WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological detachment buffers

  1. Psychological Detachment in the Relationship between Job Stressors and Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safstrom, My; Hartig, Terry

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the mediating versus moderating role of psychological detachment in the relationship between job stressors and psychological strain. Our sample consisted of 173 university students invested in challenging programs of advanced professional studies, who could find it difficult to detach from work. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional survey data affirmed the role of psychological detachment as a mediator in the relationship between job demands and perceived stress. Detachment also mediated the relationship between job demands and satisfaction with life, although the association disappeared when controlling for negative affectivity. Detachment did not mediate relationships between job demands and cognitive failures. Psychological detachment did not moderate any of the investigated relationships. The study contributes to a view of psychological detachment as less subject to individual differences than to the imposition of stressors in the given context.

  2. Psychological Detachment in the Relationship between Job Stressors and Strain

    OpenAIRE

    My Safstrom; Terry Hartig

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the mediating versus moderating role of psychological detachment in the relationship between job stressors and psychological strain. Our sample consisted of 173 university students invested in challenging programs of advanced professional studies, who could find it difficult to detach from work. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional survey data affirmed the role of psychological detachment as a mediator in the relationship between job demands and perceived stress...

  3. Psychological detachment and savoring in adaptation to cancer caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wai Kai; Lau, Kam Man; Ng, Sin Man; Lee, Tatia Mei Chun; Cheung, Hester Yui Shan; Shum, Tracy Chui Yu; Cheng, Ashley Chi Kin

    2016-07-01

    Recovery experience including psychological detachment from caregiving and savoring positive moments in life could be complementary coping processes for cancer caregivers. This study aims to examine the nature of their associations with caregiving burden and anxiety and depressive symptoms among Chinese cancer caregivers in Hong Kong. A total of 155 Chinese caregivers of recently diagnosed cancer patients (mean time since diagnosis = 42.57 days, SD = 39.25) were recruited from two major government-funded hospitals and administered a questionnaire assessing psychological detachment, savoring, caregiving burden, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and demographics. Controlling for demographic and medical covariates, structural equation modeling revealed significant associations of detachment, savoring, and their interaction term with caregiving burden and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Detachment and savoring were inversely associated with caregiving burden only when the other was at lower/medium levels. Detachment was inversely associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms at lower/medium levels of savoring, but savoring was inversely associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms across all levels of detachment. Detachment and savoring could overshadow the positive impact of the other on caregiving burden if either one is at higher levels, while they could demonstrate concurrent positive impact on burden when both are at lower/medium levels. Savoring could have a prioritized role in ameliorating caregivers' anxiety and depressive symptoms, supplemented by detachment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The effect of bullying on burnout in nurses: the moderating role of psychological detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Belinda C; Holland, Peter; Reynolds, Roslyn

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between bullying and burnout and the potential buffering effect psychological detachment might have on this relationship. There is evidence to suggest that bullying is relatively widespread in the nursing profession, with previous studies indicating that bullying is associated with higher levels of burnout. There is, however, limited research focusing on potential moderators of the relationship between bullying and burnout. A cross-sectional quantitative study conducted with self-completed, anonymous questionnaires. The study was conducted in 2011 with 762 Registered Nurses in Australia. Two hypotheses were tested with validated measures of bullying, psychological detachment and burnout. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression. Bullying is positively associated with burnout. Psychological detachment does not significantly moderate the relationship between bullying and burnout. The results indicate that bullying exacts a strong negative toll on nurses. Ensuring there are workplace policies and practices in place in healthcare organizations to reduce the instances of bullying and proactively address it when it does occur would therefore seem crucial. Individuals may also lower their risk of burning out by psychologically detaching from work. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The role of partners and children for employees' psychological detachment from work and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Verena C; Dormann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of partners and children for employees' psychological detachment from work during off-job time. Building on boundary theory, we hypothesized that not only employees' own work-home segmentation preference but also their partners' work-home segmentation preference is associated with employees' psychological detachment. In addition, partners' psychological detachment should influence employees' psychological detachment. We hypothesized that the presence of children in the household moderates partners' influence on employees' psychological detachment. Further, we expected both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment to contribute to employees' well-being. Participants were 114 dual-earner couples who responded to Web-based questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analyses, using the actor-partner interdependence model. Results confirmed our hypotheses. Employees' and their partners' work-home segmentation preferences were associated with employees' psychological detachment. The presence of children moderated the relation between partners' work-home segmentation preference and employees' psychological detachment. The relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Moreover, employees' and their partners' psychological detachment were positively associated. Again, the relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Finally, both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment contributed to employees' well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Being engaged at work and detached at home: A week-level study on work engagement, psychological detachment, and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnentag, S.E.; Mojza, E.J.; Binnewies, C.; Scholl, A.

    2008-01-01

    Although earlier research has shown that work engagement is associated with positive outcomes for the employee and the organization, this paper suggests that employees also need time periods for temporarily disengaging (i.e., psychological detaching) from work. We hypothesized that work engagement

  7. Social stressors at work and sleep during weekends: the mediating role of psychological detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Diana; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work may result in long-term health impairments if recovery is insufficient. In the present psychophysiological field study, we tested whether the inability to psychologically detach from work issues mediates the negative effect of social stressors at work on sleep during weekends. Sixty full-time employees participated in the study. Daily assessment included diaries on psychological detachment and continuous ambulatory actigraphy to assess psychophysiological indicators of sleep. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that enduring social stressors at work were negatively related with psychological detachment on Sunday evening and negatively related with various sleep indicators on Sunday night. Furthermore, psychological detachment from work on Sunday evening partially mediated the effect of social stressors at work on two sleep indicators. Social stressors at work may threaten recovery processes just before the working week starts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Quitting before leaving: the mediating effects of psychological attachment and detachment on voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Ethan R; Detert, James R; Chiaburu, Dan S

    2008-07-01

    This research advances understanding of the psychological mechanisms that encourage or dissuade upward, improvement-oriented voice. The authors describe how the loyalty and exit concepts from A. O. Hirschman's (1970) seminal framework reflect an employee's psychological attachment to or detachment from the organization, respectively, and they argue that psychological attachment and detachment should not be considered as separate, alternative options to voice but rather as influences on voice behavior. Findings from 499 managers in the restaurant industry show that psychological detachment (measured as intention to leave) is significantly related to voice and mediates relationships between perceptions of leadership (leader-member exchange and abusive supervision) and voice, whereas psychological attachment (measured as affective commitment) is neither a direct predictor of voice nor a mediator of leadership-voice relationships.

  9. Does education buffer the impact of disability on psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandemakers, Jornt J; Monden, Christiaan W S

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates whether education buffers the impact of physical disability on psychological distress. It further investigates what makes education helpful, by examining whether cognitive ability and occupational class can explain the buffering effect of education. Two waves of the 1958 British National Child Development Study are used to test the hypothesis that the onset of a physical disability in early adulthood (age 23 to 33) has a smaller effect on psychological distress among higher educated people. In total 423 respondents (4.6%) experienced the onset of a physical disability between the ages of 23 and 33. We find that a higher educational level cushions the psychology impact of disability. Cognitive ability and occupational class protect against the effect of a disability too. The education buffer arises in part because individuals with a higher level of education have more cognitive abilities, but the better social position of those with higher levels of education appears to be of greater importance. Implications of these findings for the social gradient in health are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Matsudaira, Ko; Jonge, Jan DE; Tosaka, Naoya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2016-06-10

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement.

  11. The Relationship between Job Demands and Employees' Counterproductive Work Behaviors: The Mediating Effect of Psychological Detachment and Job Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Shuang; Xia, Qing; He, Chao

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relation between job demands and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). A cross-sectional sample of 439 coal miners completed a self-report questionnaire that assessed their job demands, psychological detachment, job anxiety, and CWBs in a Chinese context. The conceptual model, based on the stressor-detachment model, was examined using structural equation modeling. The results suggest that psychological detachment mediates not only the relation between job demands and job anxiety but also that between job demands and CWBs. Furthermore, the relation between job demands and CWBs is sequentially mediated by psychological detachment and job anxiety. Our findings validate the effectiveness of the stressor-detachment model. Moreover, we demonstrate that the underlying mechanism of the relation between job demands and CWBs can be explained by psychological detachment and job anxiety.

  12. Boundaryless work, psychological detachment and sleep: Does working 'anytime - anywhere' equal employees are 'always on'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellner, C.; Kecklund, L.G.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Sariaslan, A.; Aronsson, G.; Leede, J. de

    2016-01-01

    Employees have gained increased flexibility in organizing their work in time and space, that is boundaryless work. Managing the boundaries between work and personal life would seem to be crucial if one is to psychologically detach from work during leisure in order to unwind and get sufficient sleep.

  13. Coming back to work in the morning: Psychological detachment and reattachment as predictors of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Kühnel, Jana

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that recovery processes in general and psychological detachment in particular are important for work engagement. We argue that work engagement additionally benefits from reattachment to work in the morning (i.e., mentally reconnecting to work before actually starting to work) and that the gains derived from psychological detachment and reattachment are stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. We tested our hypotheses in a daily diary study with a sample of 167 employees who completed 2 surveys per day over the period of 2 workweeks. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that work engagement was higher in the morning than in the afternoon. Evening psychological detachment and morning reattachment positively predicted work engagement throughout the day. The association between reattachment and work engagement was stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. This study demonstrates that not only psychological detachment from work during leisure time, but also reattachment to work when coming back to work are crucial for daily engagement at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Psychological detachment as moderator between psychosocial work conditions and low back pain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Mierswa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recovery processes in leisure time influence the effect of psychosocial work factors on health issues. However, this function of recovery has been neglected in research regarding the influence of work-related risk factors on low back pain (LBP development. The aim of this prospective study was to examine the function of psychological detachment – a relevant recovery experience – concerning the influence of psychosocial work factors on LBP development. A moderating function of detachment for the interplay of work factors and LBP was assumed. Material and Methods: Sixty pain-free administrative employees of German universities completed an online survey 3 times during a 6-month period. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate risk-factors of LBP. Results: Analyses revealed an increased chance of LBP development for smokers and a decreasing chance when work resources were high. Detachment had no direct influence on LBP development, although it moderated the influence of work stressors and work resources on LBP. On the one hand, high detachment values seem to protect against an increased chance of LBP development when employees were confronted with high work stressors, while on the other hand high detachment values enhance the protective effect of high work resources. Conclusions: The results indicated a moderating role of detachment concerning the influence of psychosocial work factors on LBP development. Therefore, it is necessary to include recovery processes in future research regarding LBP development and consequently in LBP prevention concepts. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(2:313–327

  15. Shrugging it off: Does psychological detachment from work mediate the relationship between workplace aggression and work-family conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demsky, Caitlin A; Ellis, Allison M; Fritz, Charlotte

    2014-04-01

    The current study investigates workplace aggression and psychological detachment from work as possible antecedents of work-family conflict. We draw upon Conservation of Resources theory and the Effort-Recovery Model to argue that employees who fail to psychologically detach from stressful events in the workplace experience a relative lack of resources that is negatively associated with functioning in the nonwork domain. Further, we extend prior research on antecedents of work-family conflict by examining workplace aggression, a prevalent workplace stressor. Utilizing multisource data (i.e., employee, significant other, and coworker reports), our findings indicate that self-reported psychological detachment mediates the relationship between coworker-reported workplace aggression and both self- and significant other-reported work-family conflict. Findings from the current study speak to the value of combining perspectives from research on recovery from work stress and the work-family interface, and point toward implications for research and practice.

  16. Job Stressors, Emotional Exhaustion, and Need for Recovery: A Multi-Source Study on the Benefits of Psychological Detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Kuttler, Iris; Fritz, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines psychological detachment (i.e., mentally "switching off") from work during non-work time as a partial mediator between job stressors and low work-home boundaries on the one hand and strain reactions (emotional exhaustion, need for recovery) on the other hand. Survey data were collected from a sample of protestant pastors (N =…

  17. Psychological determinants of financial buffer saving : The influence of financial risk tolerance and regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magendans, J.; Gutteling, Jan M.; Zebel, Sven

    With governments redistributing more responsibilities unto citizens, individuals have an increasing need for financial resources acting as a buffer against life’s setbacks and unexpected expenditures. The purpose of this study was to examine psychological determinants of saving for a financial

  18. Racism experiences and psychological functioning in African American college freshmen: is racial socialization a buffer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Burton, E Thomaseo; Best, Candace

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has documented the negative effects of racism on the psychological health of African Americans. However, consideration of racial socialization as a potential buffer against racism experiences has received limited attention. The present study investigated whether two types of parental racial socialization messages reduced the impact of racism on psychological functioning in a sample of 247 African American college freshmen (M=18.30). Results indicated that students who reported more racism experiences also had poorer levels of psychological functioning as indicated by higher levels of psychological stress and psychological distress. Parental messages emphasizing the use of African American cultural resources to cope with racism reduced the impact of racism on psychological stress only. Cultural pride messages predicted less psychological distress while messages emphasizing the use of cultural resources predicted greater psychological distress. However, neither message type moderated the relationship between racism experiences and psychological distress. These results suggest that racial socialization messages have complex relations to psychological functioning in African American college students. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Exhaustion and lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time: moderator effects of time pressure and leisure experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Arbeus, Hillevi; Mahn, Christopher; Fritz, Charlotte

    2014-04-01

    Lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time contributes to the increase in employee exhaustion over time. This study examines the reverse causal path from exhaustion to lack of psychological detachment, suggesting that this reverse process may operate within a relatively short time frame. Specifically, we examine if exhaustion predicts a decrease in psychological detachment from work during off-job time within several weeks. We propose that time pressure at work intensifies and that pleasurable leisure experiences reduce this association between exhaustion and the decrease in psychological detachment. We tested our hypotheses in a short-term prospective study (time lag: 4 weeks) with a sample of 109 employees. Ordinary least square regression analysis indicates that exhaustion predicted a decrease in psychological detachment from work over the course of 4 weeks. This decrease was particularly strong for employees working under time pressure and for employees who did not engage in pleasurable leisure experiences. Our findings suggest that exhausted employees find detachment from work increasingly difficult and therefore might suffer from insufficient recovery-although they need it most. The situation is particularly severe when exhausted employees face high time pressure and a lack of pleasurable leisure experiences.

  20. Stressors, social support, and tests of the buffering hypothesis: effects on psychological responses of injured athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p stressors and psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received support. In addition, there has been

  1. Psychological Detachment from Work during Off-job Time: Predictive Role of Work and Non-work Factors in Japanese Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; DE JONGE, Jan; KUBOTA, Kazumi; KAWAKAMI, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Psychological detachment from work, an off-job experience of “switching off” mentally, seems to be crucial for promoting employee’s well-being. Previous studies on predictors of psychological detachment mainly focused on job-related factors, and only a few studies focused on family-related and personal factors. This study focuses not only on job-related factors (job demands, job control, workplace support) but also on family-related (family/friend support) and personal factors (workaholism), and examines the relation of these three factors with psychological detachment. Data of 2,520 Japanese employees was randomly split into two groups and then analyzed using cross-validation. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that family/friend support had a positive association with psychological detachment, whereas a subscale of workaholism (i.e. working compulsively) had negative associations with it across the two groups. Results suggest that family/friend support would facilitate psychological detachment whereas workaholism would inhibit it. PMID:24492761

  2. Periodic and chaotic psychological stress variations as predicted by a social support buffered response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard J.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Schuldberg, David

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has introduced social dynamic models of people's stress-related processes, some including amelioration of stress symptoms by support from others. The effects of support may be ;direct;, depending only on the level of support, or ;buffering;, depending on the product of the level of support and level of stress. We focus here on the nonlinear buffering term and use a model involving three variables (and 12 control parameters), including stress as perceived by the individual, physical and psychological symptoms, and currently active social support. This model is quantified by a set of three nonlinear differential equations governing its stationary-state stability, temporal evolution (sometimes oscillatory), and how each variable affects the others. Chaos may appear with periodic forcing of an environmental stress parameter. Here we explore this model carefully as the strength and amplitude of this forcing, and an important psychological parameter relating to self-kindling in the stress response, are varied. Three significant observations are made: 1. There exist many complex but orderly regions of periodicity and chaos, 2. there are nested regions of increasing number of peaks per cycle that may cascade to chaos, and 3. there are areas where more than one state, e.g., a period-2 oscillation and chaos, coexist for the same parameters; which one is reached depends on initial conditions.

  3. Financial hardship and psychological distress: Exploring the buffering effects of religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Despite ample precedent in theology and social theory, few studies have systematically examined the role of religion in mitigating the harmful effects of socioeconomic deprivation on mental health. The present study outlines several arguments linking objective and subjective measures of financial hardship, as well as multiple aspects of religious life, with psychological distress. Relevant hypotheses are then tested using data on adults aged 18–59 from the 1998 US NORC General Social Survey. Findings confirm that both types of financial hardship are positively associated with distress, and that several different aspects of religious life buffer against these deleterious influences. Specifically, religious attendance and the belief in an afterlife moderate the deleterious effects of financial hardship on both objective and subjective financial hardship, while meditation serves this function only for objective hardship. No interactive relationships were found between frequency of prayer and financial hardship. A number of implications, study limitations, and directions for future research are identified. PMID:20556889

  4. Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health / Eye Health A-Z Detached or Torn Retina Sections Retinal Detachment: What Is a Torn or ... Detachment Vision Simulator Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Symptoms Leer en Español: Síntomas de Desgarramiento o ...

  5. Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health / Eye Health A-Z Detached or Torn Retina Sections Retinal Detachment: What Is a Torn or ... Detachment Vision Simulator Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Treatment Leer en Español: Tratamiento de un Desgarramiento ...

  6. Divertor detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei

    2015-11-01

    The heat exhaust is one of the main conceptual issues of magnetic fusion reactor. In a standard operational regime the large heat flux onto divertor target reaches unacceptable level in any foreseeable reactor design. However, about two decades ago so-called ``detached divertor'' regimes were found. They are characterized by reduced power and plasma flux on divertor targets and look as a promising solution for heat exhaust in future reactors. In particular, it is envisioned that ITER will operate in a partly detached divertor regime. However, even though divertor detachment was studied extensively for two decades, still there are some issues requiring a new look. Among them is the compatibility of detached divertor regime with a good core confinement. For example, ELMy H-mode exhibits a very good core confinement, but large ELMs can ``burn through'' detached divertor and release large amounts of energy on the targets. In addition, detached divertor regimes can be subject to thermal instabilities resulting in the MARFE formation, which, potentially, can cause disruption of the discharge. Finally, often inner and outer divertors detach at different plasma conditions, which can lead to core confinement degradation. Here we discuss basic physics of divertor detachment including different mechanisms of power and momentum loss (ionization, impurity and hydrogen radiation loss, ion-neutral collisions, recombination, and their synergistic effects) and evaluate the roles of different plasma processes in the reduction of the plasma flux; detachment stability; and an impact of ELMs on detachment. We also evaluate an impact of different magnetic and divertor geometries on detachment onset, stability, in- out- asymmetry, and tolerance to the ELMs. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-DE-FG02-04ER54739 at UCSD.

  7. Urban green spaces′ effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Mario Dzhambov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect. This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  8. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  9. Psychological flexibility as a buffer against caregiver distress in families with psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens E.; Haahr, Ulrik H.; Lyse, Hanne Grethe

    2017-01-01

    involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioural therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes. Aims: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver...... user symptoms, drug use and global functioning, psychological flexibility was a significant predictor of caregiver distress. Conclusion: Greater level of psychological flexibility in caregivers, seems to be related to lower levels of caregiver distress. This finding corresponds to studies within...

  10. Partner violence and psychological well-being: buffer or indirect effect of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Montero-Piñar, María Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal; Martín-Baena, David

    2010-05-01

    To determine the effect of two kinds of intimate partner violence (IPV) (physical and psychological) in the previous 12 months (current) and before the previous 12 months (past) on psychological well-being among women aged 18 to 70 years who attend primary healthcare centers in Spain; and to analyze the effect of the duration of lifetime IPV and social support on psychological well-being. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 10,322 women randomly recruited in primary healthcare centers in Spain. Outcome variables were three indicators of psychological well-being (psychological distress, psychotropic drug use, and self-perceived health). Predictor variables were the different types of IPV, IPV timing (current and past), duration of lifetime IPV, and social support. Logistic regression models were fitted. Both types of IPV increased the probability of worse psychological well-being in both IPV timings (current and past). Longer duration of lifetime IPV, friends network size, and tangible support were independently associated with worse psychological well-being. However, an interaction between current IPV and family network size was found. The probability of poor self-perceived health status was reduced by 29% among women exposed to current IPV who had a large family network (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.94). Psychological well-being was independently affected by IPV (types and duration) and social support (friends network size, tangible support). Only family network size mitigates the negative consequences of IPV on self-perceived health status.

  11. Maternal acceptance and consistency of discipline as buffers of divorce stressors on children's psychological adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolchik, S A; Wilcox, K L; Tein, J Y; Sandler, I N

    2000-02-01

    This study examines whether two aspects of mothering--acceptance and consistency of discipline--buffer the effect of divorce stressors on adjustment problems in 678 children, ages 8 to 15, whose families had divorced within the past 2 years. Children reported on divorce stressors; both mothers and children reported on mothering and internalizing and externalizing problems. Multiple regressions indicate that for maternal report of mothering, acceptance interacted with divorce stressors in predicting both dimensions of adjustment problems, with the pattern of findings supporting a stress-buffering effect. For child report of mothering, acceptance, consistency of discipline, and divorce stressors interacted in predicting adjustment problems. The relation between divorce stressors and internalizing and externalizing problems is stronger for children who report low acceptance and low consistency of discipline than for children who report either low acceptance and high consistency of discipline or high acceptance and low consistency of discipline. Children reporting high acceptance and high consistency of discipline have the lowest levels of adjustment problems. Implications of these results for understanding variability in children's postdivorce adjustment and interventions for divorced families are discussed.

  12. Psychological Flexibility as a Buffer against Caregiver Distress in Families with Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens E. Jansen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that caregivers of persons with psychosis play an invaluable role in recovery, but unfortunately, often report high levels of distress. While cognitive models of caregiver distress have been well-supported, there is still limited knowledge of the psychological factors involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioral therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes.Aim: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver distress.Method: Within a cross-sectional design, 101 caregivers of 38 persons with first-episode psychosis in a clinical epidemiological sample completed a series of self-report measures.Results: A linear mixed model analysis found that, after controlling for caregiver socio-demographic factors, service user symptoms, drug use and global functioning, psychological flexibility was a significant predictor of caregiver distress.Conclusion: Greater level of psychological flexibility in caregivers, seems to be related to lower levels of caregiver distress. This finding corresponds to studies within a broad range of emotional disorders. There may be important clinical implications in terms of facilitating the process of acceptance through interventions from the ‘third-wave’ or contextual cognitive behavioral therapies.

  13. Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health / Eye Health A-Z Detached or Torn Retina Sections Retinal Detachment: What Is a Torn or ... Detachment Vision Simulator Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Diagnosis Leer en Español: Diagnóstico de un Desgarramiento ...

  14. Poor Sleep Quality, Psychological Distress, and the Buffering Effect of Mindfulness Training During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Laraia, Barbara; Coleman-Phox, Kimberly; Bush, Nicole; Suresh, Madhuvanthi; Thomas, Melanie; Adler, Nancy; Epel, Elissa; Prather, Aric A

    2017-01-06

    Poor sleep quality is common in pregnancy and associated with increased psychological distress, which has adverse consequences for families. Emerging theory suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may help reduce cognitive and emotional reactivity to stressful events. The current study examines the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on the relationship between poor sleep quality and increased depression symptom severity and perceived stress during pregnancy. Additionally, we explored the prevalence of poor sleep quality in this unique sample and the impact of intervention on sleep quality. Participants were 215 ethnically diverse, overweight and obese, predominantly low-income pregnant women drawn from a study examining the impact of an 8-week mindfulness-based program (Mindful Moms Training; MMT) to reduce excessive gestational weight gain, stress, and depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Participants reported global sleep quality, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress at baseline and postintervention. Most participants (63%) were categorized as poor sleepers at baseline. MMT participants did not experience significantly greater improvement in sleep quality compared to TAU participants. Baseline poor global sleep quality predicted increased depression symptom severity for all participants. Baseline poor global sleep quality predicted increased perceived stress for the TAU group only; this association was not evident in the MMT group. Poor sleep quality is prevalent in overweight and obese predominantly low-income pregnant women. Poor sleep quality was associated with worsening psychological distress, but mindfulness training significantly attenuated the influence of poor sleep on perceived stress.

  15. Psychological buffers against poor health: the role of the socioeconomic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S

    2017-12-01

    Beliefs, emotions, and other psychological resources can protect physical health. Notably, however, the particular ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that are associated with better health can vary with one's socioeconomic status (SES). Those that are most protective reflect what is afforded in and valued by the context. Specifically, in higher SES environments, where people often have the resources to be independent and influence their own destinies, beliefs that reflect independence and a focus on the individual predict better health. In contrast, in lower SES environments, where people often encounter more constraints, beliefs and coping strategies that reflect connection to others, and adjustment to the environment predict better health. Understanding these differences will help to address health disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does psychological resilience buffer against the link between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and depression following stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Christie, David R H; Bitsika, Vicki; Andronicos, Nicholas M; Agnew, Linda L; McMillan, Mary E

    2017-10-15

    The comparative strength of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism as a 'predictor' of depression after major stress, versus the 'protective' effect of psychological resilience (PR) against depression after major stress, was tested in a homogeneous sample of older men who had all received a diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer. Results supported the association between PR and lower depression after stress, but did not support the association between the 5-HTTLPR and elevated depression after stress. Examination of PR at scale, factor, and item level identified the specific PR-related behaviour that was the most powerful predictor of low depression. These data suggest that the carriage of the short form of the 5-HTTLPR may negate the protective effect of PR against depression in these men, or that PR may nullify the depression vulnerability of this form of the 5-HTTLPR. These findings may explain some of the 'null' findings regarding the link between the 5-HTTLPR and depression in the wider literature by arguing for an interaction between these two factors in the association between major stress and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The buffering effect of tangible social support on financial stress: influence on psychological well-being and psychosomatic symptoms in a large sample of the adult general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åslund, Cecilia; Larm, Peter; Starrin, Bengt; Nilsson, Kent W

    2014-09-28

    Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health. Two separate postal surveys were sent to random samples in five counties in Sweden in 2004 and 2008, with a total of 84 263 respondents. The questionnaires included questions about financial stress, tangible social support, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12). Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being. Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life.

  18. Buffering the buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Sue Hilton

    1998-01-01

    Riparian buffer strips are a widely accepted tool for helping to sustain aquatic ecosystems and to protect downstream resources and values in forested areas, but controversy persists over how wide a buffer strip is necessary. The physical integrity of stream channels is expected to be sustained if the characteristics and rates of tree fall along buffered reaches are...

  19. Buffering effects of job resources on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Ayako; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the buffering effects of job resources, utilizing the job demands-control (or demand-control-support) and effort-reward imbalance models (i.e., job control, workplace social support, and extrinsic reward), on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese employees. A total of 1,198 participants (valid response rate = 93.7 %) from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising the scales assessing job resources, psychological distress, and demographic characteristics. We obtained the information on working hours in the most recent month from the personnel records of the surveyed company. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a series of analyses, interaction term of overtime work hours with each job resource was included in the model. Significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with job control was observed. Among the low job control group, the long overtime (80 h or more) subgroup had a significantly higher prevalence odds ratio of psychological distress compared to the short overtime (44 h or less) subgroup. No significant association of overtime work hours with psychological distress was found among the high job control group. On the other hand, there was no significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with workplace social support or extrinsic reward. The present findings suggest that high job control has an effect on reducing psychological distress in relation to overtime work hours in Japanese employees.

  20. The Role of Ethnic and National Identifications in Perceived Discrimination for Asian Americans: Toward a Better Understanding of the Buffering Effect of Group Identifications on Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Goldberg, Robyn

    2014-09-01

    A robust relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress has been established. Yet, mixed evidence exists regarding the extent to which ethnic identification moderates this relationship, and scarce attention has been paid to the moderating role of national identification. We propose that the role of group identifications in the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship is best understood by simultaneously and interactively considering ethnic and national identifications. A sample of 259 Asian American students completed measures of perceived discrimination, group identifications (specific ethnic identification stated by respondents and national or "mainstream American" identification), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression symptoms). Regression analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction of perceived discrimination, ethnic identification, and national identification on psychological distress. Simple-slope analyses indicated that dual identification (strong ethnic and national identifications) was linked to a weaker relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress compared with other group identification configurations. These findings underscore the need to consider the interconnections between ethnic and national identifications to better understand the circumstances under which group identifications are likely to buffer individuals against the adverse effects of racial discrimination.

