" than their active decision-making peers. Male participants reported having more difficulty in communicating with their physician than their female peers. Age, education, and marital status were not significantly associated with perceived difficulties in surgical decision making. Family participation in the medical decision-making process is expected by most patients. Although less than 20% of the participants in this study were categorized as passive decision makers, this group reported more difficulties than the

  6. Difficulties in Surgical Decision Making and Associated Factors Among Elective Surgical Patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Ling; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2017-06-01

    Respect for the autonomy of patients is essential in life-threatening medical decisions such as surgery. Even if a patient has the competency to make decisions, many obstacles exist that may influence his or her willingness to participate in the surgical decision-making process. The aim of this study was to explore the perceived difficulties in surgical decision making and related factors among elective surgical patients. This was a cross-sectional correlational study. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit patients from a medical center in southern Taiwan. Patients who had received elective surgery, were older than 20 years old, and were competent to make medical decisions were invited to participate. A structured questionnaire was developed by the researchers to collect demographic data, decision patterns, and perceived difficulties in surgical decision making. Acceptable validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed before data collection. Over 80% of the participants made the surgical decision by themselves or in collaboration with their family or physician. Less than 15% expected to make the surgical decision by themselves. Illness-related suffering was the greatest difficulty that participants faced. The patients who tended toward passive decision making faced greater difficulties in the dimensions of "do not understand information," "physician's lack of concern," and "difficulty in freely communicating with the physician" than their active decision-making peers. Male participants reported having more difficulty in communicating with their physician than their female peers. Age, education, and marital status were not significantly associated with perceived difficulties in surgical decision making. Family participation in the medical decision-making process is expected by most patients. Although less than 20% of the participants in this study were categorized as passive decision makers, this group reported more difficulties than the

  7. College Females With Maltreatment Histories Have Atypical Autonomic Regulation and Poor Psychological Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P; Shaikh, Samia K; Fasciano, Laura C; Watorek, Vanessa D; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2017-11-20

    This study uniquely examined the impact of maltreatment (without a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) on physiological responses to a physical and an emotional stressor. The study sample was composed exclusively of women, because men may differ in maltreatment experience and neural regulation of physiological reactivity. Participants were 60 female college students. A significant proportion of the participants reported experiencing childhood maltreatment without a history of PTSD. Participants completed measures assessing psychological and PTSD symptomatology. Heart rate was monitored before, during, and after riding a stationary bike (physical stressor) and viewing a video of a child being maltreated (emotional stressor). Baseline and stressor related patterns of heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were quantified from the beat-to-beat heart rate. Women with maltreatment histories reported more psychological distress and PTSD symptomatology, had lower levels of RSA and faster heart rate, and reacted to the stressors with atypical vagal regulation of RSA and heart rate. Accompanying psychological difficulties, women with maltreatment histories exhibit atypical physiological regulation to stressors consistent with clinical observations of lower thresholds to defensiveness and other manifestations of compromised resilience. The findings are consistent with polyvagal theory, which emphasizes the role of the "vagal brake" in social engagement and coregulation behaviors-features frequently compromised in survivors of emotional and physical abuse. Future research should investigate whether these features of atypical autonomic regulation are lead indicators of mental and physical health risks and whether these features can be reversed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Perceptions of Psychological Abuse: The Role of Perpetrator Gender, Victim's Response, and Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capezza, Nicole M; D'Intino, Lauren A; Flynn, Margaret A; Arriaga, Ximena B

    2017-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that male abuse is more damaging than female abuse, just as it previously has been assumed that physical abuse is more harmful than psychological abuse. We sought to examine gender assumptions given that they may cause people to overlook the harm that men experience with a psychologically abusive partner. The current experiment compared perceptions of male and female perpetrators of psychological abuse, and examined whether gendered perceptions were affected by sexist beliefs or participants' own sex. The experiment also explored the effect of the victim's response to a perpetrator's abuse. College participants ( N = 195) read a scenario depicting a hypothetical marital conflict that manipulated the sex of the perpetrator, the level of abuse (abuse or no abuse), and whether the victim did or did not respond with some aggression. In scenarios that featured abuse (relative to no-abuse conditions), a male perpetrator was consistently perceived more harshly than a female perpetrator. Participant sex and sexism did not moderate this gender-based perception. Varying the victim's response in the scenario affected perceptions more in the no-abuse condition than in the abuse condition. The findings are discussed in terms of robust gender assumptions and the difficulties in challenging such assumptions.

  9. Afghan and Kurdish refugees, 8-20 years after resettlement, still experience psychological distress and challenges to well being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl M R; Thompson, Sandra C

    2012-04-01

    To examine the resettlement experiences and provide data of well being and psychological distress for Afghan and Kurdish refugees settled between eight and 20 years in New Zealand and Australia. Participants completed the Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and Personal Well Being Index (PWI) for subjective well being. A mixed methods approach was used, with participants also discussing during interview resettlement difficulties, quality of life (QOL) and sources of stress. Data from 81 Muslim participants is reported; all spoke English, were generally well educated with 88% having secondary or tertiary level education, and the majority of those resettled before 2001 lived in Perth. Although psychological distress levels were mostly within the low-moderate risk range, significant differences were observed by gender and employment status. Participants identified a range of ongoing stressors with unemployment of particular concern. Social isolation and a sense that they would never really 'fit in' was also reported by some. Participants particularly valued the safety and improved quality of life in their host communities. Despite their appreciation of the overall resettlement experience, too much time to introspect, separation from family, status dissonance and still occasionally feeling overwhelmed by resettlement challenges is a long-term ongoing reality for some former refugees. Former refugees continue to struggle with unemployment, possible discrimination and loss of status long-term. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Altered visual sensory fusion in children with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, P; Rodríguez, C; Núñez, J C; Vallejo, G; González-Pienda, J A

    2014-12-01

    Reading is a multi-sensory and multi-cognitive task, and its difficulties (e.g., dyslexia) are not a unitary disorder. There are probably a variety of manifestations that relate to the actual site of impairment. A randomized, pre-test/post-test nonequivalent-groups design was conducted over 4 months with three groups aged between 6 and 8 years. One group comprised 76 participants (34 boys, 42 girls) with reading difficulties and altered sensory fusion (RD+ASF), a second group was made up of 123 students (59 boys, 64 girls) with reading difficulties but without altered sensory fusion (RD), and a third group comprised 81 participants (39 boys, 42 girls) who were young readers (RL) without reading delay, paired with the RD group on reading level. The experimental groups received intervention in the skills of control, stimulus recognition, and phonological awareness during a 4-month period. Both pre-test and post-test measures of errors in reading mechanics and reading routes (word and pseudo-word) were obtained. Poorer results in mechanics and reading routes of the RD+ASF group suggest that the effectiveness of the intervention depended on the characteristics of the groups and on the presence of sensory fusion deficits in the RD students.

  11. Psychological processes mediate the impact of familial risk, social circumstances and life events on mental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kinderman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite widespread acceptance of the 'biopsychosocial model', the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 32,827 (age 18-85 years self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ(2 (3199, N = 23,397 = 126654.8, p<.001; RCFI = .97; RMSEA = .04 (.038-.039. As hypothesised, a family history of mental health difficulties, social deprivation, and traumatic or abusive life-experiences all strongly predicted higher levels of anxiety and depression. However, these relationships were strongly mediated by psychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. CONCLUSION: These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear

  12. Encouraging Undergraduate Class Participation: A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nichole S.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Cramer, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate classes typically involve a professor lecturing to 100 or more students. Too often, this results in minimal opportunities for student participation. Positive reinforcement was used to promote student participation (i.e., defined as relevant comments or questions) in a second-year psychology class (N = 97). Class participation was…

  13. Claiming Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabian, Louise; Samson, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    with participation are currently strong influential factors in Danish planning. The article explores the use of participatory DIY urban design in two cases: the relocation of beer drinkers in Enghave Square and the Carlsberg City development in Copenhagen, Denmark. Carlsberg City is the most thorough Danish example...

  14. Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-01-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents...

  15. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...

  16. Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    frequented by military families and by emailing announcements to military family life administrators located in all 50 states. Military couples were...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0131 TITLE: Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Knobloch...Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0131 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  17. Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    ET AL. Creswell , J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design : Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Department...predict their difficulty with reintegration. The research design is an 8-wave longitudinal study in which 250 military couples complete an online...relationship characteristics predict their difficulty with reintegration. The research design is an 8-wave longitudinal study in which 250 military couples

  18. A qualitative investigation of eating difficulties in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sarah; Gilbert, Matthew; Beasant, Lucy; Linney, Catherine; Broughton, Jessica; Crawley, Esther

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 10% of children and adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) experience eating difficulties; however, little is known about why these difficulties develop, what the impact is or how to manage them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (aged 12-17 years) attending a specialist service who have a primary diagnosis of CFS/ME and experience nausea, abdominal pain and/or eating difficulties. A total of 11 adolescents were interviewed (eight female, mean age: 15 years). Transcripts were analysed thematically using techniques of constant comparison which commenced soon after data collection and informed further interview protocols. Adolescents perceived their eating difficulties were caused by abdominal symptoms, being too fatigued to eat and changes to their senses of taste and smell. Some of the adolescents recognised how their eating difficulties were exacerbated and maintained by psychological factors of low mood and anxiety. The adolescents eating difficulties had a negative impact on their weight, fatigue, socialising and family life. They perceived helpful interventions to include modifying their diets, families adjusting and also medical interventions (e.g. medication). Adolescents identified that early education and support about diet and eating habits would have been helpful. If adolescents diagnosed with CFS/ME develop eating difficulties, this has a significant impact on their quality of life, illness and on their families. Not eating increases fatigue, low mood and anxiety which further exacerbates the eating difficulties. Clinicians should screen for eating difficulties in those with symptoms of nausea and abdominal pain, warn adolescents and their families of the risk of developing eating difficulties and provide interventions and support as early as possible.

  19. Is Psychoanalysis a Folk Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these “extensionists,” asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett’s theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues. PMID:23525879

  20. Player Modeling for Intelligent Difficulty Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missura, Olana; Gärtner, Thomas

    In this paper we aim at automatically adjusting the difficulty of computer games by clustering players into different types and supervised prediction of the type from short traces of gameplay. An important ingredient of video games is to challenge players by providing them with tasks of appropriate and increasing difficulty. How this difficulty should be chosen and increase over time strongly depends on the ability, experience, perception and learning curve of each individual player. It is a subjective parameter that is very difficult to set. Wrong choices can easily lead to players stopping to play the game as they get bored (if underburdened) or frustrated (if overburdened). An ideal game should be able to adjust its difficulty dynamically governed by the player’s performance. Modern video games utilise a game-testing process to investigate among other factors the perceived difficulty for a multitude of players. In this paper, we investigate how machine learning techniques can be used for automatic difficulty adjustment. Our experiments confirm the potential of machine learning in this application.

  1. The Smartphone Psychology Manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey

    2012-05-01

    By 2025, when most of today's psychology undergraduates will be in their mid-30s, more than 5 billion people on our planet will be using ultra-broadband, sensor-rich smartphones far beyond the abilities of today's iPhones, Androids, and Blackberries. Although smartphones were not designed for psychological research, they can collect vast amounts of ecologically valid data, easily and quickly, from large global samples. If participants download the right "psych apps," smartphones can record where they are, what they are doing, and what they can see and hear and can run interactive surveys, tests, and experiments through touch screens and wireless connections to nearby screens, headsets, biosensors, and other peripherals. This article reviews previous behavioral research using mobile electronic devices, outlines what smartphones can do now and will be able to do in the near future, explains how a smartphone study could work practically given current technology (e.g., in studying ovulatory cycle effects on women's sexuality), discusses some limitations and challenges of smartphone research, and compares smartphones to other research methods. Smartphone research will require new skills in app development and data analysis and will raise tough new ethical issues, but smartphones could transform psychology even more profoundly than PCs and brain imaging did. © The Author(s) 2012.

  2. Managing PBL difficulties in an industrial engineering and management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Alves

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Project-Based Learning (PBL is considered to be an active learning methodology which can be used to develop both technical and transversal competences in engineering programs. This methodology demands a great deal of work effort from the students and also from the teachers and it requires a meticulous plan and a well-managed project as well. These activities go far beyond the normal activities in traditional lectures, enabling to outpace the difficulties that spur along the way that may be both complex and demotivating. This methodology has been implemented in the Integrated Master Degree on Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM, at one public university in Portugal, since the 2004/2005 academic year. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the main difficulties of the implementation of PBL, mainly from the teachers’ perspectives. Additionally, some effective strategies will be recommended to overcome such difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: The perceptions of the teachers were collected through a survey based on six main themes. The participants in the study include eight teachers from the five courses of the first semester of the first year of the IEM program involved in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 editions. Findings: Integration of courses in the project; student assessment; growing number of students in each team and the need of physical spaces for them; and compartmentalized knowledge has emerged as the main difficulties. To overcome these difficulties some key strategies were recommended. Originality/value: A new perspective based on course teachers' views and experiences will deepen the understanding of the problems and provide inputs for the development of strategies that may improve the effectiveness of PBL and introduce changes for its successful implementation. These strategies are intended to be transferable to other contexts, as most of the problems and constraints are common to other active learning

  3. Managing PBL difficulties in an industrial engineering and management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, A.; Sousa, R.; Moreira, F.; Carvalho, M.A.; Cardoso, E.; Pimenta, P.; Malheiro, T.; Brito, I.; Fernandes, S.; Mesquita, D.

    2016-07-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) is considered to be an active learning methodology which can be used to develop both technical and transversal competences in engineering programs. This methodology demands a great deal of work effort from the students and also from the teachers and it requires a meticulous plan and a well-managed project as well. These activities go far beyond the normal activities in traditional lectures, enabling to outpace the difficulties that spur along the way that may be both complex and demotivating. This methodology has been implemented in the Integrated Master Degree on Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM), at one public university in Portugal, since the 2004/2005 academic year. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the main difficulties of the implementation of PBL, mainly from the teachers’ perspectives. Additionally, some effective strategies will be recommended to overcome such difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: The perceptions of the teachers were collected through a survey based on six main themes. The participants in the study include eight teachers from the five courses of the first semester of the first year of the IEM program involved in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 editions. Findings: Integration of courses in the project; student assessment; growing number of students in each team and the need of physical spaces for them; and compartmentalized knowledge has emerged as the main difficulties. To overcome these difficulties some key strategies were recommended. Originality/value: A new perspective based on course teachers' views and experiences will deepen the understanding of the problems and provide inputs for the development of strategies that may improve the effectiveness of PBL and introduce changes for its successful implementation. These strategies are intended to be transferable to other contexts, as most of the problems and constraints are common to other active learning approaches. (Author)

  4. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-03

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  5. 42 CFR 418.114 - Condition of participation: Personnel qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Organizational Environment § 418.114 Condition of participation: Personnel qualifications. (a) General... Work Education; or a baccalaureate degree in psychology, sociology, or other field related to social...

  6. Difficulties in translation of personality scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses translations of tests and questionnaires from a psychological perspective: A distinction is drawn between linguistic and psychometric considerations, and procedures from both areas are briefly described. Back-translations and simple psychometric procedures are used to illustr...