  1. Psychological distress among Ugandan adolescents living with HIV: Examining stressors and the buffering role of general and religious coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutumba, Massy; Bauermeister, Jose A; Harper, Gary W; Musiime, Victor; Lepkowski, James; Resnicow, Ken; Snow, Rachel C

    2017-12-01

    HIV infection increases the risk of psychological distress among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV), which, in turn, increases risky behaviours such as medication non-adherence, substance use, and sexual risk-taking. The majority of studies on psychological distress among ALHIV have been conducted in high-income countries; data on the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among ALHIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are scarce, yet over two-thirds of the global population of ALHIV resides in SSA. The purpose of this study was to identify the contextually relevant correlates of psychological distress among Ugandan ALHIV. Utilizing the stress and coping framework, we explored the risk and protective factors for psychological distress in cross-sectional sample of 464 ALHIV (aged 12-19; 53% female) at a large HIV treatment centre in Kampala, Uganda. The stressors associated with psychological distress included daily hassles, major negative life events, HIV-related quality of life, and stigma. Protective factors included psychosocial resources such as religious coping, satisfaction with social support, and general coping style and behaviours. Social support and optimism were significantly associated with psychological distress. Findings underscore the need for mental health services for ALHIV in Uganda and other resource-limited settings.

  2. Retinal Detachment in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Renata Silva do

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is an obstetric disease of unknown cause that affects approximately 5% of pregnant women. The visual system may be affected with variable intensity, being the retinal detachment a rare complication. The retinal detachment in preeclampsia is usually bilateral and serous, and its pathogenesis is related to the choroidal ischemia secondary to an intense arteriolar vasospasm. The majority of patients have complete recovery of vision with clinical management, and surgery is unnecessary. This is a case report of a 27 year old patient who developed the severe form of preeclampsia on her first pregnancy. She had progressive blurred vision, until she could see only shadows. Ophthalmic examination diagnosed spread and bilateral retinal detachment. With blood pressure control at postpartum, the patient had her retina reattached, and recovery of vision.

  3. Safety detaching hook specification.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JD

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available not open or detach when tilted horizontally in a slack rope event or when struck by a falling object (as described in paragraph 2.4 (d) (ii)). f) Design Drawings and Calculations Detailed design drawings and calculations shall be compiled for all safety... in a data book (defined in paragraph 2.5 (f)). a) Material Testing Safety detaching hook materials shall conform to the requirements of BS 27723 Part 2 (unless otherwise specified) and test pieces shall also be prepared and tested in accordance...

  4. Between Involvement and Detachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Gry

    Between Involvement and Detachment takes grasp with the Johnson administration’s (1963-1969) perceptions of and responses to the Western European realignments. Arguing that the Johnson administration set out to maintain the American unilateralist position in the transatlantic relation, not just...... of the Western world. De Gaulle’s withdrawal from NATO’s integrated command in 1966, and the subsequent British and Belgian calls for a reform of the alliance and a détente with East, contributed to the administration’s fear of alliance disintegration and return to European power politics. The thesis argues...

  5. Kinetic buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Puglisi, Antonio

    2015-01-12

    This paper proposes a new type of molecular device that is able to act as an inverse proton sponge to slowly decrease the pH inside a reaction vessel. This makes the automatic monitoring of the concentration of pH-sensitive systems possible. The device is a composite formed of an alkyl chloride, which kinetically produces acidity, and a buffer that thermodynamically modulates the variation in pH value. Profiles of pH versus time (pH-t plots) have been generated under various experimental conditions by computer simulation, and the device has been tested by carrying out automatic spectrophotometric titrations, without using an autoburette. To underline the wide variety of possible applications, this new system has been used to realize and monitor HCl uptake by a di-copper(II) bistren complex in a single run, in a completely automatic experiment. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. On detachment asymmetry and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenov, A. A.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2017-07-01

    Three issues related to the physics of divertor detachment are analyzed in detail: the criteria for the onset of complete divertor detachment, the role of neutrals in "symmetryzation" of detachment in the inner and outer divertors, and the transition to divertor detachment. The results of comprehensive 2D numerical simulations with the SOLPS4.3 package are compared with some experimental data and predictions based on simplified analytical models. It is shown that it is the ratio of the upstream plasma pressure to the specific power flux entering the recycling region that controls the local onset of detachment on a specific flux tube. Pup/qreclycl≥(Pup/qreclycl) crit remains the valid criterion also in the presence of seeded impurity, if the impurity radiation and hydrogen recycling regions are spatially separated. Detailed analysis indicates that the reverse plasma flow forming on the most heat loaded flux tubes in the outer divertor under the influence of the neutrals coming from the deeply detached inner divertor plays the key role in the detachment "symmetryzation" and allows the outer divertor to reach the detached regime. Finally, it is demonstrated that a gradual increase of the perpendicular heat transport in the edge plasma during transition to the detached regime can make this transition bifurcation-like.

  7. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  8. Controlling marginally detached divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, D.; Kolemen, E.; Barton, J. L.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Humphreys, D. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Maingi, R.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Moser, A. L.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    A new control system at DIII-D has stabilized the inter-ELM detached divertor plasma state for H-mode in close proximity to the threshold for reattachment, thus demonstrating the ability to maintain detachment with minimal gas puffing. When the same control system was instead ordered to hold the plasma at the threshold (here defined as T e  =  5 eV near the divertor target plate), the resulting T e profiles separated into two groups with one group consistent with marginal detachment, and the other with marginal attachment. The plasma dithers between the attached and detached states when the control system attempts to hold at the threshold. The control system is upgraded from the one described in Kolemen et al (2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186) and it handles ELMing plasmas by using real time D α measurements to remove during-ELM slices from real time T e measurements derived from divertor Thomson scattering. The difference between measured and requested inter-ELM T e is passed to a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller to determine gas puff commands. While some degree of detachment is essential for the health of ITER’s divertor, more deeply detached plasmas have greater radiative losses and, at the extreme, confinement degradation, making it desirable to limit detachment to the minimum level needed to protect the target plate (Kolemen et al 2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186). However, the observed bifurcation in plasma conditions at the outer strike point with the ion B   ×  \

  9. the detachment of the meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotomalala, Jean Robert

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rule of the detachment of the meaning that we owe to Benoît de CORNULIER allows any semiotics to incorporate a sense already expressible in a given language. It allows among others to characterize the illocutionary acts. An expression is produced primarily to mean, but from the form of expression, we can agree on an attitude of the speaker. This form is both a Convention that highlights the rule of detachment of the meaning.; La règle du détachement du sens que nous devons à Beno...

  10. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  11. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  12. Outcomes in bullous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah P. Read

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions and importance: GRTs are an uncommon cause of retinal detachment. While pars plana vitrectomy with tamponade is standard in GRT management, there is variability in the use of scleral buckling and PFO in these cases. This is in contrast to retinal dialysis where scleral buckle alone can yield favorable results. Though a baseball ocular trauma is common, retinal involvement is rare compared to other sports injuries such as those occurring with tennis, soccer and golf. Sports trauma remains an important cause of retinal injury and patients should be counseled on the need for eye protection.

  13. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...

  14. Detached divertor plasmas in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, L.D.; Borrass, K.; Corrigan, G.; Gottardi, N.; Lingertat, J.; Loarte, A.; Simonini, R.; Stamp, M.F.; Taroni, A. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Stangeby, P.C. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Studies

    1994-07-01

    In simulations with high radiated power fractions, it is possible to produce the drop in ion current to the divertor targets typical of detached plasmas. Despite the fact that these experiments are performed on beryllium target tiles, radiation from deuterium and beryllium cannot account for the measured power losses. The neutral deuterium levels in the SOL in these plasmas are higher than the model predicts. This may be due to leakage from the divertor or to additional wall sources related to the non-steady nature of these plasmas. In contrast, a surprisingly high level of carbon is present in these discharges; higher even than would be predicted are the divertor target tiles pure carbon. This level may well be large enough to produce the measured radiation. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Daily impaired detachment and short-term effects of impaired sleep quality on next-day commuting near-accidents - an ambulatory diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Diana; Bucher, Sarah; Elfering, Achim

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of daily recovery, that is, impaired psychological detachment from work and various actigraphical indicators of sleep quality, on near-accidents when commuting to work the next morning. Furthermore, the mediating effect of actigraphically assessed sleep quality on the relationship between impaired psychological detachment from work and near-accidents when commuting to work was analysed. Fifty-six full-time employees of a Swiss assurance company participated in the one-week study. Multilevel analyses revealed that impaired detachment was highly related to a decrease in sleep duration. Furthermore, impaired daily recovery processes, such as impaired psychological detachment from work and disturbed sleep quality, were related to commuting near-accidents. Impaired sleep quality mediated the effect of impaired psychological detachment from work on these near-accidents. Our results show that occupational safety interventions should address both impaired psychological detachment from work and sleep quality in order to prevent near accidents when commuting to work. Practitioner Summary: Commuting accidents occur frequently and have detrimental effects on employees, organisations and society. This study shows that daily lack of recovery, that is, impaired psychological detachment and impaired sleep quality, is related to near-accidents when commuting to work the next morning. Primary prevention of commuting accidents should therefore address daily lack of recovery.

  16. Retinal detachment in black South Africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments seen in black patients attending King Edward VIII Hospital. Ophthalmology Clinic over a 5-year period from January. 1987 to December 1991 were reviewed. Penetrating trauma and diabetic retinopathy were excluded. There were 114 detachments in 112 patients, which gave.

  17. Electron attachment and detachment: Electron affinities of isomers of trifluoromethylbenzonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, A. A.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Van Doren, Jane M.

    2004-11-01

    Rate constants for electron attachment to the three isomers of trifluoromethylbenzonitrile [(CF3)(CN)C6H4, or TFMBN] were measured over the temperature range of 303-463 K in a 133-Pa He buffer gas, using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. At 303 K, the measured attachment rate constants are 9.0×10-8 (o-TFMBN), 5.5×10-8 (m-TFMBN), and 8.9×10-8 cm3 s-1 (p-TFMBN), estimated accurate to ±25%. The attachment process formed only the parent anion in all three cases. Thermal electron detachment was observed for all three anion isomers, and rate constants for this reverse process were also measured. From the attachment and detachment results, the electron affinities of the three isomers of TFMBN were determined to be 0.70(o-TFMBN), 0.67(m-TFMBN), and 0.83 eV (p-TFMBN), all ±0.05 eV. G3(MP2) [Gaussian-3 calculations with reduced Møller-Plesset orders (MP2)] calculations were carried out for the neutrals and anions. Electron affinities derived from these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  18. Effectiveness of EDTA and Modified Salt Solution to Detach and Kill Cells from Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Josiane; Hoogenkamp, Michel; Felippe, Wilson T; Crielaard, Wim; van der Waal, Suzette V

    2016-02-01

    Disruption of the matrix of endodontic biofilms will aid in their removal from a root canal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of EDTA and a modified salt solution (MSS) to detach bacteria from biofilms. Forty-eight-hour-old Enterococcus faecalis biofilms were grown on glass coverslips and then treated for 1 hour by immersion in 17% EDTA or MSS. Phosphate-buffered saline served as a negative control. Then, residual biofilm cells on the substrate and the detached cells in the supernatant were collected. Viability was verified by the colony-forming unit (CFU) counting method. Propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment in conjunction with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was also performed to detect the presence of E. faecalis 16S ribonucleic RNA genes. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. The Pearson R test evaluated the correlation between results from CFU and PMA (α = 5%). qPCR showed that EDTA detached 99% of biofilm cells, and MSS detached 94% of biofilm cells (both P biofilms with a minor antimicrobial effect. Besides a great antimicrobial effect, MSS also detached biofilm cells. These dispersals of biofilms give insights into new endodontic biofilm removal strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  20. Creep in buffer clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Adey, R. [Computational Mechanics BEASY, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-01

    The study involved characterization of the microstructural arrangement and molecular forcefields in the buffer clay for getting a basis for selecting suitable creep models. It is concluded that the number of particles and wide range of the particle bond spectrum require that stochastical mechanics and thermodynamics will be considered and they are basic to the creep model proposed for predicting creep settlement of the canisters. The influence of the stress level on creep strain of MX-80 clay is not well known but for the buffer creep is approximately proportional to stress. Theoretical considerations suggest a moderate impact for temperatures up to 90 deg C and this is supported by model experiments. It is believed that the assumption of strain being proportional to temperature is conservative. The general performance of the stochastic model can be illustrated in principle by use of visco-elastic rheological models implying a time-related increase in viscosity. The shear-induced creep settlement under constant volume conditions calculated by using the proposed creep model is on the order of 1 mm in ten thousand years and up to a couple of millimeters in one million years. It is much smaller than the consolidation settlement, which is believed to be on the order of 10 mm. The general conclusion is that creep settlement of the canisters is very small and of no significance to the integrity of the buffer itself or of the canisters.

  1. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  2. Correlates of interpersonal dependency and detachment in an adolescent inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Greg; Siefert, Caleb J; Bornstein, Robert F; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Blais, Mark A; Zodan, Jennifer; Rao, Nyapati

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal dependency has been linked to psychological distress, depression, help seeking, treatment compliance, and sensitivity to interpersonal cues in adult samples. However, there is a dearth of research focusing on dependency in child and adolescent samples. The current study examined the construct validity of a measure of interpersonal dependency. The authors investigated how interpersonal dependency and detachment relate to behavioral problems, subjective well-being, interpersonal problems, and global symptom severity in adolescent inpatients. Destructive overdependence (DO) and dysfunctional detachment (DD) were positively related to interpersonal distress, behavioral problems, and symptom severity and negatively related to psychological health and well-being. Healthy dependency (HD) was associated with fewer behavioral problems and less symptom severity and positively related to subjective well-being. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Factors predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Abstract. Aim: To determine and describe the causes and risk factors predisposing Ethiopian patients to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods: A retrospective study of all patients with RRD seen at the retina clinic of Menilik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, from April 1999 to October 2003 was done. Charts of ...

  4. Detachment evolution on the TCV tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Harrison

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Divertor detachment in the TCV tokamak has been investigated through experiments and modelling. Density ramp experiments were carried out in ohmic heated L-mode pulses with the ion ∇B drift directed away from the primary X-point, similar to previous studies [1]. Before the roll-over in the ion current to the outer strike point, C III and Dα emission from the outer leg recede slowly from the strike point toward the X-point, at a rate of ∼2.0 × 10−19m/m−3 along the magnetic field as the electron temperature along the leg reduces with increasing density. Around the onset of detachment, the upstream density profile and outer target Dα profiles broaden, possibly leading to an increase in radiation in the SOL by increased interaction between the SOL and the carbon tiles lining the outer wall. The plasma conditions upstream and at various locations along the detached outer divertor leg have been characterised, and the consistency of this data has been checked with the interpretive OSM-EIRENE-DIVIMP suite of codes [2] and are broadly found to be consistent with measured Dγ/Dα emissivity profiles along the detached outer divertor leg.

  5. Detachment evolution on the TCV tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, J. R.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Theiler, C.; Duval, B. P.; Elmore, S.; Labit, B.; Lipschultz, B.; van Limpt, S. H. M.; Lisgo, S. W.; Tsui, C. K.; Reimerdes, H.; Sheikh, U.; Verhaegh, K. H. A.; Wischmeier, M.

    2017-01-01

    Divertor detachment in the TCV tokamak has been investigated through experiments and modelling. Density ramp experiments were carried out in ohmic heated L-mode pulses with the ion ∇B drift directed away from the primary X-point, similar to previous studies [1]. Before the roll-over in the ion

  6. Spectroscopic investigations of divertor detachment in TCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Verhaegh

    2017-08-01

    The inferred magnitude of recombination is small compared to the target ion current at the time detachment (particle flux drop starts at the target. However, recombination may be having more localized effects (to a flux tube which we cannot discern at this time. Later, at the highest densities achieved, the total recombination does reach levels similar to the particle flux.

  7. Shoreline response to detached breakwaters in prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khuong, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate prediction of shoreline changes behind detached breakwaters is, in regard to the adjustment to the environmental impact, still a challenge for designers and coastal managers. This research is expected to fill the gaps in the estimation of shoreline changes by developing new and

  8. [Retinal detachment in various myopic refractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimanović-Halilović, Emina

    2009-01-01

    The basic aim of this study was to find the group of "critical" myopic refraction with the highest occurrence of retinal detachment. In the study, 180 myopic eyes were analyzed. Upon the targeted ophthalmological anamnesis, definition of the objective refraction, and indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy, we analyzed the distribution of retinal detachment and the area affected in relation to refraction. All the eyes were divided into groups according to the refraction height. Average age of our patients ranged from 48.43 to 51.60 years with SD from 13.88 to 18.45. We did not find a statistically significant difference for a certain age. The study covered 102 (56.6%) male and 78 (43.3%) female patients. The highest occurrence of retinal detachment was found in Refraction Group from 3.5 to 7.49 dsph, total 21 (11.6%). The retinal detachments usually affected 2/4 or 3/4 of the eye fundus surface respectively.

  9. Testing the triple-match principle among Dutch elite athletes: A day-level study on sport demands, detachment and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, Y.A.; Jonge, J. de; Oerlemans, W.G.M.; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Detachment, getting a physical, cognitive, and emotional break from the effortful demands of training and competition, is a recovery experience that can buffer the adverse effects of high sport demands on health and well-being. The matching hypothesis states that recovery strategies are most

  10. Repair of Traumatic Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Combined with Congenital Falciform Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukutaro Mano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of surgical repair of traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment combined with congenital falciform retinal detachment (FRD. Methods: A retrospective case report. Results: A 36-year-old man with traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicating a previously known FRD was successfully treated despite residual FRD following pars plana lensectomy, vitrectomy, and encircling scleral buckling. His best corrected visual acuity improved from hand motion at 50 cm to 20/1,000. Conclusion: We concluded that the root of the FRD is susceptible to trauma because of the contraction of fibrovascular tissue. The early intervention of modern vitrectomy to traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicating a previously known FRD is an important consideration for enhanced quality of care and optimal patient outcomes.

  11. Detachment variants of Chinese hamster cells. Hyaluronic acid as a modulator of cell detachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, B.J.; Cox, S.H.; Kraemer, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    Variants of the Chinese hamster cell line CHO have been isolated and characterized with respect to attachment and trypsin- or EGTA-mediated detachment kinetics, cell morphologies, and the complex carbohydrates (labeled with (/sup 3/H)glucosamine) of the cell surface. The variant which was more readily detached from the substratum exhibited a more rounded cell shape and had three times more label as hyaluronic acid on the cell surface than the parental cell. The slowly detaching variant had a morphology similar to the parental cell but only half the radioactivity ascribable to hyaluronic acid. Endogenous levels of cAMP were unaltered in the variants. Exogenous db-cAMP caused the cells to elongate and flatten but did not alter the characteristic detachment kinetics. The role of hyaluronic acid as a modulator of the cell substratum interface is discussed.

  12. Buffer capacity of biologics--from buffer salts to buffering by antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Anne R; Bahrenburg, Sven; Garidel, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Controlling pH is essential for a variety of biopharmaceutical process steps. The chemical stability of biologics such as monoclonal antibodies is pH-dependent and slightly acidic conditions are favorable for stability in a number of cases. Since control of pH is widely provided by added buffer salts, the current study summarizes the buffer characteristics of acetate, citrate, histidine, succinate, and phosphate buffers. Experimentally derived values largely coincide with values calculated from a model that had been proposed in 1922 by van Slyke. As high concentrated protein formulations become more and more prevalent for biologics, the self-buffering potential of proteins becomes of relevance. The current study provides information on buffer characteristics for pH ranges down to 4.0 and up to 8.0 and shows that a monoclonal antibody at 50 mg/mL exhibits similar buffer capacity as 6 mM citrate or 14 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). Buffer capacity of antibody solutions scales linearly with protein concentration up to more than 200 mg/mL. At a protein concentration of 220 mg/mL, the buffer capacity resembles the buffer capacity of 30 mM citrate or 50 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). The buffer capacity of monoclonal antibodies is practically identical at the process relevant temperatures 5, 25, and 40°C. Changes in ionic strength of ΔI=0.15, in contrast, can alter the buffer capacity up to 35%. In conclusion, due to efficient self-buffering by antibodies in the pH range of favored chemical stability, conventional buffer excipients could be dispensable for pH stabilization of high concentrated protein solutions. Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. The Lazy Z-Buffer

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Steve

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new perspective on a fundamental algorithm of three-dimensional computer graphics, namely z-buffering. An implementation of the z-buffer method in a lazy functional language behaves in a quite different manner to the traditional imperative counterpart. The main result of this paper is to show that the lazy z-buffer is a scan-line method. The effective difference between scan-line methods and z-buffers is one of order of evaluation. A hybrid algorithm with properties com...

  14. The fixed/detachable implant provisional prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibirka, R M; Linebaugh, M L

    1997-06-01

    Interim modification and management of a complete denture following surgical uncovering of dental implants can be time-intensive and may fail to provide adequate patient benefit until the definitive prosthesis can be completed. Inadequate interim management can result in functional and tissue difficulties. Modification of the conventional complete denture to a fixed/detachable provisional prosthesis in a one-stage procedure provides the patient an opportunity to experience a fixed prosthesis. The incorporation of fixed, provisional cylinders to the existing denture base using autopolymerizing acrylic resin with a closed-mouth technique is described. The peripheral regions are reduced and the distal extension shortened to resemble a fixed/detachable prosthesis. This conversion technique can provide patient satisfaction and comfort until delivery of the definitive prosthesis. Esthetic concerns, home care problems, or patient difficulties with the provisional prosthesis can be rectified in the final prosthesis.

  15. Tonic shock induces detachment of Giardia lamblia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasite Giardia lamblia must remain attached to the host small intestine in order to proliferate and subsequently cause disease. However, little is known about the factors that may cause detachment in vivo, such as changes in the aqueous environment. Osmolality within the proximal small intestine can vary by nearly an order of magnitude between host fed and fasted states, while pH can vary by several orders of magnitude. Giardia cells are known to regulate their volume when exposed to changes in osmolality, but the short-timescale effects of osmolality and pH on parasite attachment are not known. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a closed flow chamber assay to test the effects of rapid changes in media osmolality, tonicity, and pH on Giardia attachment to both glass and C2(Bbe-1 intestinal cell monolayer surfaces. We found that Giardia detach from both surfaces in a tonicity-dependent manner, where tonicity is the effective osmolality experienced by the cell. Detachment occurs with a characteristic time constant of 25 seconds (SD = 10 sec, n = 17 in both hypo- and hypertonic media but is otherwise insensitive to physiologically relevant changes in media composition and pH. Interestingly, cells that remain attached are able to adapt to moderate changes in tonicity. By exposing cells to a timed pattern of tonicity variations and adjustment periods, we found that it is possible to maximize the tonicity change experienced by the cells, overcoming the adaptive response and resulting in extensive detachment. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, conducted with human-infecting Giardia on human intestinal epithelial monolayers, highlight the ability of Giardia to adapt to the changing intestinal environment and suggest new possibilities for treatment of giardiasis by manipulation of tonicity in the intestinal lumen.

  16. Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) pathways in oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinet, Catherine; Gabelica, Valérie; Balbeur, Dorothée; de Pauw, Edwin

    2009-06-01

    Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) and electron photodetachment dissociation (EPD) are two novel fragmentation methods yielding radicals from negatively charged ions. With the goal of comparing EDD, EPD and the more traditional collision-induced dissociation (CID) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) fragmentation processes in oligonucleotides, we studied here the EDD fragmentation pathways of oligonucleotides of varying length. We chose polythymine oligonucleotides because these are the least prone to secondary structure formation, and found complete sequence coverage by EDD for up to dT20. We also found that the fragmentation pathways change with oligonucleotide length: electron detachment is a mandatory step in the fragmentation of larger sequences, while shorter oligonucleotides can also fragment via direct electronic or vibrational excitation by the electrons. This is supported by (1) the fact that continuous ejection of the charge-reduced species does not totally prevent fragmentation of short oligonucleotides dT5 and dT6, (2) the fact that CID and EDD fragments are more similar for small oligonucleotides (although double resonance experiments show that they are not all issued from the same mechanisms), and (3) the fact that electron-induced dissociation (EID) of singly charged dT3 and dT4 gives similar fragments as EDD of doubly charged dT5 and dT6. Finally, the detachment efficiency as a function of the nature of the nucleobase was studied. The effect of base on electron detachment in EDD (G > T > A > C) is different than in EPD (G > A > C > T), indicating different electron loss mechanisms.

  17. Extinguishing ELMs in detached radiative divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigarov, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Rognlien, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In order to avoid deleterious effects of ELMs on PFCs in next-step fusion devices it has been suggested to operate with small-sized ELMs naturally extinguishing in the divertor. Our modeling effort is focusing at extinguishing type-I ELMs: conditions for expelled plasma dissipation; efficiency of ELM power handling by detached radiative divertors; and the ELM impact on detachment state. Here time-dependent modeling of a sequence of many ELMs was performed with 2-D edge plasma transport code UEDGE-MB-W which incorporates the Macro-Blob (MB) approach to simulate non-diffusive filamentary transport and various ``Wall'' (W) models for time-dependent hydrogen wall inventory and recycling. Three cases were modeled, in which extinguishing ELMs are achieved due to: (i) intrinsic impurities via graphite sputtering, (ii) extrinsic impurity gas puff (Ne), and (iii) =(i) +(ii). For each case, we performed a series of UEDGE-MB-W runs scanning the deuterium and impurity inventories, pedestal losses and ELM frequency. Temporal variations of the degree of detachment, ionization front shape, recombination sink strength, radiated fraction, peak power loads, OSP, impurity charge states, and in/out asymmetries were analyzed. We discuss the onset of extinguishing ELMs, conditions for not burning through and enhanced plasma recombination as functions of scanned parameters. Efficiencies of intrinsic and extrinsic impurities in ELM extinguishing are compared.

  18. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M. Bailey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma, LL/2 (murine lung and HCT116 (human colon tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast and PC3M (human prostate tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells. Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit.

  19. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kate M; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Cornnell, Heather H; Ribeiro, Maria C; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma), LL/2 (murine lung) and HCT116 (human colon) tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast) and PC3M (human prostate) tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells) and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells). Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using fractional order method to generalize strengthening generating operator buffer operator and weakening buffer operator

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, L.; Liu, S.; Yang, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Traditional integer order buffer operator is extended to fractional order buffer operator, the corresponding relationship between the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator is revealed. Fractional order buffer operator not only can generalize the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator, but also realize tiny adjustment of buffer effect. The effectiveness of GM(1,1) with the fractional order buffer operator is validated by six cases.

  1. A New Scaling for Divertor Detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The ITER design and future fusion power plant designs depend on divertor detachment, whether partial, pronounced or complete, both to limit heat flux to plasma-facing components and to limit surface erosion due to sputtering. Generally the parallel heat flux, estimated as proportional to Psep / R or Psep B / R , is used as a proxy for the difficulty of achieving detachment. Here we argue that the impurity cooling required for detachment is strongly dependent on the upstream separatrix density, which is limited by Greenwald scaling. Taking this into account self-consistently, along with the Heuristic Drift (HD) model for the SOL width, and using a Lengyel radiation model that includes non-coronal effects, we find that the relative impurity concentration, cz ≡nz /ne , required for detachment scales dominantly as cz Psep /Bp(nsep /nGW) 2 . The absence of any explicit favorable size scaling is concerning, as Psep must increase by an order of magnitude from present experiments to an economic fusion power system, while increases in the poloidal magnetic field strength are limited by magnet technology and MHD stability. This result should not be surprising, as it follows from the simplest scaling, Psep czne2VSOL , taking into account the Greenwald density limit and the HD SOL volume scaling. Reinke has combined a similar approach with the requirement to maintain H-mode, which sets a lower limit on Psep, and also arrives at an incentive for high field and disincentive for large size. These results should be challenged by comparison with 2D divertor codes and with measurements on existing experiments. In particular measurements are required for extrinsic divertor impurity concentration over a range of power and density conditions far from the regime where detachment can be achieved with deuterium puffing and intrinsic impurities alone. Nonetheless, these results suggest that higher magnetic field, stronger shaping, double-null operation, `advanced' divertor magnetic and

  2. Coastal Response, a system of detached breakwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ortiz, Isabelo; Negro Valdecantos, Vicente; Santos López, Jose; Esteban, María Dolores

    2017-04-01

    The coastline's sedimentary response in the form of a tombolo or semi-tombolo (salient) as a result of the construction of detached breakwaters is an aspect that should be known in the design phase so that these marine structures may be properly designed. In achieving an ecological, social and economic value, such areas must also be properly managed. All design methods in existence since Dean (1978) are mainly based on hypotheses formulated from geometric studies on existing formations. No relationship at all is established with climate and littoral dynamics typical of the location (only Suh and Darlymple (1987) and the Japanese Ministry of Construction (1986) present relationships depending on wave variables). Neither has the influence on systems with more than two breakwaters been studied. These methods are not fully adapted to the cases existing on the Spanish Mediterranean littoral. The lines of investigation as proposed by L. Bricio and V. Negro (2010) were continued with for this study. These researchers developed a method for dimensioning isolated, detached breakwaters and their semi-tombolo or tombolo associated formations using all the characteristics of the site (energy, geometric and structural), specific climate and geomorphology and littoral dynamics' characteristics. This methodology is currently acknowledged and accepted in works undertaken on the Spanish Mediterranean littoral. A linear regression was obtained in the investigation undertaken on the 18 detached breakwater systems along the whole of the 1670 km of the Spanish Mediterranean littoral using the proposals made by L. Bricio and V. Negro. The adjustment of R2 ≥ 0.90 was used for the sandy, tombolo formations behind all the detached breakwater systems between several non-dimensional monomials displaying the most representative characteristics of the site. L/H12 + (2ṡB)/G =12,15ṡ(X/Xc)+7,3231 X: Distance of breakwaters from coastline Xc: Distance from coastline where the closure depth

  3. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryn, John N [Naperville, IL; Daniels, Edward J [Orland Park, IL; Krumdick, Greg K [Crete, IL

    2009-12-15

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  4. Mediterranean detachment zones : thermicity vs heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Loic; Huet, Benjamin; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Jolivet, Laurent; Burov, Evgenii

    2017-04-01

    Even if the seminal comprehensive descriptions of Metamorphic Core Complexes (MCCs) in the American Cordillera mentionned lower plates constituted of gneiss and intruded by granites (e. g. Snake Range, Whipple Mountains), the actual definition of MCCs : « Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes appear to be bodies from the middle crust that have been dragged out from beneath fracturing and extending upper crustal rocks, and exposed beneath shallow-dipping (normal slip) faults of large areal extent » {as in Lister & Davis, 1989, Journal of Structural Geology, v. 11, pp. 65-94} refers to rocks exhumed from the middle crust whatever their thermal history. The fundamental property of this middle crust resides in its ability fo flow lateraly toward the forming dome, to accommodate stretching of the upper plate and preserve a relatively flat moho. Even though thermal reequilibration can induce weakening of the lower crust, a similar strength profile can also be inherited from pre-extension evolution of the continental crust and promote development of the original structure of MCCs : their detachment. In order to unravel the rheological meaning of detachments, we propose here a review of extensional shear zones described as detachments in the Mediterranean realm, and establish a three end-members typology with « hot MCCs » as one end-member, and two cold MCC end-members with a weak middle crust due to stacking of high pressure metapelitic nappes or a strong upper crust responsible for the strength contrast exaggeration between the upper and lower crust. New fully coupled thermo-mechanical modeling experiments together with a review of comparable published results allow to test this three end-member typology and determine the critical strength constrast for the perennial development of a detachment zone. A 1000 ratio between the strength at the brittle-ductile transition and the strength at the base of the crust seems a boundary value between localized extensional modes

  5. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  6. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  7. Structural recovery of the detached macula after retinal detachment repair as assessed by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Soo Geun; Kim, Yoon Jeon; Chae, Ju Byung; Yang, Sung Jae; Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, June-Gone; Yoon, Young Hee

    2013-06-01

    To investigate correlations between preoperative and postoperative foveal microstructures in patients with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). We reviewed the records of 31 eyes from 31 patients with macula-off RRD who had undergone successful re-attachment surgery. We analyzed data obtained from complete ophthalmologic examinations and optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and 9 to 12 months after surgery. All postoperative OCT measurements were taken with spectral-domain OCT, but a subset of preoperative OCT measurements were taken with time-domain OCT. The mean duration of macular detachment was 15.5 ± 15.2 days, and mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) was 1.03 ± 0.68. Preoperative visual acuity was correlated with retinal detachment height (p macula-off duration. The final BCVA was significantly correlated with integrity of the junction between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) combined with the continuity of external limiting membrane (ELM) (p = 0.025). The presence of IRS and OLU on a detached macula were highly correlated with the final postoperative integrity of the IS/OS junction and the ELM (p = 0.017). Eyes preoperatively exhibiting IRS and OLU showed a higher incidence of disruption to the photoreceptor IS/OS junction and the ELM at final follow-up. Such a close correlation between preoperative and postoperative structural changes may explain why ultimate visual recovery in such eyes is poor.

  8. A Sensitivity Analysis of SOLPS Plasma Detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. L.; Canik, J. M.; Eldon, D.; Meneghini, O.; AToM SciDAC Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Predicting the scrape off layer plasma conditions required for the ITER plasma to achieve detachment is an important issue when considering divertor heat load management options that are compatible with desired core plasma operational scenarios. Given the complexity of the scrape off layer, such predictions often rely on an integrated model of plasma transport with many free parameters. However, the sensitivity of any given prediction to the choices made by the modeler is often overlooked due to the logistical difficulties in completing such a study. Here we utilize an OMFIT workflow to enable a sensitivity analysis of the midplane density at which detachment occurs within the SOLPS model. The workflow leverages the TaskFarmer technology developed at NERSC to launch many instances of the SOLPS integrated model in parallel to probe the high dimensional parameter space of SOLPS inputs. We examine both predictive and interpretive models where the plasma diffusion coefficients are chosen to match an empirical scaling for divertor heat flux width or experimental profiles respectively. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, and is supported under Contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231, DE-AC05-00OR22725 and DE-SC0012656.

  9. Risk of Retinal Detachment After Pediatric Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haargaard, Birgitte; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Oudin, Anna

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the long-term risk of retinal detachment following pediatric cataract surgery and to identify risk factors for retinal detachment. METHODS: We included all children (aged 0 to 17 years) who during the time period of 1977 to 2005 underwent pediatric cataract surgery in Denmark......, excluding cataract cases caused by trauma, or acquired systemic or acquired ocular pathology, and cases with ocular anomalies associated with the development of retinal detachment. Cases of cataract were ascertained from the mandatory Danish National Patient Register, and information on retinal detachment...... was based on medical chart review. RESULTS: Among 1043 eyes of 656 children undergoing surgery for pediatric cataract, 25 eyes (23 children) developed retinal detachment at a median time of 9.1 years after surgery. The overall 20-year risk of retinal detachment was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3...

  10. Pediatric retinal detachment in cutis aplasia and cutis marmorata telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagan, Maeve; Brennan, Rosie; McLoone, Eibhlin

    2012-01-01

    This is a report of 2 cases of cutis aplasia and cutis marmorata telangiectasia with associated retinal detachment. Retrospective case report. Illustration of ophthalmic associations of the rare congenital dermatologic presentations and description of successful treatment with laser photocoagulation. Awareness of the association between retinal detachment and cutis aplasia and cutis marmorata should be acted upon as laser photocoagulation has been shown in this case report to successfully treat the associated retinal detachment.

  11. Buffer gas acquisition and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.

    2001-02-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture of CO2. Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO2 freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (N2), and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193 K and 10 kPa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph. The end result was data necessary to design a system that could separate CO2, N2, and Ar. .

  12. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  13. Radiative detached divertor with acceptable separatrix Zeff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigarov, A. Yu.

    2017-10-01

    The feasibility study is performed for the radiative detached divertor (RDD) concept, which characterizes a variety of detached plasmas with impurity amounts providing the highest levels of divertor radiation without X-point MARFE (XPM), based on a set of restrictive criteria for the leading plasma parameters (LPPs) including, e.g., tolerable peak power loads below 1 MW/m2, low separatrix densities, allowable impurity concentrations, and acceptable Zeff values for a DIII-D like tokamak. For this, extensive simulations with the 2-D edge plasma transport code were done scanning the deuterium and impurity inventories practically for all impurity elements from beryllium to neon and the analysis of LPP variations in these scans is presented. It is shown that, for a given D inventory, the total radiation fraction with an increase in the impurity inventory reaches a flat top level, frad = 0.85 ± 0.01, whereas the higher frad corresponds to XPM. This critical fraction is the same for all elements and values of the D inventory. Successful RDD solutions with a flat top radiation meeting all ad hoc LPP criteria are found for some elements. Boron and nitrogen are shown to be the most promising elements for seeding, since they are capable of providing alone the successful RDD at the lowest concentrations. Several important effects on impurity radiation are considered including: cross-field impurity transport in regions with strong temperature gradients, multi-species thermal force, charge-exchange of impurity ions with D atoms originating from recombination, impurity entrainment by parallel flows, flows caused by inner/outer divertor asymmetries, and Mach ˜ 1 flows reached inside radiation-ionization fronts. The impurity radiation profiles of various elements are analyzed suggesting three patterns differing in the radiation front position with respect to the D ionization source. The modeled relocation of D from the pedestal into divertor regions; an enhanced pedestal

  14. Missed retinal breaks in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Takkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the causes and associations of missed retinal breaks (MRBs and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. METHODS: Case sheets of patients undergoing vitreo retinal surgery for RRD at a tertiary eye care centre were evaluated retrospectively. Out of the 378 records screened, 253 were included for analysis of MRBs and 191 patients were included for analysis of PVD, depending on the inclusion criteria. Features of RRD and retinal breaks noted on examination were compared to the status of MRBs and PVD detected during surgery for possible associations. RESULTS: Overall, 27% patients had MRBs. Retinal holes were commonly missed in patients with lattice degeneration while missed retinal tears were associated with presence of complete PVD. Patients operated for cataract surgery were significantly associated with MRBs (P=0.033 with the odds of missing a retinal break being 1.91 as compared to patients with natural lens. Advanced proliferative vitreo retinopathy (PVR and retinal bullae were the most common reasons for missing a retinal break during examination. PVD was present in 52% of the cases and was wrongly assessed in 16%. Retinal bullae, pseudophakia/aphakia, myopia, and horse shoe retinal tears were strongly associated with presence of PVD. Traumatic RRDs were rarely associated with PVD. CONCLUSION: Pseudophakic patients, and patients with retinal bullae or advanced PVR should be carefully screened for MRBs. Though Weiss ring is a good indicator of PVD, it may still be over diagnosed in some cases. PVD is associated with retinal bullae and pseudophakia, and inversely with traumatic RRD.

  15. Maritime Training Serbian Autonomous Vessel Protection Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Svetislav D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Somalia has caused appearance of piracy at sea in the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The European Union will demonstrate the application of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem of piracy at sea and the crisis in Somalia conducting naval operation — EU NAVFOR Atalanta and operation EUTM under the Common Security and Defense Policy. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. One of goals is protections of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP. This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.

  16. Stickler syndrome. Epidemiology of retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, F; Muiños, S J; Nadal, J; Elizalde, J; Mojal, S

    2015-06-01

    A review was performed on all patients with Stickler syndrome that had been treated in our Centre since it was diagnosed, in order to evaluate the risk of suffering a retinal detachment (RD). A total of 14 patients, diagnosed by clinical criteria, were included. The following variables were evaluated: age, gender, ocular background, follow-up, initial and final visual acuity (VA), optical prescription, prophylactic treatment, surgery and techniques performed. The risk age to suffer a RD, as well as cataracts, was determined by using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis. From a total of 5 men and 9 women, the median initial VA was 0.35, which was the same as the final VA. The median optical prescription was -9.5 D myopia. The median of follow-up was 7 years. Ocular background was 4 RD cases and 2 Lasik surgeries. The operations performed were 8 RD, 12 cataract, 2 glaucoma, 2 macular hole, and one endotropia. The median age of RD was 20 years and cataract 34 years. As regards surgical tecnique, 4 scleral buckle cases, and 4 scleral buckle+pars plana vitrectomy cases were formed. The prophylactic treatments performed were: one scleral buckle case, 4 endolaser photocoagulation, and one cryotherapy. Two of which presented with RD. In the series presented, retinal detachment in Stickler syndrome mainly occurs in the second decade of life, with cataracts mainly developing in the fourth decade. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermophysical tests of buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokyo (Japan); Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic properties of buffer materials were measured for putting in order thermodynamic constants to be used in the near-field thermal analysis. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were measured as functions of the water content and temperature to deduce the specific heat. The thermal conductivity and specific heat varied significantly as the water content changed. Obtained values of the specific heat agreed well the expected values calculated based on the constituents of the buffer material. Temperature dependence of the thermodynamic constants was found small below 90degC. From the findings, the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the buffer material were formulated as functions of the water content. Thermodynamic study of powdery bentonite was carried out as well with a purpose of use for filling apertures in the artificial barrier. (H. Baba)

  18. Buffer$--An Economic Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary Bentrup

    2007-01-01

    Buffer$ is an economic spreadsheet tool for analyzing the cost-benefits of conservation buffers by resource professionals. Conservation buffers are linear strips of vegetation managed for multiple landowner and societal objectives. The Microsoft Excel based spreadsheet can calculate potential income derived from a buffer, including income from cost-share/incentive...

  19. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  20. Risk of progression in macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callizo, Josep; Pfeiffer, Sebastian; Lahme, Eva; van Oterendorp, Christian; Khattab, Mohammed; Bemme, Sebastian; Kulanga, Miroslav; Hoerauf, Hans; Feltgen, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    To identify factors that may lead to a rapid progression in macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), in particular, those that may lead to macular involvement. Observational, prospective, single-center study. Patients referred for surgery due to primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with the macula on between 2009 and 2013 were included. Relevant factors analyzed included age, time delay until surgery, lens status, myopia, the detachment's location and configuration as well as number, size and type of retinal breaks. Eyes underwent optical coherence tomography to detect macular detachment. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the effect of several factors in the progression of retinal detachment. A total of 116 eyes of 116 patients were included. Mean time delay between admission and surgery was 1.8 ± 1.4 days. Progression was observed in 19.8% of the eyes. Of those, 47.8% presented macular detachment. Ten of the 11 (90.9%) eyes presenting progression involving the macula also exhibited a bullous configuration, which was the only parameter that correlated significantly with detachment progression in patients with (p = 0.0036) and without (p = 0.0014) macular involvement. For the first time in a prospective trial, a bullous configuration was found to be a highly significant predictor for progression in macula-on detachments. Our data support prompt surgery in patients diagnosed with bullous macula-on RRD.

  1. Ceramide production associated with retinal apoptosis after retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranty, Marie-Laure; Carpentier, Stéphane; Cournot, Maxime; Rico-Lattes, Isabelle; Malecaze, François; Levade, Thierry; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Quintyn, Jean-Claude

    2009-02-01

    During retinal detachment, premature apoptosis of photoreceptors and a loss of optimally corrected visual acuity occur. We hypothesized that retinal cell death and generation of ceramide, a pro-apoptotic lipid, would progress as a function of time following experimental retinal detachment, and undertook to define the appropriate temporal window. Unilateral retinal detachment was induced in white New Zealand rabbits by subretinal injection of sodium hyaluronate. In experimental animals, we injected sphingosine-1-P into the vitreous 2 hours before retinal detachment. Both eyes were removed on days 1, 3 and 6 for histological and biochemical examination. The number of photoreceptors was counted in section, the level of apoptosis was assessed using the TUNEL assay, and the production of ceramide was analyzed in situ with immunohistochemistry. The concentration of ceramide was also determined on retinal homogenates using a diacylglycerol kinase assay. We confirmed that the average number of live photoreceptors decreased gradually after retinal detachment. In eyes pre-treated with sphingosine-1-P the number of apoptotic photoreceptors was significantly lower. The proportion of apoptotic photoreceptors (14%) remained constant as a function of time in the window studied. As compared to controls, the detached retina showed intense ceramide immunostaining that was prominent in the photoreceptors, but also present to a lesser extent in other retinal layers. The total concentration of intra-retinal ceramide increased by 40% on the first day and continued augmenting through the sixth day after retinal detachment. Retinal apoptosis during experimental retinal detachment is associated with in vivo production of ceramide.

  2. Recalcitrance of Streptococcus mutans biofilms towards detergent-stimulated detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landa, AS; van de Belt-Gritter, B; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    The biofilm mode of growth protects the plaque microorganisms against environmental attacks, such as from antimicrobials or detergents. Detergents have a demonstrated ability to detach initially adhering bacteria from enamel surfaces, but the ability of detergent components to detach plaque bacteria

  3. Incidence and Pattern of Retinal Detachment in a Tertiary Eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [11] Nonetheless, there were very few trauma‑related tractional detachment in spite of a long delay in presentation. This may be due to the fact that most of these patients sustained blunt trauma. Tractional detachment is associated less with blunt than by penetrating eye injury. Table 1: Anatomical location of the retinal tears.

  4. Frictional and elastic energy in gecko adhesive detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wilkinson, Matt; Autumn, Kellar

    2008-03-06

    Geckos use millions of adhesive setae on their toes to climb vertical surfaces at speeds of over 1 m s(-1). Climbing presents a significant challenge for an adhesive since it requires both strong attachment and easy, rapid removal. Conventional pressure-sensitive adhesives are either strong and difficult to remove (e.g. duct tape) or weak and easy to remove (e.g. sticky notes). We discovered that the energy required to detach adhering tokay gecko setae (W(d)) is modulated by the angle (theta) of a linear path of detachment. Gecko setae resist detachment when dragged towards the animal during detachment (theta = 30 degrees ) requiring W(d) = 5.0+/-0.86(s.e.) J m(-2) to detach, largely due to frictional losses. This external frictional loss is analogous to viscous internal frictional losses during detachment of pressure-sensitive adhesives. We found that, remarkably, setae possess a built-in release mechanism. Setae acted as springs when loaded in tension during attachment and returned elastic energy when detached along the optimal path (theta=130 degrees ), resulting in W(d) = -0.8+/-0.12 J m(-2). The release of elastic energy from the setal shaft probably causes spontaneous release, suggesting that curved shafts may enable easy detachment in natural, and synthetic, gecko adhesives.

  5. Incidence and Pattern of Retinal Detachment in a Tertiary Eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim was to determine the hospital incidence, pattern and clinical presentation of retinal detachment at the Guinness Eye Center, Onitsha, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Case files of all retinal detachment patients seen at the Guinness Eye Center Onitsha between June 1997 and May 2012 were reviewed.

  6. Retinal detachment in black South Africans | Peters | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments seen in black patients attending King Edward VIII Hospital Ophthalmology Clinic over a 5-year period from January 1987 to December 1991 were reviewed. Penetrating trauma and diabetic retinopathy were excluded. There were 114 detachments in 112 patients, which gave incidence ...

  7. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  8. Tracing detached and attached care practices in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffer, Ann Katrine B.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of skills labs in Danish nursing education can, in itself, be viewed as a complexity. The students are expected to eventually carry out their work in a situated hospital practice, but they learn their professional skills in a different space altogether, detached and removed from...... to attachments. Yet empirical cases from the skills lab and hospitals illustrate how students sometimes felt emotionally attached to plastic dummies and how experienced nurses sometimes practised a degree of detachment in relation to human patients. Detached engagements will therefore be presented as part...... of care practices of nurses rendering the ability to detach in engagement with patients a professional skill that students also need to learn. In the analysis to follow, attached and detached engagements are located on an equal plane by integrating both in to the same conceptual framework, rather than...

  9. Spontaneous Solitaire™ AB Thrombectomy Stent Detachment During Stroke Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, Suha, E-mail: akpinarsuha@hotmail.com; Yilmaz, Guliz, E-mail: glz.yilmaz@hotmail.com [Near East University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2015-04-15

    Spontaneous Solitaire™ stent retriever detachment is a rarely defined entity seen during stroke treatment, which can result in a disastrous clinical outcome if it cannot be solved within a critical stroke treatment time window. Two solutions to this problem are presented in the literature. The first is to leave the stent in place and apply angioplasty to the detached stent, while the second involves surgically removing the stent from the location at which it detached. Here, we present a case of inadvertent stent detachment during stroke treatment for a middle cerebral artery M1 occlusion resulting in progressive thrombosis. The detached stent was removed endovascularly by another Solitaire stent, resulting in the recanalization of the occluded middle cerebral artery.

  10. Ocular hemodynamics in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Zavgorodnya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In case of retinal detachment atrophic processes lead to irreversible loss of functions within 4–6 days, it happens on underlying low ocular blood flow. In order to evaluate the degree of violation of regional hemodynamics in patients with retinal detachment two groups of patients were examined: the main group (52 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and the control group (24 myopic patients with lattice form of peripheral chorioretinal dystrophy. Methods and results. Doppler and reography results had been compared, significant decrease of blood flow in patients with retinal detachment was found. No differences between affected and fellow eye in these patients, close negative correlation between the level of ocular blood flow and the degree of myopia in the control group. Conclusion. This demonstrates the feasibility of actions to improve regional blood flow in patients operated on for retinal detachment.

  11. Clinicopathology of graft detachment after Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Tobias; Brockmann, Claudia; Maier, Anna-Karina; Schroeter, Jan; Pleyer, Uwe; Bertelmann, Eckart; Joussen, Antonia M; Torun, Necip

    2014-11-01

    To investigate pathomechanisms involved in graft detachment after Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) and its clinical implications. In a prospective case series, 30 eyes with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy underwent DMEK. Intraoperatively obtained recipients' endothelium-Descemet's membranes (EDMs) were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically. The postoperative donor graft status was categorized as attached or detached. Clinical and morphological parameters were analysed between the study groups. The detachment rate was 40% (12/30). There was no significant difference in postoperative visual acuity between the groups, but visual recovery was delayed in eyes with initially detached grafts. Gender, age, preoperative central corneal thickness or best corrected visual acuity did not influence the detachment rate. However, separation and disruption of the anterior banded layer (ABL) were frequently observed in patients with graft detachment, and ABL thickness was identified as a significant predictor for graft detachment. The ABL thickness was 2.5 ± 0.9 μm and 3.5 ± 1.6 μm in patients with attached and detached grafts, respectively. Immunohistologically, a deficiency of fibronectin and cytokeratin was observed within the ABL of patients with detached grafts. In contrast, a complete removal of the EDM with residual stromal collagen fragments was observed in patients with adherent grafts. Incomplete removal of the EDM, with residual ABL fragments on the recipients' corneal stroma, may be a risk factor for graft detachment after DMEK. The separation and disruption of the ABL might be promoted by a deficiency of matrix proteins, stronger biomechanical properties and a firm adherence to the posterior corneal stroma. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transient expression of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in detached sunflower leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Lindenmuth, Benjamin E; McDonald, Karen A; Hwang, Hwang; Bui, Mai Q Nguyen; Falk, Bryce W; Uratsu, Sandra L; Phu, My L; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2014-01-01

    For biofuel applications, synthetic endoglucanase E1 and xylanase (Xyn10A) derived from Acidothermus cellulolyticus were transiently expressed in detached whole sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves using vacuum infiltration. Three different expression systems were tested, including the constitutive CaMV 35S-driven, CMVar (Cucumber mosaic virus advanced replicating), and TRBO (Tobacco mosaic virus RNA-Based Overexpression Vector) systems. For 6-day leaf incubations, codon-optimized E1 and xylanase driven by the CaMV 35S promoter were successfully expressed in sunflower leaves. The two viral expression vectors, CMVar and TRBO, were not successful although we found high expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves previously for other recombinant proteins. To further enhance transient expression, we demonstrated two novel methods: using the plant hormone methyl jasmonic acid in the agroinfiltration buffer and two-phase optimization of the leaf incubation temperature. When methyl jasmonic acid was added to Agrobacterium tumefaciens cell suspensions and infiltrated into plant leaves, the functional enzyme production increased 4.6-fold. Production also increased up to 4.2-fold when the leaf incubation temperature was elevated above the typical temperature, 20C, to 30C in the late incubation phase, presumably due to enhanced rate of protein synthesis in plant cells. Finally, we demonstrated co-expression of E1 and xylanase in detached sunflower leaves. To our knowledge, this is the first report of (co)expression of heterologous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in sunflower.

  13. Section detachment in immunohistochemistry: causes, troubleshooting, and problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambella, Alessandro; Porro, Lucia; Pigozzi, Simona; Fiocca, Roberto; Grillo, Federica; Mastracci, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Section detachment in immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a common phenomenon, increasing times and costs of diagnosis and research. However, it has poorly been investigated. The aim of this study was to identify the causes of section detachment, with the purpose of defining a quality assured laboratory procedure to minimize detachment frequency. We screened 3349 IHC sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, identifying 177 cases with section detachment (5.3% of the sample). Detachment regarded mainly samples of surgical breast tissue and IHC procedures in which heat pretreatment was used. Focusing on pre-analytical factors, we investigated seven main critical issues: (1) section aging; (2) section thickness; (3) slide contamination; (4) slide aging; (5) slide brand; (6) "human" influence; and (7) sample size and fixation. Each of these issues was individually investigated to establish their influence on detachment. Targeted experiments were performed by varying section age, thickness, cleanliness, slide brand and age, and sample size and fixation. Finally, to investigate operator-dependent causes, sections were cut by different operators blinded to aim. The most important factors influencing section detachment were demonstrated to be: section thickness, slide aging, slide brand, "human" influence, and size and fixation of samples. The pre-analytical phase, including all the aforementioned issues, should be standardized within a quality assurance program. By adopting these recommendations, we obtained a 34% drop in section detachment. Although section detachment remains difficult to eradicate completely, many other influences can be addressed and corrected in any laboratory leading to an increase in efficiency and cost saving.

  14. Shape Evolution of Detached Bridgman Crystals Grown in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2015-01-01

    A theory describing the shape evolution of detached Bridgman crystals in microgravity has been developed. A starting crystal of initial radius r0 will evolve to one of the following states: Stable detached gap; Attachment to the crucible wall; Meniscus collapse. Only crystals where alpha plus omega is great than 180 degrees will achieve stable detached growth in microgravity. Results of the crystal shape evolution theory are consistent with predictions of the dynamic stability of crystallization (Tatarchenko, Shaped Crystal Growth, Kluwer, 1993). Tests of transient crystal evolution are planned for ICESAGE, a series of Ge and GeSi crystal growth experiments planned to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS).

  15. Role of Buffers in Protein Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbacnik, Teddy J; Holcomb, Ryan E; Katayama, Derrick S; Murphy, Brian M; Payne, Robert W; Coccaro, Richard C; Evans, Gabriel J; Matsuura, James E; Henry, Charles S; Manning, Mark Cornell

    2017-03-01

    Buffers comprise an integral component of protein formulations. Not only do they function to regulate shifts in pH, they also can stabilize proteins by a variety of mechanisms. The ability of buffers to stabilize therapeutic proteins whether in liquid formulations, frozen solutions, or the solid state is highlighted in this review. Addition of buffers can result in increased conformational stability of proteins, whether by ligand binding or by an excluded solute mechanism. In addition, they can alter the colloidal stability of proteins and modulate interfacial damage. Buffers can also lead to destabilization of proteins, and the stability of buffers themselves is presented. Furthermore, the potential safety and toxicity issues of buffers are discussed, with a special emphasis on the influence of buffers on the perceived pain upon injection. Finally, the interaction of buffers with other excipients is examined. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  17. Bilateral Serous Retinal Detachments Associated with Accelerated Hypertensive Choroidopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Hirano

    2010-01-01

    Results and discussion. One month after antihypertensive treatment, the serous retinal detachments resolved and the visual acuity improved. A patient with those findings should be considered as having hypertensive choroidopathy and treated as soon as possible.

  18. Electron detachment from negative carbon and oxygen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serenkov, I.T.; Il' in, R.N.; Oparin, V.A.

    1977-04-01

    The cross sections for electron detachment from negative carbon ions in Mg, N/sub 2/, and CO and from negative oxygen ions in N/sub 2/ and CO are measured over the energy range 20--150 keV for the negative ions. The cross sections for electron detachment from negative carbon ions in the ground and excited states are distinguished on the basis of the decay of weakly bound states of the atomic particles in strong electric fields through the process C/sup -/+Mg..-->..C. The cross sections for electron detachment from the C/sup -/ ions in the bound and excited states behave in different ways as functions of the velocity. The difference is interpreted as evidence for two different detachment mechanisms.

  19. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep

    2015-12-24

    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting is needed to facilitate cell detachment. The method do not require inactivation of cell lifting solution and no washing of detaching cells is required to remove cell lifting solution. Detached cells can be stained with dye in the presence of cell lifting solution and are further analyzed using flow cytometer. The method has been tested using 6 different cell lines, 4 different assays, two different plate formats (96 and 384 well plates) and two different flow cytometry instruments. The method is simple to perform, less time consuming, with no cell loss and makes high throughput flow cytometry on adherent cells a reality.

  20. Serous retinal detachment after trabeculectomy in angle recession glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy, Avik Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old male with 360 degree angle recession after blunt trauma in his right eye developed uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP despite four antiglaucoma medications (AGM with advancing disc damage. He underwent trabeculectomy with intraoperative mitomycin-c (MMC application. There was an intraoperative vitreous prolapse which was managed accordingly. On post-surgery day 1, he had shallow choroidal detachment superiorly with non-recordable IOP. This was deteriorated 1 week postoperatively as choroidal detachment proceeded to serous retinal detachment. He was started with systemic steroid in addition to topical route. The serous effusions subsided within 2 weeks time. At the last follow up at 3 months, he was enjoying good visual acuity, deep anterior chamber, diffuse bleb, an IOP in low teens off any AGM and attached retina. This case highlights the rare occurrence of serous retinal detachment after surgical management of angle recession glaucoma.