  7. Guidelines for postdoctoral training in rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, William; Hanson, Stephanie; Turner, Aaron P; Stucky, Kirk; Barisa, Mark; Brownsberger, Mary; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Ashman, Teresa; Kuemmel, Angela

    2012-11-01

    This article describes the methods and results of a national conference that was held to (1) develop consensus guidelines about the structure and process of rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training programs and (2) create a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs to promote training programs' abilities to implement the guidelines and to formally recognize programs in compliance with the guidelines. Forty-six conference participants were chosen to include important stakeholders in rehabilitation psychology, representatives of rehabilitation psychology training and practice communities, representatives of psychology accreditation and certification bodies, and persons involved in medical education practice and research. Consensus guidelines were developed for rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training program structure and process and for establishing the Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs. The Conference developed aspirational guidelines for postdoctoral education and training programs in applied rehabilitation psychology and established a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs as a means of promoting their adoption by training programs. These efforts are designed to promote quality, consistency, and excellence in the education and training of rehabilitation psychology practitioners and to promote competence in their practice. It is hoped that these efforts will stimulate discussion, assist in the development of improved teaching and evaluation methods, lead to interesting research questions, and generally facilitate the continued systematic development of the profession of rehabilitation psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Relaciones entre saberes políticos, participación política y educación política: Aportes de la investigación psicológica Relations between political knowledge, political participation and Political education: Contributions from psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Lenzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la vinculación entre saberes políticos, participación política y educación política desde la ciencia política y la investigación psicológica de los conceptos de democracia y gobierno. El análisis indica que la democracia representativa otorga escaso espacio a la participación política ciudadana, y los aportes de investigaciones en psicología social, del desarrollo y educacional evidencian que los saberes políticos indispensables para una participación autónoma, resultan críticos. Aunque las representaciones sociales de democracia juveniles muestran la aceptación de valores democráticos, jóvenes y adultos revelan saberes políticos indiferenciados sobre democracia y gobierno, incluso entre docentes que enseñan esas nociones. Ante tal panorama y limitaciones de la democracia representativa, la educación política constituye una alternativa para formar ciudadanos conscientes, autónomos, activos participantes capaces de transformar la sociedad.The relationship among political knowledge, political participation and political education is examined from both political science and psychological research on the concepts of democracy and government. The analysis indicates that representative democracy gives little place to citizens for political participation. Also, contributions from research by social, developmental and, educational psychology, show that the essential knowledge to autonomous political participation turn to be critical. Although youth`s social representations of democracy show the acceptance of democratic values, youngs and adults reveal undifferentiated knowledge about democracy and government, even among teachers who teach these concepts. From such scenario and limitations of representative democracy, political education is an alternative to prepare aware, autonomous citizens; active participants able to change society.

  9. Emotional regulation difficulties and premenstrual symptoms among Israeli students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Inbal; Dan, Rotem; Segman, Ronen; Evron, Ron; Laufer, Sofia; Goelman, Gadi; Bonne, Omer; Canetti, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) reported to affect 3-8 % of women of reproductive age and resulting in marked emotional and occupational impairment. Despite its prevalence, the etiology of PMDD is largely unknown, and patients remain mostly undiagnosed and poorly treated. It has been suggested that PMDD is a manifestation of underlying depressive disorder which is associated with the inability to regulate emotions in an adaptive manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that women with PMDD would exhibit increased difficulty with emotional regulation. A total of 648 female Israeli college students were assessed by the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Of these women, 166 (25.6 %) met the criteria for PMS. Sixty-four (9.9 %) suffered from PMDD. More emotion regulation deficits were observed in the PMDD and PMS groups compared to the control group. Furthermore, there were more emotional regulation deficits among the predominantly psychological and mixed symptom subtype compared to the predominantly physical symptom subtype group. This is the first study to report an association between emotional dysregulation and PMDD. These findings may lead to development of more individually tailored treatment protocols focused on improving emotional regulation techniques.

  10. Psychosocial factors associated with perceived psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan ...

  11. Linkage between psychological contract and employee retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... employees' participation. This is necessary if organizations need to maintain their vibrant and resourceful workforce that will competitively drive organizational goals in this globalized economy and society. Keywords: Psychological contract, Employer, Employee retention, Performance, Productivity, Organization, Nigeria.

  12. Reasons for African American student attrition from school psychology programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L; Truscott, Stephen D

    2012-10-01

    This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what factors contributed to participants' attrition. Findings indicate that misalignment between participants' career aims and the practice of school psychology (as presented in the programs they left) contributed to attrition. Poor relationships with school psychology faculty and program cohort peers also played a role in participants' decisions to leave school psychology programs. Results offer a unique lens into racial issues in school psychology. Recommendations for faculty and others interested in preventing African Americans' attrition from school psychology graduate education are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ortographic difficulties in writing at a basic grade level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the performance in children’s writing at a basic grade level. A written test was applied to 546 grade 2 or 3 boys and girls (aged 7 to 13 in public and private schools from the State of São Paulo. The results showed that the grade 3 participants presented a better performance than the grade 2 participants even though both groups have achieved the same maximum and minimum scores. It was confirmed that participants had more difficulty with words containing compound syllables, while words with aggregated consonants and digraphs were associated with the highest rate of correct answers. Furthermore, students from private school revealed more competence in orthographic writing than those coming from public schools. As to gender differences, there were no significant differences in performance for compound and complex syllables items though for other words, girls had better scores.   Keywords: writing; academic achievement; evaluation.

  14. Emotion regulation difficulties in social anxiety disorder and their specific contributions to anxious responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig-Lang, Sylvia; Rusch, Silke; Lincoln, Tania M

    2015-03-01

    Recent theories emphasize the contribution of emotion regulation (ER) difficulties to psychopathology. The present study sought to identify patterns of ER difficulties in social anxiety disorder (SAD) and to test the predictive value of these difficulties for actual anxious responding during the anticipation of a social evaluative task. Participants diagnosed with SAD (n = 67) and healthy controls (n = 59) completed self-ratings of ER difficulties (DERS) and depressive symptoms. This was followed by the announcement of an impromptu speech. During the anticipation period, subjective ratings of anxiety and arousal were assessed. Compared to healthy controls, SAD participants reported significantly higher levels of ER difficulties. With the exception of "lack of emotional awareness," these differences remained significant when controlling for depression. ER difficulties also contributed to anxious responding during the stress test; but this held true only for nonclinical participants. SAD is characterized by a wide range of ER deficits. However, the associations between ER difficulties and symptoms of anxiety remain poorly understood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cross-cultural social and organizational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, M H; Smith, P B

    1996-01-01

    This review considers recent theoretical and empirical developments in cross-cultural studies within social and organizational psychology. It begins with a description of the importance and the difficulties of universalizing psychological science. It then continues with an examination of theoretical work on both the internal-proximal and the external-distal constraints that mediate culture's influence on behavior. Influences on social cognition are documented by describing research on self-concept, self-esteem, emotions, attribution processes, person perception, interpersonal attraction, and justice. Group processes are addressed in the areas of leadership, decision-making, and negotiation, and research in organizational psychology is examined with respect to work motivation and work behavior. The review concludes that considerable improvement is evident in recent cross-cultural research. However, future research must include a broader range of cultures and attend more closely to the levels at which cultural effects should be analyzed, and cultural samples must be unpackaged in more psychologically useful ways.

  16. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTARCTIC LIVING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )

  17. Alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences: associations with emotion regulation difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Sargent, Emily M; Kilwein, Tess M; Stevenson, Brittany L; Kuvaas, Nicholas J; Williams, Thomas J

    2014-03-01

    Understanding factors associated with alcohol-related consequences is an important area of research. Emotional functioning has been associated with alcohol-related consequences but there is less research examining a comprehensive underlying model of emotional regulation. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) is a recent measure developed to assess six facets of emotion regulation difficulties that contribute to overall emotional functioning. The current study examines associations between these six facets of emotion regulation difficulties and problematic alcohol use. Participants (n = 1758 college students) were recruited as part of a larger study and were asked to complete online questionnaires assessing demographics, alcohol use and problems, and emotion regulation difficulties. Negative binomial hurdle models for alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences were estimated. Impulse control difficulties were positively related to the number of drinks consumed during the week among active drinkers. Non-acceptance of emotional responses, impulse control difficulties, lack of emotional clarity, and difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior were all positively associated with number of consequences endorsed. Difficulty engaging in goal-directed behavior was also positively associated with the likelihood of experiencing any alcohol-related consequences. The findings support previous research indicating that emotion-regulation difficulties are broadly associated with alcohol-related consequences. Results suggest exposure and/or mindfulness based prevention/interventions with emotion focused psychoeducation may offer one path to reducing alcohol-related consequences among college students.

  18. Numerical Magnitude Representation in Children With Mathematical Difficulties With or Without Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Fasola, Anna; Lupieri, Alice; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC), the flanker, and the numerical distance effects in children with mathematical difficulties. From a sample of 720 third, fourth, and fifth graders, 60 children were selected and divided into the following three groups: typically developing children (TD; n = 29), children with mathematical difficulties only (MD only; n = 21), and children with mathematical and reading difficulties (MD+RD; n = 10). Children were tested with a numerical Eriksen task that was built to assess SNARC, numerical distance, and flanker (first and second order congruency) effects. Children with MD only showed stronger SNARC and second order congruency effects than did TD children, whereas the numerical distance effects were similar across the three groups. Finally, the first order congruency effect was associated with reading difficulties. These results showed that children with mathematical difficulties with or without reading difficulties were globally more impaired when spatial incompatibilities were presented. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  19. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-12-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was significantly below the average student performance in other Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. This fact gave rise to this study which aims to investigate Indonesian students' difficulties in algebra. In order to do so, a literature study was carried out on students' difficulties in initial algebra. Next, an individual written test on algebra tasks was administered, followed by interviews. A sample of 51 grade VII Indonesian students worked the written test, and 37 of them were interviewed afterwards. Data analysis revealed that mathematization, i.e., the ability to translate back and forth between the world of the problem situation and the world of mathematics and to reorganize the mathematical system itself, constituted the most frequently observed difficulty in both the written test and the interview data. Other observed difficulties concerned understanding algebraic expressions, applying arithmetic operations in numerical and algebraic expressions, understanding the different meanings of the equal sign, and understanding variables. The consequences of these findings on both task design and further research in algebra education are discussed.

  20. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  1. Changes in Sleep Problems and Psychological Flexibility Following Interdisciplinary Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain: An Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling Daly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT for sleep problems and chronic pain have shown good results, although these results could improve. More recent developments based on the psychological flexibility model, the model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT may offer a useful addition to traditional CBT. The aim of this study was to examine whether an ACT-based treatment for chronic pain is associated with improved sleep. Secondly, we examined the associations between changes on measures of psychological flexibility and sleep-related outcomes.Methods: The study used an observational cohort methodology. Participants were 252 patients (73.8% female attending a four-week, interdisciplinary, pain management program in London, United Kingdom. Participants completed standard self-report measures of pain and functioning, sleep outcomes, and processes of psychological flexibility. Pre- to post-treatment, and pre-treatment to follow-up measures were examined for statistically significant differences using paired samples t-tests. Secondarily, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine change in process measures in relation to change in treatment outcome.Results: Participants showed statistically significant improvements (all p<.001 at post-treatment on measures of insomnia severity (d=.45, sleep interference (d=61, and sleep efficiency (d=.32. Significant improvements in insomnia severity and sleep interference were also observed at nine-month follow up. Small to medium effect sizes were observed across the sleep outcomes. Statistically significant changes were also observed on measures of psychological flexibility, and these improvements were significantly associated with improvements on sleep-related outcomes, independently contributing up to 19% of unique variance. Conclusion: This study supports the potential usefulness of ACT-based treatments for chronic pain for addressing co-occurring sleep difficulties

  2. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  3. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  4. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  5. Psychological Vulnerability and Gambling in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Cory B; Davis, Thomas D; Chang, Janet; McAllister, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Because behavioral problems often emerge from maladaptive coping methods, we investigated whether unmet basic psychological needs evolve toward a level of psychological vulnerability that puts older adults who gamble at risk for becoming problem gamblers. Data from a community sample of 379 adults ages 60 and above were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Participants responded to items regarding their demographics, gambling frequency, engagement in at-risk gambling behaviors, and the extent to which their basic psychological needs were met. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs among older adults who gamble was negatively associated with their being at risk for developing a gambling problem. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs also mediated the negative effect of socioeconomic status on at-risk gambling behavior. Social workers should become mindful of how older adults, who are confronting psychological vulnerabilities in later life, might well turn to gambling as a maladaptive coping mechanism.As per journal style, abstract must not exceed100 words. Please amend accordingly.

  6. Difficulties EFL Jordanian University Students Encounter in Translating English Idioms into Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrishan, Amal; Smadi, Oqlah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the difficulties that Jordanian EFL University students encounter in translating English idioms into Arabic. The participants of the study were all M.A translation students at Yarmouk University and the University of Jordan who were selected purposefully. The total number of the students who participated in the…

  7. Writing Simple Sentences and Descriptive Paragraphs: Effects of an Intervention on Adolescents with Writing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datchuk, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a multicomponent intervention on the writing behavior of adolescents with writing difficulties. A single-case design consisting of a combination of multiple-probe design across participants and pre-post test was used. Four participants completed two intervention phases: (a) sentence instruction and…

  8. The Difficulties That the Undergraduate Students Face about Inner Product Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhanzade, Hülya; Aygör, Nilgün

    2016-01-01

    In this qualitative research, we studied difficulties that undergraduate students face while learning the concept of inner product space. Participants were 35 first-year mathematics students from Yildiz Technical University in the 2011 and 2012 academic years. We asked participants to solve 5 inner product space questions. Data were jointly…

  9. How specific are specific comprehension difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the occurrence of poor comprehenders, i.e., children identified with reading comprehension difficulties in spite of age-appropriate word reading skills. It supports the findings that some children do show poor reading comprehension in spite of age-appropriate word reading as m...... and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below that of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience and, likewise, a lack of fluent word reading may be important factors in understanding nine-year-old poor comprehenders’ difficulties....

  10. NEW CONTRIBUTIONS TO READING DIFFICULTIES INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE BERMEJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of the intervention programs and strategies to treat reading difficulties. The synthesisincludes a review of the last published articles on the issue, both in Spanish and English. It also presents the visits todifferent Language Rehabilitation Centers in the Community of Madrid including the approaches applied in thesecenters. Besides the description of the general intervention strategies applied to reading problems, some of theprograms to treat specific difficulties of words decoding and recognizing are explained, and the programs to treatreading comprehension and fluidity.

  11. Principles for Predicting RNA Secondary Structure Design Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Lee, Jeff; Fisker, Eli; Kosaraju, Vineet; Wu, Michelle; Kong, Justin; Lee, Jeehyung; Lee, Minjae; Zada, Mathew; Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2016-02-27

    Designing RNAs that form specific secondary structures is enabling better understanding and control of living systems through RNA-guided silencing, genome editing and protein organization. Little is known, however, about which RNA secondary structures might be tractable for downstream sequence design, increasing the time and expense of design efforts due to inefficient secondary structure choices. Here, we present insights into specific structural features that increase the difficulty of finding sequences that fold into a target RNA secondary structure, summarizing the design efforts of tens of thousands of human participants and three automated algorithms (RNAInverse, INFO-RNA and RNA-SSD) in the Eterna massive open laboratory. Subsequent tests through three independent RNA design algorithms (NUPACK, DSS-Opt and MODENA) confirmed the hypothesized importance of several features in determining design difficulty, including sequence length, mean stem length, symmetry and specific difficult-to-design motifs such as zigzags. Based on these results, we have compiled an Eterna100 benchmark of 100 secondary structure design challenges that span a large range in design difficulty to help test future efforts. Our in silico results suggest new routes for improving computational RNA design methods and for extending these insights to assess "designability" of single RNA structures, as well as of switches for in vitro and in vivo applications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. EFL Teachers’ and Learners’ Perceptions of Grammatical Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Alhaysony

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates grammatical difficulty from the perspective of Saudi university students, of EFL as well as from the perspective of university teachers. It aims to find out which English grammar features are more difficult/less difficult than others. Furthermore, it attempts to determine the reasons and causes that account for such grammar difficulty. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were the two research instruments used in this study. A total number of 103 students and 85 university teachers took part in the questionnaire, while only 20 teachers and 25 students responded in the interview. All the participants were from Aljouf University (males and females. The results showed that some English grammar features were more difficult and some were less difficult than others. The obtained difficulty order determined by EFL learners and the one obtained by the teachers’ perceptions were compared. Some similarities and differences were found to exist in the rank order of the features for the two groups. The findings of the study may be beneficial to syllabus designers, material developers, teachers and EFL learners.