  1. Inner detached frequency response curves: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Gianluca; Brennan, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    Certain nonlinear vibrating systems have frequency response curves (FRCs), in which isolated detached curves exist inside the main continuous FRC. The behavior of these systems has hitherto been studied analytically and numerically, but to the authors' knowledge, there is no record of an inner detached FRC being detected experimentally. These curves may be hidden by numerical or experimental analysis, particularly when a system is subject to swept or stepped-sine excitation. Their existence may thus lead to unexpected dramatic changes in the amplitude of the system response. This paper presents an experimental study that involves the design, construction and testing of a specific system that has an isolated detached FRC inside the main continuous FRC. The experimental design of the test rig is supported by multibody dynamic simulations, and in the experimental tests the existence of a detached FRC was verified.

  2. Fluid–rock interaction across the South Tibetan Detachment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scale normal fault system called the South Tibetan Detachment (STD). A mineralogical, geochemical and fluid inclusion study of samples from the fault zone of the Malari Granite was performed to reveal the imprints of fluid–rock interaction.

  3. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  4. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Joondeph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions.

  5. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joondeph, Stephanie A; Joondeph, Brian C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions.

  6. Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in patients with retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzney, S.M.; Pruett, R.C.; Regan, C.D.; Walton, D.S.; Smith, T.R.

    1984-10-15

    Three children (two girls and one boy) with bilateral retinoblastoma each developed a presumed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in one eye. All three eyes had previously received radiation and cryotherapy. In each case the retinal detachment responded promptly to conventional surgical methods via scleral buckling in the area of treated retinoblastoma and presumed retinal break. All three eyes have retained useful vision for follow-up periods of 3.5 to 12 years.

  7. HAMLET binding to α-actinin facilitates tumor cell detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulsson, Maria; Yu, Hao; Gisselsson, Lennart; Chao, Yinxia; Urbano, Alexander; Aits, Sonja; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina

    2011-03-08

    Cell adhesion is tightly regulated by specific molecular interactions and detachment from the extracellular matrix modifies proliferation and survival. HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a protein-lipid complex with tumoricidal activity that also triggers tumor cell detachment in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that molecular interactions defining detachment are perturbed in cancer cells. To identify such interactions, cell membrane extracts were used in Far-western blots and HAMLET was shown to bind α-actinins; major F-actin cross-linking proteins and focal adhesion constituents. Synthetic peptide mapping revealed that HAMLET binds to the N-terminal actin-binding domain as well as the integrin-binding domain of α-actinin-4. By co-immunoprecipitation of extracts from HAMLET-treated cancer cells, an interaction with α-actinin-1 and -4 was observed. Inhibition of α-actinin-1 and α-actinin-4 expression by siRNA transfection increased detachment, while α-actinin-4-GFP over-expression significantly delayed rounding up and detachment of tumor cells in response to HAMLET. In response to HAMLET, adherent tumor cells rounded up and detached, suggesting a loss of the actin cytoskeletal organization. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in β1 integrin staining and a decrease in FAK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, consistent with a disruption of integrin-dependent cell adhesion signaling. Detachment per se did not increase cell death during the 22 hour experimental period, regardless of α-actinin-4 and α-actinin-1 expression levels but adherent cells with low α-actinin levels showed increased death in response to HAMLET. The results suggest that the interaction between HAMLET and α-actinins promotes tumor cell detachment. As α-actinins also associate with signaling molecules, cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane receptors and ion channels, additional α-actinin-dependent mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Joondeph, Stephanie A.; Brian C. Joondeph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions.

  9. Comparative analysis of CRT Buffer, GC saliva check buffer tests and laboratory titration to evaluate saliva buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldupa, Ilze; Brinkmane, Anda; Mihailova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of two commercial strip tests and laboratory titration to detect saliva buffer capacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sixty-four patients were examined. Stimulated saliva was collected and buffer capacity was determined with two different chair-side strip tests in addition to immediate transportation to the laboratory to check the buffering ability by titrating with 0.005 M HCl and measuring pH by digital pH/Ion meter, used as a gold standart. The correlation were analyzed using the Spearman Rank Correlation Test, Cohen's Kappa coefficient and Pearson's Correlation test, p buffer capacity was found in 23.4% of cases, medium in 62.5%, and low in 14.1%. The Spearman Rank Correlation coefficient between the titration method and CRT Buffer test was 0.685 and the GC Saliva Check Buffer was 0.837. The Kappa coefficient for the CRT Buffer test was 0.508, while the coefficient for the GC Saliva Check Buffer was 0.752. The Pearson Correlation for the GC Saliva Check was 0.675. The difference is found in the buffer capacity at initial pH and at pH value 3. CONCLUSIONS. Both colorimetric tests correlate with the acid titration method in laboratory and are usable for saliva buffer capacity detection in dental offices. Buffer capacity detected in laboratory at different pH values can provide more information regarding caries risk.

  10. Unilateral, recurrent exudative retinal detachment in association with pansinusitis [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Saatci, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aim: To report a patient with unilateral exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis.Methods: Case report.Results: A 65-year-old woman with a two-month history of blurred vision, red eye and lid swelling in her left eye was referred to us. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left. Conjunctival vessels were engorged in the OS. Funduscopy revealed a 360° exudative detachment in OS and computerized tomography (CT imaging revealed pansinusitis. Systemic antibiotic treatment was employed and exudative detachment regressed. However, exudative detachment remitted as soon as antibiotic treatment ceased. Finally she underwent sinus surgery and decompression of the orbita. Her visual acuity improved to 20/100 just two days after the surgery, stabilized at 20/30 and no further recurrences occured during the follow-up of 10 months.Conclusion: Since exudative retinal detachment usually accompanies systemic inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, systemic screening and collaboration with other disciplines are mandatory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case that developed exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis and only recovered after decompression surgery.

  11. Defect density characterization of detached-grown germanium crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Szoke, J.; Szofran, F. R.

    2002-02-01

    Several (1 1 1)-oriented, Ga-doped germanium crystals were grown in pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) containers by the Bridgman and the detached Bridgman growth techniques. Growth experiments in closed-bottom pBN containers resulted in nearly completely detached-grown crystals, because the gas pressure below the melt can build up to a higher pressure than above the melt. With open-bottom tubes the gas pressure above and below the melt is balanced during the experiment, and thus no additional force supports the detachment. In this case the crystals grew attached to the wall. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements along the axial growth direction indicated a strong improvement of the crystal quality of the detached-grown samples compared to the attached samples. Starting in the seed with an EPD of 6-8×10 3 cm -2 it decreased in the detached-grown crystals continuously to about 200-500 cm -2. No significant radial difference between the EPD on the edge and the middle of these crystals exists. In the attached grown samples the EPD increases up to a value of about 2-4×10 4 cm -2 (near the edge) and up to 1×10 4 cm -2 in the middle of the sample. Thus the difference between the detached- and the attached-grown crystals with respect to the EPD is approximately two orders of magnitude.

  12. Detachment of CVD-grown graphene from single crystalline Ni films by a pure gas phase reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Patrick; Henß, Ann-Kathrin; Weinl, Michael; Diehl, Leo; Keefer, Daniel; Lippmann, Judith; Schulz, Anne; Kraus, Jürgen; Schreck, Matthias; Wintterlin, Joost

    2016-11-01

    Despite great previous efforts there is still a high need for a simple, clean, and upscalable method for detaching epitaxial graphene from the metal support on which it was grown. We present a method based on a pure gas phase reaction that is free of solvents and polymer supports and avoids mechanical transfer steps. The graphene was grown on 150 nm thick, single crystalline Ni(111) films on Si(111) wafers with YSZ buffer layers. Its quality was monitored by using low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. The gas phase etching uses a chemical transport reaction, the so-called Mond process, based on the formation of gaseous nickel tetracarbonyl in ~ 1 bar of CO at ~ 75 °C and by adding small amounts of sulfide catalysts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the detached graphene. It was found that the method successfully removes the nickel from underneath the graphene layer, so that the graphene lies on the insulating oxide buffer layer. Small residual particles of nickel sulfide and cracks in the obtained graphene layer were identified. The defect concentrations were comparable to graphene samples obtained by wet chemical etching and by the bubbling transfer.

  13. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  14. Buffer capacity of humic acid: thermodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertusatti, Jonas; Prado, Alexandre G S

    2007-10-15

    Commercial humic acid was dialyzed and characterized by infrared, UV/vis spectroscopy, (13)C NMR spectrometry, thermogravimetry, and elemental analysis. The dialyzed humic acid was titrated with HNO(3) and NaOH in order to obtain the buffer capacity value (beta). The humic acid presented buffer behavior by base and acid addition, and moreover, an excellent buffer capacity by addition of NaOH. Humic acid showed buffer action between pH 5.5 and 8.0, and a maximum buffer capacity at pH 6.0. The same study was followed calorimetrically to determinate the enthalpy of interaction between H(+)/OH(-) and buffer, which resulted in a maximum enthalpy of -38.49 kJ mol(-1) at pH 6.0. This value suggests that the buffer activity is based on chemisorption of proton and hydroxyl.

  15. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  16. A THEORETICAL DISCUSSION OF THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF BUFFER STOCKS AND BUFFER FUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Phil

    1988-01-01

    It has been established that the absence of risk markets justifies market intervention in principle. The form of intervention that has been discussed most widely in the literature is the buffer stock. This paper points out that other forms of intervention, specifically buffer funds, are likely to perform better. The analysis shows that buffer funds are likely to outperform buffer stocks because they address market failure more directly. A sub-theme developed in this paper is that since buffer...

  17. Enhancement of thermal performance in KRS buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Won; Lee, Jong Youl; Kim, Geon Young; Lee, Yang; Koo, J. E

    2007-03-15

    The Korean Reference disposal System consists of the engineered barrier and natural barrier. The main components of the engineered barrier are the canister and buffer. KAERI has developed the buffer for the repository. So far Korean domestic Ca-bentonite was selected as buffer material and the properties of it were characterized. In this report the design requirements of the buffer are fixed based on the characteristics of Korean Ca-bentonite, and the conceptual design of the buffer for KRS is carried out by determining the thickness and shape of the buffer. The thickness of 0.5 m buffer is determined from the mass transfer equation, which gives the less radionuclide release rates from the borehole to the rock. The shape of the buffer is disk and ring. The dry density is 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The thickness of the buffer above the canister is 2.5 m and the that of the buffer below the canister is 0.5 m. The disposal system should meet the requirement that the maximum temperature at the interface between the buffer and the canister keeps below 100 .deg.. A 3-dimensional finite element program is used for the thermal analysis around the buffer. The results shows that the current conceptual design of the buffer meets the requirement. Another major role of the buffer is to protect the canister and the spent fuels from the exterior impact. The rock movement around the buffer is introduced to assess the buffer performance. Two cases of rock movement are assessed, and the results show that the buffer mitigates sufficiently the impact from the 10 cm movement of rock. Finally, the resaturation time is estimated through mathematical modeling. ABAQUS program is used for the analysis, and the resaturation time is estimated to be around 10 to 30 years. The enhancement of thermal performance of the disposal system is directly related to the economics of the HLW disposal. The way to enhance the thermal performance is suggested from the results of experiment and design. The thermal

  18. Protective effects of resveratrol in experimental retinal detachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is one of the major factors that trigger photoreceptor apoptosis. To investigate whether resveratrol, a potent antioxidant and small molecule activator of the FoxO pathway, would be neuroprotective against photoreceptor cell death in a rodent model of retinal detachment. METHODS: Retinal detachment was created in adult Brown Norway rats by subretinal injection of sodium hyaluronate. The animals were treated daily with vehicle or resveratrol (20 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection. Photoreceptor death was assessed by counting the number of apoptotic cells with TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling (TUNEL and measurement of the outer nuclear layer (ONL thickness 3 days after RD. Changes in expression of FoxO1a, FoxO3a, and FoxO4 were analyzed by western blot. The activity of caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, spectrin and their cleavage forms were studied. RESULTS: Three days after retinal detachment, caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9 were significantly activated in the detached retina. Spectrin cleavage products at 120 and 145 kDa were also detected. Both caspase and calpain activation are involved in apoptotic photoreceptor cell death in detached retinas. Treatment with resveratrol increases FoxO1a, FoxO3a, and FoxO4 protein expression in detached retinas only. Resveratrol treatment decreases activation of intrinsic and extrinsic caspase apoptotic pathways triggered by RD. The number of TUNEL-positive cells decreases from 1301±51 cells/mm(2 in control groups to 430±35 cells/mm(2 in treatment groups (p<0.05. Resveratrol treatment also demonstrates 59% less ONL thickness loss compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Resveratrol treatment up-regulates the FoxO family and blocks Caspase3, 8, and 9 activation. Resveratrol has the potential to be used as a novel therapeutic agent for preventing vision loss in diseases characterized by photoreceptor detachment.

  19. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  20. Evolution of pressure drop during detachment in the TCV tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevrier, O.; Theiler, C.; Tsui, C. K.; Verhaegh, K.; Maurizio, R.; Labit, B.; Reimerdes, H.; Duval, B.; Boedo, J. A.; Lipschultz, B.; Tcv Team; Eurofusion Mst1 Team

    2017-10-01

    To ensure safe power exhaust in future fusion reactors will require, at the least, partially detached divertor operation. To further understand the dynamics of this process, we investigate detachment on TCV in a lower single-null geometry by examining the evolution of the profiles of plasma density, temperature, and pressure at the outboard midplane (``upstream'') and at the outer strikepoint (``target''). A fast reciprocating probe is plunged at different times of reproducible discharges throughout the detachment process. Its measurements are compared with target measurements from probes and infrared thermography. As expected, the roll-over of the ion flux, often used experimentally to identify detachment, coincides with a pressure drop along the field lines. This is compared quantitatively with expectations from an extended two-point model where radiation and momentum losses are evaluated from bolometry and probe data. The roll-over coincides with the onset of ``density shoulders'' at the outer midplane. These are observed in the upstream density profiles and in bolometric and AXUV measurements, that show a radiation increase at the outer midplane. The application of these findings to detachment in advanced divertor geometries will be discussed. See the author list of S. Coda et al., 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 102011.

  1. Bilateral patching in retinal detachment: fluid mechanics and retinal "settling".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J

    2011-07-20

    When a patient suffers a retinal detachment and surgery is delayed, it is known clinically that bilaterally patching the patient may allow the retina to partially reattach or "settle." Although this procedure has been performed since the 1860s, there is still debate as to how such a maneuver facilitates the reattachment of the retina. Finite element calculations using commercially available analysis software are used to elucidate the influence of reduction in eye movement caused by bilateral patching on the flow of subretinal fluid in a physical model of retinal detachment. It was found that by coupling fluid mechanics with structural mechanics, a physically consistent explanation of increased retinal detachment with eye movements can be found in the case of traction on the retinal hole. Large eye movements increase vitreous traction and detachment forces on the edge of the retinal hole, creating a subretinal vacuum and facilitating increased subretinal fluid. Alternative models, in which intraocular fluid flow is redirected into the subretinal space, are not consistent with these simulations. The results of these simulations explain the physical principles behind bilateral patching and provide insight that can be used clinically. In particular, as is known clinically, bilateral patching may facilitate a decrease in the height of a retinal detachment. The results described here provide a description of a physical mechanism underlying this technique. The findings of this study may aid in deciding whether to bilaterally patch patients and in counseling patients on pre- and postoperative care.

  2. Social Support Buffers the Effects of Terrorism on Adolescent Depression: Findings from Sderot, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christopher C.; Shahar, Golan

    2008-01-01

    A prospective study of 29 Israeli middle school students experiencing rocket attacks in Sderot, Israel, examined if higher levels of baseline social support acted as a buffer against the adverse psychological effects of terrorism on adolescent depression. Results demonstrate the importance of community mental health efforts to promote family,…

  3. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  4. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  5. Systemic Risk, Bank's Capital Buffer, and Leverage

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Buddi

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures individual bank's impact on banking systemic risk and examines the effect of individual bank's capital buffer and leverage to bank's systemic risk impact in Indonesia during 2010-2014. Using Merton's distance-to-default to measure systemic risk, the study shows a significant negative relationship between bank's capital buffer and systemic risk. High capital buffer tends to lowering bank's impact on systemic risk. Bank's leverage level also influences its contribution to sy...

  6. Signature-based store checking buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  7. Basic aspects and practical considerations in retinal detachment surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, W S

    1986-05-01

    Factors responsible for retinal attachment include structural factors such as the integrity of the retina and the interdigitation of receptor cells with the retinal pigment epithelium combined with dynamic factors which include the movement of water from the vitreous to the choroid under the influence of colloid osmotic pressure in the presence of an intact posterior blood-ocular barrier. In successful retinal detachment surgery an intact cortical vitreous is important. Retinal detachments can be subdivided into simple or complex according to the degree of vitreous abnormality present. Complex detachments demand vitreous surgery and the use of vitreous substitutes. Silicone oil may have a dual role in the eye, tamponade of retinal breaks and waterproofing of the retina with which it is in contact, so reducing transretinal water movement and lightening the load on the mechanisms responsible for retinal reattachment.

  8. Professional commitment: Does it buffer or intensify job demands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesje, Kjersti

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether professional commitment can be seen as a moderator in the relationship between job demands and emotional exhaustion among Norwegian nurses. Inspired by the job demands-resources model, this study explores whether having a strong commitment to the nursing profession can be seen as a resource that buffers the effect of job demands on emotional exhaustion or, conversely, intensifies the impact of job demands. A survey that comprised Norwegian nurses who had graduated three years previously (N = 388) was conducted. Multiple regression was performed to test the hypothesis. The results provide support to a buffering effect; thus, individuals with a higher degree of professional commitment conveyed a weaker association between job demands and emotional exhaustion compared with nurses with a lower degree of commitment. Developing a better understanding of the potential buffering effect of professional commitment is of great interest. The present study is the first to utilize professional commitment as a resource within the job demands-resources framework. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Retinal Detachment Associated With Basketball-Related Eye Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung-Han; Chen, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Hsi-Kung; Chen, Yung-Jen; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Lee, Jong-Jer; Wu, Pei-Chang

    2017-08-01

    Basketball is a popular sport involving significant body contact, which may frequently result in ocular trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and visual outcomes of retinal detachment associated with basketball-related injury. Retrospective, interventional case series. We reviewed the course of patients who sustained traumatic retinal detachment from basketball-related ocular trauma between 2003 and 2015. Thirteen patients were evaluated for basketball-related traumatic retinal detachment. Twelve (92%) were male and 1 (8%) female, with an average age of 18.2 years. The majority (9 of 13, 70%) of patients had moderate-to-high myopia, and none were using protective eyewear when they sustained the eye trauma. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was observed in all eyes. The preoperative mean visual acuity was 20/625 (range, hand motions to 20/20). Initial surgery using scleral buckling alone was performed in most (8 of 13, 62%) of the patients. Retinal reattachment was achieved in 10 (76%) eyes after the first operation and in 12 (92%) at the end of the intervention. The mean follow-up was 3.9 years (range, 4 months to 12 years). The visual acuity during last follow-up was 20/231 (range, light perception to 20/20). In the multivariable analysis, initial visual acuity was an independent factor affecting the final visual outcome (P = .006). Retinal detachment associated with basketball-related injury may cause severe visual loss. In the current study, all retinal detachments were of rhegmatogenous type and commonly occurred in young individuals with myopia. Initial visual acuity was associated with the prognosis. Risk awareness for early detection and intervention are important in these traumas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilateral serous retinal detachments associated with IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andión-Fernández, M; Dorado-Fernández, T; Juárez-Casado, M A; Santamarina-Pernas, R

    2015-11-01

    A 41-year-old woman with a bilateral loss of visual acuity and a history of IgA nephropathy. The ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral neurosensory detachments that resolved completely after four months of peritoneal dialysis. Bilateral serous retinal detachments are a rare manifestation of IgA nephropathy, in which the etiology is probably multifactorial and their resolution depends on the underlying disease. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Retinal detachment caused by Arruga suture scleral intrusion. Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vicente, J L; Rueda-Rueda, T; González-García, M L; López-Herrero, F; Sánchez-Vicente, P; Castilla-Lázpita, A

    2015-10-01

    We present the case of an 81-year-old man with retinal detachment caused by intrusion of an Arruga suture. The encircling buckle was located in the sub-retinal space and caused retinal breaks with retinal detachment A pars plana vitrectomy was performed along with intraocular cutting of the Arruga suture with retinal re-attachment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Retinal detachment secondary to ocular perforation during retrobulbar Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics and the retinal breaks associated with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments secondary to accidental globe perforation during local infiltration anaesthesia in five highly myopic eyes are presented. Retinal detachment was total with variable proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The pattern of retinal breaks was rather typical and predictable. Management involved vitreous surgery with internal tamponade by silicone oil in four eyes and perfluoropropane gas in one eye. At the last follow-up, all eyes had attached retina. One eye did not recover useful vision due to possible concurrent optic nerve damage.

  13. Posterior Vitreous Detachment and the Posterior Hyaloid Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Gregory S; James, Sean; Spickett, Carl; Hollingshead, Michael; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Poulson, Arabella V; McNinch, Annie; Richards, Allan; Snead, David; Limb, Gloria A; Snead, Martin P

    2017-08-31

    Despite posterior vitreous detachment being a common ocular event affecting most individuals in an aging population, there is little consensus regarding its precise anatomic definition. We investigated the morphologic appearance and molecular composition of the posterior hyaloid membrane to determine whether the structure clinically observed enveloping the posterior vitreous surface after posterior vitreous detachment is a true basement membrane and to postulate its origin. Understanding the relationship between the vitreous (in both its attached and detached state) and the internal limiting membrane of the retina is essential to understanding the cause of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and vitreoretinal interface disorders, as well as potential future prophylactic and treatment strategies. Clinicohistologic correlation study. Thirty-six human donor globes. Vitreous bodies identified to have posterior vitreous detachment were examined with phase-contrast microscopy and confocal microscopy after immunohistochemically staining for collagen IV basement membrane markers, in addition to extracellular proteins that characterize the vitreoretinal junction (fibronectin, laminin) and vitreous gel (opticin) markers. The posterior retina similarly was stained to evaluate the internal limiting membrane. Findings were correlated to the clinical appearance of the posterior hyaloid membrane observed during slit-lamp biomicroscopy after posterior vitreous detachment and compared with previously published studies. Morphologic appearance and molecular composition of the posterior hyaloid membrane. Phase-contrast microscopy consistently identified a creased and distinct glassy membranous sheet enveloping the posterior vitreous surface, correlating closely with the posterior hyaloid membrane observed during slit-lamp biomicroscopy in patients with posterior vitreous detachment. Immunofluorescent confocal micrographs demonstrated the enveloping membranous structure identified on

  14. Bilateral Serous Macular Detachment in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Karataş

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old woman, diagnosed and treated for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML type M2, complained of blurred vision and general deterioration in vital signs in her fourth week of hospitalization for induction chemotherapy. Her ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral serous macular detachment. Despite immediate institution of salvage therapy for refractory disease, extensive intraretinal and preretinal hemorrhages developed in both eyes. Three weeks after reinstitution of chemotherapy, the patient deceased. Bilateral serous macular detachment is rarely an ocular manifestation of AML. This may be a sign of leukemic infiltration of the choroid and worsening of the clinical symptoms. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 151-3

  15. Forced Detachment of the CD2-CD58 Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bayas, M.V.; Schulten, K; Leckband, D.

    2003-01-01

    The force-induced detachment of the adhesion protein complex CD2-CD58 was studied by steered molecular dynamics simulations. The forced detachment of CD2 and CD58 shows that the system can respond to an external force by two mechanisms, which depend on the loading rate. At the rapid loading rates of 70 and 35 pN/ps (pulling speeds of 1 and 0.5 Å/ps) the two proteins unfold before they separate, whereas at slower loading rates of 7 and 3.5 pN/ps (pulling speeds of 0.1 and 0.05 Å/ps), the prote...

  16. Bilateral Simultaneous Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment following Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Yumusak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old woman developed simultaneous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK in both eyes. She underwent pars plana vitrectomy surgery combined with endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade in the right eye. A week later, pneumatic retinopexy was done in the left eye. As the retinal tear did not seal, 360° scleral buckling surgery was performed and retina was attached. Bilateral simultaneous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after LASIK for correction of myopia can be a serious complication. Patients should be informed about the possibility of this complication.

  17. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  18. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine equivalent...

  19. THE BUFFER CAPACITY OF AIRWAY EPITHELIAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusik eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 µl volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO3- is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO3- secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO3- secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  20. The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W

    2014-01-01

    The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 μl) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO(-) 3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO(-) 3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO(-) 3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  1. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  2. Numerical simulation of breakup and detachment of an axially ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The extensional, breakup and detachment dynamics of an axially stretching Newtonian liquid bridge are investigated numerically with a dynamic domain multiphase incompressible flow solver. The multiphase flow solver employs a Cahn–Hilliard phase field model to describe the evolution of the diffuse interfaceseparating ...

  3. Bilateral Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment during External Beam Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Hidaka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a case of nontraumatic bilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD during external beam radiotherapy for nonocular tumor, presented as an observational case study in conjunction with a review of the relevant literature. A 65-year-old male was referred to our hospital due to bilateral RRD. He underwent a biopsy for a tumor of the left frontal lobe 4 months prior to presentation, and the tumor had been diagnosed as primary central nerve system B-cell type lymphoma. He received chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy for 1 month. There were no traumatic episodes. Bilateral retinal detachment occurred during a series of radiotherapies. Simultaneous nontraumatic bilateral retinal detachment is rare. The effects of radiotherapy on ocular functionality, particularly in cases involving retinal adhesion and vitreous contraction, may include RRD. Thus, it is necessary to closely monitor the eyes of patients undergoing radiotherapy, particularly those undergoing surgery for retinal detachment and those with a history of photocoagulation for retinal tears, a relevant family history, or risk factors known to be associated with RRD.

  4. Bubble detachment assisted by electrowetting-driven interfacial wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haolun; Yan, Run; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Chung-Lung

    2017-10-01

    This article investigates both theoretically and numerically a novel mechanism of bubble detachment by an electrowetting-driven interfacial wave, inspired by droplet control and manipulation via electrowetting. Electrowetting-on-dielectric can be used to modulate the contact point movement at the water-air interface in a thin liquid film. Rapid oscillation of the contact line is achieved by a swift change of voltage under an AC signal. When disturbed with such contact angle changes, the interfacial wave between two immiscible fluids disrupts bubble dynamics. Numerical modeling reveals that an air bubble on a hydrophobic surface can be detached by the trough of such a wave. The frequency of the interfacial wave is twice the voltage frequency. A higher voltage frequency leads to a smaller amplitude and higher celerity of the wave, while a lower voltage frequency leads to a larger wave amplitude and lower celerity. The bubble can easily detach when the voltage frequency is 10 Hz. However, the bubble fails to detach when the voltage frequency is 100 Hz. This approach can be useful to improve two-phase cooling performance.

  5. Endovascular therapy of arteriovenous fistulae with electrolytically detachable coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, O.; Doerfler, A.; Forsting, M.; Hartmann, M.; Kummer, R. von; Tronnier, V.; Sartor, K. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical School (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    We report our experience in using Guglielmi electrolytically detachable coils (GDC) alone or in combination with other materials in the treatment of intracranial or cervical high-flow fistulae. We treated 14 patients with arteriovenous fistulae on brain-supplying vessels - three involving the external carotid or the vertebral artery, five the cavernous sinus and six the dural sinuses - by endovascular occlusion using electrolytically detachable platinum coils. The fistula was caused by trauma in six cases. In one case Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was the underlying disease, and in the remaining seven cases no aetiology could be found. Fistulae of the external carotid and vertebral arteries and caroticocavernous fistulae were reached via the transarterial route, while in all dural fistulae a combined transarterial-transvenous approach was chosen. All fistulae were treated using electrolytically detachable coils. While small fistulae could be occluded with electrolytically detachable coils alone, large fistulae were treated by using coils to build a stable basket for other types of coil or balloons. In 11 of the 14 patients, endovascular treatment resulted in complete occlusion of the fistula; in the remaining three occlusion was subtotal. Symptoms and signs were completely abolished by this treatment in 12 patients and reduced in 2. On clinical and neuroradiological follow-up (mean 16 months) no reappearance of symptoms was recorded. (orig.)

  6. Effect of detachment time of pineapple ( Ananas comosus L .) crown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A limiting factor to large scale production of pineapple is the scarcity of planting materials. The use of pineapple crown as a propagation material is common, but with no regard to length of time after detachment. A study was conducted in the late seasons of 2007 and 2008 at the Teaching and Research Farm Ekiti State ...