  13. Prediction and Stability of Mathematics Skill and Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rebecca B.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the stability of math learning difficulties over a 2-year period and investigated several factors that might influence this stability (categorical vs. continuous change, liberal vs. conservative cut point, broad vs. specific math assessment); the prediction of math performance over time and by performance level was also evaluated. Participants were 144 students initially identified as having a math difficulty (MD) or no learning difficulty according to low achievement criteria in the spring of Grade 3 or Grade 4. Students were reassessed 2 years later. For both measure types, a similar proportion of students changed whether assessed categorically or continuously. However, categorical change was heavily dependent on distance from the cut point and so more common for MD, who started closer to the cut point; reliable change index change was more similar across groups. There were few differences with regard to severity level of MD on continuous metrics or in terms of prediction. Final math performance on a broad computation measure was predicted by behavioral inattention and working memory while considering initial performance; for a specific fluency measure, working memory was not uniquely related, and behavioral inattention more variably related to final performance, again while considering initial performance. PMID:22392890

  14. Impact of sleep difficulty on single and repeated injuries in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Kénora

    2015-08-01

    Injuries are frequent and may be caused by sleep difficulty in youth. This study assessed the impact of sleep difficulty on single and repeated school and out-of-school injuries and the confounding role of socioeconomic factors and school, behaviour and health-related difficulties among adolescents. The study population included 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5, SD 1.3) who completed at the end of school year a self-administered questionnaire to gather school and out-of-school injuries during the school year, and to assess sleep difficulty and previous injury risk factors which were socioeconomic factors (family structure, parents' education, father's occupation, and family income), school performance, obesity, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drugs use, health status, psychological health, and involvement-in-violence. For sleep difficulty and behaviour and health-related difficulties their first occurring over adolescent's life course was gathered. Multinomial logistic regression models were used retaining only sleep difficulty and other risk factors which had started before the school year (thus before the injuries studied). School and out-of-school injuries and sleep difficulty were frequent. The adolescents with sleep difficulty without medical treatment had a higher risk of single school and out-of-school injuries (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio gaOR 1.86 and 1.76, respectively) and a much higher risk of repeated school and out-of-school injuries (≥2 injuries; gaOR 2.43 and 3.73, respectively). The adolescents with persistent sleep difficulty despite a medical treatment also had a higher risk of single school and out-of-school injury (gaOR 2.31 and 1.78, respectively), and a much higher risk of repeated school and out-of-school injuries (gaOR 4.92 and 4.36, respectively). Socioeconomic factors had a moderate contribution (injuries. The role of these factors differed between single/repeated school/out-of-school injuries

  15. Development of cognitive processes inschoolchildren with learning difficulties inthe light ofanalysis ofWISC-R results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mazurkiewicz-Gronowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For several years now, noticeable has been a significant increase in the interest of psychologists – practitioners and scientists, of parents and teachers in the issues of dyslexia, dyscalculia, and other developmental disorders. Specific learning difficulties constitute one of the most prevalent causes of reporting children to psychological and pedagogic outpatient departments. The results of the performed studies enable inter- and intra-group comparisons as well as a global analysis of the structure of intellectual development in children with various learning difficulties. This leads to interesting conclusions and allows for comprehensive scientific discussions. The subject of the article is presentation of the results of studies and conclusions formulated according to them, about the structure of intellectual development of children with learning difficulties diagnosed in two psychological-pedagogic outpatient departments in Lublin region (Psychological-Pedagogic Outpatient Department No 5 in Lublin and PsychologicalPedagogic Outpatient Department No 2 in Zamość. Analysed were the results of the WISC-R scale obtained by schoolchildren from forms IV-VI of elementary schools and junior secondary schools in Lublin and schools of Zamość county. As scholastic difficulties constitute quite a comprehensive term, generally perceived as problems in acquisition of information and mastering school skills, in our study we take into account the following three groups of schoolchildren: with developmental dyslexia, intelligence lower than average, and specific disorders in arithmetic skills. The performed analyses are aimed at familiarization with the developmental level of the schoolchildren’s cognitive functions and their intellectual skills structure based on a three-factor analysis. Our studies continue earlier analyses, including more comprehensive research areas with larger groups.

  16. The effects of cognitive style and emotional trade-off difficulty on information processing in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Hao, Leilei; Maguire, Phil; Hu, Yixin

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and emotional trade-off difficulty (ETOD) on information processing in decision-making. Eighty undergraduates (73.75% female, M = 21.90), grouped according to their cognitive style (field-dependent or field-independent), conducted an Information Display Board (IDB) task, through which search time, search depth and search pattern were measured. Participants' emotional states were assessed both before and after the IDB task. The results showed that participants experienced significantly more negative emotion under high ETOD compared to those under low ETOD. While both cognitive style and ETOD had significant effects on search time and search depth, only ETOD significantly influenced search pattern; individuals in both cognitive style groups tended to use attribute-based processing under high ETOD and to use alternative-based processing under low ETOD. There was also a significant interaction between cognitive style and ETOD for search time and search depth. We propose that these results are best accounted for by the coping behaviour framework under high ETOD, and by the negative emotion hypothesis under low ETOD. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Web-based treatment for infertility-related psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Minden B; Byrd, Michelle R; O'Donohue, William T; Jacobs, Negar Nicole

    2010-08-01

    Infertility has been associated with stigma and negative psychosocial functioning. However, only a small proportion of this population actually receives care. Fertility patients predominantly use the Internet for information gathering, social support, and assistance with decision-making; yet, available web resources are unreliable sources of mental health care. Web-based alternatives also have the potential to assist with intervention access difficulties and may be of significant lower cost. This study evaluated the efficacy of a web-based approach to providing a cognitive behavioral intervention with 31 infertile women seeking medical reproductive technologies. Following randomized assignment, participants using the web-based intervention were compared with those in a wait-list control condition on general and infertility-related psychological stress measures. Results were mixed regarding intervention efficacy. Significant declines in general stress were evidenced in the experimental group compared with a wait-list control group. However, website access did not result in statistically significant improvements on a measure of infertility-specific stress. These findings add to the literature on psychological interventions for women experiencing fertility problems. Moreover, despite the widespread use of the Internet by this population, the present study is one of the first to investigate the usefulness of the Internet to attenuate stress in this population. Preliminary results suggest general stress may be significantly reduced in infertile women using an online cognitive behavioral approach.

  18. “Advertising Psychology – The Blog Seminar”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Badura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the web-based course “Advertising Psychology – The Blog Seminar” was to offer a contemporary teaching design using typical Web 2.0 characteristics such as comments, discussions and social media integration which covers facebook and Twitter support, as nowadays, this is a common part of students’ everyday life. This weblog (blog-based seminar for Advertising Psychology was set up in order to make the course accessible to students from different campuses in the Ruhr metropolitan area. The technical aspect of the open-source content management system Drupal 6.0 and the didactical course structure, based on Merrill’s five first principles of instruction, are introduced. To date, this blog seminar has been conducted three times with a total of 84 participants, who were asked to rate the course according to the benefits of different didactical elements and with regard to Kirkpatrick’s levels of evaluation model. This model covers a reactions such as reported enjoyment, perceived usefulness and perceived difficulty, and b effects on learning through the subjectively reported increase in knowledge and attitude towards the seminar. Overall, the blog seminar was evaluated very positively and can be considered as providing support for achieving the learning objectives. However, a successful blended learning approach should always be tailored to the learning contents and the environment.

  19. Dual sensory loss and social participation in older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljanen, Anna; Törmäkangas, Timo; Vestergaard, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    on the 2004 data collection of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe comprising 27,536 men and women aged 50 years and older. Hearing and vision difficulties, as well as participation in seven different social activities were assessed using a structured computerassisted personal interview...... socially inactive compared to half of those who reported no sensory difficulties. The participants who reported dual sensory loss had 2.18 (95 % CI 1.83–2.59) times higher odds for social inactivity compared to persons without hearing or vision difficulties. In a model adjusted for age, gender, mobility......The purpose of the study was to describe the prevalence of hearing difficulties, vision difficulties and dual sensory difficulties in 11 European countries, and to study whether sensory difficulties are associated with social inactivity in older Europeans. This cross-sectional study is based...

  20. Using drawing tests to explore the multidimensional psychological aspects of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yutaka; Yamada, Miwa; Nakagawa, Kanae; Nanri, Hiromi; Kawase, Masatoshi; Fukui, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    In seeking to understand how life-threatening illness affects children psychologically, projective testing may be beneficial, particularly when attempting to identify psychological problems in younger adolescents. The advantages of projective testing are that it does not depend on patients' verbal ability and is not invasive. Three cancer inpatients from Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, aged between 10 and 16 years old, participated in the study. Projective testing was used to measure the depth of participants' distress and included a tree-drawing test, a person-drawing test and a free drawing test. Results from the tree- and person-drawing tests indicated energy loss, anxiety and a sense of emptiness. However, results from the free drawing test suggested that the children had hope and a desire to recover from their illness. The combination of drawing tests in this study may increase the understanding of the internal psychological difficulties faced by children hospitalized with cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Association of sleep patterns with psychological positive health and health complaints in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Keating, Xiaofen D; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José

    2015-04-01

    Psychological positive health and health complaints have long been ignored scientifically. Sleep plays a critical role in children and adolescents development. We aimed at studying the association of sleep duration and quality with psychological positive health and health complaints in children and adolescents from southern Spain. A randomly selected two-phase sample of 380 healthy Caucasian children (6-11.9 years) and 304 adolescents (12-17.9 years) participated in the study. Sleep duration (total sleep time), perceived sleep quality (morning tiredness and sleep latency), psychological positive health and health complaints were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children questionnaire. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) reported sleep time for children and adolescents was 9.6 (0.6) and 8.8 (0.6) h/day, respectively. Sleep time ≥10 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of reporting no health complaints (OR 2.3; P = 0.005) in children, whereas sleep time ≥9 h was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of overall psychological positive health and no health complaints indicators (OR ~ 2; all P adolescents. Reporting better sleep quality was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting excellent psychological positive health (ORs between 1.5 and 2.6; all P adolescents with no difficulty falling asleep were more likely to report no health complaints (OR ~ 3.5; all P sleep duration and poor perceived quality of sleep might directly impact quality of life in children, decreasing general levels of psychological positive health and increasing the frequency of having health complaints.

  2. Difficulties in Lexical Stress versus Difficulties in Segmental Phonology among Adolescents with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…

  3. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  4. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  5. Student Difficulties with Linearity and Linear Functions and Teachers' Understanding of Student Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postelnicu, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the study was to identify secondary school students' difficulties with aspects of linearity and linear functions, and to assess their teachers' understanding of the nature of the difficulties experienced by their students. A cross-sectional study with 1561 Grades 8-10 students enrolled in mathematics courses from Pre-Algebra to…

  6. Participative Mindscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Katan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In parallel with my social activism, I introduced architecture into my kinetic art and participatory activism into my architecture. Flexibility and participation in architectural design has been a permanent feature of my practice, bringing new opportunities for self-expression in urban living. To form follows function I opposed form follows movement because it is man oriented while function is object oriented. After my 1962–1964 Mecanographs, machine-made images based on an interaction between the movement, the artist and the machine, I joined forces with Len Lye to determine what kind of positive attributes a Museum of Kinetic Art should have, defining three aspects of kinetic movement: illumination, sound, and physical movement. Vasarely and other kinetic artists put their mark on their time by promoting a form of social art, accessible to all, suggesting movement without actual movement. Walking through my medieval village can be a kinetic experience. The sense of wonder you feel at every corner compares with that of optical art. In the past decade, I moved toward a new form of participatory kinetic expression using state-of-the-art technology (plastics, LED, wireless devices. I view my kinetic work as an architectural experience and architecture as a stimulating kinetic experience.

  7. Postoperative Feeding Difficulties after Repair of Congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives:The study aims to define the incidence, causes and outcome of treatment of feeding difficulties in the immediate post operative period following surgical correction of congenital diaphragmatic hernias {CDH). Methodology: This was a retrospective study. It involved the review of the case notes of all children ...

  8. Fractions Learning in Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA…

  9. Successful Approaches to Remediation of Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus Public Schools, OH.

    Activities used with intermediate-grade students who have reading difficulties are presented, and suggestions for building interest and motivation are listed. Included are (1) motor development exercises such as practice in coloring, drawing, and tracing; (2) activities such as various listening games which are designed to improve auditory…

  10. Functional Assessment and Intervention for Transition Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; Vorndran, Christina M.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the use of functional assessment for the transition difficulties of an 11-year-old girl with multiple disabilities who engaged in flopping to the ground during transitions. Assessment information led to the scheduling of a period for interaction immediately following problematic transitions and resulted in reduced rates of…

  11. Task Difficulty in Oral Speech Act Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study took a pragmatic approach to examining the effects of task difficulty on L2 oral output. Twenty native English speakers and 59 Japanese students of English at two different proficiency levels produced speech acts of requests and refusals in a role play task. The task had two situation types based on three social variables:…

  12. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paulus; van den Heuvel - Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian

  13. Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…

  14. Time Estimation Deficits in Childhood Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, Petra P. M.; van Loosbroek, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Time perception has not been comprehensively examined in mathematics difficulties (MD). Therefore, verbal time estimation, production, and reproduction were tested in 13 individuals with MD and 16 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and intellectual skills. Individuals with MD performed comparably to controls in time reproduction, but showed a…

  15. Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Alvaro; Kahan, Sandra; Zavala, Genaro; Marti, Arturo C.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a study on the conceptual difficulties faced by college students in understanding hydrodynamics of ideal fluids. This study was based on responses obtained in hundreds of written exams complemented with several oral interviews, which were held with first-year engineering and science university students. Their responses allowed us to…

  16. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  17. College Student Debt and Anticipated Repayment Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jonathan J.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; Letkiewicz, Jodi C.; Montalto, Catherine P.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes factors associated with anticipated difficulty with repayment of debt accumulated during college using a basic model of credit risk that includes socialization processes influencing college student financial decisions. The empirical analysis uses data from the 2010 Ohio Student Financial Wellness Study. Results provide evidence…

  18. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  19. Mathematics Difficulties: Does One Approach Fit All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sue; Rockliffe, Freda

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of learning difficulties in mathematics and, in particular, the nature and prevalence of dyscalculia, a condition that affects the acquisition of arithmetical skills. The evidence reviewed suggests that younger children (under the age of 10) often display a combination of problems, including minor physical…

  20. Learned Helplessness in Children with Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkowsky, Irwin S.; Willows, Dale M.