  7. Bilateral Serous Retinal Detachment as a Complication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by thrombocytopenia, hemolysis and elevated liver enzymes.[1]. The development of seizures in a pregnant woman with preeclampsia makes the diagnosis of eclampsia and usually leads the patient to coma. Retinal detachment is a rare complication of preeclampsia, affecting 1–2% of patients with its severe form and 10% ...

  8. Detachment faults:Evidence for a low-angle origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert J.; Lister, Gordon S.

    1992-09-01

    The origin of low-angle normal faults or detachment faults mantling metamorphic core complexes in the southwestern United States remains controversial. If σ1 is vertical during extension, the formation of, or even slip along, such low-angle normal faults is mechanically implausible. No records exist of earthquakes on low-angle normal faults in areas currently undergoing continental extension, except from an area of actively forming core complexes in the Solomon Sea, Papua New Guinea. In light of such geophysical and mechanical arguments, W. R. Buck and B. Wernicke and G. J. Axen proposed models in which detachment faults originate as high-angle normal faults, but rotate to low angles and become inactive as extension proceeds. These models are inconsistent with critical field relations in several core complexes. The Rawhide fault, an areally extensive detachment fault in western Arizona, propagated at close to its present subhorizontal orientation late in the Tertiary extension of the region. Neither the Wernicke and Axen nor Buck models predict such behavior; in fact, both models preclude the operation of low-angle normal faults. We must seek alternative explanations or modify existing models to explain the evidence that detachment faults form and operate with gentle dips.

  9. Turbulent Simulations of Divertor Detachment Based On BOUT + + Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Xueqiao; Xia, Tianyang; Ye, Minyou

    2015-11-01

    China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor is under conceptual design, acting as a bridge between ITER and DEMO. The detached divertor operation offers great promise for a reduction of heat flux onto divertor target plates for acceptable erosion. Therefore, a density scan is performed via an increase of D2 gas puffing rates in the range of 0 . 0 ~ 5 . 0 ×1023s-1 by using the B2-Eirene/SOLPS 5.0 code package to study the heat flux control and impurity screening property. As the density increases, it shows a gradually change of the divertor operation status, from low-recycling regime to high-recycling regime and finally to detachment. Significant radiation loss inside the confined plasma in the divertor region during detachment leads to strong parallel density and temperature gradients. Based on the SOLPS simulations, BOUT + + simulations will be presented to investigate the stability and turbulent transport under divertor plasma detachment, particularly the strong parallel gradient driven instabilities and enhanced plasma turbulence to spread heat flux over larger surface areas. The correlation between outer mid-plane and divertor turbulence and the related transport will be analyzed. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675075.

  10. Simulating biofilm deformation and detachment with the immersed boundary method

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarsan, Rangarajan; Stockie, John M; Eberl, Hermann J

    2015-01-01

    We apply the immersed boundary (or IB) method to simulate deformation and detachment of a periodic array of wall-bounded biofilm colonies in response to a linear shear flow. The biofilm material is represented as a network of Hookean springs that are placed along the edges of a triangulation of the biofilm region. The interfacial shear stress, lift and drag forces acting on the biofilm colony are computed by using fluid stress jump method developed by Williams, Fauci and Gaver [Disc. Contin. Dyn. Sys. B 11(2):519-540, 2009], with a modified version of their exclusion filter. Our detachment criterion is based on the novel concept of an averaged equivalent continuum stress tensor defined at each IB point in the biofilm which is then used to determine a corresponding von Mises yield stress; wherever this yield stress exceeds a given critical threshold the connections to that node are severed, thereby signalling the onset of a detachment event. In order to capture the deformation and detachment behaviour of a bio...

  11. Detached Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels; Davidson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The effect of resolving inflow turbulence in detached eddy simulations of airfoil flows is studied. Synthetic turbulence is used for inflow boundary condition. The generated turbulence fields are shown to decay according to experimental data as they are convected through the domain with the free ...

  12. Numerical simulation of breakup and detachment of an axially ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Singh Patel

    When the prescribed contact angles are equal, however, the liquid bridge undergoes complete detachment so that no liquid resides either on the ... result in a degradation in accuracy owing to the errors associated with interpolation ... phase field method also allows for a simplified treatment of the moving contact line.

  13. A Review of Innovations in Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Surgical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achia Nemet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD requires surgical intervention for its repair. There are variable techniques used for this purpose, and they are all being continuously refined. In this review, we detail the recent innovations in surgical management of RRD and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR.

  14. Slab detachment of subducted Indo-Australian plate beneath Sunda ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007). We investigate the northward subduction of the. Indo-Australian plate along the eastern Sunda arc right from northwestern Sumatra, along Java to. Keywords. Slab detachment; subduction zone; Sunda arc; Indo-Australian slab; trench migration. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 120, No. 2, April 2011, pp. 193–204 c Indian Academy ...

  15. Blindness from bilateral bullous retinal detachment: tragedy of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a scourge of blindness possibly due to an inherited condition causing retinal detachment in 3 siblings. Methods: In February 2004, three siblings from a monogamous family from Ipetu-Ijesha in Osun state, Nigerian presented to the author consecutively with history of visual impairment/ blindness.

  16. Cataract and Retinal Detachment Following Electric Shock Injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To report a case of cataract and retinal detachment following an electrical injury in an adult Nigerian male. C a se report: A 28-year-old man presented with a history of progressive and painless loss of vision in the right eye, three years after an electric shock injury. There was no history of mechanical trauma.

  17. Incidence and Pattern of Retinal Detachment in a Tertiary Eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High myopia was the third commonest ocular risk factor in our patients. High myopia constituted 10% of cases in Ibechukwu's series.[6] Ashaye[11] had also noted that myopia was an important risk factor for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in Lagos,. Nigeria. However, high myopia is not common in Nigerians.[14‑16].

  18. Descemet's membrane detachment managed with perfluro-n-octane liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Ashok; Vaithianathan, Vanaja

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old male who developed Descemet's membrane detachment after temporal clear corneal phacoemulsification which did not settle with air or viscoelastic injection. The Descemet's membrane was successfully reattached with restoration of 20/50 vision with the help of perfluro-n-octane liquid. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported.

  19. A case of bilateral posterior scleritis with serous detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Aslankurt, , ,,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen years old male patient was admitted to theclinic with complaints of pain in the right eye, reductionof vision, painful eye movements and headache for 10days. Visual acuity was found Snellen 0.2 on the right eyeand 1.0 on the left eye. Anterior segment examinationwas normal. Fundus examination revealed bilateral chorioretinalfold on the papillo-macular bundle and serousmacular detachment on the right eye. Fundus angiography(FA revealed late macular hyperfluorescence due toleakage. Exudative retinal detachment on the right maculawas observed in optical coherence tomography (OCT.Orbital ultrasonography and computed tomography wererevealed thickening of the right posterior scleral wall. Investigationsdid not reveal any other cause of headacheor systemic associated autoimmune disease. Oral steroidtreatment (metil prednisolon 64 mg/day was started. Itwas seen that the left eye also affected at the secondweek of treatment. OCT revealed bilateral exudative retinaldetachment. Treatment was going on. Complaint ofdecreased visual acuity was recovered one month later,and bilateral exudative retinal detachment resolved. Inthis article, we aimed to present a case of bilateral idiopathicposterior scleritis and associated exudative retinaldetachment and with good response to therapy.Key words: Posterior scleritis, serous retinal detachment,steroid therapy

  20. Optimization of protein buffer cocktails using Thermofluor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Linda; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Geerlof, Arie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Weiss, Manfred S

    2013-02-01

    The stability and homogeneity of a protein sample is strongly influenced by the composition of the buffer that the protein is in. A quick and easy approach to identify a buffer composition which increases the stability and possibly the conformational homogeneity of a protein sample is the fluorescence-based thermal-shift assay (Thermofluor). Here, a novel 96-condition screen for Thermofluor experiments is presented which consists of buffer and additive parts. The buffer screen comprises 23 different buffers and the additive screen includes small-molecule additives such as salts and nucleotide analogues. The utilization of small-molecule components which increase the thermal stability of a protein sample frequently results in a protein preparation of higher quality and quantity and ultimately also increases the chances of the protein crystallizing.

  1. Buffer sizing for multi-hop networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-28

    A cumulative buffer may be defined for an interference domain in a wireless mesh network and distributed among nodes in the network to maintain or improve capacity utilization of network resources in the interference domain without increasing packet queuing delay times. When an interference domain having communications links sharing resources in a network is identified, a cumulative buffer size is calculated. The cumulative buffer may be distributed among buffers in each node of the interference domain according to a simple division or according to a cost function taking into account a distance of the communications link from the source and destination. The network may be monitored and the cumulative buffer size recalculated and redistributed when the network conditions change.

  2. Seismic Slip on an Oblique Detachment Fault at Low Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecke, S. U.; Steely, A. N.; Evans, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes are one of the few accepted indicators of seismic slip along ancient faults. Low-angle normal faults have produced few large earthquakes in historic times and low-angle normal faults (detachment faults) are typically severely misoriented relative to a vertical maximum compressive stress. As a result many geoscientists question whether low-angle normal faults produce earthquakes at low angles. Relationships in southern California show that a major low-angle normal-oblique fault slipped at low angles and produced large earthquakes. The exhumed Late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault preserves spectacular fault- related pseudotachylytes along its fault plane and injected into its hanging wall and footwall. Composite pseudotachylyte zones are up to 1.25 m thick and persists over lateral distances of at least 10's of meters. Pseudotachylyte is common in most thin sections of damaged fault rocks with more than 20% (by volume) of cataclasite. We recognized the presence of original melt using numerous criteria: abundant spherulites in thin sections, injection structures at both the thin-section and outcrop scale, black aphanitic textures, quenched vein margins, variations in microcrystallite textures and/or size with respect to the vein margin, and glassy textures in hand sample. Multiple earthquakes are inferred to produce the layered "stratigraphy" in some exposures of pseudotachylytes. We infer that the West Salton detachment fault formed and slipped at low angles because it nearly perfectly reactivates a Cretaceous ductile thrust system at the half km scale and dips between 10 and 45 degrees. The about 30 degree NNE dip of the detachment fault on the north side of Yaqui Ridge is likely steeper than its dip during detachment slip because there is local steepening on the flanks of the Yaqui Ridge antiform in a contractional stepover of a crosscutting Quaternary San Felipe dextral fault zone. These relationships indicate a low dip on the detachment

  3. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  4. COMBINATIONS OF BUFFER-STOCKS AND BUFFER-FUNDS FOR WOOL PRICE STABILISATION IN AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Moir, Brian; Piggott, Roley R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a preliminary analysis is presented of a combined buffer-fund and buffer-stock as an alternative to a pure buffer-fund or a pure buffer stock for stabilising wool prices. The alternatives analysed are designed so that each provides the same prices to producers as did the Reserve Price Scheme over the period of analysis. Least-cost combinations of policy instruments are derived. The results show that there is considerable potential for cost savings to be made by combining buffer-...

  5. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  6. Temperature buffer test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report is the final report and a summary of all work performed within the TBT project. The design and the installation of the different components are summarized: the depositions hole, the heating system, the bentonite blocks with emphasis on the initial density and water content in these, the filling of slots with sand or pellets, the retaining construction with the plug, lid and nine anchor cables, the artificial saturation system, and finally the instrumentation. An overview of the operational conditions is presented: the power output from heaters, which was 1,500 W (and also 1,600 W) from each heater during the first {approx}1,700 days, and then changed to 1,000 and 2,000 W, for the upper and lower heater respectively, during the last {approx}600 days. From the start, the bentonite was hydrated with a groundwater from a nearby bore-hole, but this groundwater was replaced with de-ionized water from day {approx}1,500, due to the high flow resistance of the injections points in the filter, which implied that a high filter pressure couldn't be sustained. The sand shield around the upper heater was hydrated from day {approx}1,500 to day {approx}1

  7. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  8. Electrophoretic mobilities of erythrocytes in various buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of space flight equipment depends on a source of standard test particles, this test particle of choice is the fixed erythrocyte. Erythrocytes from different species have different electrophoretic mobilities. Electrophoretic mobility depends upon zeta potential, which, in turn depends upon ionic strength. Zeta potential decreases with increasing ionic strength, so cells have high electrophoretic mobility in space electrophoresis buffers than in typical physiological buffers. The electrophoretic mobilities of fixed human, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes in 0.145 M salt and buffers of varying ionic strength, temperature, and composition, to assess the effects of some of the unique combinations used in space buffers were characterized. Several effects were assessed: glycerol or DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) were considered for use as cryoprotectants. The effect of these substances on erythrocyte electrophoretic mobility was examined. The choice of buffer depended upon cell mobility. Primary experiments with kidney cells established the choice of buffer and cryoprotectant. A nonstandard temperature of EPM in the suitable buffer was determined. A loss of ionic strength control occurs in the course of preparing columns for flight, the effects of small increases in ionic strength over the expected low values need to be evaluated.

  9. African American college women's suicide buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Michelle S; Range, Lillian M

    2003-01-01

    African American women have lower suicide rates than other women and men in the United States They may possess suicide buffers including social support, religiosity, negative attitudes regarding suicide acceptability, and African American culture. To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious problem-solving style. The identification of these factors may help in the assessment, prevention, and intervention of suicide for African American women and other women and men.

  10. Buffer protection in the installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimelius, Hans (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Pusch, Roland (Geodevelopment International AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The research and development of the design and construction of the SKB's repository for final disposal of spent reactor fuel is conducted along several paths ('lines'). Issues concerning the bedrock are dealt with in the 'rock line' and those related to buffer and backfill in deposition holes and tunnels are considered in the 'buffer line' and 'backfill line', respectively. These lines also deal with sub-activities that are coupled to several other lines. One of them includes development of techniques for protecting buffer blocks from moisture and water in the installation phase. Techniques and methods for placement and removal of the 'buffer protection sheet' are dealt with in the 'buffer line'. The removal is, however, considered as being part of the backfilling sequence. Since the performance of the sheet is of fundamental importance to the placement and function of the buffer it deserves particular attention. Thus, the removal of the rubber sheet that serves to protect the buffer blocks in the installation phase may be difficult and can cause significant problems that may require retrieval of already placed canister, buffer and backfill. These matters are in focus in the present report. Arrangements for protecting already placed buffer blocks from moist air and water have been tested in earlier large-scale experiments, i.e. the Prototype Repository project at Aespoe but the experience from them has called for more effective protection of the clay blocks as described in the present report. Focus is on the construction of foundation components at the bottom of the deposition holes required for establishing a tight seal between rock and buffer blocks, and on the protection sheet and arrangements for limiting water pressure on it. Special attention is paid to the drainage of the space between rock and protection sheet that is necessary for avoiding failure of the sheet and to systems for achieving

  11. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Xx showed that pain perception was similar between formulations containing phenol and benzyl alcohol, whereas m-cresol was associated with more painful injections than benzyl alcohol. Furthermore, patients reported more pain following injection of a citrate-buffered solution than after a histidine...... administration. The formulation uses phenol (3 mg/ml) as a preservative (to protect product from microbial degradation or contamination) and histidine as a buffer. Alternative preservatives used in other GH formulations include m-cresol (9 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (3-9 mg/ml). Buffering agents include citrate...... been observed following subcutaneous administration of phenol (7.5 mg/ml), m-cresol (3-4 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (9 mg/ml). No general toxicity reactions were observed after subcutaneous administration of these agents. Clinical evaluation of the preservatives and buffers used in Norditropin Simple...

  12. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact...... of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous...... potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system....

  13. Calculating Buffer Zones: A Guide for Applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer zones provide distance between the application block (i.e., edge of the treated field) and bystanders, in order to control pesticide exposure risk from soil fumigants. Distance requirements may be reduced by credits such as tarps.

  14. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective...... of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....

  15. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...... are discussed, and different ways are presented how to determine the moisture buffer capacity of the materials using partly standard material parameters and partly parameters determined from the actual measurements. The results so far show that the determination of moisture buffer capacity is very sensitive...... to the used analysis method and therefore great care has to be taken when comparing results of different experiments. This paper discusses this issue and will come with a recommendation of a simple and consistent way to present the moisture buffer capacity of the materials in contact with the indoor air...

  16. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  17. Evaluation of metal trace detachment from dosing pumps using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Omar, E-mail: omar.lozanogarcia@unamur.be [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Mejia, Jorge [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye [Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Centre (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology (URBC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Centre (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Lucas, Stéphane [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Metal trace detachment evaluation is essential for instruments destined for pharmaceutical applications, such as pumps. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to determine and quantify metal traces originated from stainless steel and ceramic dosing pumps. Metal traces were quantified from either distilled water samples or cellulose filters in two tests: a short-term test of 16 h mimicking a daily cycle of a dosing pump for industrial applications, and a long-term test of 9 days evaluating the pump wearing. The main result is that ceramic dosing pumps present lower metal detachment than stainless steel counterparts. Traces of Si and Al were found originating from pieces around the pumps (pipes and joints)

  18. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  19. Highly edge-connected detachments of graphs and digraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Alex Rune; Jackson, Bill; Jordan, Tibor

    2003-01-01

    Let G=(V,E) be a graph or digraph and r:V \\to Z+. An r-detachment of G is a graph H obtained by `splitting' each vertex v \\in V into r(v) vertices. The vertices v1,...,vr(v) obtained by splitting v are called the pieces of v in H. Every edge uv \\in E corresponds to an edge of H connecting some...... piece of u to some piece of v. Crispin Nash-Williams gave necessary and sufficient conditions for a graph to have a k-edge-connected r-detachment. He also solved the version where the degrees of all the pieces are specified. In this paper we solve the same problems for directed graphs. We also give...

  20. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  1. Bevacizumab in macular serous detachments associated with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kapil G; Wagner, Maxwell S

    2015-01-01

    Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a lymphoproliferative B-cell disorder characterized by monoclonal proliferation of immunoglobulin M. WM can be associated with impressive hyperviscosity retinopathy and a unique tendency to develop serous macular detachments. These have been described as immunogammopathy maculopathy and portend a poor visual prognosis, often persisting despite multiple plasmapheresis treatments. In this case report, the authors demonstrate the accelerated resolution of hyperviscosity retinopathy and associated macular detachments in a patient with WM with marked visual improvement. This case report serves to raise awareness of the potential role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor modulation in the treatment of patients with hyperviscosity retinopathy associated with WM. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Abrupt tectonics and rapid slab detachment with grain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Schubert, Gerald; Ricard, Yanick

    2015-02-03

    A simple model for necking and detachment of subducting slabs is developed to include the coupling between grain-sensitive rheology and grain-size evolution with damage. Necking is triggered by thickened buoyant crust entrained into a subduction zone, in which case grain damage accelerates necking and allows for relatively rapid slab detachment, i.e., within 1 My, depending on the size of the crustal plug. Thick continental crustal plugs can cause rapid necking while smaller plugs characteristic of ocean plateaux cause slower necking; oceanic lithosphere with normal or slightly thickened crust subducts without necking. The model potentially explains how large plateaux or continental crust drawn into subduction zones can cause slab loss and rapid changes in plate motion and/or induce abrupt continental rebound.

  3. The highly eccentric detached eclipsing binaries in ACVS and MACC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivvers, Isaac; Bloom, Joshua S.; Richards, Joseph W.

    2014-06-01

    Next-generation synoptic photometric surveys will yield unprecedented (for the astronomical community) volumes of data and the processes of discovery and rare-object identification are, by necessity, becoming more autonomous. Such autonomous searches can be used to find objects of interest applicable to a wide range of outstanding problems in astronomy, and in this paper we present the methods and results of a largely autonomous search for highly eccentric detached eclipsing binary systems in the Machine-learned All-Sky Automated Survey Classification Catalog. 106 detached eclipsing binaries with eccentricities of e ≳ 0.1 are presented, most of which are identified here for the first time. We also present new radial-velocity curves and absolute parameters for six of those systems with the long-term goal of increasing the number of highly eccentric systems with orbital solutions, thereby facilitating further studies of the tidal circularization process in binary stars.

  4. Retinal detachment with severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy in Terson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikay, M; Datlinger, P; Stolba, U; Wedrich, A; Binder, S; Hausmann, N

    1994-01-01

    In several reports, early vitrectomy has been proposed for eyes with vitreous hemorrhage due to Terson syndrome as a means to hasten visual recovery. But the development of nuclear sclerosis and the neurologic problems arising from this disease encourage surgeons to wait for spontaneous resorption, especially with young patients. Although the formation of epiretinal membranes has been described, to the authors' knowledge retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy in Terson syndrome never has been observed. The authors report five eyes from four patients with Terson syndrome due to spontaneous aneurysm rupture, in whom retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy developed. The early onset and the severe clinical course of proliferative vitreoretinopathy in these eyes showed parallels to traumatic proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The retina in all eyes could be reattached. The authors point out the necessity for accurate and close follow-up and early, extensive surgical treatment in Terson syndrome, especially in patients with a reduced general state of health.

  5. Modeling detachment physics in the NSTX snowflake divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E.T., E-mail: emeier@wm.edu [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Kaita, R.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rognlien, T.D.; Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The snowflake divertor is a proposed technique for coping with the tokamak power exhaust problem in next-step experiments and eventually reactors, where extreme power fluxes to material surfaces represent a leading technological and physics challenge. In lithium-conditioned National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) discharges, application of the snowflake divertor typically induced partial outer divertor detachment and severalfold heat flux reduction. UEDGE is used to analyze and compare conventional and snowflake divertor configurations in NSTX. Matching experimental upstream profiles and divertor measurements in the snowflake requires target recycling of 0.97 vs. 0.91 in the conventional case, implying partial saturation of the lithium-based pumping mechanism. Density scans are performed to analyze the mechanisms that facilitate detachment in the snowflake, revealing that increased divertor volume provides most of the parallel heat flux reduction. Also, neutral gas power loss is magnified by the increased wetted area in the snowflake, and plays a key role in generating volumetric recombination.

  6. Adhesion and friction in gecko toe attachment and detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Yu; Pesika, Noshir; Zeng, Hongbo; Rosenberg, Kenny; Zhao, Boxin; McGuiggan, Patricia; Autumn, Kellar; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Geckos can run rapidly on walls and ceilings, requiring high friction forces (on walls) and adhesion forces (on ceilings), with typical step intervals of ≈20 ms. The rapid switching between gecko foot attachment and detachment is analyzed theoretically based on a tape model that incorporates the adhesion and friction forces originating from the van der Waals forces between the submicron-sized spatulae and the substrate, which are controlled by the (macroscopic) actions of the gecko toes. The ...

  7. Descemet's membrane detachment managed with perfluro-n-octane liquid

    OpenAIRE

    M Ashok Kumar; Vanaja Vaithianathan

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old male who developed Descemet′s membrane detachment after temporal clear corneal phacoemulsification which did not settle with air or viscoelastic injection. The Descemet′s membrane was successfully reattached with restoration of 20/50 vision with the help of perfluro-n-octane liquid. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported.

  8. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2014-02-01

    Puffs are localized Ca(2 +) signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). They are the result of the liberation of Ca(2 +) from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca(2 +) provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio-temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca(2 +) signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP3R-Ca(2 +) channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca(2 +) buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff.

  9. [Neurotrophic keratitis after vitrectomy and circumferential endophotocoagulation for retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchère Lavayssiere, C; Lux, A-L; Degoumois, A; Stchepinsky Launay, M; Denion, E

    2016-02-01

    Circumferential (360°) endophotocoagulation is frequently implemented during vitrectomies for retinal detachment. This photocoagulation may result in neurotrophic keratitis by damaging the ciliary nerves in the suprachoroidal space on their way to the pupil. We report a series of 4 cases of neurotrophic keratitis following a circumferential endophotocoagulation. A retrospective observational case series of 4 non-diabetic patients having presented with a neurotrophic keratitis following a retinal detachment treated with vitrectomy and circumferential endophotocoagulation (532 nm) at Caen University Hospital. We report the various forms of corneal lesions and the diagnostic criteria allowing for the diagnosis of neurotrophic keratitis. Neurotrophic keratitis is caused by lesions occurring at various levels of corneal innervation. Endophotocoagulation may cause a neurotrophic keratitis by damaging the short and long ciliary nerves on their way to the pupil in the suprachoroidal space. The sequelae of this condition can limit visual recovery. Hence, it is probably advisable to screen for corneal anesthesia or severe hypesthesia following a retinal detachment treated with vitrectomy and circumferential endophotocoagulation and to implement prophylactic treatment (intensive lubricant therapy; preservative-free eye drops) if needed. The risk of neurotrophic keratitis should be weighed against the dose of laser retinopexy necessary and sufficient to obtain a sustained retinal reattachment. If circumferential endophotocoagulation is implemented, it is probably sensible to monitor corneal sensitivity and to adapt postoperative treatment if necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Activation of autophagy in photoreceptor necroptosis after experimental retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate whether photoreceptor necroptosis induced by z-VAD-FMK (pan caspase inhibitor was involved the activation of autophagy and whether Necrostatin-1, a specific necroptosis inhibitor, could inhibit this induction of autophagy after experimental retinal detachment.METHODS:Experimental retinal detachment models were created in Sprague-Dawley rats by subretinal injection of sodium hyaluronate and subretinal injections of z-VAD-FMK, vehicle or z-VAD-FMK plus Necrostatin-1. Three days after retinal detachment, morphologic changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy. In other animals, retinas were subjected to immunoprecipitation and Western Blotting, then probed with anti-RIP1, phosphoserine, LC-3II or caspase 8 antibody.RESULTS:It was proved by immunoprecipitation and western blotting, that photoreceptor necroptosis was mediated by caspase-8 inhibition and receptor interacting protein kinase (RIP1 phosphorylation activation. Transmission electron microscope and western blotting results indicated that photoreceptor necroptosis was involved the LC-3II and autophagosomes induction. We also discovered Necrostatin-1 could inhibit RIP1 phosphorylation and LC-3II induction.CONCLUSION:These data firstly indicate photoreceptor necroptosis is associated with the activation of autophagy. Necrostatin-1 protects photoreceptors from necroptosis and autophagy by down-regulation of RIP1 phosphorylation and LC-3II.

  11. Adhesion and friction in gecko toe attachment and detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Pesika, Noshir; Zeng, Hongbo; Rosenberg, Kenny; Zhao, Boxin; McGuiggan, Patricia; Autumn, Kellar; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2006-12-19

    Geckos can run rapidly on walls and ceilings, requiring high friction forces (on walls) and adhesion forces (on ceilings), with typical step intervals of approximately 20 ms. The rapid switching between gecko foot attachment and detachment is analyzed theoretically based on a tape model that incorporates the adhesion and friction forces originating from the van der Waals forces between the submicron-sized spatulae and the substrate, which are controlled by the (macroscopic) actions of the gecko toes. The pulling force of a spatula along its shaft with an angle between theta 0 and 90 degrees to the substrate, has a "normal adhesion force" contribution, produced at the spatula-substrate bifurcation zone, and a "lateral friction force" contribution from the part of spatula still in contact with the substrate. High net friction and adhesion forces on the whole gecko are obtained by rolling down and gripping the toes inward to realize small pulling angles between the large number of spatulae in contact with the substrate. To detach, the high adhesion/friction is rapidly reduced to a very low value by rolling the toes upward and backward, which, mediated by the lever function of the setal shaft, peels the spatulae off perpendicularly from the substrates. By these mechanisms, both the adhesion and friction forces of geckos can be changed over three orders of magnitude, allowing for the swift attachment and detachment during gecko motion. The results have obvious implications for the fabrication of dry adhesives and robotic systems inspired by the gecko's locomotion mechanism.

  12. Optimization of Typological Requirements for Low-Cost Detached Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuráň, Jozef

    2017-09-01

    The presented paper deals with an analysis of the legislative, hygienic, functional and operational requirements for the design of detached houses and individual dwellings in terms of typological requirements. The article also presents a sociological survey about the preferences and subjective requirements of relevant public group segments in terms of living in a detached house or an individual dwelling. The aim of the paper is to define the possibilities for the optimization of typological requirements. The optimization methods are based on principles already applied to contemporary detached house preferences and trends. The main idea is to reduce the amount of floor space, thus lowering construction and operating costs. The goal is to design an optimized floor plan, while preserving the hygienic criteria for individual residential dwellings. By applying optimization methods, a so-called rationalized and conditioned floor plan results in an individual dwelling floor plan design that can be compared to a reference model with an accurate quantification comparison. The significant sources of research are the legislative and normative requirements in the field of house construction in Slovakia, the Czech Republic and abroad.

  13. Particle detachment during hydraulic shock loads in granular media filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J K; Lawler, D F

    2006-01-01

    Particle breakthrough can occur by either the breakoff of previously captured particles (or flocs) or the direct passage of some influent particles through the filter. Filtration experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale filter using spherical glass beads with a diameter of 0.55 mm as collectors. A single type of particle suspension (Min-U-Sil 5) and three different destabilisation methods (pH control, alum and polymer destabilisation) were used to destabilise particles. The filtration velocity of 5 m/h was similar to that used in standard media filtration practice. To assess the possibility of particle detachment during normal filtration, a hydraulic shock load (20% increase of flow rate) was applied after 4 h of normal filtration. The magnitude of particle detachment was proportional to the particle size for non-Brownian particles. At the same time, less favourable particles, i.e. particles with larger surface charge, were easily detached during the hydraulic shock load. Therefore, proper particle destabilisation before filtration is crucial for maximum particle removal, as well as minimum particle breakthrough.

  14. Double-electron detachment from F- ions in rare-gas collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, B.; Rahman, F.

    1984-03-01

    The cross section σ-+ for double-electron detachment from F- ions in rare-gas targets has been measured between 25 and 125 keV under single-collision conditions. In contrast to the target dependence of single-detachment cross sections, the cross sections are largest for helium and neon and decreased with increasing target mass. The close similarity between the σ-+ and σ0+ cross sections suggest that double detachment is a sequential process where one electron is first detached and then the second electron is detached at a smaller interaction radius.

  15. The potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in arctic Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Vladyková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives an account of the potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in Greenland. It is based on studies of house construction compared with Building Regulation requirements and the spread of buildings over time. In the climatic...... (type 18D). Temperature, relative humidity and air tightness were measured, and thermal bridges were determined from drawings, visual inspection, and by using a thermal camera. The findings show a current energy consumption of up to 378 kWh/(m²•a) for heating, poor air tightness, a large number...... to approximately half of the housing stock without changing the architectural expression or having to relocate the occupants during the renovation....

  16. Programmed subcellular release to study the dynamics of cell detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, Bridget

    Cell detachment is central to a broad range of physio-pathological changes however there are no quantitative methods to study this process. Here we report programmed subcellular release, a method for spatially and temporally controlled cellular detachment and present the first quantitative results of the detachment dynamics of 3T3 fibroblasts at the subcellular level. Programmed subcellular release is an in vitro technique designed to trigger the detachment of distinct parts of a single cell from a patterned substrate with both spatial and temporal control. Subcellular release is achieved by plating cells on an array of patterned gold electrodes created by standard microfabrication techniques. The electrodes are biochemically functionalized with an adhesion-promoting RGD peptide sequence that is attached to the gold electrode via a thiol linkage. Each electrode is electrically isolated so that a subcellular section of a single cell spanning multiple electrodes can be released independently. Upon application of a voltage pulse to a single electrode, RGD-thiol molecules on an individual electrode undergo rapid electrochemical desorption that leads to subsequent cell contraction. The dynamics of cell contraction are found to have characteristic induction and contraction times. This thesis presents the first molecular inhibition studies conducted using programmed subcellular release verifying that this technique can be used to study complex signaling pathways critical to cell motility. Molecular level dynamics of focal adhesion proteins and actin stress fibers provide some insight into the complexities associated with triggered cell detachment. In addition to subcellular release, the programmed release of alkanethiols provides a tool for to study the spatially and temporally controlled release of small molecules or particles from individually addressable gold electrodes. Here we report on experiments which determine the dynamics of programmed release using fluorophore

  17. Low noise buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators for precise time and frequency measurement and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.

  18. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  19. Buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions: from protein buffer capacity prediction to bioprocess applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrenburg, Sven; Karow, Anne R; Garidel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Protein therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have significant buffering capacity, particularly at concentrations>50 mg/mL. This report addresses pH-related issues critical to adoption of self-buffered monoclonal antibody formulations. We evaluated solution conditions with protein concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg/mL. Samples were both buffer-free and conventionally buffered with citrate. Samples were non-isotonic or adjusted for isotonicity with NaCl or trehalose. Studies included accelerated temperature stability tests, shaking stability studies, and pH changes in infusion media as protein concentrate is added. We present averaged buffering slopes of capacity that can be applied to any mAb and present a general method for calculating buffering capacity of buffer-free, highly concentrated antibody liquid formulations. In temperature stability tests, neither buffer-free nor conventionally buffered solution conditions showed significant pH changes. Conventionally buffered solutions showed significantly higher opalescence than buffer-free ones. In general, buffer-free solution conditions showed less aggregation than conventionally buffered solutions. Shaking stability tests showed no differences between buffer-free and conventionally buffered solutions. "In-use" preparation experiments showed that pH in infusion bag medium can rapidly approximate that of self-buffered protein concentrate as concentrate is added. In summary, the buffer capacity of proteins can be predicted and buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Influence of Discrimination on Inmigrant Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: What Buffers its Detrimental Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cristini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the link between perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, cultural identity and social support at school reported by immigrant adolescents. Participants were 214 mostly male, immigrant adolescents in grades 9 through 13 of high schools in two small cities in northern Italy. Results showed that discrimination has a significant detrimental effect on psychological well-being of foreign-born adolescents. Additionally, the current study outlined that the only protective factor for depressive symptoms, among the analyzed variables concerning cultural identity and school social support, was social support from teachers. None of the analyzed moderators buffered the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms reported by immigrant adolescents. These results have implications for preventive interventions for immigrant adolescents and suggest a protective role for teachers. Future research should detect strategies to reduce discrimination and prejudice toward immigrant adolescents and detect factors that may buffer detrimental effects of discrimination on psychological well-being.

  1. Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandén, Torbjörn; Goudarzi, Reza; de Combarieu, Michel; Åkesson, Mattias; Hökmark, Harald

    The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8 m deep, 1.8 m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at -420 m level has been selected for the test. The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer materials submitted to severe thermal conditions with temperatures well over 100 °C during water uptake of partly saturated bentonite-based buffer materials, and to check, in due time, their properties after water saturation. The test includes two carbon steel heating canisters each 3 m high and 0.6 m diameter, surrounded by 0.6 m of buffer material. There is a 0.2 m thick sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite, while the lower heater is surrounded by bentonite only. On top of the stack of bentonite blocks is a confining plug anchored to the rock. In the slot between buffer and rock wall is a sand filter equipped with pipes to control the water pressure at the boundary, which is seldom done with an EBS in situ experiment. Both heater mid-height planes are densely instrumented in order to follow, with direct or indirect methods, buffer THM evolution. Temperature, relative humidity, stress and pore pressure have been monitored since the test start in March 2003. Total water inflow is also monitored. Firstly, the present paper describes the test design, the instrumentation, the plug anchoring system and the system for water boundary pressure control. Second, having described the test, the paper shows different measurements that illustrate evolution of temperature, saturation, suction and swelling pressure in the upper and the lower buffer.

  2. A Multicountry Study of Cross-Cultural Differences in Psychological Wellness of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamsama, Octaviana Hemmy; Huang, Leesa; Nelson, R. Brett; Chen, Cin-Ru; Huang, Lily; Kwon, Kyongboon; Kodama, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    Relative to positive psychology, a focus on increasing psychological well-being has been recently supported. Positive psychology is the study of influences and processes that contribute to the successful and optimal functioning of individuals. Nurturing and encouraging wellness competencies creates a buffer against mental illness and fosters…

  3. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  4. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  5. Scientific Applications Performance Evaluation on Burst Buffer

    KAUST Repository

    Markomanolis, George S.

    2017-10-19

    Parallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing, especially in storing and processing very large datasets, such as the case of seismic imaging, CFD, combustion and weather modeling. The storage hierarchy includes nowadays additional layers, the latest being the usage of SSD-based storage as a Burst Buffer for I/O acceleration. We present an in-depth analysis on how to use Burst Buffer for specific cases and how the internal MPI I/O aggregators operate according to the options that the user provides during his job submission. We analyze the performance of a range of I/O intensive scientific applications, at various scales on a large installation of Lustre parallel file system compared to an SSD-based Burst Buffer. Our results show a performance improvement over Lustre when using Burst Buffer. Moreover, we show results from a data hierarchy library which indicate that the standard I/O approaches are not enough to get the expected performance from this technology. The performance gain on the total execution time of the studied applications is between 1.16 and 3 times compared to Lustre. One of the test cases achieved an impressive I/O throughput of 900 GB/s on Burst Buffer.

  6. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  7. The use of 0.01M phosphate buffered saline as detection buffer for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of 0.01M phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as detection buffer for Alere Determine® HIV rapid test. This study was carried out at Bugando School of Medicine in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 300 whole blood specimens; 150 HIV positive specimens from patients attending Care and ...

  8. Vegetative buffer strips for reducing herbicide transport in runoff: effects of season, vegetation, and buffer width

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of vegetative buffer strips (VBS) for reducing herbicide transport in runoff may be affected by season, plant species composition, and buffer width. A plot-scale study was conducted from 2007-2012 on an eroded claypan soil with the objectives of: 1) assessing the effects of season ...

  9. Labview virtual instruments for calcium buffer calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Frederick B; Pollack, Gerald H

    2003-01-01

    Labview VIs based upon the calculator programs of Fabiato and Fabiato (J. Physiol. Paris 75 (1979) 463) are presented. The VIs comprise the necessary computations for the accurate preparation of multiple-metal buffers, for the back-calculation of buffer composition given known free metal concentrations and stability constants used, for the determination of free concentrations from a given buffer composition, and for the determination of apparent stability constants from absolute constants. As implemented, the VIs can concurrently account for up to three divalent metals, two monovalent metals and four ligands thereof, and the modular design of the VIs facilitates further extension of their capacity. As Labview VIs are inherently graphical, these VIs may serve as useful templates for those wishing to adapt this software to other platforms.

  10. Nonlinear spelling in graphemic buffer deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Teresa; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a case of nonlinear spelling and its implications for theories of the graphemic buffer. C.T.J., an individual with an acquired deficit of the graphemic buffer, often wrote the letters of his responses in a nonlinear temporal order when writing to dictation. The spatial ordering of the letters was maintained: Letters in the later positions of the words were written towards the right side of the response, even when written before letters in earlier positions. This unusual phenomenon has been briefly reported in three prior cases but this study provides the most detailed analysis of the phenomenon to date. We specifically contend that the decoupling of the temporal and spatial aspects of spelling is difficult to reconcile with competitive queuing accounts of the graphemic buffer.

  11. Characteristics and surgical outcomes of pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oono Y

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihiko Oono, Koji Uehara, Masatoshi Haruta, Ryoji YamakawaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, JapanPurpose: To describe the characteristics and surgical outcomes of pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.Methods: A retrospective study of pediatric patients (15 years old or younger who had undergone primary surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was conducted. Patients were divided into five groups according to the predisposing factors: trauma (group 1, myopia (group 2, atopic dermatitis (group 3, congenital or developmental anomalies (group 4, and others (group 5.Results: A total of 48 eyes of 44 patients were included in this study. There were 18 eyes (37.5% in group 1, twelve eyes (25.0% in group 2, six eyes (12.5% in group 3, five eyes (10.4% in group 4, and seven eyes (14.6% in group 5. The initial retinal reattachment rate was 89% in group 1, 100% in group 2, 83% in group 3, 20% in group 4, and 86% in group 5 (P = 0.002. The final retinal reattachment rate was 100% in group 1, 100% in group 2, 100% in group 3, 80% in group 4, and 86% in group 5 (P = 0.16. The frequency of visual acuity of 0.1 or better after surgery was 100% in group 1, 92% in group 2, 83% in group 3, 40% in group 4, and 71% in group 5 (P = 0.01.Conclusion: The overall surgical outcome was successful, but the patients in group 4 had the lowest initial reattachment rate and the worst visual prognosis.Keywords: children, detached retina, surgical outcome, predisposing factor

  12. Slab detachment under the Eastern Alps seen by seismic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Bianchi, Irene; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-01-01

    We analyze seismic anisotropy for the Eastern Alpine region by inspecting shear-wave splitting from SKS and SKKS phases. The Eastern Alpine region is characterized by a breakdown of the clear mountain-chain-parallel fast orientation pattern that has been previously documented for the Western Alps and for the western part of the Eastern Alps. The main interest of this paper is a more detailed analysis of the anisotropic character of the Eastern Alps, and the transition to the Carpathian-Pannonian region. SK(K)S splitting measurements reveal a rather remarkable lateral change in the anisotropy pattern from the west to the east of the Eastern Alps with a transition area at about 12°E. We also model the backazimuthal variation of the measurements by a vertical change of anisotropy. We find that the eastern part of the study area is characterized by the presence of two layers of anisotropy, where the deeper layer has characteristics similar to those of the Central Alps, in particular SW-NE fast orientations of anisotropic axes. We attribute the deeper layer to a detached slab from the European plate. Comparison with tomographic studies of the area indicates that the detached slab might possibly connect with the lithosphere that is still in place to the west of our study area, and may also connect with the slab graveyard to the East, at the depth of the upper mantle transition zone. On the other hand, the upper layer has NW-SE fast orientations coinciding with a low-velocity layer which is found above a more-or-less eastward dipping high-velocity body. The anisotropy of the upper layer shows large-scale NW-SE fast orientation, which is consistent with the presence of asthenospheric flow above the detached slab foundering into the deeper mantle.

  13. Serous detachment of the macula associated with advanced glaucomatous cupping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaide, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced depth imaging of the optic nerve of a patient with a serous detachment and profound cupping of the optic nerve secondary to angle-closure glaucoma revealed a large dehiscence of the lamina cribrosa. Adjacent to the defect in the lamina were cystoid spaces within the nerve appearing to contain fluid. The most temporal of these could be seen to extend through the optic nerve and up into the macula. This visualized pathway suggests that mechanical dehiscence of the lamina may allow fluid, possibly derived from cerebrospinal fluid, to track up into the macula. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Bilateral Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment during External Beam Radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Takako Hidaka; Hideki Chuman; Nobuhisa Nao-i

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of nontraumatic bilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) during external beam radiotherapy for nonocular tumor, presented as an observational case study in conjunction with a review of the relevant literature. A 65-year-old male was referred to our hospital due to bilateral RRD. He underwent a biopsy for a tumor of the left frontal lobe 4 months prior to presentation, and the tumor had been diagnosed as primary central nerve system B-cell type lymphoma. He re...

  15. Detachable balloon embolization of an aneurysmal gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defreyne, Luc; De Schrijver, Ignace; Vanlangenhove, Peter; Kunnen, Marc [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium)

    2002-01-01

    Extrahepatic arteriovenous fistulas involving the gastroduodenal artery and the portal venous system are rare and almost always a late complication of gastric surgery. Secondary portal hypertension and mesenteric ischemia may provoke abdominal pain, upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, diarrhea, and weight loss. Until recently, surgical excision has been the therapy of choice with excellent results. The authors report a case of gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula with a rare large interpositioned aneurysm in a cardiopulmonary-compromised patient who was considered a non-surgical candidate. The gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula was occluded endovascularly by means of a detachable balloon. A survey of the literature of this rare type of arterioportal fistula is included. (orig.)

  16. Highly Edge-Connected Detachments of Graphs and Digraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Alex Rune; Jackson, Bill; Jordán, Tibor

    2003-01-01

    Let G = (V,E) be a graph or digraph and r : V → Z+. An r-detachment of G is a graph H obtained by ‘splitting’ each vertex ν ∈ V into r(ν) vertices. The vertices ν1,…,νr(ν) obtained by splitting ν are called the pieces of ν in H. Every edge uν ∈ E corresponds to an edge of H connecting some piece ...... a simple and self-contained new proof for the undirected result. This work is dedicated to the memory of Crispin Nash-Williams....

  17. Frictional and elastic energy in gecko adhesive detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Gravish, Nick; Wilkinson, Matt; Autumn, Kellar

    2007-01-01

    Geckos use millions of adhesive setae on their toes to climb vertical surfaces at speeds of over 1 m s−1. Climbing presents a significant challenge for an adhesive since it requires both strong attachment and easy, rapid removal. Conventional pressure-sensitive adhesives are either strong and difficult to remove (e.g. duct tape) or weak and easy to remove (e.g. sticky notes). We discovered that the energy required to detach adhering tokay gecko setae (Wd) is modulated by the angle (θ) of a li...

  18. Retinal dialysis and detachment in a child after airbag deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliott, Dean; Hauch, Adam; Kim, Rubin W; Fawzi, Amani

    2011-04-01

    A variety of airbag-associated ocular injuries have been reported in children sitting in the front passenger seat during automobile collisions. These injuries range from corneal abrasions to traumatic hyphema with secondary glaucoma and cataract. We report the case of a 5-year-old boy who experienced retinal dialysis and detachment associated with airbag deployment. The patient recovered 20/20 visual acuity after cryopexy and placement of a radial sponge. Copyright © 2011 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards for Electron Beam Welding in the Space Environment: Analysis and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C.; Bhat, B.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Conditions under which molten metal detachments might occur in a space welding environment are analyzed. A weld pool detachment parameter specifying conditions for pool detachment by impact is derived and corroborated by experimental evidence. Impact detachment for the pool is unlikely. Impact detachment for a drop of metal on the end of the weld wire may be possible under extreme conditions. Other potential causes of molten metal detachment considered, vaporization pressure forces and wire flickout from the pool, did not appear to present significant detachment threats.

  20. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  1. Predictive Computer Models for Biofilm Detachment Properties in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick G. Cogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilm communities are protected against environmental extremes or clearance by antimicrobial agents or the host immune response. They also serve as a site from which microbial populations search for new niches by dispersion via single planktonic cells or by detachment by protected biofilm aggregates that, until recently, were thought to become single cells ready for attachment. Mathematically modeling these events has provided investigators with testable hypotheses for further study. Such was the case in the recent article by Kragh et al. (K. N. Kragh, J. B. Hutchison, G. Melaugh, C. Rodesney, A. E. Roberts, Y. Irie, P. Ø. Jensen, S. P. Diggle, R. J. Allen, V. Gordon, and T. Bjarnsholt, mBio 7:e00237-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00237-16, in which investigators were able to identify the differential competitive advantage of biofilm aggregates to directly attach to surfaces compared to the single-celled planktonic populations. Therefore, as we delve deeper into the properties of the biofilm mode of growth, not only do we need to understand the complexity of biofilms, but we must also account for the properties of the dispersed and detached populations and their effect on reseeding.

  2. Treatment of traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas using detachable balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Han, Joon Koo; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    Since the introduction of the concept of detachable balloon technique to occlude arteriovenous fistulas, this technique has become the treatment of choice in the management of traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas (CCF). We tried the occlusion of fistula using detachable balloons in 30 consecutive cases of traumatic CCF and the result of our experience is reported. Transarterial approach with manually-tied latex balloons is tried in all cases and the fistulas were successfully occlude in 28 cases of all. In 20 cases, internal carotid artery was preserved and the arterial lumen was occluded along with fistula opening in 9 cases. In rest of 2 cases, surgical ligation was done because of procedure-related thromboembolism and incomplete occlusion of fistula. We experienced hemiparesis as a major complication in 3 cases. In one of them, the symptom developed during occlusion tolerance test, one just after insertion of guiding catheter into the internal carotid artery, and in one case 2 days after the occlusion of internal carotid artery. In one case, the procedure was performed by the direct puncture of carotid artery because of the ligation of common carotid artery by previous surgery. It is suggested that the systemic heparinization during the procedure is indispensable and starting the procedure with No 9 balloon is considered reasonable.

  3. Macula-Sparing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: Is emergent surgery necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Mahmoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of the macula is a significant factor in determining final visual outcomes in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD and should be considered in the timing of surgical repair. Several studies have shown that macula-involving RRDs attain similar visual and anatomic outcomes when surgery is performed within seven days as compared to emergent surgery (within 24 hours. In contrast, surgery prior to macular detachment in macula-sparing RRDs generally yields the best visual outcomes. In the case of macula-sparing RRDs, it is not clear how long the macula may remain attached, therefore, standard practice dictates emergent surgery. Timing of presentation, examination findings, case complexity, co-existing medical conditions, surgeon expertise, and timing and quality of access to operating facilities and staff, however, should all be considered in determining whether a macula-sparing RRD requires immediate intervention or if equivalent visual and possibly better overall outcomes can be achieved with scheduled surgery within an appropriate time frame.

  4. Glaucoma associated with the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangouritsas G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available George Mangouritsas, Spyridon Mourtzoukos, Dimitra M Portaliou, Vassilios I Georgopoulos, Anastasia Dimopoulou, Elias Feretis Eye Clinic, General Hospital "Hellenic Red Cross", Athens, Greece Abstract: Transient or permanent elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP is a common complication following vitreoretinal surgery. Usually secondary glaucoma, which develops after scleral buckling procedures, or pars plana vitrectomy for repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, is of multifactorial origin. It is essential, for appropriate management, to detect the cause of outflow obstruction. An exacerbation of preexisting open-angle glaucoma or a steroid-induced elevation of IOP should also be considered. Scleral buckling may be complicated by congestion and anterior rotation of the ciliary body resulting in secondary angle closure, which can usually resolve with medical therapy. The use of intravitreal gases may also induce secondary angle-closure with or without pupillary block. Aspiration of a quantity of the intraocular gas may be indicated. Secondary glaucoma can also develop after intravitreal injection of silicone oil due to pupillary block, inflammation, synechial angle closure, or migration of emulsified silicone oil in the anterior chamber and obstruction of the aqueous outflow pathway. In most eyes medical therapy is successful in controlling IOP; however, silicone oil removal with or without concurrent glaucoma surgery may also be required. Diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation and glaucoma drainage devices constitute useful treatment modalities for long-term IOP control. Cooperation between vitreoretinal and glaucoma specialists is necessary to achieve successful management. Keywords: retinal detachment, intraocular pressure elevation, glaucoma, vitrectomy, intravitreal gas, silicone oil

  5. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  6. Detached leaf culture: viability to evaluate 2,4-D toxicity symptoms in cotton apex leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da C Centurion, Maria Aparecida P; Correia, Núbia M; Sanches, Vivaldo César R

    2005-01-01

    To study the viability of detached leaf culture technique, studies were carried out with detached leaves from cotton apex (true trilobed leaves). The prepared leaves were sprayed with 2,4-D amine and ester, at rates of 10, 30, 70, and 100% of the recommended doses. Detached leaves without herbicide spray were used as controls. Simultaneously, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with the same treatments as used for the detached leaves experiment. Toxicity was measured through a 0-to-5 grading according to the percentage of affected leaf area in the detached leaves experiment or examining the affected rate of whole plant as indicated in the greenhouse. Results showed that the ester form of the herbicide induced earlier and more severe toxicity symptoms in detached leaves and greenhouse grown plants. Positive and significant correlations (p cotton plants grown in the greenhouse (r= - 0.92 and -0.92, respectively).

  7. Defining Steamside Management Zones or Riparian Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Williams; Donald J. Lipscomb; Christopher J. Post

    2004-01-01

    Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been highly successful in protecting water quality throughout the Southeast. Numerous studies have found them to be effective in protecting water quality. Despite being mostly voluntary, compliance is generally about 90 percent across the region. Streamside Management Zones (SMZs) or riparian buffers are specified for...

  8. Zelfzorg als buffer voor burn-out

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, Caroline; Dewaele, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Burn-out komt vaak voor bij hulpverleners. Door hun eigenheid durven ze niet snel hulp vragen. In geen enkele missietekst van een organisatie staat dat de organisatie zelfzorg bij hulpverleners als kerntaak opneemt. Zelfzorg is de beste buffer tegen burn-out.

  9. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindt, Steffen T.; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-02-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system.

  10. Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, L F; Gottman, J M

    1997-06-01

    Examined several protective mechanisms that may reduce deleterious correlates of marital conflict and marital dissolution in young children. One set of potential buffers focused on parent-child interaction: parental warmth, parental scaffolding/praise, and inhibition of parental rejection. As a second set of potential buffers, each parent was interviewed about their "meta-emotion philosophy"--that is, their feelings about their own emotions, and their attitudes and responses to their children's anger and sadness. The third set of potential buffers concerned intraindividual characteristics of the child, including the child's intelligence and regulatory physiology (basal vagal tone and vagal suppression). Fifty-six families with a preschool child were studied at two time points: when the children were 5 years old (Time 1) and again when the children were 8 years old (Time 2). At Time 1, naturalistic observations of marital and parent-child interaction were conducted and assessment of child regulatory physiology was obtained through measures of basal vagal tone and suppression of vagal tone. Parents were also interviewed individually about their feelings about their own and their children's emotions, and children's intelligence was assessed. At Time 2, assessment of child outcomes were obtained, including observations of peer interaction, mother ratings of behavior problems and mother and teacher ratings of peer aggression, mother ratings of child physical illness, and measures of achievement. Results indicated that all Time 1 buffering factors protected children in face of marital conflict and dissolution.

  11. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  12. Relationships among Social Support, Perceived Control, and Psychological Distress in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134…

  13. Posterior Pole Retinal Detachment Due to a Macular Hole in a Patient with a Boston Keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gologorsky, Daniel; Williams, Basil K; Flynn, Harry W

    2017-04-01

    To describe the clinical course of a patient with a Boston Keratoprosthesis type I who developed a localized posterior pole retinal detachment secondary to a macular hole. A 73-year-old patient with a Boston Keratoprosthesis developed a localized posterior pole retinal detachment secondary to a macular hole. The retinal detachment was repaired with a 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, membrane peel, fluid-air exchange and 18% C3F8. Retinal reattachment was achieved but the macular hole remained open. A posterior pole retinal detachment secondary to a macular hole can be repaired using standard techniques despite the limited view through a Boston Keratoprosthesis.

  14. Vitrectomy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Dhananjay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report successful surgical management of a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT. A 33-year-old man with symptomatic serous macular detachment in the left eye (Snellen acuity: 20/200 secondary to a paramacular choroidal hemangioma was treated with TTT. The nonresponsive detachment was subsequently managed by vitrectomy, endophotocoagulation and silicon-oil tamponade. It resulted in complete resolution of the tumor and the detachment. Silicon oil was removed at four months. Visual acuity improved to 20/80 by the last follow-up visit at 10 months without any recurrence.

  15. Physical recovery, mental detachment and sleep as predictors of injury and mental energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Yannick A; de Jonge, Jan; Oerlemans, Wido Gm; Geurts, Sabine Ae

    2017-05-01

    Although sports activities are generally considered beneficial to people's health and well-being, they can cause injuries and increased fatigue. Guided by the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Recovery Model, this study hypothesized that physical recovery and mental detachment from sport-related activities would prevent injury and enhance mental energy. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 161 recreational athletes. Structural equation modelling analyses showed that mental detachment was negatively associated with injury and positively associated with mental energy. Sleep deprivation partially mediated the relation between mental detachment and mental energy. These findings imply an important role for mental detachment in maintaining people's health and well-being.

  16. Adhesion mechanism of a gecko-inspired oblique structure with an adhesive tip for asymmetric detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yu; Takahashi, Kunio; Sato, Chiaki

    2015-12-01

    An adhesion model of an oblique structure with an adhesive tip is proposed by considering a limiting stress for adhesion to describe the detachment mechanism of gecko foot hairs. When a force is applied to the root of the oblique structure, normal and shear stresses are generated at contact and the adhesive tip is detached from the surface when reaching the limiting stress. An adhesion criterion that considers both the normal and shear stresses is introduced, and the asymmetric detachment of the oblique structure is theoretically investigated. In addition, oblique beam array structures are manufactured, and an inclination effect of the structure on the asymmetric detachment is experimentally verified.