    Employing a cognitive/motivational analysis, a study was undertaken to determine some specific self-perceptions that might contribute to motivational and performance deficits observed in children with reading difficulties. A total of 72 children of relatively good, average, and poor reading ability were assessed on tasks in which success and…

  1. Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…

  2. Students' Difficulties with Integration in Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the common difficulties that students in introductory physics experience when solving problems involving integration in the context of electricity. We conducted teaching-learning interviews with 15 students in a second-semester calculus-based introductory physics course on several problems involving integration. We found…

  3. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  4. Healthy habits as possible sleep difficulty protectors in a Mexican national university’s medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Tafoya, Silvia; Departamento de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). a Psicóloga, Maestra en Psicología General Experimental.; Jurado, María; Departamento de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Psicóloga. Maestra en Psicología Clínica.; Yépez, Norma; Departamento de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Psicóloga. Maestra en Psicología Clínica.; Fouilloux, Mariana; Departamento de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Psicóloga, Maestra en Ciencias, campo Salud Mental Pública.; Lara, María; Departamento de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Facultad de Medicina, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Médico Psiquiatra, Doctora en Ciencias Médicas.

    2013-01-01

    Medical students have a high percentage of poor sleepers; more evidence on how health habits contribute to sleep better in this population is needed. Objectives: To identify the association of some health habits with presence/absence of sleep difficulties in medical freshmen. Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Participants: Medical students. Interventions: The presence/absence of sleep difficulties was assessed by...

  5. SOCIALIZATION OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES IN THE FAMILY AND LOCAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladica Kotevska

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper at the beginning, stressing the existence of the two large groups of disabled persons: children with developmental difficulties and labor disabled persons, the problem of children with developmental difficulties especially of those mentally retarded from medical, psychological pedagogical and rehabilitation aspect is stressed.At the same time the basic assumptions given by the Macedonian Constitution providing better living and working conditions of these citizens are stressed. Also, certain indications presented are related to socialization of children with developmental difficulties and are connected with the training of the centers of social affairs, information and advisory work with parents.In that way it is pointed out that the Republic Institute for social affairs in cooperation with UNICEF and the association of East-European Partnership develop program processes that give support to such an orientation.

  6. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  7. Why people don't participate in collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, P.G.; van Stekelenburg, J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of social movements usually concentrate on explanations of participation. Much less attention is given to non-participation. In this article, we develop a social–psychological theory of non-participation. To some extent, non-participation is the flip side of participation, but it also has

  8. Re-reading Discourse and Social Psychology: transforming social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    This paper considers one theme in the contemporary legacy of Potter and Wetherell's (1987) Discourse and Social Psychology. It overviews the context that led to that book and considers a series of critical responses from both experimental and critical/qualitative social psychologists. It refutes criticisms and corrects confusions. Focusing on contemporary discursive psychology, it highlights (a) its rigorous use of records of actual behaviour; (b) its systematic focus on normative practices. In methodological terms, it (a) highlights limitations in the use of open-ended interviews; (b) considers the way naturalistic materials provide access to participants' own orientations and displays; (c) builds a distinctive logic of sampling and generalization. In theoretical terms, it (a) highlights the way discourse work can identify foundational psychological matters; (b) offers a novel approach to emotion and embodiment; (c) starts to build a matrix of dimensions which are central to the constructing and recognizing of different kinds of social actions. It now offers a fully formed alternative social psychology which coordinates theory and method and a growing body of empirical work. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. An introduction to Chinese psychology--its historical roots until the present day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Louise T; Zheng, Mo

    2002-03-01

    In this article the authors review the historical development of Chinese psychology. China's long history as a country immersed in the study of psychological issues is well known and has had an influence on developments in the field of psychology around the world. Modern Chinese psychology, however, was imported from the West and the Soviet Union and has been closely linked with China's social environment and changes of national policy. Today Chinese psychology is still in a preliminary stage. Despite difficulties that may impede its future development, the importance of psychology in the modernization of China has been widely recognized.

  10. Individual psychological therapy in an acute inpatient setting: Service user and psychologist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Catherine; Pistrang, Nancy; Huddy, Vyv; Williams, Claire

    2018-01-18

    The acute inpatient setting poses potential challenges to delivering one-to-one psychological therapy; however, there is little research on the experiences of both receiving and delivering therapies in this environment. This qualitative study aimed to explore service users' and psychologists' experiences of undertaking individual therapy in acute inpatient units. It focused on the relationship between service users and psychologists, what service users found helpful or unhelpful, and how psychologists attempted to overcome any challenges in delivering therapy. The study used a qualitative, interview-based design. Eight service users and the six psychologists they worked with were recruited from four acute inpatient wards. They participated in individual semi-structured interviews eliciting their perspectives on the therapy. Service users' and psychologists' transcripts were analysed together using Braun and Clarke's (2006, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77) method of thematic analysis. The accounts highlighted the importance of forming a 'human' relationship - particularly within the context of the inpatient environment - as a basis for therapeutic work. Psychological therapy provided valued opportunities for meaning-making. To overcome the challenges of acute mental health crisis and environmental constraints, psychologists needed to work flexibly and creatively; the therapeutic work also extended to the wider context of the inpatient unit, in efforts to promote a shared understanding of service users' difficulties. Therapeutic relationships between service users and clinicians need to be promoted more broadly within acute inpatient care. Psychological formulation can help both service users and ward staff in understanding crisis and working collaboratively. Practice-based evidence is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of adapted psychological therapy models. Developing 'human' relationships at all levels of acute inpatient care continues to be an

  11. Sensory and Physico-Psychological Metaphor Comprehension in Children with ASD: A Preliminary Study on the Outcomes of a Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Melogno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research into difficulties in figurative language in children with ASD highlighted that it is possible to devise training interventions to overcome these difficulties by teaching specific strategies. This study describes how children with ASD can improve their capability to explain metaphors with a treatment. Two types of metaphors, in the “X is Y” form, were addressed: sensory and physico-psychological. To face the difficulties posed by these metaphors, the adult taught two strategies: inserting the connective “is like” between “X” and “Y”, which transforms the metaphor into a simile; comparing “X” and “Y” by means of thinking maps. Two tests of metaphor comprehension were used, one based on sensory and the other on physico-psychological metaphors. Sixteen 10 year-old children participated into the study, including an experimental group formed by 8 children with ASD (n = 4 which had received the treatment, and a control group (n = 4 which had not, and 8 typically-developing (TD children. At the post-test, the experimental group significantly outperformed the controls in explaining both types of metaphors, but only in the sensory metaphors did their performances reach TD children’s levels. These results illuminate how clinical treatment can positively influence the developmental trajectories of metaphor comprehension.

  12. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  13. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  14. Self-Compassion Online: A Pilot Study of an Internet-Based Self-Compassion Cultivation Program for Psychology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay-Jones, Amy; Kane, Robert; Rees, Clare

    2017-07-01

    The current study sought to conduct a preliminary investigation of the effectiveness and feasibility of a novel, self-guided online self-compassion training for reducing psychological distress and increasing self-compassion and happiness among psychology trainees. A 6-week online self-compassion cultivation program was developed and delivered to Australian psychology trainees (n = 37), and a pre-experimental repeated-measures design was used to collect change data on self-compassion, happiness, perceived stress, emotion regulation difficulties as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Participants reported significant increases in self-compassion and happiness and significant decreases in depression, stress, and emotion regulation difficulties between pretest and posttest, with the majority of changes maintained at 3-month follow up.  This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness and acceptability of online self-compassion training as a positive, integrated, and meaningful way of reducing distress and promoting self-compassion and happiness among trainee psychologists. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Suicide risk and protective factors among youth experiencing school difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Elaine; Eggert, Leona L

    2007-10-01

    Youth who experience difficulty in school are at risk for suicide, yet there is little published information specific to risk and protective factors among this group. The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth examination of risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behaviour among youth who were experiencing problems in school and to compare these factors between suicide risk and non-suicide risk subgroups. Participants were 730 high school students in the Northwest and Southwest regions of the United States, aged 14-21 years. All participants were known to be experiencing difficulty with grades and/or attendance. Students completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and a one-on-one interview, which assessed suicidal behaviours as well as risk factors (e.g. drug involvement, emotional distress, stress), and protective factors (e.g. self-esteem, coping, support). Analysis of covariance tests, controlling for age and sex, were conducted to examine differences between the suicide risk and non-suicide risk groups on each risk and protective factor. The suicide risk subgroup reported higher levels of all risk factors, except alcohol and marijuana use, and lower levels of protective factors. While the groups did not differ on frequency of alcohol or marijuana use, they did differ on other illicit drug use and consequences of alcohol and other illicit drug use. Recommendations for nurses practising in school settings are discussed.

  16. Positive Narratives: The Stories Young People with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD) Tell about Their Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellis-James, Charlie; Fox, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This research drew on positive psychology in order to offer an optimistic way of conceptualising the lives of young people who are often described as having "SEBD" (social, emotional and behavioural difficulties), now SEMH (social, emotional, mental health) in the English 2014 Special Educational Needs and Disability (SEND) Code of…

  17. Teasing and social rejection among obese children enrolling in family-based behavioural treatment: effects on psychological adjustment and academic competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, T; Njardvik, U; Olafsdottir, A S; Craighead, L W; Bjarnason, R

    2012-01-01

    The first objective was to determine the prevalence of psychological maladjustment (emotional and behavioural problems), low academic competencies and teasing/social rejection among obese Icelandic children enrolling in a family-based behavioural treatment. A second objective was to explore the degree to which teasing/social rejection specifically contributes to children's psychological adjustment and academic competencies when controlling for other variables, including demographics, children's physical activity, parental depression and life-stress. Participants were 84 obese children (mean body mass index-standard deviation score=3.11, age range=7.52-13.61 years). Height and weight, demographics and measures of children's psychological adjustment, academic competencies, teasing/social rejection and physical activity were collected from children, parents and teachers. Parental depression and life-stress was self-reported. Over half the children exceeded cutoffs indicating concern on at least one measure of behavioural or emotional difficulties. Children endorsed significant levels of teasing/social rejection, with almost half acknowledging they were not popular with same-gender peers. Parent reports of peer problems were even higher, with over 90% of both boys and girls being rated by their parents as having significant peer difficulties. However, rates of low academic competencies as reported by teachers were not different from those of the general population. In regression analyses controlling for other variables, self-reported teasing/social rejection emerged as a significant contributor to explaining both child psychological adjustment and academic competencies. The results indicate that among obese children enrolled in family-based treatment, self-reported teasing/social rejection is quite high and it is associated with poorer psychological adjustment as well as lower academic competencies. Parent reports corroborate the presence of substantial peer

  18. Medical and psychological problems faced by young Australian gap year travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Mills, Deborah; Sheridan, Sarah; Lau, Colleen

    2017-09-01

    Gap year travellers can potentially be exposed to many infectious diseases and other travel-related health problems including injuries and psychological problems. Currently, there is little information on health and wellbeing of this particular group of travellers. Participants were recruited from an organization that specialized in organising international gap year placements. Gap year travellers were asked to complete a pre-departure survey on demographics, placement destination and duration, previous travel experience, hobbies, risk taking behaviour, anticipated problems during the placement, and pre-travel preparations. After the placement, participants were asked to complete a post-trip survey on their experiences, problems, health issues, and medical treatment required. The 88 and 34 gap year travellers aged 17-23 years completed pre- and post-placement surveys respectively. The duration of placements ranged from 3 to 12 months. Psychological stressors were frequently reported [ n = 26 (76.5%) felt home sick; n = 18 (52.9%) experienced culture shock; n = 17 (50.0%) had difficulty communicating with the locals]. The majority of participants (91.2%) tried to work out a solution for the stressor on their own. Twenty-eight (82.4%) participants reported medical problems during their placement; the most common problems were sunburn ( n = 19; 55.9%), respiratory infections ( n = 15; 44.1%), weight change ( n = 14; 41.2%), and diarrhoea/food poisoning ( n = 13; 38.2%). Three participants (3.4%) were admitted to hospital; for a muscle injury, head injury and skin infection after getting a tribal tattoo. Psychological stressors were common, but most did not seek help. Some medical problems encountered during their placement may have been preventable with improved pre-departure preparation. Gap year, pre-departure, preparation.

  19. The acceptance of hearing disability among adults experiencing hearing difficulties: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Manchaiah, Vinaya K. C.; Molander, Peter; Rönnberg, Jerker; Andersson, Gerhard; Lunner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study developed the Hearing Disability Acceptance Questionnaire (HDAQ) and tested its construct and concurrent validities. Design Cross-sectional. Participants A total of 90 participants who were experiencing hearing difficulties were recruited in the UK. Outcome measures The HDAQ was developed based on the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ). Participants completed self-report measures regarding hearing disability acceptance, hearing disability, symptoms of anxiety and dep...

  20. Listening as a method of addressing psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alun Charles; Cutcliffe, John R

    2009-04-01

    This paper discusses the values of therapeutic listening and ways that emotional difficulties can impact palliative nurses' abilities to provide psychological care. Recent literature indicates that providing psychological care can burden some healthcare professionals including nurses; who may lack the necessary competencies or organizational resources to carry out their roles. References drawn from the databases: all EBM reviews, British Nursing INDEX, CINAHL, PSYCH INFO and MEDLINE and EMBASE are discussed. Psychological care is considered critical to providing holistic care. Yet the literature suggests engaging in such work makes emotional demands on the professionals attempting to carry it out and is associated with psychological difficulties including burnout. Clinical supervision can help reduce the distress caused by emotionally charged situations. Thoughtful clinical supervision can also contribute to safe and effective health care. Nursing would benefit from understanding more about the effects on healthcare professionals of repeated exposure to emotionally charged situations and benefits that clinical supervision can offer to health care.

  1. The Place and Promise of Theory in Rehabilitation Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S.; Elliott, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Although rehabilitation psychology is more focused on empirical evidence and clinical application than theory development, we argue for the primacy of theory, and explain why theories are needed in and useful for rehabilitation psychology. Impediments to theory development are discussed, including the difficulties of applying psychological theories in multidisciplinary enterprises, and the difficulties in developing a theory-driven research program. We offer suggestions by reviewing research settings, knowledge gained through controlled studies, grantsmanship, and then identify topical areas where new theories are needed. We remind researcher-practitioners that rehabilitation psychology benefits from a judicious mix of scientific rigor and real-world vigor. Conclusions We close by advocating for theory-driven research programs that embrace a methodological pluralism, which will in turn advance new theory, produce meaningful research programs that inform practice, and realize the goals of this special issue of Rehabilitation Psychology—advances in research and methodology. PMID:19649146

  2. Perfectionism, academic motivation, and psychological adjustment: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelon, Paule; Vallerand, Robert J; Grouzet, Frédérick M E; Cardinal, Geneviève

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to propose and test an integrative model on the role of perfectionism, academic motivation, and psychological adjustment difficulties in undergraduate students. The model posits that self-oriented perfectionism facilitates self-determined academic motivation, whereas socially prescribed perfectionism enhances non-self-determined academic motivation. In turn, self-determined and non-self-determined academic motivations, respectively, lead to lower and higher levels of psychological adjustment difficulties. Results from two studies using structural equation modeling analyses provided support for the model.

  3. Down syndrome and sport participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyer, Osman N

    2006-12-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) derive measurable physiologic and psychologic benefits from participation in physical activities and sports. Physicians in the position of evaluating these individuals and providing guidance in regard to their competitive or recreational physical activities need to be aware of the physiologic and anatomic concerns specific to this population. Effective screening and evaluation by a physician, accompanied with clearly communicated guidelines for specific activities, can provide an individual with DS the opportunity to safely participate in sports and recreational physical activity.

  4. An overview of South African psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa.

  5. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  6. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M

    2006-08-01

    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  7. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  8. How specific are specific comprehension difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the occurrence of poor comprehenders, i.e., children identified with reading comprehension difficulties in spite of age-appropriate word reading skills. It supports the findings that some children do show poor reading comprehension in spite of age-appropriate word reading...... as measured on a phonological coding measure. However, the proportion was smaller than the often reported 10-15 % and even smaller when average sight word recognition was also set as a criterion for word reading ability. Compared to average comprehenders, the poor comprehenders’ sight word recognition...... and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below that of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience and, likewise, a lack of fluent word reading may be important factors in understanding nine-year-old poor comprehenders’ difficulties....