  17. Carbonate pseudotachylite? from a Miocene extensional detachment, W. Cyclades, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Most pseudotachylites, both impact- and fault-related, occur in silicate-rich rocks, typically with 'granitoid' compositions. Examples of melting in carbonate rocks, excluding magmatic sources, are restricted to impact-events, except for a carbonate pseudotachylite in the Canalone Fault, S. Italy (Viganò et al. 2011). Another potential example of carbonate pseudotachylite, shown here, comes from the Miocene-aged W. Cycladic Detachment System, in Greece. Top-SSE ductile to brittle movement on this detachment, with a maximum displacement estimated at tens of kilometers, exhumed of HP-rocks. The carbonate pseudotachylite occurs within an 43 mm thick), consists of dark (hematitic) red, ultra-fine grained unlayered carbonate with up to 40x10 mm rather rounded clasts of earlier generations of cataclasite, many with a quartzite composition. These clasts are fractured and partially separated, with a fine red carbonate matrix. No layering of the matrix or clasts is apparent. The clasts become finer and more abundant towards the boundary with Layer B. Layers B and D (~57 & ~20 mm thick) dominantly comprises protocataclasite with greyish quartz fragments separated by a carbonate matrix along narrow fractures. Zone C and E (~23 m & >15 mm thick) comprise pale pink carbonate-dominated rocks with abundant clasts (+/- quartz fragments) of earlier cataclasite generations. These elongate clasts lie parallel to the overall banding, which is parallel to the ultramylonitic foliation (detachment surface). Smaller clasts are markedly more rounded and comprise carbonate and quartzite material and may have darker (?reaction) rims. No layering is seen in the pale pink groundmass although this is present in some elongate clasts. All layer boundaries are irregular and no principle slip surfaces have been seen. Injection veins from 1 to 9 mm wide and up to at least 100 mm long derive from the central layer (C), cutting the overall layering at a high angle and branching in several places

  18. Slip on serpentine detachments at magma-poor margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reston, Timothy; Lymer, Gael; Cresswell, Derren; Stevenson, Carl; Bull, Jonathan; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Galicia 3D working Group

    2017-04-01

    At magma-poor margins, the structures formed during rifting are not obscured by thick lavas, allowing detailed analysis of the tectonics of rifting and breakup. At most of these margins, the mantle beneath the thin crust has unusually low velocities, interpreted as a consequence of serpentinization following the embrittlement of the crust during rifting; models for the onset of serpentinization predict the thicknesses of crust that are observed at the landward limit of the serpentinized mantle. At a handful of margins the top of the serpentinized mantle appears to have acted as a detachment or decollement: faults that bound the overlying crustal blocks root on a bright reflection at the base of these blocks. Examples include the P reflection west of Ireland, the H reflection west of northern Portugal, and the S reflector west of Galicia. Corrugations observed on a 3D volume collected in 2013 above the S reflector strongly support its interpretation as a slip surface. A remaining question is whether slip on these "serpentine detachments" occurred at low-angle or not: for typical friction coefficients of 0.7, normal faults should lock-up and be replaced by steeper faults once they have rotated to perhaps 35°, an observation consistent with earthquake data. This angle can be reduced to 20-25° if the fault zone is composed of weak minerals such as serpentine. One possibility is that the detachment is actually composed of segments of faults that were active sequentially in a rolling hinge model. Beneath the centre of the Porcupine basin, the P reflection is sub-horizontal but its western continuation dips beneath the Porcupine bank at 20-25°, consistent with slip on serpentine-weakened rolling hinge system. West of Galicia, based on the geometrical relationships between late synrift wedges and their bounding faults which root on S, S has been interpreted to have slipped at angles below 20-25°. However, a 3D dataset collected over S in 2013 provides the opportunity

  19. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  20. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles with Buffer-Dependent Variations of Size and Morphology in Biological Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Rahin; Oh, Sangjin; Baba, Rina; Zhou, Hongjian; Hwang, Sungu; Lee, Jaebeom; Park, Enoch Y.

    2016-02-01

    The demand for biologically compatible and stable noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in recent years due to their inert nature and unique optical properties. In this article, we present 11 different synthetic methods for obtaining gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) through the use of common biological buffers. The results demonstrate that the sizes, shapes, and monodispersity of the NPs could be varied depending on the type of buffer used, as these buffers acted as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer in each synthesis. Theoretical simulations and electrochemical experiments were performed to understand the buffer-dependent variations of size and morphology exhibited by these Au NPs, which revealed that surface interactions and the electrostatic energy on the (111) surface of Au were the determining factors. The long-term stability of the synthesized NPs in buffer solution was also investigated. Most NPs synthesized using buffers showed a uniquely wide range of pH stability and excellent cell viability without the need for further modifications.

  2. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards During Electron Beam Welding in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomeni, James M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The safety issue has been raised with regards to potential molten metal detachments from the weld pool and cold filler wire during electron beam welding in space. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate if molten metal could detach and come in contact with astronauts and burn through the fabric of the astronauts' Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) during electron beam welding in space. Molten metal detachments from either the weld/cut substrate or weld wire could present harm to a astronaut if the detachment was to burn through the fabric of the EMU. Theoretical models were developed to predict the possibility and size of the molten metal detachment hazards during the electron beam welding exercises at Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The primary molten metal detachment concerns were those cases of molten metal separation from the metal surface due to metal cutting, weld pool splashing, entrainment and release of molten metal due to filler wire snap-out from the weld puddle, and molten metal accumulation and release from the end of the weld wire. Some possible ways of obtaining molten metal drop detachments would include an impulse force, or bump, to the weld sample, cut surface, or filler wire. Theoretical models were developed for these detachment concerns from principles of impact and kinetic energies, surface tension, drop geometry, surface energies, and particle dynamics. The surface tension represents the force opposing the liquid metal drop from detaching whereas the weight of the liquid metal droplet represents a force that is tending to detach the molten metal drop. Theoretical calculations have indicated that only a small amount of energy is required to detach a liquid metal drop; however, much of the energy of an impact is absorbed in the sample or weld plate before it reaches the metal drop on the cut edge or surface. The tendency for detachment is directly proportional to the weld pool radius and metal density and inversely proportional to the surface

  3. Parallel Energy Transport in Detached DIII-D Divertor Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A. W.; Lore, J. D.; Canik, J. M.; McLean, A. G.; Makowski, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    A comparison of experiment and modeling of detached divertor plasmas is examined in the context of parallel energy transport. Experimental estimates of power carried by electron thermal conduction versus plasma convection are experimentally inferred from power balance measurements of radiated power and target plate heat flux combined with Thomson scattering measurements of the Te profile along the divertor leg. Experimental profiles of Te exhibit relatively low gradients with Te 3 eV, characteristic of transport dominated by electron conduction through the bulk of the divertor. This discrepancy with experimental transport dominated by convection and modeling by conduction has significant implications for the radiative capacity of divertor plasmas and may explain at least part of the difficulty for fluid modeling to obtain the experimentally observed radiative losses. Comparisons are also made for helium plasmas where the match between experiment and modeling is much better. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  4. Retinoschisis and neurosensory detachment in advanced focal glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz-Márquez, E; Jarrín Hernández, E; Pastor, A; García Gil de Bernabé, J

    2017-10-01

    A 71-year-old woman with normotensive primary open-angle glaucoma presented with an asymptomatic temporal peripapillary retinoschisis, associated with serous retinal detachment in the eye with the more advanced glaucoma. It was located at the inferior pole of the optic disc, in the proximity of a glaucomatous focal disc defect. Although congenital optic pits are strongly related with juxta-papillary retinoschisis, retinoschisis can also arise from acquired defects in the proximity of glaucomatous optic discs. As symptoms depend on the extent of the retinoschisis, the prevalence of this complication could be greater than that reported in glaucomatous eyes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [Multiple retinal pigment epithelial detachments: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Escobar, A B; González de Gor-Crooke, J L; López-Egea-Bueno, M A; García-Campos, J M

    2014-05-01

    A 47 year-old female who presented with a bilateral idiopathic multiple pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in a routine visit. This pathology is shown as a rare clinical manifestation, where the outcome is resolution of localized atrophy of the pigment epithelium, with a good functional prognosis. PED is a common clinical manifestation in several chorioretinal diseases, particularly in macular degeneration associated with age. Idiopathic PED can be considered as a kind of central type II serous chorioretinopathy. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are complementary tests to study the number, extension, and nature of these PED. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Probing Gravitational Theories with Eccentric Eclipsing Detached Binary Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Milano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the effects of different theories of gravitation on the apsidal motion of eccentric eclipsing detached binary stars. The comparison is performed by using the formalism of the post-Newtonian parametrization to calculate the theoretical advance at periastron and compare it to the observed one, after having considered the effects of the structure and rotation of the involved stars. A variance analysis on the results of this comparison shows that no signicant difference can be found due to the effect of the different theories under test with respect to the standard general relativity (GR. It will be possible to observe differences, as we would expect, by checking the observed period variation on a much larger lapse of time.

  7. A rare case of bilateral tractional retinal detachment following snakebite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicey Roy; Das, Debmalya; Saurabh, Kumar; Roy, Rupak

    2017-01-01

    A 13-year-old female presented with diminution of vision in both eyes for 3 months following snakebite. Best-corrected visual acuities were hand movement in both eyes. Fundoscopy showed vitreous hemorrhage, and B-scan ultrasonography revealed an underlying tractional retinal detachment (TRD) involving the macula in both eyes. Patient underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in conjunction with belt buckling, endolaser, and silicone oil tamponade in the left eye. At 6 weeks postoperatively, best-corrected visual acuity of the left eye was noted to be 20/200 with settled TRD and attached retina. Bilateral proliferative retinopathy with TRD is a hitherto unreported complication of snake bite. PMID:29133665

  8. A rare case of bilateral tractional retinal detachment following snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicey Roy Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old female presented with diminution of vision in both eyes for 3 months following snakebite. Best-corrected visual acuities were hand movement in both eyes. Fundoscopy showed vitreous hemorrhage, and B-scan ultrasonography revealed an underlying tractional retinal detachment (TRD involving the macula in both eyes. Patient underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in conjunction with belt buckling, endolaser, and silicone oil tamponade in the left eye. At 6 weeks postoperatively, best-corrected visual acuity of the left eye was noted to be 20/200 with settled TRD and attached retina. Bilateral proliferative retinopathy with TRD is a hitherto unreported complication of snake bite.

  9. Surgical challenges and outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M K; Chhablani, J; Shah, B S; Narayanan, R; Jalali, S

    2016-03-01

    To report the outcomes and surgical difficulties during rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair in patients with albinism. Retrospective analysis of 10 eyes of 9 patients with albinism that underwent RRD repair was performed. Collected data included demographic details, preoperative examination details, surgical procedure, surgical difficulties, anatomical, and visual outcomes. Outcome measures were retinal reattachment and visual acuity at the last follow-up. Mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was logMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution) 2.15 (range 0.9-3.0) with preoperative localization of causative break in six eyes. One eye had proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C1 preoperatively. Four eyes underwent scleral buckling (SB) and six underwent 20G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone oil injection. Intraoperative complication as iatrogenic retinal break occurred in four eyes. For retinopexy during vitrectomy, endolaser delivery was possible in three out of six eyes, whereas three eyes had cryopexy. The mean follow-up was 12 months in SB group (range 1-12; median 12 months) and 5.33 months (range 1-12; median 3 months) in PPV group. Among vitrectomized eye, two eyes had recurrence at 3 months with oil in situ. Rest of the eyes had attached retina at last follow-up. Mean BCVA at last follow-up was logMAR -1.46 (range 0.7-2.0) with mean improvement of -0.57 logMAR. Identification of break, induction of posterior vitreous detachment, and endolaser delivery may be difficult during RRD repair in patients with albinism. The incidence of PVR appeared less in these eyes. Both SB and PPV were efficacious and appear to be good surgical techniques for use in this patient population.

  10. Grip and detachment of locusts on inverted sandpaper substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Longbao; Wang Zhouyi; Ji Aihong; Dai Zhendong, E-mail: zddai@nuaa.edu.cn [Institute of Bio-inspired Structure and Surface Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Locusts (Locusta migratoria manilensis) are characterized by their strong flying and grasping ability. Research on the grasping mechanism and behaviour of locusts on sloping substrates plays an important role in elucidating the mechanics of hexapod locomotion. Data on the maximum angles of slope at which locusts can grasp stably (critical angles of detachment) were obtained from high-speed video recordings at 215 fps. The grasping forces were collected by using two sensors, in situations where all left legs were standing on one and the right legs on the other sensor plate. These data were used to illustrate the grasping ability of locusts on slopes with varying levels of roughness. The grasping morphologies of locusts' bodies and tarsi were observed, and the surface roughness as well as diameters of their claw tips was measured under a microscope to account for the grasping mechanism of these insects on the sloping substrate. The results showed that the claw tips and part of the pads were in contact with the inverted substrate when the mean particle diameter was in the range of 15.3-40.5 {mu}m. The interaction between pads and substrates may improve the stability of contact, and claw tips may play a key role in keeping the attachment reliable. A model was developed to explain the significant effects of the relative size of claw tips and mean particle diameter on grasping ability as well as the observed increase in lateral force (2.09-4.05 times greater than the normal force during detachment) with increasing slope angle, which indicates that the lateral force may be extremely important in keeping the contact reliable. This research lays the groundwork for the probable design and development of biomimetic robotics.

  11. Rocket dust storms and detached layers in the Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, A.; Faure, J.; Madeleine, J.; Maattanen, A. E.; Forget, F.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne dust is the main climatic agent in the Martian environment. Local dust storms play a key role in the dust cycle; yet their life cycle is poorly known. Here we use mesoscale modeling with radiatively-active transported dust to predict the evolution of a local dust storm monitored by OMEGA onboard Mars Express. We show that the evolution of this dust storm is governed by deep convective motions. The supply of convective energy is provided by the absorption of incoming sunlight by dust particles, in lieu of latent heating in moist convection on Earth. We propose to use the terminology "rocket dust storm", or conio-cumulonimbus, to describe those storms in which rapid and efficient vertical transport takes place, injecting dust particles at high altitudes in the Martian troposphere (30 to 50 km). Combined to horizontal transport by large-scale winds, rocket dust storms form detached layers of dust reminiscent of those observed with instruments onboard Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Detached layers are stable over several days owing to nighttime sedimentation being unable to counteract daytime convective transport, and to the resupply of convective energy at sunrise. The peak activity of rocket dust storms is expected in low-latitude regions at clear season, which accounts for the high-altitude tropical dust maximum unveiled by Mars Climate Sounder. Our findings on dust-driven deep convection have strong implications for the Martian dust cycle, thermal structure, atmospheric dynamics, cloud microphysics, chemistry, and robotic and human exploration.ensity-scaled dust optical depth at local times 1400 1600 and 1800 (lat 2.5°S, Ls 135°) hortwave heating rate at local time 1500 and latitude 2.5°S.

  12. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  13. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  14. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates on the mit......Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... viability and visualize the resulting landscape changes. For the Danish NEU landscape, a detailed plan of implementation options is presented, taking into account catchment morphology and hydrology, land use and drainage, access conditions, land ownership structure and land owner profiles. Different...

  15. MONITORING OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT THROUGH BUFFER MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Arti Bhan*1 & Prof. Ashish P. Waghmare2

    2017-01-01

    Critical Chain Project Management is an effective method over Critical Path Method (CPM) for scheduling and monitoring the progress of a project. CPM leads to ineffective scheduling due to overestimation of duration and increases the overall project duration. The task estimates in CPM are based on guess work whereas CCPM reduces the duration of task to 50% to that of its original duration as uses the remaining 50% duration as buffer to protect the activity against delays. Also the availabilit...

  16. Nuclear Calcium Buffering Capacity Shapes Neuronal Architecture*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauceri, Daniela; Hagenston, Anna M.; Schramm, Kathrin; Weiss, Ursula; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) such as parvalbumin are part of the cellular calcium buffering system that determines intracellular calcium diffusion and influences the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signals. In neurons, CaBPs are primarily localized to the cytosol and function, for example, in nerve terminals in short-term synaptic plasticity. However, CaBPs are also expressed in the cell nucleus, suggesting that they modulate nuclear calcium signals, which are key regulators of neuronal gene expression. Here we show that the calcium buffering capacity of the cell nucleus in mouse hippocampal neurons regulates neuronal architecture by modulating the expression levels of VEGFD and the complement factor C1q-c, two nuclear calcium-regulated genes that control dendrite geometry and spine density, respectively. Increasing the levels of nuclear calcium buffers by means of expression of a nuclearly targeted form of parvalbumin fused to mCherry (PV.NLS-mC) led to a reduction in VEGFD expression and, as a result, to a decrease in total dendritic length and complexity. In contrast, mRNA levels of the synapse pruning factor C1q-c were increased in neurons expressing PV.NLS-mC, causing a reduction in the density and size of dendritic spines. Our results establish a close link between nuclear calcium buffering capacity and the transcription of genes that determine neuronal structure. They suggest that the development of cognitive deficits observed in neurological conditions associated with CaBP deregulation may reflect the loss of necessary structural features of dendrites and spines. PMID:26231212

  17. Microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratto, M.; Itavaara, M.

    2012-07-01

    The proposed disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes involves storing the wastes underground in copper-iron containers embedded in buffer material of compacted bentonite. Hydrogen sulphide production by sulphate-reducing prokaryotes is a potential mechanism that could cause corrosion of waste containers in repository conditions. The prevailing conditions in compacted bentonite buffer will be harsh. The swelling pressure is 7-8 MPa, the amount of free water is low and the average pore and pore throat diameters are small. This literature study aims to assess the potential of microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature on the environmental limits of microbial life in extreme conditions and the occurrence of sulphatereducing prokaryotes in extreme environments is reviewed briefly and the results of published studies characterizing microbes and microbial processes in repository conditions or in relevant subsurface environments are presented. The presence of bacteria, including SRBs, has been confirmed in deep groundwater and bentonite-based materials. Sulphate reducers have been detected in various high-pressure environments, and sulphate-reduction based on hydrogen as an energy source is considered a major microbial process in deep subsurface environments. In bentonite, microbial activity is strongly suppressed, mainly due to the low amount of free water and small pores, which limit the transport of microbes and nutrients. Spore-forming bacteria have been shown to survive in compacted bentonite as dormant spores, and they are able to resume a metabolically active state after decompaction. Thus, microbial sulphide production may increase in repository conditions if the dry density of the bentonite buffer is locally reduced. (orig.)

  18. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  19. Protein changes in the retina following experimental retinal detachment in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandal, Nakul; Lewis, Geoffrey P; Fisher, Steven K

    2011-01-01

    Retinal detachment leads to the widespread cellular remodeling of the retina. The purpose of this study was to identify protein changes that accompany these cellular alterations by comparing the proteomic profiles of sham and experimentally detached rabbit retina. Elucidation of the proteins most...

  20. Processes of electron attachment and detachment in near breakdown conditions in air plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelyan, N.; Bychkov, V.; Belousov, A.; Kosmachevskii, K.

    2017-11-01

    Results of theoretical research on ionization of dry air at different low and moderate values of constant electric field are described. Special attention to the processes of electron attachment to oxygen molecules and electron detachment from negative ions has been paid. New data on the detachment of electrons from oxygen molecular negative ions are taken into account.

  1. Visual and electronic comparisons of detached strawberry leaves inoculated with two Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoculation of detached strawberry leaves with Colletotrichum species may provide an accurate, rapid, non-destructive method of identifying anthracnose resistant germplasm. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for screening anthracnose resistance. Detached leaves of 60 susceptible an...

  2. Fasudil, a Clinically Used ROCK Inhibitor, Stabilizes Rod Photoreceptor Synapses after Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes-Anderson, Ellen; Wang, Jianfeng; Halász, Éva; Sugino, Ilene; Pitler, Amy; Whitehead, Ian; Zarbin, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Retinal detachment disrupts the rod-bipolar synapse in the outer plexiform layer by retraction of rod axons. We showed that breakage is due to RhoA activation whereas inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK), using Y27632, reduces synaptic damage. We test whether the ROCK inhibitor fasudil, used for other clinical applications, can prevent synaptic injury after detachment. Detachments were made in pigs by subretinal injection of balanced salt solution (BSS) or fasudil (1, 10 mM). In some animals, fasudil was injected intravitreally after BSS-induced detachment. After 2 to 4 hours, retinae were fixed for immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Axon retraction was quantified by imaging synaptic vesicle label in the outer nuclear layer. Apoptosis was analyzed using propidium iodide staining. For biochemical analysis by Western blotting, retinal explants, detached from retinal pigmented epithelium, were cultured for 2 hours. Subretinal injection of fasudil (10 mM) reduced retraction of rod spherules by 51.3% compared to control detachments ( n = 3 pigs, P = 0.002). Intravitreal injection of 10 mM fasudil, a more clinically feasible route of administration, also reduced retraction (28.7%, n = 5, P ROCK, was decreased with 30 μM fasudil ( n = 8-10 explants, P ROCK signaling with fasudil reduced photoreceptor degeneration and preserved the rod-bipolar synapse after retinal detachment. These results support the possibility, previously tested with Y27632, that ROCK inhibition may attenuate synaptic damage in iatrogenic detachments.

  3. Postoperative recovery of visual function after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Put, Mathijs A. J.; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M.; Japing, Wouter J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine which factors affect the recovery of visual function in macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods: In a prospective study of forty-five patients with a primary macula-off RRD of 24 hours to 6 weeks duration, the height of the macular detachment was determined

  4. Evolution of radiation profiles during detached plasmas and radiative collapse in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Shwetang N., E-mail: pandya.shwetang@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [The Graduate University for Advance Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Peterson, Byron J.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Mukai, Kiyofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sano, Ryuichi [The Graduate University for Advance Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Tanaka, Hirohiko; Masuzaki, Suguru; Miyazawa, Junichi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Motojima, Gen [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ohno, Noriyasu [Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The divertor heat loads can be efficiently controlled by plasma detachment, hence it is foreseen as a suitable operational regime for divertor operation of future machines. Detachment regime is normally approached by raising the plasma density to a point where plasma detaches from the divertor. If such an approach is adapted to detach the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma, the plasma goes to radiative collapse due to thermal instabilities. Another approach to detach LHD plasma is by intrinsic impurity seeding using Ne. The discharges detach but ultimately collapse at comparatively lower densities. The detachment is achieved and sustained at high densities by the induction of an m/n = 1/1 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) in the stochastic edge of the LHD plasma. First quantitative measurements of the two-dimensional (2D) impurity radiation profiles from the three-dimensional (3D) plasma edge of LHD showing the time evolution of radiative collapse and RMP assisted detachment measured by recently upgraded and calibrated Infrared imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) are presented in this article.

  5. Risk assessment of hoisting with and without a safety detaching hook.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wainwright, KA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available slow speed overwinds in which no injuries or fatalities occur. Detaching hooks have two functions. Firstly to detach the rope from the cage in the event of a high speed overwind. This function minimizes the damage to infrastructure, but also releases...

  6. Efficacy of ophthalmic solutions to detach adhering Pseudomonas aeruginosa from contact lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landa, AS; van der Mei, HC; van Rij, G; Busscher, HJ

    Purpose. To compare the efficacies of two all-in-one contact lens (CL) cleaning solutions and a detergent mixture on the detachment of a pathogenic bacterium adhering to two types of contact lenses in the absence and presence of a tear film. Methods. Bacterial-detachment studies were carried out in

  7. Electric block current induced detachment from surgical stainless steel and decreased viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borden, AJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, H

    2005-01-01

    In vitro Studies investigating the influence of electric DC current on bacterial detachment have demonstrated that continuous currents of only 25-125 mu A stimulated Staphylococcal strains to detach from surgical stainless steel. However, DC Currents produce more power that has to be dissipated by

  8. Minimally invasive surgery - endoscopic retinal detachment repair in patients with media opacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, M. D.; Mura, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the use of an ophthalmic endoscope in patients with a retinal detachment and anterior media opacity. Materials and methods A retrospective interventional case series. Search of a comprehensive database of retinal detachment patients with pre-operatively impaired anterior segments

  9. Plasma detachment study of high density helium plasmas in the Pilot-PSI device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, Y.; Jesko, K.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Vernimmen, J. W. M.; Morgan, T. W.; Ohno, N.; Kajita, S.; Yoshikawa, M.; Masuzaki, S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated plasma detachment phenomena of high-density helium plasmas in the linear plasma device Pilot-PSI, which can realize a relevant ITER SOL/Divertor plasma condition. The experiment clearly indicated plasma detachment features such as drops in the plasma pressure and particle flux

  10. Detachment of tobacco-smoke-material carriers from surfaces by turbulent air flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A H; Ghosh, S; Dunn, P F

    2009-01-01

    The influence of tobacco-smoke-material (TSM) on the detachment of microparticles from surfaces by turbulent air flow was investigated experimentally. Both clean and dusty glass surfaces were subjected to TSM either before or after the deposition of 64 microm to 76 microm-diameter stainless steel microparticles onto the surfaces. The TSM was generated by mechanically puffing research-grade cigarettes inside a smoking box that contained the surfaces. Microparticle detachment characteristics were studied in a wind tunnel using video microphotography. Measured nicotine concentration was used to determine the amount of TSM deposited on a surface.The 5% and 50% threshold velocities for detachment were used to quantify the effect of TSM on microparticle detachment. These velocities were compared with those obtained using a clean surface with no TSM exposure. The effect of TSM exposure on microparticle detachment depended significantly on whether exposure occurred before or after microparticle deposition. TSM exposure before microparticle deposition had little effect. TSM exposure after deposition delayed detachment to much higher velocities. The presence of dust on the surface with TSM also delayed detachment and increased the variability in the detachment velocities as compared to the case of a clean surface with no TSM exposure.

  11. Atomistic investigation on the detachment of oil molecules from defective alumina surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W. K.; Sun, Y. Z.; Liu, H. T.

    2017-12-01

    The mechanism of oil detachment from defective alumina surface in aqueous solution was investigated via atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Special attention was focused on the effect of surface defect on the oil detachment. Our simulation results suggest that compared with perfect Al2O3 surface, defective substrate surface provides much more sites for the adsorption of oil molecules, thus it has higher oil adsorption energy. However, higher oil-solid adsorption energy does not mean that oil contaminants are much more difficult to be detached. It is found that surface defect could induce the spontaneous imbibition of water molecules, effectively promoting the detachment of oil molecules. Thus, compared with perfect alumina surface, the detachment of oil molecules from defective alumina surface tends to be much easier. Moreover, surface defect could lead to the oil residues inside surface defect. In water solution, the entire detachment process of oil molecules on defective surface consists of following stages, including the early detachment of oil molecules inside surface defect induced by capillary-driven spontaneous imbibition of water molecules, the following conformational change of oil molecules on topmost surface and the final migration of detached oil molecules from solid surface. These findings may help to sufficiently enrich the removal mechanism of oil molecules adhered onto defective solid surface.

  12. Detached kelps from distant sources are a food subsidy for sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderklift, Mathew A; Wernberg, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Trophic subsidies link habitats and can determine community structure in the subsidised habitats. Knowledge of the spatial extents of trophic interactions is important for understanding food webs, and for making spatial management practices more efficient. We demonstrate trophic linkages between detached (drift) fragments of the kelp Ecklonia radiata and the purple sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma among discrete rocky reefs separated by kilometres. Sea urchins were abundant at one inshore reef, where the biomass of drift was usually high. There, sea urchins trapped detached kelp at high rates, although local kelp abundance was low. Most detached kelp present on the reef was retained by sea urchins. Detached seagrass, which was abundant on the reef, was not retained by sea urchins in large quantities. Experiments with tethered pieces of kelp showed that sea urchins only consumed detached fragments, and did not consume attached kelps. Comparisons of the morphology of detached fragments of kelp collected from the inshore reef to attached kelps from reefs further offshore showed that a large proportion (30-95%, varying among dates) of the fragments originated at distant reefs (>or=2 km away). At the inshore reef, the sea urchin H. erythrogramma is subsidised by detached kelps, and detached kelp fragments have been transported across landscapes. Cross-habitat resource subsidies therefore link discrete reef habitats separated by kilometres of non-reef habitat.

  13. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems.

  14. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  15. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  16. Choroid Detachment, a Rare Cause of Vision Loss Diagnosed by Point-of-Care Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Brian; Secko, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Choroid detachment is a rare disease process that has a multitude of etiologies; usually related to recent ophthalmological surgery, eye trauma, corneal ulcers, or intraocular pressure-lowering agents. Point-of-care ocular ultrasound has high utility and accuracy in diagnosing pathology of the eye. We present a case of a patient who presented with vision loss caused by a choroid detachment diagnosed on point-of-care ultrasound because fundoscopic examination was limited due to cataracts. Ultrasound findings based on location and appearance during both static and dynamic evaluation that help differentiate a choroid vs. a retinal detachment are also described. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Choroid detachments have a different sonographic appearance, as well as management, compared to a retinal detachment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Apical atrophy of retinal pigment epithelial detachments in central serous chorioretinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Anders; Hamann, Steffen; Larsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a presumed precursor stage of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS: Two patients were identified during follow-up study of patients with CSC or CSC-related conditions. Two patients first seen with retinal pigment epithelial detachment subsequently developed findings...... compatible with CSC. RESULTS: A juxtafoveal retinal pigment epithelial detachment with apical atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium with corresponding severe attenuation of the pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium was observed in both patients. One of the patients presented with a serous...... neurosensory retinal detachment with smokestack leakage 7 years after first being seen. The other patient was never seen with a neurosensory detachment. CONCLUSION: Isolated pigment epithelial detachment with apical retinal pigment epithelial atrophy may represent a precursor stage of CSC....

  18. Epidemiologic characteristics of retinal detachment surgery at a specialized unit in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christina Doefler; Peto, Tunde; Grauslund, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the incidence of retinal detachments and to evaluate patient profiles and surgical characteristics. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients operated for primary retinal detachment (RD) and redetachment between 2010 and 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University...... Hospital, Denmark. We included all RD such as rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), tractional retinal detachment (TRD) and exudative retinal detachment (ERD). RESULTS: In total, 779 RD surgeries were performed: 83.7% (n = 652) primary operations and 16.3% (n = 127) reoperation. For primary operation......, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), scleral buckling and combined operations were performed in 95.1% (n = 620), 4.6% (n = 30) and 0.3% (n = 2) respectively. Over time there was less use of silicone oil and greater use of gas tamponade (p = operations (p =

  19. Towards Optimal Buffer Size in Wi-Fi Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Showail, Ahmad J.

    2016-01-19

    Buffer sizing is an important network configuration parameter that impacts the quality of data traffic. Falling memory cost and the fallacy that ‘more is better’ lead to over provisioning network devices with large buffers. Over-buffering or the so called ‘bufferbloat’ phenomenon creates excessive end-to-end delay in today’s networks. On the other hand, under-buffering results in frequent packet loss and subsequent under-utilization of network resources. The buffer sizing problem has been studied extensively for wired networks. However, there is little work addressing the unique challenges of wireless environment. In this dissertation, we discuss buffer sizing challenges in wireless networks, classify the state-of-the-art solutions, and propose two novel buffer sizing schemes. The first scheme targets buffer sizing in wireless multi-hop networks where the radio spectral resource is shared among a set of con- tending nodes. Hence, it sizes the buffer collectively and distributes it over a set of interfering devices. The second buffer sizing scheme is designed to cope up with recent Wi-Fi enhancements. It adapts the buffer size based on measured link characteristics and network load. Also, it enforces limits on the buffer size to maximize frame aggregation benefits. Both mechanisms are evaluated using simulation as well as testbed implementation over half-duplex and full-duplex wireless networks. Experimental evaluation shows that our proposal reduces latency by an order of magnitude.