  9. Characterization of orgasmic difficulties by women: focus group evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Tkachenko, Natalia; Lucas, Johna; Burbrink, Amy; Kreppner, Wayne; Dickstein, Jodi B

    2013-09-01

    Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is the second most prevalent sexual disorder in women. According to the most recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR), the term "marked distress" is central to the diagnosis of FOD. In practice, the term "distress" for use as a criterion for a clinical diagnosis is a medical construct and may not correlate with the language used by women with FOD to describe what they are experiencing. The objective of this study was to explore the terminology used by women to describe their feeling associated with difficulties in achieving orgasm. Women experiencing difficulties in achieving orgasm were invited to participate in a focus group. The focus groups included a characterization, picture sort and language exploration exercise and completing the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Desire, Arousal, Orgasm (FSDS-DAO) to determine the impact and emotional associations of decreased/lack of orgasms. Patient reported terminology for characterization of their FOD, and validity of question 15 of FSDS-DAO. Sixty-seven percent (44/66) of the women used the word "frustrated" when asked, "What one word would you use to describe your orgasm difficulties?" In the language exploration exercise, the most common term used to describe emotions associated with decreased orgasm was "frustration." Responses (0 = never to 4 = always) to question 15 (frustrated by problems with orgasm) of the FSDS-DAO, ranged from 1 to 4 (mean 3.0) indicating that women were very frustrated. The term "frustrated" was the most relevant and common emotion women feel when they have difficulties in achieving orgasm. Additionally, the women consistently supported the content validity of question 15 of the FSDS-DAO. Despite the use of the term "distress" in the DSM-IV-TR criteria for FOD, the term reflects the medical construct required to become a sexual dysfunction and does not appear to be an accurate representation of

  10. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Hanurawan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research  designs  are  grounded  research,  phenomenology  research,  case  study research,  and  ethnography  research.  In  some  situations,  researchers  often  meet questions  that  reach  beyond  the  prescription  of  the  APA  ethical  guidelines concerning  human  participants.  Researchers  of  qualitative  research  in psychology  can  generalize  their  research  findings  to  other  people,  times,  or treatments  to  the  degree  to  which  they  are  similar to  other  people,  times,  or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies  for  expanding  qualitative  research  as  a research  approach  so  the methodology  can  be  accepted  as  one  significant  method  in  understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.

  11. Difficulties with tooth protectors in endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromaa, U; Pesonen, P; Linko, K; Tammisto, T

    1988-05-01

    The suitability of three tooth protectors for routine use during endotracheal intubation was studied in 300 consecutive patients undergoing elective operations under general anaesthesia. The main disadvantages of the protectors were lack of space and the consequent difficulty of guiding the endotracheal tube into the larynx, and poor visibility, especially when the Camo protector was used. These difficulties could be avoided in most cases by cutting off the right angle of the Camo protector. The less experienced anaesthesiologists especially had difficulties with the protectors: 20% of patients in the Camo group were considered impossible to intubate unless the protector was removed. The silicone inlay of the Camo protector melts and becomes adhesive at body temperature, which makes its prolonged use hazardous. Two patients lost a maxillary incisor despite the proper use of a protector (Denex). Thus the use of a tooth protector alone does not guarantee avoidance of dental trauma. Better results could be obtained by improving the design of the protectors and by careful pre-anaesthetic dental examination.

  12. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  13. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  14. 'Theory of mind' II: Difficulties and critiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastow, Michael

    2012-08-01

    'Theory of mind' will be further examined firstly by looking at the experimental situation that was used to put forward this notion. A fundamental difficulty regarding the failure of 'theory of mind' to account for the misunderstandings of everyday life will be discussed. Other difficulties in the experimental conceptualisation of this notion will then be studied. Critiques that have previously been made of 'theory of mind' will also be examined. 'Theory of mind' proposes an ideal of limpid understanding of the other. It is argued here that this notion of mind-reading is belied by its failure in our everyday lives. The experimental results by which this notion was proposed are neither sensitive nor specific. It is argued that there is also a fundamental error in this conception and its experimental design due to assessing a second-person phenomenon by a third-person method. Critiques of 'theory of mind' emphasise the epistemological difficulties and the fact that it is a poor explanation for the interactions of non-autistic subjects.

  15. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? a school based randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. Discussion A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If

  16. Difficulties in recruitment for a randomized controlled trial involving hysterosalpingography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmerhorst Frans M

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of hysterosalpingography (HSG as routine investigation in the fertility work-up prior to laparoscopy and dye had been assessed in a randomized controlled trial. Recruiting subjects to the study was more difficult than anticipated. The objective of this study was to explore possible reasons for non-participation in the trial. Methods All newly referred subfertile women admitted to the Reproductive Medicine Clinic of Leiden University Medical Centre between 1 April 1997 and 31 December 1999, were eligible for the study. The reasons for non-participation were evaluated by scrutinizing the medical records. Results Out of 759 women, a total of 127 (17% agreed to participate in the trial. The most important reason for non-participation was because of exclusion criteria (73%. Other reasons were inattentive clinicians (3% and patient-associated reasons (24%. Patient refusal and indecisiveness to enroll in the study were the most common patient-associated reasons. The most frequently stated reason for trial refusal was reluctance to undergo laparoscopy and dye mainly due to issues related to anesthesia and scheduling of procedure. Conclusion Almost three-quarters of recruitment difficulties in this study were due to unavoidable reasons. To overcome the remaining avoidable reasons for non-participation, attention should be paid to appropriate instruction of the study protocol to the participating doctors and to provide adequate information, in layman's terms, to the patients. Reminding patients by notes or telephone calls for attending the clinic are helpful. It may be contingent upon tracing the reasons of clinicians and patients for non-participation to improve enrollment during a trial.

  17. [Disease--defence--manipulation: the difficulties in providing forensic-psychiatry opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzman, Janusz; Opio, Małgorzata; Waszkiewicz-Białek, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The challenges met by the psychiatrist and the psychologist and the difficulties in providing forensic-psychiatry and forensic-psychology opinions have been reviewed, based on examples. The studied patient was hospitalised 10 times and the forensic-psychiatry opinion passed 15 times during the judiciary process. Different psychiatric diagnoses were made and different soundness of mind were passed. The psychiatric health status were expresses by professors of psychiatry who did not participate directly in passing the forensic-psychiatry opinion. The studied patient was examined by other specialists and assessed by certificating medical doctors with the aim of getting disability pension benefits. The effect of medical certificates and testimonials from different medical doctors were analysed. Analysing this example, revealed the problem of proper formulation of content of medical documents to support the medical diagnosis and declared soundness of mind during the passing of forensic-psychiatry opinion. The doctors treating the patients and doctors passing opinion on the treated patient had a different assessment of the diagnoses and soundness of mind for the studied patients. Irrespective of the immediate aim of the examinations, all professionals providing assessment should mind the consequences of opinions passed by them and especially, the possibility of the opinion being used by the subject to prolong the judiciary process or even avoid legal responsibility. The independence (sovereignty) of the expert requires consideration in the context of prior multiple forensic-psychiatry opinion leaders in the field of psychiatry and the need for the expert to assume an attitude towards these opinions.

  18. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  19. Requirements for a virtual environment to support the social participation education of low-literates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, D.G.M.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Driessen, M.; Fuhri, K.; Neerincx, M.A.; Cremers, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    People of low literacy experience difficulties while participating in society. Learning support software could help alleviate these difficulties. However, there is currently no overview of theoretically and empirically sound requirements for this kind of support. This paper uses the situated

  20. Task Difficulty from the Learner's Perspective: Perceptions and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David; Keobke, Ken

    1995-01-01

    This paper explored task difficulty from the perspective of the learner. It investigated the relationship between student perception of task difficulty and actual difficulty as measured by successful completion of a task. The study also collected information on those factors identified by students themselves as implicated in task difficulty.…

  1. Middle school children's participation in activities and the effects of pain from backpack use on participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Renée Alison; Jacobs, Karen; Orsmond, Gael

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the activities in which middle school students participate most often. This research also determined whether students reported having difficulty participating in specific activities because of musculoskeletal pain from using their backpack, and whether the pain impacted the frequency with which they participated in activities. One hundred and twenty seven 7th grade students between the ages of 12 and 13 years old completed The Activity Participation Survey. This survey was used to determine the activities that students participated in most often and whether their participation was impacted by pain. Frequencies and independent samples t-tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that over 50% of students participated in work related activities such as completing homework, carrying books during school and completing household chores most often throughout the week. The results also indicated that 31.0% of the students reported having difficulty participating in activities as a result of pain. Nearly 25% of students reported having difficulty carrying their books during school because of pain, and 19% reported having difficulty playing sports. It is notable that among the students who reported having difficulty carrying their books, 12% reported carrying their books less frequently. Future studies should be performed to verify that pain from backpack use causes middle school students' participation in activities to be difficult. Continued research may further reveal that students may decrease the frequency that they engage in activities because of difficulty and pain, and results may be used to educate others on the scope and pertinence of this issue to students' daily lives. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  2. Supportive Group Factors, Course Pedagogy, and Multicultural Competency within Multicultural Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, Michael Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between course pedagogy and supportive group factors with variables of multicultural competency and multicultural counseling self-efficacy at the completion of a multicultural psychology course. The participants were students in graduate clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology programs…

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with food intake difficulties among residents with dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the prevalence of food intake difficulties and their associated factors among residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. The purpose of the study was to identify the best cutoff point for the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI, which evaluates the prevalence of food intake difficulties and recognizes factors associated with eating behaviors in residents with dementia.A cross-sectional design was adopted. In total, 213 residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan were recruited and participated in this study. The prevalence rate of food intake difficulties as measured by the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI was 44.6%. Factors associated with food intake difficulties during lunch were the duration of institutionalization (beta = 0.176, the level of activities of daily living-feeding (ADL-Q1 (beta = -0.235, and the length of the eating time (beta = 0.416. Associated factors during dinner were the illuminance level (beta = -0.204, sound volume level (beta = 0.187, ADL-Q1 (beta = -0.177, and eating time (beta = 0.395.Food intake difficulties may potentially be associated with multiple factors including physical function and the dining environment according to the 45% prevalence rate among dementia residents in long-term care facilities.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with food intake difficulties among residents with dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chiu, Chia-Hui; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Liu, Megan F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the prevalence of food intake difficulties and their associated factors among residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. The purpose of the study was to identify the best cutoff point for the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI), which evaluates the prevalence of food intake difficulties and recognizes factors associated with eating behaviors in residents with dementia. Methods and findings A cross-sectional design was adopted. In total, 213 residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan were recruited and participated in this study. The prevalence rate of food intake difficulties as measured by the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI) was 44.6%. Factors associated with food intake difficulties during lunch were the duration of institutionalization (beta = 0.176), the level of activities of daily living-feeding (ADL-Q1) (beta = -0.235), and the length of the eating time (beta = 0.416). Associated factors during dinner were the illuminance level (beta = -0.204), sound volume level (beta = 0.187), ADL-Q1 (beta = -0.177), and eating time (beta = 0.395). Conclusions Food intake difficulties may potentially be associated with multiple factors including physical function and the dining environment according to the 45% prevalence rate among dementia residents in long-term care facilities. PMID:28225776

  5. Facing a patient who seeks help after a suicide attempt: the difficulties of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothes, Inês Areal; Henriques, Margarida Rangel; Leal, Joana Barreiros; Lemos, Marina Serra

    2014-01-01

    Although intervention with suicidal patients is one of the hardest tasks in clinical practice, little is known about health professionals' perceptions about the difficulties of working with suicidal patients. The aims of this study were to: (1) describe the difficulties of professionals facing a suicidal patient; (2) analyze the differences in difficulties according to the sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the health professionals; and (3) identify the health professionals' perceived skills and thoughts on the need for training in suicide. A self-report questionnaire developed for this purpose was filled out by 196 health professionals. Exploratory principal components analyses were used. Four factors were found: technical difficulties; emotional difficulties; relational and communicational difficulties; and family-approaching and logistic difficulties. Differences were found between professionals who had or did not have training in suicide, between professional groups, and between the number of patient suicide attempts. Sixty percent of the participants reported a personal need for training and 85% thought it was fundamental to implement training plans targeted at health professionals. Specific training is fundamental. Experiential and active methodologies should be used and technical, relational, and emotional questions must be included in the training syllabus.

  6. Screening patients for communication difficulty: The diagnostic accuracy of the IFCI staff questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Robyn; Coyle, Julieanne; Lamont, Sue

    2017-08-01

    Many patients have difficulty communicating about their healthcare. At present there is no tool to identify these patients. This research investigated whether the Inpatient Functional Communication Interview Staff Questionnaire (IFCI SQ) could detect patients who have difficulty communicating their healthcare needs by investigating the sensitivity, specificity and internal consistency of the IFCI SQ. Fifty patients and their nurses participated in this research. Every second consecutive admission on the general medical ward of a hospital was assessed for communication difficulty by a speech-language pathologist on the IFCI and screened for communication difficulty by a nurse using the IFCI SQ. At a cut off score of <2, the IFCI SQ had a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 77% compared with the IFCI. The IFCI SQ is a useful test in identifying patients who have communication difficulty and is an extremely good test at ruling out patients who do not have communication difficulty. The internal consistency of the IFCI SQ was also high at 0.954. The IFCI SQ is a promising tool to detect patients in hospital with communication difficulty. Further research is required to explore the psychometric properties of the IFCI SQ in more detail.

  7. STRATEGIES OF COPING WITH DIFFICULTIES DURING RESEARCH PERFORMED BY YOUNG SCIENTISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Bokhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: young scientists engaged in creative activities face difficulties during scientific research, implementation and commercialisation of the results. The impossibility of coping with obstacles leads to the impairment of motivational and creative activity. The problem of studying the main semantic contents of difficult situations and strategies to cope with them becomes relevant as it is conducive to the process of personal development of young scientists. Materials and Methods: the authors used a questionnaire with open-ended questions for revealing the main difficulties and coping strategies in the process of research activity; COPE questionnaire adapted by E. Rasskazova, T. Gordeyeva, E. Osin; Style of Self-Regulation of Behaviour technique by V. I. Morosanova. Statistical data processing was carried out with descriptive statistics methods, analysis of frequencies, factor analysis (Varimax rotation with Kaiser normalisation, cluster analysis (furthest neighbour method and Ward’s method. Results: eight main semantic categories related to difficulties experienced in the process of performing the research work have been detected. The main ways of coping with arising difficulties have been identified. Types of respondents different in terms of coping strategies and regulatory-behavioural characteristics have been distinguished. Discussion and Conclusions: difficulties of self-organisation in time for realisation of new meanings, difficulties in structuring the research work and search for information act as psychological barriers provoking mental stress. The most efficient coping strategies in respondents are strategies Active coping and search for positive meaning and personal development. The inefficient coping strategy with difficulties complicating the process of self-development is Avoiding problems strategies.

  8. FEEDING DIFFICULTIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN, PREVIOUS FEEDING PRACTICES, AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Hélcio de Sousa; Aguiar, Renata Cunha de; Lira, Débora Teixeira Jales de; Sales, Mônica Úrsula Figuerêdo; Nóbrega, Nathalia Ávila do Nascimento

    2017-10-30

    To identify the prevalence of feeding difficulties in preschoolers, its association with epidemiological factors and previous eating habits, and repercussion on nutritional status. Cross-sectional study with a questionnaire given to the mothers of 301 children aged 2-6 years enrolled in public and private kindergartens in Natal, Northeast Brazil, conducted in 2014-2015. Feeding difficulty was assessed according to Kerzner's criteria, resulting in the profiles "highly selective intake", "active child with small appetite", "fear of feeding", and "child with psychological disorder or neglected". Association with the following independent variables was analyzed by logistic regression: breastfeeding time, age of cows' milk and complementary feeding introduction, age range, family income, type of school, mothers' profile (responsive or nonresponsive), and body mass index (BMI). Feeding difficulty was found in 37.2% of cases, with predominance of "highly selective intake" (25.4%). It was not associated with infancy feeding practices, family income or type of school. There were no differences between the BMI Z score means for the groups with and without feeding difficulty (1.0±1.5 SD and 1.1±1.4 SD, respectively). The five-to-six age range had more occurrences (OR 1.8; 95%CI 1.1-2.9). Children of responsive mothers were less likely to have feeding difficulties (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.2-0.8). Feeding difficulties were very frequent. Nutritional status was not impacted by it, and infancy eating habits were not associated with it. Responsive mothers' profile is a protective factor against eating difficulties and reinforces the importance of behavioral factors and mother-child interaction.

  9. Teaching Games for Understanding: The Difficulties and Challenges Experienced by Participation Cricket Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recent changes in the structure and delivery of formalised coach education courses such as the United Kingdom Coaching Framework (UKCF) and the United Kingdom Coaching Certificate (UKCC) has manifested in an increased importance on sports coaches adopting holistic and player-centred coaching pedagogy. For one National Governing Body of…

  10. Effects of Selected Nonmusical Characteristics and Band Festival Participation, Scores, and Literature Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine potential validity concerns regarding the use of music festival scores as an element of value-added assessment practices mandated by federal education policy. Nonmusical school and band characteristics of band size, school enrollment, school percentage of minority enrollment, and school percentage of…

  11. Relationship between Fear of Falling and Preceived Difficulty with Grocery Shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C S; McLeod, K M

    2017-01-01

    Fear of falling is associated with self-imposed restrictions of basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), leading greater risk for functional decline and falls. The inability to independently grocery shop, a food-related IADL, negatively affects nutritional status and survival among seniors. Thus, this study examined the relationship between the fear of falling and difficulty with grocery shopping among seniors (n=98, mean age=82, 83% female), taking into account their functional capacity. Demographic profile, eating problems, physical fitness (mobility, balance, endurance, leg strength), and fear of falling (balance confidence, falls efficacy) were measured. Fifty-six percent of participants reported difficulty with grocery shopping. Those who reported difficulty had significantly lower scores for dynamic balance, balance confidence and fall efficacy compared to those who did not. This study revealed a relationship between the fear of falling and perceived difficulty with grocery shopping. Interventions should address fear of falling among the frail seniors.

  12. Male professional footballers' experiences of mental health difficulties and help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susan; Harrison, Lesley K; Kucharska, Jo

    2017-05-01

    Male professional footballers (soccer) represent an at-risk population of developing mental health difficulties and not accessing professional support. One in four current footballers report mental health difficulties. Higher prevalence is reported after retirement. This qualitative study aimed to provide in-depth insight into male professional footballers' lived experiences of mental health difficulties and help-seeking. Seven participants were interviewed. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. One superordinate theme emerged; 'Survival'. This related to survival in the professional football world, of mental health difficulties and after transition into the 'real world'. Six subordinate themes are explored alongside literature pertaining to male mental health, identity, injury, transition, and emotional development. Shame, stigma, fear and level of mental health literacy (knowledge of mental health and support) were barriers to help-seeking. Support for professional footballers' mental wellbeing requires improvement. Recommendations are made for future research, mental health education and support.

  13. Improving decision making about clinical trial participation - a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for women considering participation in the IBIS-II breast cancer prevention trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juraskova, I; Butow, P; Bonner, C; Bell, M L; Smith, A B; Seccombe, M; Boyle, F; Reaby, L; Cuzick, J; Forbes, J F

    2014-01-01

    .... This study investigated whether decision aids (DAs) can reduce decisional difficulties among women considering participation in the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II (IBIS-II) trial...

  14. Psychology of family business

    OpenAIRE

    Taylyakova, Feruzahon

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  15. Professional psychology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  16. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...

  17. Psychological distress following fecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Ladelund, Steen; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program.......To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program....

  18. The profile of performance skills and emotional factors in the context of participation among young children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Lihi; Ratzon, Navah; Bart, Orit

    2013-01-01

    Participation is a person's involvement in daily activities in a variety of environments, roles and life situations. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience difficulties in gaining academic achievements or in their engagement in activity of daily living. Motor difficulties have a negative effect on the ability to participate, as well as on various affective components. Senses of coherence, effort and hope have not yet been assessed, within the context of participation, in children with DCD. The purpose of the present study is to look into the relations between participation and senses of coherence, effort and hope among children with DCD, in comparison to typically developed children. Fifty subjects aged 5-6 years participated in the study, 25 of whom are children diagnosed with DCD, the other 25 being typical children. The DCD diagnosis was established according to the DSM-IV criteria and the M-ABC test. All children completed the coherence questionnaire for children as well as the children's questionnaire on effort and hope. Parents completed the Children Participation Questionnaire (CPQ), and the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ). Children with DCD had lower performance skills, lower sense of coherence, hope, and effort than their peers. They less enjoy their participation and their parents are less satisfied in comparison to control group. Significant correlations were found between sense of coherence and hope to participation. Process skills were found to be the main predictor for explaining child's participation. While treating children with DCD we have to consider also socio-psychological aspects that may be weakened. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF STUDENTS ADAPTATION TO UNIVERSITY STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Molokova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The solution version of one of problems of psychology andpedagogical escort of students at the initial stage of their adaptation to training in higher education institution is stated in the study. Such maintenance obligatory includes diagnostics of a psychological state of pupils that in a traditional state demands considerable expenses by as teachers’ and first-year students’ forces and time. Possibility of elimination of this shortcoming is presented.Methods. The methods involve the modified Sklyayn’s technique which description is presented in K. Rogers’s works; the technique of the personal differential definition; the technique of definition of the psychological satisfaction in various vital spheres. Students’ relation to the research was found out during anonymous poll.Results. It is shown that, despite the positive relation to psychological researches from the majority of respondents, there is a problem of the obvious or latent unwillingness of some first-year students to participate in surveys and test work caused by work content and its duration. The alternative to tiresome measurements of indicators of adaptation of pupils to training in higher education institution is presented – the express diagnostics reduce time of monitoring and allow teachers to get students interested. Comparison of the results received at use of Sklyayn’s technique and a technique «Personal differential» shows that they investigate the same phenomenon at nonverbal and verbal levels: correlation of persons’ «real self» and «ideal self». However, if creation of verbal formulations of the person relation to what he/she is, and to what he/she wants to be, can cause difficulties by the examinee, the nonverbal diagnostics turned to subconsciousness, is not only simpler, but also reflects a psychological state of the person more precisely.Scientific novelty. Modification of the technique by Sklyayn is proposed; it

  20. Understanding Risk for Reading Difficulties in Children With Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kimberly A; Justice, Laura M; O'Connell, Ann A; Pentimonti, Jill M; Kaderavek, Joan N

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms. On the basis of performance on a word recognition task given in kindergarten, children were classified as either good or poor readers. Comparisons were made across these 2 groups on a number of language and early literacy measures administered in preschool, and logistic regression was used to determine the best predictors of kindergarten reading status. Twenty-seven percent of the sample met criterion for poor reading in kindergarten. These children differed from good readers on most of the skills measured in preschool. The best predictors of kindergarten reading status were oral language, alphabet knowledge, and print concept knowledge. Presence of comorbid disabilities was not a significant predictor. Classification accuracy was good overall. Results suggest that risk of reading difficulty for children with language impairment can be reliably estimated in preschool, prior to the onset of formal reading instruction. Measures of both language and early literacy skills are important for identifying which children are likely to develop later reading difficulties.

  1. Decision difficulty and illusion of transparency in Japanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yumi

    2007-04-01

    People tend to believe that their inner thoughts are readily apparent to others. This study was conducted to examine effects, related to the difficulty of making decisions of personal preference, on the illusion of transparency, that is, the tendency people have to regard their own preference as more apparent to others when they have made their decision easily as opposed to situations in which they felt their decision to be difficult. In three studies in which the customary "transparency" experimental paradigm was used, university students were asked to rank choices of wedding dresses (Studies 1 and 3) or Korean movie stars (Study 2). Analysis suggested that the less difficulty participants felt in making their judgments (the first and last preference vs mid-ranking preference), the more they expected judgments to be transparent, especially when they had the clear intent to convey their thoughts to others. However, observers discerned first preferences no better than mid-ranking preferences. How inner subjective information contributes to the illusion of transparency is also discussed.

  2. Drama to promote social and personal well-being in six- and seven-year-olds with communication difficulties: the Speech Bubbles project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    This paper focuses on an innovative intersection between education, health and arts. Taking a broad definition of health it examines some social and psychological well-being impacts of extended collaborations between a theatre company and children with communication difficulties. It seeks to test aspects of Fredrickson's(1) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions in a primary school curriculum context. The researcher participated in a project called Speech Bubbles. The programme was devised by theatre practitioners and aimed at six- and seven-year-olds with difficulties in speech, language and communication. Sessions were observed, videoed and analysed for levels of child well-being using an established scale. In addition, responses regarding perceived improvements in speech, language and communication were gathered from school records and teachers, teaching assistants, practitioners and parents. Data were captured using still images and videos, children's recorded commentaries, conversations, written feedback and observation. Using grounded research methods, themes and categories arose directly from the collected data. Fluency, vocabulary, inventiveness and concentration were enhanced in the large majority of referred children. The research also found significant positive developments in motivation and confidence. Teachers and their assistants credited the drama intervention with notable improvements in attitude, behaviour and relationships over the year. Aspects of many children's psychological well-being also showed marked signs of progress when measured against original reasons for referral and normal expectations over a year. An unexpected outcome was evidence of heightened well-being of the teaching assistants involved. Findings compared well with expectations based upon Fredrickson's theory and also the theatre company's view that theatre-making promotes emotional awareness and empathy. Improvements in both children's well-being and communication were

  3. Psychology in its Place

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...

  4. Psychological Handicap or the Difficulty of the Social Integration of the Highly Visually-impaired

    OpenAIRE

    Berenreiter, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to describe an area of the social integration of visual impaired and blind people in the intact society. It investigates some of areas of life of people with visual disability, acceptance of them in intact society and creation of the positions to people with visual handicap. The first part brings the characterization of the personality of people with visual handicap, their adult age, parenhood and and problems of their employment. The second part deals with anat...

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND. DEVELOPMENT. Oladipo, S.E. PhD. Dept. of Counselling Psychology, Tai Solarin University of Education,. Ijagun, Ogun State. Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) ...

  6. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  7. School Psychology in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Anders

    1987-01-01

    Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

  8. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  9. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  10. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in parent-reported and teacher-reported psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah; Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether there are differences in the social gradient of parent-reported and teacher-reported child psychological well-being. Secondary data analysis comparing ratings of child psychological well-being (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) in the UK Millennium Cohort Study at 7 years by socioeconomic circumstances (SEC). A number of measures of SEC were tested; results are reported for maternal education. From a sample of 13,168 singletons who participated at the age of 7 years, complete data were available for 8207 children. There was a social gradient in SDQ scores reported by parents and teachers, with 'borderline/abnormal' scores more prevalent in children with lower-educated mothers. However, the gradient was more marked in parent report compared with teacher report, and discrepancies between parent and teacher reports were greatest for children from higher SECs. The social gradient in child psychological well-being, although present, was weaker in teacher report compared with parent report. This may be because children behave differently in school and home settings, or parents and teachers demonstrate reporting bias. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Velocardiofacial syndrome: learning difficulties and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, L L; Solman, R T

    1995-08-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome, delineated in 1978 by Shprintzen, is a multiple genetic disorder, characterised primarily by cleft palate, cardiovascular anomalies, typical facies, and learning disorders. This syndrome with its recurrent pattern of anomalies has significant implications for education as it is linked to a variety of educationally relevant problems including learning difficulties, behaviour disorders, and speech and language deficits. While clinical research advances and new findings in cytogenetics enable early diagnosis and genetic counselling, ramifications of the syndrome in the field of education are still unknown. Learning difficulties should not be viewed solely as a pathological condition and with data on success of intervention, parents and teachers can be apprised of the information. This paper discusses academic characteristics and the effects of intervention with emphasis on interactive computer based instruction on the development of reading, language, spelling, and numeracy skills. Positive effects of computer based instruction on students' self-esteem, motivation, and competence in computer operational skills were also observed and noted. We are encouraged by the enthusiasms of the students for the system, the development of interest in reading, and the transfer of remedial instruction to classroom performance. Comparison of pretest and post-test results indicated significant improvement in reading ability as measured using Neale Analysis. This improvement is in accordance with results obtained using computer testing of specific subskills in reading/language and mathematics.

  13. [Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of splenomegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seĭsembekov, T Z; Umbetalina, N S; Iungbliut, A A; Musataeva, M M; Shilova, V N; Bekk, V G; Batpaeva, N I

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss diagnostic difficulties that may occur in the interpretation of splenomegaly. In some cases, other tumorous formations, palpable in the left hypochondrium (renal tumor and retroperitoneal fibroma in cases demonstrated) may be taken for splenomegaly. In other cases, diagnostic difficulties may be related to establishing the cause of genuine splenomegaly. Out of 10 patients with genuine splenomegaly, the cause of which could not be ascertained at the prehospital stage, the enlargement of the spleen in 2 was due to liver cirrhosis, in 3, to subleukemic myelosis, in 1, to splenic tuberculosis, in 2, to multiple capillary angiomas of the spleen, in 1, to chronic monocytic leukemia, and in 1 patient, to splenic echinococcosis. In 3 patients out of the 10, the diagnosis was verified by surgery followed by histological examination of the spleen. The conclusion is made about the necessity of the use of clinical and laboratory examinations, of patients with obscure "splenomegaly" together with the use of x-ray and ultrasonography of the spleen, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, puncture of the bone marrow and spleen. In some cases, splenectomy may be performed along with histological examination of the spleen as the final stage of differential diagnosis of splenomegalies.

  14. Intervention program efficacy for spelling difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Maria Nobre; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    To develop an intervention procedure for spelling difficulties and to verify the effectiveness of the intervention program in students with lower spelling performance. We developed an intervention program for spelling difficulties, according to the semiology of the errors. The program consisted of three modules totaling 16 sessions. The study included 40 students of the third to fifth grade of public elementary education of the city of Marilia (SP), of both genders, in aged of eight to 12 years old, being distributed in the following groups: GI (20 students with lower spelling performance) and GII (20 students with higher spelling performance). In situation of pre and post-testing, all groups were submitted to the Pro-Orthography. The results statistically analyzed showed that, in general, all groups had average of right that has higher in post-testing, reducing the types of errors second semiologycal classification, mainly related to natural spelling errors. However, the results also showed that the groups submitted to the intervention program showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. The intervention program developed was effective once the groups submitted showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. Therefore, the intervention program can help professionals in the Health and Education to minimize the problems related to spelling, giving students an intervention that is effective for the development of the spelling knowledge.

  15. Children's psychological and behavioral responses following pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization: the caring intensively study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennick, Janet E; Dougherty, Geoffrey; Chambers, Christine; Stremler, Robyn; Childerhose, Janet E; Stack, Dale M; Harrison, Denise; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Dryden-Palmer, Karen; Zhang, Xun; Hutchison, Jamie

    2014-10-26

    Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) hospitalization places children at increased risk of persistent psychological and behavioral difficulties following discharge. Despite tremendous advances in medical technology and treatment regimes, approximately 25% of children demonstrate negative psychological and behavioral outcomes within the first year post-discharge. It is imperative that a broader array of risk factors and outcome indicators be explored in examining long-term psychological morbidity to identify areas for future health promotion and clinical intervention. This study aims to examine psychological and behavioral responses in children aged 3 to 12 years over a three year period following PICU hospitalization, and compare them to children who have undergone ear, nose and/or throat (ENT) day surgery. This mixed-methods prospective cohort study will enrol 220 children aged 3 to 12 years during PICU hospitalization (study group, n = 110) and ENT day surgery hospitalization (comparison group, n = 110). Participants will be recruited from 3 Canadian pediatric hospitals, and followed for 3 years with data collection points at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years post-discharge. Psychological and behavioral characteristics of the child, and parent anxiety and parenting stress, will be assessed prior to hospital discharge, and again at each of the 5 subsequent time points, using standardized measures. Psychological and behavioral response scores for both groups will be compared at each follow-up time point. Multivariate regression analysis will be used to adjust for demographic and clinical variables at baseline. To explore baseline factors predictive of poor psychological and behavioral scores at 3 years among PICU patients, correlation analysis and multivariate linear regression will be used. A subgroup of 40 parents of study group children will be interviewed at years 1 and 3 post-discharge to explore their perceptions of the impact of PICU

  16. Difficulties in implementing new knowlegde i OTpractice”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther

    2005-01-01

    Difficulties with implementing new knowledge in OT practice and how to improve the learning process? The aim of this master thesis was to explore and understand why further education and training efforts do not always result in change in practice, and how further education and training should...... be organised so as to achieve such a change. Many OT departments focus strongly on the learning and development of competence, and a great deal of resources is put into continuing education and workplace courses. Sometimes, however, with limited effect. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used...... to examine the experiences of six OT’s who participated in COPM training courses. The method of analysis constitutes condensation of meaning and interpretations at three levels; self-knowledge, common sense and theoretical level. Three theories/ perspectives (stated by Vygotsky, Schön and Wenger) were chosen...

  17. Social, emotional and behaviour difficulties in Maltese schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Cefai

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the result of a national study on social, emotional and behaviour difficulties (SEBD in Maltese schools, the first one of the kind in Malta. The study made use of ten percent of the school population in over one hundred state and non-state primary and secondary schools in Malta and Gozo, with seven thousand students, their parents and teachers selected to participate in the study. It sought to explore the nature and distribution of SEBD in Maltese schools, examine the relationships between SEBD and socio-cultural factors as reflected in the school, family and community contexts, and identify the risk and protective factors for SEBD. This paper presents the key findings of the study, and makes various recommendations in the prevention and management of SEBD and the promotion of socio-emotional literacy in schools. A key message is the complexity and multifacetedness of this phenomenon, and the need for multilevel, multisystemic interventions.

  18. The writing of informed consent in accessible language: difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nurimar C

    2015-06-01

    In order to assess the adequacy of informed consent terminology of research projects developed at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) , we conducted a review study on the terminology found in 55 projects (2008-20013) . Such projects belonged to different medical specialties and were all registered in the hospital's Ethics in Research Committee. Patients had difficulty in understanding the meanings of 76 medical terms and expressions; only 12 of them could be replaced. On the other hand, the present study reached the conclusion that, in most cases, the writing with scientific terms is essential in items such as justification/objectives and procedures, being insurmountable obstacles to the participants of this research and patients' understanding.

  19. Self-Control of Task Difficulty During Early Practice Promotes Motor Skill Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Boutin, Arnaud; Thon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the effect of self-control of task difficulty on motor learning is a function of the period of self-control administration. In a complex anticipation-coincidence task that required participants to intercept 3 targets with a virtual racquet, the task difficulty was either self-controlled or imposed to the participants in the two phases of the acquisition session. First, the results confirmed the beneficial effects of self-control over fully prescribed conditions. Second, the authors also demonstrated that a partial self-control of task difficulty better promotes learning than does a complete self-controlled procedure. Overall, the results revealed that these benefits are increased when this choice is allowed during early practice. The findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and applied perspectives.

  20. Psychological disorders associated with rosacea: Analysis of unscripted comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah A. Cardwell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conditions affecting the face are particularly prone to causing psychological comorbidity; patients may be reluctant to inform their physician about their psychological distress. Unscripted comments could provide novel insight regarding the psychological impact of rosacea. Aim: To assess psychologically distressing aspects of rosacea reported in an informal medical setting. Methods: Random sample of 10% of 27,051 posts analyzed, 446 comments addressed psychological effects of rosacea. Comments analyzed for symptoms of depression, anxiety, low confidence/self-esteem, and aspects of rosacea which cause distress, including symptoms, lifestyle change and difficulty with treatments. Brand names were changed to generic equivalent. Results: Symptoms of depression (n = 44 and the desire to end life (n = 6 were mentioned, but no comments expounded on any suicide plan. Anxiousness (n = 7 and negative impact on confidence/self-esteem (n = 5 were mentioned. Symptoms, or clinical manifestations (n = 29, were the most frequently mentioned distress factor, followed by lifestyle change (n = 20. Patients also voiced difficulty with treatments (n = 15. Limitations: Online forums may provide patient perceptions that patients would not share with a doctor, but the sample may not be representative of all rosacea patients. Conclusions: Inquiring about psychological impact of rosacea might be helpful in identifying patients who would benefit from supportive psychological measures.

  1. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Counselling Psychology Trainees’ Experiences of Working with Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmour, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background: In view of the estimation that around one fifth of individuals abused in childhood will develop psychological difficulties which require professional input there is a high chance that counselling psychology trainees will encounter adult survivors in their practice. Counselling psychology trainees are continuously faced with philosophical and practical challenges when they seek to integrate psychological models into their practice. The critical literature review discusses the conte...

  2. Psychological and Pedagogical Support for Students' Adaptation to Learning Activity in High Science School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleeva, Vera P.; Bykova, Svetlana S.; Varbanova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is due to the importance of psychological and pedagogical support for students in university that would prevent difficulties in learning activities and increase adaptive capacity through the development of relevant personal traits. Therefore, this article is aimed at solving the problem of arranging psychological and…

  3. Racial and Ethnic Minority College Students' Stigma Associated with Seeking Psychological Help: Examining Psychocultural Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…

  4. A Meta-analysis of the Relationship of Child Sexual Abuse to Adult Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, Shan A.

    1995-01-01

    This meta-analysis found significant relationships between the experience of child sexual abuse and subsequent difficulties in psychological adjustment as measured by psychological symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem. Significant heterogeneity occurred across studies using different subject populations. Student samples consistently…

  5. A POINT OF VIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AUGUSTO PÉREZ GÓMEZ

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with two questions: Is Psychology a profession? Is Psychology a science? The answerto the first one is that it should not be a profession; to the second, that we are still far from becoming ascience. On the basis of 19 statements, a series of queries and doubts on the scientific status of contemporaryPsychology are suggested. It is proposed that Psychology must necessarily consider neurosciencesand ethology as sources of knowledge; that philosophical reflection allowing conceptual definitionsmust be a priority; that the abusive glorification of experimental method has to come to an end becausethe tool cannot solve the conceptual difficulties; that the traditional emphasis on the factual dimension ofresearch and the minute attention to the theoretical and conceptual dimensions are detrimental to Psychology;and that it is urgent to create new research methods allowing access to the most refined forms ofhuman behavior, such as art.

  6. Construal level, rumination, and psychological distress in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfin, John M; Watkins, Edward R

    2012-06-01

    Patients with a life-limiting illness, such as cancer, and their carers experience elevated psychological distress. However, the psychological mechanisms underpinning distress in palliative care have been little studied. Recent theories predict that individuals who experience increased uncertainty in the context of ongoing difficulties, such as palliative patients and their carers, will (a) think more abstractly; (b) ruminate more; and (c) be more distressed. Palliative patients (n = 36, 90% with cancer), their carers (n = 29), and age-matched controls (n = 30) completed standardized questionnaires to assess anxiety, depression, and rumination, and open-ended interviews to identify their concerns and idiosyncratic levels of rumination. Concerns were analyzed linguistically for level of abstraction. As predicted, (i) palliative patients and carers reported significantly more uncertainty, rumination, and abstract thinking than controls; (ii) uncertainty, abstractness, and rumination were associated with psychological distress. Abstraction and rumination are psychological mechanism potentially involved in increased psychological distress in palliative care. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics will consider empirical studies as well as theoretical propositions and case summaries on human emotions and/or feelings, family issues, battery/battering, disabilities, problem of underachievement/learning-difficulties, intellectual disabilities, behaviour ...

  8. Mothers’ Experiences of Participating in the Medical Care of their Child with Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korning Lund, Line; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    at hospital and at home. Design and methods: A qualitative study with a hermeneutical approach. The empirical data consisted of three semi-structured interviews with mothers of children diagnosed with cancer within the last three months. The interviews were analysed in accordance with Kvale and Brinkmann....... Findings/results: Six themes were found: "Distraction, control and security", "Difficulty dealing with the child's psychological reaction", "Fluctuating surplus of mental resources calls for match of expectation", "Preparing systems for the medical care on their own", "Complying with the medical care...... at home to prevent hospitalisation" and "Good training in the medical care is significant". Conclusion: In general, mothers experienced participating in the medical care as positive. However, in several aspects of the medical care, the mothers lacked support and guidance from the health professionals...

  9. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Opinions about the Difficulties in Understanding Introductory Quantum Physics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin; Yavas, Pervin Ünlü

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the opinions of pre-service physics teachers about the difficulties in introductory quantum physics topics. In this study conducted with twenty-five pre-service physics teachers, the case study method was used. The participants were interviewed about introductory quantum physics topics. The interviews were…

  10. Implications of Overlapping Difficulties in Mathematics and Reading on Self-Concept and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Leena; Taipale, Airi; Savolainen, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between adolescents' difficulty in mathematics and reading and the influence on academic self-concept and school grades was examined. The participants (N = 585; 299 girls, 286 boys) were one age group of ninth-graders whose mathematics and reading skills were assessed at the end of comprehensive school at age…

  11. Emotional Dysregulation and Interpersonal Difficulties as Risk Factors for Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Erdley, Cynthia; Lisa, Ludmila; Sim, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a model of factors that place psychiatrically hospitalized girls at risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The role of familial and peer interpersonal difficulties, as well as emotional dysregulation, were examined in relationship to NSSI behaviors. Participants were 99 adolescent girls (83.2% Caucasian;…

  12. EFL College Students' Perceptions of the Difficulties in Oral Presentation as a Form of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.; Abdul-Kareem, Muneera M.; Taqi, Hanan A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral presentation skills are considered one of the most important proficiencies needed for higher education and future careers. Thus, the present study is interested in eliciting English as a Foreign Language (EFL) college students' perceptions of the difficulties they face in oral presentation as a form of assessment. Participants were 500 female…

  13. The Relationships between Shyness and Unsociability and Peer Difficulties: The Moderating Role of Insecure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin; Santo, Jonathan Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine the moderating role of the insecure mother-child attachment in the relations between social withdraw and peer difficulties. Participants were 487 urban children (247 boys, 240 girls) in elementary schools in Shanghai, the People's Republic of China. Data on attachment-relevant coping styles in insecure…

  14. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick Karl

    2014-01-01

    had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning...

  15. Examining Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Difficulties of Mathematics Teaching with the Micro-Teaching Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas Basturk; Tastepe, Mehtap

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine primary pre-service teachers' difficulties of the teaching of mathematics with micro-teaching method. The participants of the study were 15 third grade pre-service teachers from the department of primary education in the faculty of education. In this grade which includes four sections, there were…

  16. Difficulty Identifying Feelings, Distress Tolerance and Compulsive Buying: Analyzing the Associations to Inform Therapeutic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul; Segrist, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty identifying feelings (a component of alexithymia) and distress tolerance both appear to play a role in impulse-control problems. The goal of the present study was to build upon past research by developing a model of the relations between these constructs and compulsive buying. Participants from the United States and Canada completed a…

  17. Difficulties in daily life reported by patients with homonymous visual field defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, Jochem; de Haan, Gera; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Brouwer, Wiebo; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) are a common consequence of posterior brain injury and may have a substantial influence on ADL and participation in society. In this study we analysed self-reported visionrelated difficulties in daily life in a group of patients with HVFDs.

  18. Parents Using Explicit Reading Instruction with Their Children At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bethany M.; Kubina, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties were selected for participation in a parent implemented reading program. Each parent provided instruction to his or her child using the reading program "Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons" ("TYCTR"; Engelmann, Haddox, & Bruner, 1983). Parents were expected to…

  19. Reflective Spelling Strategies for Elementary School Students with Severe Writing Difficulties: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Hanna S.; Vauras, Marja M. S.; Vainio, Seppo

    2002-01-01

    A case study with two Finnish 10-year-old boys evaluated an intervention designed to promote the spelling skills of students with severe writing difficulties. The intervention comprised strategy instruction, procedural facilitation, and computer-assisted tutoring. Participants showed gains in spelling accuracy, spelling revision skills, decoding…

  20. Students' Difficulties with Definitions in the Context of Proofs in Elementary Set Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Hedieh; Berger, Margot

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore first-year students' difficulties with the use and interpretation of definitions of mathematical objects as they attempt proof construction exercises in the area of elementary set theory. The participants are students at a historically disadvantaged university in South Africa. In this study the activities and utterances of…

  1. Changes in Teaching in Order to Help Students with Learning Difficulties Improve in Cypriot Primary Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Florentia

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to explore what changes two Cypriot primary school teachers brought in their teaching in order to help students with learning difficulties improve in their classes. The study was qualitative and used non-participant observation in two primary classrooms in different primary schools and semi-structured interviews with the main…

  2. Stepped psychological care after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Ian I

    2016-09-01

    Emotional difficulties are common after stroke and have an impact on rehabilitation outcome. It is a challenge to manage these problems effectively, particularly in times of resource stringency. One proposal for how to do this has arisen out of an approach to general mental health management: a system of 'stepped care'. Such a system directs intervention by considering level of need, thereby making the most efficient use of available resources. It is the purpose of this article to articulate a stepped psychological care approach for emotional problems after stroke. Narrative review and elaboration of the model proposed by the Department of Health in England for the management of emotional problems after stroke. A stepped care model for the management of emotional problems after stroke is presented in detail, including descriptions of specific interventions and guidance to inform the level of management. The stepped psychological care proposal for emotional problems after stroke requires evaluation but is potentially of use within comparable healthcare systems. Implications for Rehabilitation Emotional problems are common after stroke and effect rehabilitation outcomes. A stepped care approach to these problems offers the ability to cater to all according to need. Greater specification of the services at each step can be outlined. While recommended, such an approach requires evaluation to prove its efficacy.

  3. Psychological tools for knowledge acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueter, Henry H.; Olson, Judith Reitman

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition is said to be the biggest bottleneck in the development of expert systems. The problem is getting the knowledge out of the expert's head and into a computer. In cognitive psychology, characterizing metal structures and why experts are good at what they do is an important research area. Is there some way that the tools that psychologists have developed to uncover mental structure can be used to benefit knowledge engineers? We think that the way to find out is to browse through the psychologist's toolbox to see what there is in it that might be of use to knowledge engineers. Expert system developers have relied on two standard methods for extracting knowledge from the expert: (1) the knowledge engineer engages in an intense bout of interviews with the expert or experts, or (2) the knowledge engineer becomes an expert himself, relying on introspection to uncover the basis of his own expertise. Unfortunately, these techniques have the difficulty that often the expert himself isn't consciously aware of the basis of his expertise. If the expert himself isn't conscious of how he solves problems, introspection is useless. Cognitive psychology has faced similar problems for many years and has developed exploratory methods that can be used to discover cognitive structure from simple data.

  4. Language and reading comprehension in middle childhood predicts emotional and behaviour difficulties in adolescence for those with permanent childhood hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jim; Pimperton, Hannah; Kreppner, Jana; Worsfold, Sarah; Terlektsi, Emmanouela; Mahon, Merle; Kennedy, Colin

    2018-02-01

    Permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) is associated with an elevated level of emotional and behaviour difficulties (EBD). In children and adolescents with PCHL, EBD has been found to be linked to language ability in children with PCHL. The present study was designed to test whether childhood language and/or reading comprehension abilities of children with PCHL predict subsequent EBD in adolescence. Language comprehension (LC) and reading comprehension (RC) were measured at ages 6-10 years (Time 1) and 13-20 years (Time 2) in participants with PCHL who preferred to communicate using spoken language (n = 57) and a hearing comparison group (n = 38). EBD was measured at both time points by parent and by teacher ratings on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Within the PCHL group there were negative correlations between EBD scores and concurrent LC and RC scores at Time 1 and at Time 2. Cross-lagged latent variable models fitted to the longitudinal data indicated that the associations between LC, RC and teacher-rated EBD were more likely to arise from the impact of LC and RC on behaviour rather than the other way around. In those with PCHL, poor language and reading comprehension in middle childhood increased the risk of emotional and behaviour difficulties at school in the teenage years. The results suggest that effective language and literacy interventions for children with hearing loss may also bring benefits to their mental health. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. It's Time to Broaden the Replicability Conversation: Thoughts for and From Clinical Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Patrick, Christopher J; Johnson, Sheri L; Krueger, Robert F; Miller, Joshua D; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Shrout, Patrick E

    2017-09-01

    Psychology is in the early stages of examining a crisis of replicability stemming from several high-profile failures to replicate studies in experimental psychology. This important conversation has largely been focused on social psychology, with some active participation from cognitive psychology. Nevertheless, several other major domains of psychological science-including clinical science-have remained insulated from this discussion. The goals of this article are to (a) examine why clinical psychology and allied fields, such as counseling and school psychology, have not been central participants in the replicability conversation; (b) review concerns and recommendations that are less (or more) applicable to or appropriate for research in clinical psychology and allied fields; and (c) generate take-home messages for scholars and consumers of the literature in clinical psychology and allied fields, as well as reviewers, editors, and colleagues from other areas of psychological science.

  6. Perceived Difficulties in e-Learning During the First Term at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—the focus of this article is to explore difficulties that are encountered by students during the first term at university. It is well known that students can have various problems in learning English and make mistakes in grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. The native language of a learner affects learning and using English. Speaking and e-listening are the skills that are more common on an everyday basis than reading and writing. Moreover, these skills are more difficult to master. English vocabulary presents another problem for language learners. Albeit, at the university level students study English for Specific Purposes (ESP, in other words, the foreign language for their future profession, and they might face particular difficulties in their studies of ESP. Design/methodology/approach—the research paper adopts the qualitative research approach. The questionnaire on learner perceptions of difficulties in e-learning was administered to students of three different specializations. Students’ self-assessments of achievements or failures were analysed. Findings. The results indicated that perceptions of difficulties to adapting to university studies depended on their chosen specialization. The findings show that undergraduates of all three investigated specializations encounter the same difficulties, but to a different degree. In other words, there are no significantly specific difficulties due to the complexity of the professional vocabulary that students must learn. The ratings of Psychology, Social Work and Public Policy and Management students reveal higher mean values and wider range of Standard Deviations than reported by other researchers (Berman, Cheng, 2001. The results obtained imply that Lithuanian learners are more positive than their foreign counterparts. Computations of Pearson’s correlations coefficients demonstrate that there are some good correlational relationships within each specialization. Research

  7. Difficulties in enforcing the new probation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca DIMITRIU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During probation period, the employee is in a fragile position: he/she cannot be sure about the continuation of his/her labour relation. Law no 40/2011 modified the Labour Code in the sense of extending the probation periods in the case of contracts with non-fixed term and temporary contracts. Besides, according to the new provision, the period of time during which the employer may hire successively for probation periods several individuals for the same position is 12 months, the most. The paper aims to put into light the way in which the new regulations are to be applied, and several difficulties that this may bring in practice.

  8. The psychological mindedness assessment procedure - Validation study of a Dutch version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Smith (Annemarie J.); W.Chr. Kleijn (Wim); R.W. Trijsburg (Wim); R.W. Segaar (Robert); C. van der Staak; G.J.M. Hutschemaekers (Giel J.)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective. The Psychological Mindedness Assessment Procedure [PMAP; McCallum, M. & Piper, W. E. (1990)] operationalizes psychological mindedness as a participant's understanding of the problem presented by two videotaped enacted patients. To possibly enhance predictive power for

  9. Racism, ethnic density and psychological well-being through adolescence: evidence from the Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J.; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Design. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11–16 years in 51 London (UK) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, r...

  10. Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: social-psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, M J; Boergers, J; Vernberg, E M

    2001-12-01

    Examined the relative and combined associations among relational and overt forms of aggression and victimization and adolescents' concurrent depression symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, and externalizing behavior. An ethnically diverse sample of 566 adolescents (55% girls) in Grades 9 to 12 participated. Results replicated prior work on relational aggression and victimization as distinct forms of peer behavior that are uniquely associated with concurrent social-psychological adjustment. Victimization was associated most closely with internalizing symptoms, and peer aggression was related to symptoms of disruptive behavior disorder. Findings also supported the hypothesis that victims of multiple forms of aggression are at greater risk for adjustment difficulties than victims of one or no form of aggression. Social support from close friends appeared to buffer the effects of victimization on adjustment.

  11. Childhood cruelty to animals in China: the relationship with psychological adjustment and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J; Mellor, D; Richardson, B; Xu, X

    2013-09-01

    The current study broadened the general scope of research conducted on childhood cruelty to animals by examining the association between psychological adjustment, family functioning and animal cruelty in an Eastern context, China. The mothers and fathers of 729 children attending primary school in Chengdu, China participated in this study. Each parent completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument, and the Children's Attitudes and Behaviours towards Animals questionnaire. Findings from an actor partner interdependence model demonstrated that parents' ratings of family functioning and of their child's externalizing coping style predicted only modest amounts of variance in animal cruelty. In particular, parents' ratings of their child's externalizing coping style most consistently predicted animal cruelty. Family functioning, fathers' ratings in particular, played a minor role, more so for boys compared with girls. This study provided the first insight into childhood animal cruelty in China, and suggests that further research may enhance our understanding of these phenomena. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Implicit happiness and sadness are associated with ease and difficulty: evidence from sequential priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasauskaite, Ruta; Gendolla, Guido H E; Bolmont, Mylène; Freydefont, Laure

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis of implicit associations between happiness and the performance ease concept and between sadness and the performance difficulty concept. All three studies applied a sequential priming paradigm: participants categorized emotion words (Experiment 1) or facial expressions (Experiment 2) as positive or negative or as referring to ease or difficulty (Experiment 3). These targets were preceded by briefly flashed ease- or difficulty-related words or neutral non-words (Experiments 1 and 2) or by happy, sad, or neutral facial expressions (Experiment 3) as primes. As predicted, all three experiments revealed increases in reaction times in the sequential priming task from congruent trials (happiness/ease and sadness/difficulty) over neutral trials to incongruent trials (sadness/ease and happiness/difficulty). The findings provide evidence for implicit associative links of happiness with ease and sadness with difficulty, as posited by the implicit-affect-primes-effort model (Gendolla, Int J Psychophysiol 86:123-135, 2012; Soc Pers Psychol Compass 9:606-619, 2015).

  13. Sleep Difficulties are Associated with Parent Report of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A; Mahone, E Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is considered both a behavioral symptom of and a contributor to functional difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The construct of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) has also been linked to ADHD; however, little is known regarding the effects of sleep specifically on SCT symptoms. This study examined the association between parent-reported sleep disturbance and parent- and teacher-reported SCT, while controlling for the effects of ADHD and mood symptoms. Participants included 746 clinically referred children (65% male, age range: 5-18 years) with both parent and teacher ratings assessing symptoms of ADHD, mood symptoms (depression, anxiety), and SCT. Parents/caregivers also rated their child's sleep problems with regard to 4 core concerns: falling asleep, sleep restlessness, difficulty waking, and breathing difficulties. The SCT scale included three empirically derived subscales: sleepy/sluggish, low initiation/persistence, and daydreamy. After accounting for age, medication status, ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and anxiety, sleep problems accounted for a small but significant proportion of additional variance in the prediction of parent-reported sleepy/sluggish SCT. Difficulty waking showed the strongest associations with parent-reported SCT. There were no significant relationships found between parent-reported sleep difficulties and teacher-reported SCT. Some elements of sluggishness and lethargy inherent to the SCT construct may be associated with sleep difficulties, even after accounting for ADHD and mood symptoms; however, these associations are not consistent across SCT subscales and sleep problem domains.

  14. Impact of task difficulty on gaze behavior in a sequential object manipulation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Johannes; Hegele, Mathias; Reiser, Mathias; Munzert, Jörn

    2017-11-01

    Task difficulty affects both gaze behavior and hand movements. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how task difficulty modulates gaze behaviour with respect to the balance between visually monitoring the ongoing action and prospectively collecting visual information about the future course of the ongoing action. For this, we examined sequences of reach and transport movements of water glasses that differed in task difficulty using glasses filled to different levels. Participants had to grasp water glasses with different filling levels (100, 94, 88, 82, and 76%) and transport them to a target. Subsequently, they had to grasp the next water glass and transport it to a target on the opposite side. Results showed significant differences in both gaze and movement kinematics for higher filling levels. However, there were no relevant differences between the 88, 82, and 76% filling levels. Results revealed a significant influence of task difficulty on the interaction between gaze and kinematics during transport and a strong influence of task difficulty on gaze during the release phase between different grasp-to-place movements. In summary, we found a movement and gaze pattern revealing an influence of task difficulty that was especially evident for the later phases of transport and release.

  15. Difficulty in writing Japanese semantic characters in a 9-year-old boy with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M; Hara, K; Watamaki, T; Nishimura, B; Kumagai, T; Matsumoto, A; Miura, K; Yamanaka, T; Hayakawa, C; Miyazaki, S

    1999-12-01

    A 9-year-old boy diagnosed as having Williams syndrome was evaluated using psychological test batteries in order to clarify his ability in language and visual cognition. The subject had difficulty in writing some of the Japanese semantic characters (called Kanji) which he could otherwise read and understand. Although he could write the small components of which the Kanji characters were composed, he could not locate these correctly. This phenomenon is considered to be very similar to the difficulty in copying a figure observed clinically. The Kaufmann Assessment Batteries for Children clearly revealed that the boy had difficulty with the sub-test of spatial memory compared to his average score for simultaneous processing. This result is considered to be closely related to the difficulty in copying figures or writing Kanji characters. On the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, the present authors found that the subject's vocabulary was relatively good, although semantic and pragmatic problems remained. Clarifying the strong and weak points of the abilities of such patients will help to determine the most appropriate mode of education for them.

  16. Task difficulty and life changes among stroke family caregivers: relationship to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennon, Susan M; Bakas, Tamilyn; Jessup, Nenette M; Habermann, Barbara; Weaver, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    To investigate differences in stroke caregiver task difficulty and life changes based on level of caregiver depressive symptoms, and to estimate probabilities among task difficulty and life change items. Descriptive analysis of baseline data from an ongoing stroke caregiver intervention trial. Hospitals and rehabilitation facilities. Caregivers (N=242; 78.6% women; 47.7% spouses; 71.8% white; mean age, 54.2±12.1y) caring for stroke survivors within 8 weeks of discharge to home. Not applicable. Baseline measures for task difficulty (Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale) and life changes (Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale) were compared based on level of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] scores symptoms; n=126; PHQ-9 scores ≥5 means mild to severe depressive symptoms, n=116). Mean scores were analyzed using general linear modeling, with item analyses using logistic regression and the Benjamini-Hochberg method to control type I error inflation. Caregivers with mild to severe depressive symptoms have greater difficulty with tasks and worse life changes than those with no depressive symptoms (Psymptom screening for stroke caregivers during or shortly after discharge. Assisting caregivers with depressive symptoms to arrange for respite care and addressing negative physical and psychological changes may be priority areas for future interventions. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Graphical modeling for item difficulty in medical faculty exams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    charts. Conclusion: The control charts have the advantage for classifying items as acceptable or unacceptable based on item difficulty criteria. Key words: Item difficulty, quality control, statistical process control, variable control charts ...

  18. Difficulties that Students Face with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihas, P.; Gemousakakis, T.

    2007-01-01

    Some difficulties that students face with two-dimensional motion are addressed. The difficulties addressed are the vectorial representation of velocity, acceleration and force, the force-energy theorem and the understanding of the radius of curvature.

  19. Research participation improves student's exam performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; León, Orfelio G; Pascual-Ezama, David

    2012-07-01

    Although there have been several attempts to explore for beneficial effects of research participation in social sciences, most of them have mainly explored satisfaction and students learning perceptions (e.g., Bowman & Waite, 2003). Very few works have studied learning by measuring exam performance. Moreover, participation has been usually conceptualized as a mixture of active and passive participation, including in the same measure different practices such as filling up questionnaires, running experiments or reading and answering questions about a journal article or a scientific conference. The present work tries to determine if there is an advantage due to research participation comparing exam performance, satisfaction and perceived learning of the matter Research Methods in Psychology, in three different groups (non-participating, passive and active participating). As we can see in the results, the mere participation benefits exam performance. Results are discussed in terms of the use of research participation as a new powerful active method in education.

  20. Operationalizing Healthcare Simulation Psychological Safety: A Descriptive Analysis of an Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricksen, Jared W; Altenburg, Catherine; Reeder, Ron W

    2017-10-01

    Despite efforts to prepare a psychologically safe environment, simulation participants are occasionally psychologically distressed. Instructing simulation educators about participant psychological risks and having a participant psychological distress action plan available to simulation educators may assist them as they seek to keep all participants psychologically safe. A Simulation Participant Psychological Safety Algorithm was designed to aid simulation educators as they debrief simulation participants perceived to have psychological distress and categorize these events as mild (level 1), moderate (level 2), or severe (level 3). A prebrief dedicated to creating a psychologically safe learning environment was held constant. The algorithm was used for 18 months in an active pediatric simulation program. Data collected included level of participant psychological distress as perceived and categorized by the simulation team using the algorithm, type of simulation that participants went through, who debriefed, and timing of when psychological distress was perceived to occur during the simulation session. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the relationship between events and simulation type, events and simulation educator team who debriefed, and timing of event during the simulation session. A total of 3900 participants went through 399 simulation sessions between August 1, 2014, and January 26, 2016. Thirty-four (simulation participants from 27 sessions (7%) were perceived to have an event. One participant was perceived to have a severe (level 3) psychological distress event. Events occurred more commonly in high-intensity simulations, with novice learners and with specific educator teams. Simulation type and simulation educator team were associated with occurrence of events (P simulation personnel using the Simulation Participant Psychological Safety Algorithm is rare, with mild and moderate events being more common. The algorithm was used to teach