  20. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wormhole switching is that the buffer depth can be set as small as possible. Each port has an input channel as well as an output channel. Buffers are present at all input channels to store the data temporarily at the time of congestion. There is no need of buffers at the output channel since it is enabled by a hand shaking ...

  1. Managing Multiuser Database Buffers Using Data Mining Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Lu, H.J.

    In this paper, we propose a data-mining-based approach to public buffer management for a multiuser database system, where database buffers are organized into two areas – public and private. While the private buffer areas contain pages to be updated by particular users, the public

  2. Heed the head: buffer benefits along headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Deanna (Dede) Olson

    2015-01-01

    Since the Northwest Forest Plan implemented riparian buffers along non-fish bearing streams in 1994, there have been questions about how wide those buffers need to be to protect aquatic and riparian resources from upland forest management activities. The Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study of western Oregon, also initiated in 1994, examines the effects of...

  3. Effective Allocation of Database Buffers by Mining Users' Access Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Li, Q; Leung, H.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of database buffer management has extensively been studied for nearly three decades. In this paper, we explore the use of newly emerging data mining technology to tackle the traditional buffer management issue. In particular, we address the buffer size setting problem for distributed

  4. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  5. Concentrated flow paths in riparian buffer zones of southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Pankau; J.E. Schoonover; K.W.J. Willard; P.J. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Riparian buffers in agricultural landscapes should be designed to trap pollutants in overland flow by slowing, filtering, and infiltrating surface runoff entering the buffer via sheet flow. However, observational evidence suggests that concentrated flow is prevalent from agricultural fields. Over time sediment can accumulate in riparian buffers forming berms that...

  6. The buffer capacity and buffer systems of human whole saliva measured without loss of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardow, A; Moe, D; Nyvad, B; Nauntofte, B

    2000-01-01

    The buffer capacity of unstimulated (UWS) and stimulated (SWS) whole-mouth saliva involves three major buffer systems. The aim was to determine the buffer capacity of UWS and SWS at specific pH in the interval from pH 7.5 down to pH 3.0. The contribution of each of the buffer systems was also determined under conditions resembling those in the mouth. UWS and SWS were collected from 20 healthy volunteers; the saliva was collected under paraffin oil in order to avoid loss of CO2. The buffer capacity of UWS and SWS in samples with and without bicarbonate (HCO3-) and CO2 were measured at various pH by acid titration in a closed system at 36 C. The mean concentrations of the buffer systems in UWS (mean flow rate 0.55 ml/min) were 4.4 mmol/l HCO3-, 4.5 mmol/l phosphate (of which 1.3 mmol/l was present in the form of HPO4(2-)), 1876 microg/ml protein; the saliva pH was 6.8 and the P(CO2) 29.3 mmHg. The corresponding mean concentrations in SWS (mean flow rate 1.66 ml/min) were 9.7 mmol/l HCO3-, 3.8 mmol/l phosphate (of which 1.9 mmol/l was present in the form of HPO4(2-)), 1955 microg/ml protein; pH 7.2 and P(CO2) 25.7 mmHg, The highest buffer capacity of UWS and SWS was 6.0 and 8.5 mmol H+ /(1 saliva*pH unit) at pH 6.25, respectively. At saliva pH in the range from pH 7 down to pH 5, the following had significant impact on buffer capacity: the HCO3- concentration (p buffer capacity (p < 0.01).

  7. Effect of 3D magnetic perturbations on divertor conditions and detachment in tokamak and stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J-W; Briesemester, A. R.; Kobayashi, M.; Lore, J. D.; Schmitz, O.; Diallo, A.; Gray, T. K.; Lasnier, C. J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2017-06-22

    Enhanced perpendicular heat and momentum transport induces parallel pressure loss leading to divertor detachment, which can be produced by the increase of density in 2D tokamaks. However, in the 3D configurations such as tokamaks with 3D fields and stellarators, the fraction of perpendicular transport can be higher even in a lower density regime, which could lead to the early transition to detachment without passing through the high-recycling regime. 3D fields applied to the limiter tokamak plasmas produce edge stochastic layers close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS), which can allow for enhanced perpendicular transport and indeed the absence of high recycling regime and early detachment have been observed in TEXTOR and Tore Supra. However, in the X-point divertor tokamaks with the applied 3D fields, the parallel transport is still dominant and the detachment facilitation has not been observed yet. Rather, 3D fields affected detachment adversely under certain conditions, either by preventing detachment onset as seen in DIII-D or by re-attaching the existing detached plasma as shown in NSTX. The possible way for strong 3D effects to induce access to the early detachment in divertor tokamaks appears to be via significant perpendicular loss of parallel momentum by frictional force for the counter-streaming flows between neighboring flow channels in the divertor. In principle, the adjacent lobes in the 3D divertor tokamak may generate the counter-streaming flow channels. However, an EMC3-EIRENE simulation for ITER H-mode plasmas demonstrated that screened RMP leads to significantly reduced counter-flows near the divertor target, therefore the momentum loss effect leading to detachment facilitation is expected to be small. This is consistent with the observation in LHD, which showed screening (amplification) of RMP fields in the attachment (stable detachment) case. Work for optimal parameter window for best divertor operation scenario is needed particularly for

  8. Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-coated surfaces: Investigation of the mechanism of cell detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperstein, Marta A; Nguyen, Phuong A H; Canavan, Heather E

    2017-04-12

    Although there is a great deal of research focused on cell sheet engineering from polymers such as poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAM), the biocompatibility of pNIPAM surfaces and the nature of cellular detachment from this polymer is still unclear. The most extensive study of the mechanism of detachment proposed a two-step process, with a first (passive) phase involving hydration of pNIPAM chains, and the second (active) phase involving cellular metabolism. However, a number of studies performed successful cell sheet detachment from pNIPAM-grafted surfaces at low temperatures which calls this hypothesis into question. Furthermore, although it has been demonstrated that low-temperature cell sheet detachment using pNIPAM-grafted surfaces is less destructive than other methods of detachment, it has not been investigated if cell sheet detachment removes a portion of pNIPAM from the surfaces as well. It is essential to know if any fragments of the polymer are removed along with the cells, as small polymer fragments could have cytotoxic effects on the cells. This is especially important if these cells are used for the generation of tissues used for transplantation. In this work, the mechanism of cell detachment from pNIPAM coated surfaces is investigated by testing how temperature and presence of an adenosine triphosephase inhibitor affect cellular detachment. Surface initiated atom transfer polymerization (ATRP) was utilized to synthesize thermoresponsive atrpNIPAM surfaces. pNIPAM surfaces were labeled to assess whether cell sheet detachment from pNIPAM is accompanied by the removal of pNIPAM from the substrate itself. Using a semipermeable superstrate, cell sheets were transferred to a secondary culture dish to assess whether cell detachment resulted in any pNIPAM removal. In addition, the function of the transplanted bovine aortic endothelial cells was assessed by determining whether they would proliferate and grow on a new secondary substrate.

  9. Effect of 3D magnetic perturbations on divertor conditions and detachment in tokamak and stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J.-W.; Briesemester, A. R.; Kobayashi, M.; Lore, J. D.; Schmitz, O.; Diallo, A.; Gray, T. K.; Lasnier, C. J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    Enhanced perpendicular heat and momentum transport induces parallel pressure loss leading to divertor detachment, which can be produced by the increase of density in 2D tokamaks. However, in the 3D configurations such as tokamaks with 3D fields and stellarators, the fraction of perpendicular transport can be higher even in a lower density regime, which could lead to the early transition to detachment without passing through the high-recycling regime. 3D fields applied to the limiter tokamak plasmas produce edge stochastic layers close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS), which can allow for enhanced perpendicular transport and indeed the absence of high recycling regime and early detachment have been observed in TEXTOR and Tore Supra. However, in the X-point divertor tokamaks with the applied 3D fields, the parallel transport is still dominant and the detachment facilitation has not been observed yet. Rather, 3D fields affected detachment adversely under certain conditions, either by preventing detachment onset as seen in DIII-D or by re-attaching the existing detached plasma as shown in NSTX. The possible way for strong 3D effects to induce access to the early detachment in divertor tokamaks appears to be via significant perpendicular loss of parallel momentum by frictional force for the counter-streaming flows between neighboring flow channels in the divertor. In principle, the adjacent lobes in the 3D divertor tokamak may generate the counter-streaming flow channels. However, an EMC3-EIRENE simulation for ITER H-mode plasmas demonstrated that screened RMP leads to significantly reduced counter-flows near the divertor target, therefore the momentum loss effect leading to detachment facilitation is expected to be small. This is consistent with the observation in LHD, which showed screening (amplification) of RMP fields in the attachment (stable detachment) case. Work for optimal parameter window for best divertor operation scenario is needed particularly for

  10. Things will get better: the anxiety-buffering qualities of progressive hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjens, Bastiaan T; van der Pligt, Joop; van Harreveld, Frenk

    2009-05-01

    Terror management theory argues that people can cope with the psychological threat of their own death by bolstering faith in their cultural worldviews. Based on the notion that-since the Age of Enlightenment-belief or faith in progress has become one of the defining qualities of modern Western thinking, we expected that this belief serves as a buffer against mortality concerns. Three experiments were conducted to test the relationship between existential anxiety and belief in progress. Results of Experiment 1 show that mortality salience increased participants' disagreement with an essay on the illusory notion of human progress. The same essay increased death-thought accessibility in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, belief in progress and mortality salience were manipulated. Results show that bolstering belief in progress buffered the effects of mortality salience on death-thought accessibility and diminished subsequent defensive reactions to a cultural worldview-threatening essay.

  11. Leverage Between the Buffering Effect and the Bystander Effect in Social Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Ping; Chang, Shu-Chen

    2015-08-01

    This study examined encouraged and inhibited social feedback behaviors based on the theories of the buffering effect and the bystander effect. A system program was used to collect personal data and social feedback from a Facebook data set to test the research model. The results revealed that the buffering effect induced a positive relationship between social network size and feedback gained from friends when people's social network size was under a certain cognitive constraint. For people with a social network size that exceeds this cognitive constraint, the bystander effect may occur, in which having more friends may inhibit social feedback. In this study, two social psychological theories were applied to explain social feedback behavior on Facebook, and it was determined that social network size and social feedback exhibited no consistent linear relationship.

  12. Work addiction and presenteeism: The buffering role of managerial support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Vignoli, Michela; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Guglielmi, Dina

    2017-08-08

    The current study examined the mediating effect of presenteeism and moderating effect of managerial support in the relation between workaholism and work-family conflict. A sample of 1065 white-collar employees from an Italian company filled in an online survey and hypotheses were tested using a bootstrapping procedure. Results showed that presenteeism mediated the association between workaholism and work-family conflict. Moreover, the mediating effect of presenteeism was moderated by managerial support: for employees reporting lower levels of support workaholism was stronger related to presenteeism than for those experiencing higher support. Presenteeism, in turn, was related to greater levels of work-family conflict. The present study sheds light into the protective role played by managerial support in preventing workaholic employees from forcing themselves to attend work also when feeling sick. Accordingly, early intervention aimed at buffering the negative association between workaholism and work-family conflict should focus on training managers to develop supportive leadership skills. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  14. k(+)-buffer: An Efficient, Memory-Friendly and Dynamic k-buffer Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Andreas-Alexandros; Papaioannou, Georgios; Fudos, Ioannis

    2015-06-01

    Depth-sorted fragment determination is fundamental for a host of image-based techniques which simulates complex rendering effects. It is also a challenging task in terms of time and space required when rasterizing scenes with high depth complexity. When low graphics memory requirements are of utmost importance, k-buffer can objectively be considered as the most preferred framework which advantageously ensures the correct depth order on a subset of all generated fragments. Although various alternatives have been introduced to partially or completely alleviate the noticeable quality artifacts produced by the initial k-buffer algorithm in the expense of memory increase or performance downgrade, appropriate tools to automatically and dynamically compute the most suitable value of k are still missing. To this end, we introduce k(+)-buffer, a fast framework that accurately simulates the behavior of k-buffer in a single rendering pass. Two memory-bounded data structures: (i) the max-array and (ii) the max-heap are developed on the GPU to concurrently maintain the k-foremost fragments per pixel by exploring pixel synchronization and fragment culling. Memory-friendly strategies are further introduced to dynamically (a) lessen the wasteful memory allocation of individual pixels with low depth complexity frequencies, (b) minimize the allocated size of k-buffer according to different application goals and hardware limitations via a straightforward depth histogram analysis and (c) manage local GPU cache with a fixed-memory depth-sorting mechanism. Finally, an extensive experimental evaluation is provided demonstrating the advantages of our work over all prior k-buffer variants in terms of memory usage, performance cost and image quality.

  15. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  16. Risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment in 202 226 patients using the fellow nonoperated eye as reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Søren S; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; La Cour, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To study the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) after first-eye phacoemulsification cataract surgery in Denmark relative to the risk of retinal detachment (RD) in the patients' fellow nonoperated eyes.......To study the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) after first-eye phacoemulsification cataract surgery in Denmark relative to the risk of retinal detachment (RD) in the patients' fellow nonoperated eyes....

  17. Forming a detached disk in the absence of external perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silsbee, Kedron; Tremaine, Scott D.

    2017-06-01

    One of the major puzzles in our solar system is the formation of the detached disk - a set of bodies with perihelia beyond the influence of Neptune, but aphelia too small to be affected by the Galactic environment. We investigate (via N-body simulations) a scenario in which the giant planets scatter multiple bodies with masses between that of Mars and the Earth, which are left over after the gas disk has dispersed. These bodies exert torques on one another while they are in the process of being ejected from the solar system. Thus, the perihelia of a few of these bodies are raised beyond the orbit of Neptune, so they no longer undergo substantial diffusion in semi-major axis, and remain bound for the age of the solar system. These bodies also exert torques on smaller particles and place a few percent of the initial planetesimal disk into high-eccentricity, moderate inclination orbits with perihelia well outside of Neptune. The moderate inclinations of the observed scattered disk bodies are better reproduced in this model than one involving cluster tides or passing stars, which would be expected to produce a substantial number of retrograde bodies.

  18. The Detached Dust Shell around the Massive Star HD 179821.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura; Werner

    1999-11-10

    We have used the Keck I telescope to resolve at three mid-IR wavelengths the emission from HD 179821 (= RAFGL 2343), a G-type supergiant of perhaps 30 M middle dot in circle with a detached dust shell. The shell is very approximately circular in shape with an inner diameter of approximately 3&farcs;3, corresponding to 3.0x1017 cm. We estimate that the star was losing approximately 4x10-4 M middle dot in circle yr-1 until about 1800 yr ago, when the mass loss slowed dramatically. During the past approximately 104 yr, the star has lost approximately 10% of its initial mass. The star lies about 0&farcs;35 off center and is closer to the brighter, northern hemisphere of the nebula, which can be explained if the outflow velocity Vinfinity deviates by +20% from the average in the southern hemisphere and -20% from the average in the northern hemisphere. The mass-loss rate M&d2;(straight theta) may have been inversely correlated with the outflow velocity so that the momentum outflow p&d2; was isotropic during the mass-loss phase. It also seems that M&d2;totalVinfinity was within a factor of 2 of L*/c, where L* is the current luminosity of the star; the mass loss may have been driven by radiation pressure. These results may help characterize the asymmetric circumstellar winds into which supernova explosions propagate.

  19. Documents and detachment in the figurational sociology of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy Dolan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the methodological implications of using a figurational approach to the study of Gaelic games (the Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football and their organisation and governance from the late nineteenth century onwards. Following Norbert Elias, we argue that data generation guided by theories, and potentially modifying such theories, are essential components of research endeavours. The problem of generalisation or representativeness of historical documents can be addressed by treating documents as part of a fi guration of evidence, thereby constituting a mutually supporting network of data that serves as a scaffold or structure for theoretical and empirical findings. Based on the experience of using documents such as newspaper and referee reports of matches, and also organisational documents such as the minutes of meetings at various levels of governance, we contribute to the discussion concerning borders and boundary maintenance between history, sociology and historical sociology. While we elaborate on the Eliasian perspective on emotional detachment, and secondary involvement, when conducting research, we also note the dificulties in avoiding ‘preferred’ readings of national history given that Gaelic games have been intertwined with the narrative and project of national self-determination in Ireland. Researchers are compelled to recognise the theoretical significance of sports as a motor and symbol of emotional identifications, but must also create distance from their own national habitus in order to prioritise participation in intergenerational knowledge generation over further national myth-making.

  20. Scleral Buckling for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Associated with Pars Planitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Yoon, Wontae; Ahn, Jae Kyoun; Park, Sung Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the surgical outcome of scleral buckling (SB) in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) patients associated with pars planitis. Methods. Retrospective review of RRD patients (32 eyes of pars planitis RRD and 180 eyes of primary RRD) who underwent SB. We compared primary and final anatomical success rates and visual outcomes between two groups. Results. Primary and final anatomical success were achieved in 25 (78.1%) and 31 (96.8%) eyes in the pars planitis RRD group and in 167 eyes (92.7%) and 176 eyes (97.7%) in primary RRD group, respectively. Both groups showed significant visual improvement (p Pars planitis RRD group was associated with higher rate of postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) development (12.5% versus 2.8%, p = 0.031). Pars planitis and high myopia were significant preoperative risk factors and pseudophakia was borderline risk for primary anatomical failure after adjusting for various clinical factors. Conclusions. Pars planitis associated RRD showed inferior primary anatomical outcome after SB due to postoperative PVR development. However, final anatomical and visual outcomes were favorable. RRD cases associated with pars planitis, high myopia, and pseudophakia might benefit from different surgical approaches, such as combined vitrectomy and SB.

  1. Scleral buckling biomaterials and implants for retinal detachment surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baino, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Scleral buckling is a widely used surgical procedure that aims at repairing retinal detachments. Many materials and procedural techniques have been variously proposed and tested in an attempt to find the best combination for providing optimal results to the patient. This review highlights the evolution of scleral buckling implants and chronicles the main advances that have been made in such a context. Specifically, the limitations of the materials and implants fallen in disuse, as well as the advantages of currently adopted devices are critically examined and discussed. Future directions for the research are considered, underlining in particular the great potential carried by the development of accurate mathematical models for describing the postoperative evolution of buckled eye. These analytical models, supported by a comprehensive data set provided by advanced techniques of medical investigations, may become useful tools for helping surgeons to choose, and to design if necessary, the best buckling material and configuration to be used in each specific clinical case. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scleral Buckling for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Associated with Pars Planitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Kyu Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the surgical outcome of scleral buckling (SB in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD patients associated with pars planitis. Methods. Retrospective review of RRD patients (32 eyes of pars planitis RRD and 180 eyes of primary RRD who underwent SB. We compared primary and final anatomical success rates and visual outcomes between two groups. Results. Primary and final anatomical success were achieved in 25 (78.1% and 31 (96.8% eyes in the pars planitis RRD group and in 167 eyes (92.7% and 176 eyes (97.7% in primary RRD group, respectively. Both groups showed significant visual improvement (p<0.001 and there were no significant differences in final visual acuity. Pars planitis RRD group was associated with higher rate of postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR development (12.5% versus 2.8%, p=0.031. Pars planitis and high myopia were significant preoperative risk factors and pseudophakia was borderline risk for primary anatomical failure after adjusting for various clinical factors. Conclusions. Pars planitis associated RRD showed inferior primary anatomical outcome after SB due to postoperative PVR development. However, final anatomical and visual outcomes were favorable. RRD cases associated with pars planitis, high myopia, and pseudophakia might benefit from different surgical approaches, such as combined vitrectomy and SB.

  3. Results of epistaxis embosurgery using detachable platinum fibered coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesley, Walter S; Rangaswamy, Rajesh; Patel, Delip V

    2010-06-01

    Safety and efficacy outcomes are lacking for embosurgery of the distal internal maxillary artery (IMax) using detachable platinum fibered coils (DPFCs) in patients with uncontrollable epistaxis. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients treated October 2006 through May 2009 with a diagnosis of uncontrollable or recurrent epistaxis managed by DPFC. Inclusion criteria included patients with epistaxis complicating open or endoscopic nasal surgery, or patients with the following covariant risk factors: aspirin, clopidogrel, warfarin, ibuprofen or hypertension. Patients were excluded if particulates, liquid glue or non-permanent embolics were used as adjuvants. Medical record review and follow-up for 1 month were performed on all patients to determine treatment results and complications. A cohort of 20 patients meeting enrollment criteria was comprised of 13 men and 7 women with a mean age of 63 years (range 35-85 years). Epistaxis etiologies included recent nasal surgery (N=2) while all patients (N=20) had one or more covariant epistaxis risk factors. 17 patients underwent bilateral IMax embolization. Three patients had unilateral IMax embosurgery in which two patients had a remote history of contralateral IMax open ligation for previous epistaxis. 95% of the cohort remained free of recurrent nose bleeding requiring medical or surgical intervention. 95% of the patients had no complications while one patient (5%) had transient unilateral facial pain. There was no procedure-related death, blindness or stroke. One patient died during follow-up from unrelated causes. DPFC embosurgery is effective and safe in managing uncontrollable epistaxis.

  4. Prevalence of posterior vitreous detachment in glaucoma patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Christoph; Glatz, Wilfried; Schmidt, Bernd; Lindner, Ewald; Oettl, Karl; Riedl, Regina; Wedrich, Andreas; Ivastinovic, Domagoj; Velikay-Parel, Michaela; Mossboeck, Georg

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of oxidative stress - present in glaucoma - on the vitreous. We therefore compare the presence of early and late stages of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) between patients with glaucoma and controls. The vitreous state was evaluated by the combination of optical coherence tomography and ultrasound. The main outcome was the vitreous state classified into 'no PVD', 'initial PVD' and 'advanced PVD'. We evaluated the vitreous state in 48 patients with glaucoma (age: mean 66.5 ± 11.9 years; visual field deviation: mean 10.4 ± 6.8 dB) and compared the results with 101 previously investigated controls (age: mean 73.6 ± 9.3 years). After one-to-one matching on age and sex, ordinal logistic regression revealed that patients with glaucoma were significantly more likely to exhibit advanced PVD stages compared to non-glaucoma patients (OR 2.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-6.36, p = 0.037). Our results suggest that the presence or absence of PVD might be a valuable hint for diagnosing glaucoma - however, further research is needed to determine whether PVD can be used to supplement current glaucoma screening guidelines. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Detachment and recovery index: A new parameter measuring powder compressibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAS Aly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation introduces a simple and reliable approach to measure the compressibility of some direct compression excipients in tablet systems made from compressible components. The claim made here is that: the total reduction, ΔL T , in the thickness of a tablet batch due to compression at a confined machine settings is the integral sum of small reductions generated by the compressible components in the batch. The reduction value, ΔL E , generated by a single or a blend of excipients in a batch could be calculated and was found to correlate to its concentration, C, by the relation: ΔL E =A E.C x. The constants AE and x concern the reduction tendency, RT, of the excipient particles due to compression, and detachment and recovery index (DRI, respectively. Some physicomechanical parameters characterizing the compression behavior of an excipient in a tablet batch could be determined and were found to be functions of the determine DRI of the excipient in the batch.

  6. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  7. «Karavella» Pioneers Detachment – a Look in Half a Century Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Krapivina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the fiftieth anniversary of the children’s organization founded by the well-known writer Vladislav Krapivin. Analyzing the example of «Karavella» – the Experimental Pioneer Detachment, the author outlines the systematic ways of teenagers’ involvement with the mass multi-age organization propagating the strong moral and ethic ideas and values. The process of educational system development in «Karavella» is revealed with the emphasis on active position, empathy, creativity, self-reliance, self-respect, emotional and intellectual independence.The manifest and underlying factors having an impact on developing the organizational spirit are indicated. The system of psychological support developed during the decades and concerning both children and adults is reviewed, as well as the life arrangement forms combining the romantic, heroic, patriotic and symbolic aspects; educational and social growth; carrier development system with its hierarchy of ranks and titles; collective rules and regulations, and joint management; program methods and methodological provision; teaching staff training etc. The above organizational programs are based on the notion that the personally valued knowledge has the main priority for teenagers and adolescents because of their strong need for self-actualization. Only due to the personal experience derived in real life conditions the actual personality growth can be achieved. Therefore, the long time expertise of that unique children’s organization is a valuable and up-to- date recourse for those who are responsible for ethic and emotional education of the coming generation. 

  8. Ex vivo comparative study on three sinus lift tools for transcrestal detaching maxillary sinus mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfeng; Hu, Pin; Han, Yishi; Fan, Jiadong; Dong, Xinming; Ren, Huan; Yang, Chunhao; Shi, Tingting; Xia, Dong

    2017-07-04

    The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate 3 different sinus lift tools, namely umbrella-shaped sinus lift curette YSL-04, our recently designed probe-improved sinus lift curettes, and our newly invented elevator 014, using our previous developed goat ex vivo models for direct visualizing the effectiveness of detaching sinus mucosa in real time. Goat ex vivo models for direct visualizing the effectiveness of detaching sinus mucosa in real time were generated according to our previously developed protocol. The effectiveness for each tool was evaluated through the length of sinus mucosa detached in mesial and distal directions or buccal and palatal directions, and the space volume created by detaching maxillary sinus mucosa in mesial, distal, buccal and palatal directions. The results showed that all 3 sinus lift tools could transcrestally detach the maxillary sinus mucosa and create extra space under the elevated sinus floor on the goat ex vivo sinus models. Moreover, our newly invented elevator 014 had advantages over the other 2 in term of the capability to detach the sinus mucosa. Our newly invented elevator 014 might be a promising tool for detaching maxillary sinus mucosa in transcrestal maxillary sinus floor elevation.

  9. Animal models of retinal detachment and reattachment: identifying cellular events that may affect visual recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G P; Charteris, D G; Sethi, C S; Fisher, S K

    2002-07-01

    Retinal detachment continues to be a significant cause of visual impairment, either through the direct effects of macular detachment or through secondary complications such as subretinal fibrosis or proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Animal models can provide us with an understanding of the cellular mechanisms at work that account for the retinopathy induced by detachment and for the generation of secondary effects. As we understand the mechanisms involved, animal models can also provide us with opportunities to test therapeutic agents that may reduce the damaging effects of detachment or improve the outcome of reattachment surgery. They may also reveal information of use to understanding other causes of blindness rooted in retinal defects or injuries. Understanding the effects of detachment (and reattachment) are likely to become even more important as surgeons gain skills in subretinal surgical techniques and macular translocation, both of which will generate short-lived detachments. Here we discuss the fundamental events that occur after detachment, present changes associated with reattachment, and discuss retinal changes that may affect the return of vision.

  10. MISKONSEPSI SISWA PADA MATERI LARUTAN BUFFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widy Ika Parastuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffer solution is one high school chemistry material found misconceptions on student understanding. Misconceptions identification method by giving some quetion with same type. Misconceptions identified from recurring student answers incorrectly. The study population was the students of class XI IPA at SMAN 1 Malang academic year 2015/2016 with a research subject in class XI MIA 7 number of 32 students. The results obtained by analysis of four kinds of misconceptions. The cause of the misconception is (1 a weak prior knowledge; (2 problems of symbols and mathematical formulas; (3 difficulty understanding the context of the material; (4 problems in generalize. Larutan buffer merupakan salah satu materi kimia SMA yang ditemukan miskonsepsi pada pemahaman siswa. Metode identifikasi miskonsepsi dengan memberikan beberapa soal yang setipe. Miskonsepsi teridentifikasi dari jawaban salah yang berulang siswa. Populasi penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas XI IPA SMA Negeri 1 Malang Tahun ajaran 2015/2016 dengan subjek penelitian kelas XI MIA 7 sejumlah 32 siswa. Hasil analisis diperoleh  empat macam miskonsepsi. Penyebab miskonsepsi adalah (1 pengetahuan awal yang lemah; (2 permasalahan simbol dan rumus matematika; (3 kesulitan memahami konteks materi; (4 permasalahan dalam menggeneralisasikan masalah.

  11. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA protects photoreceptors from cell death after experimental retinal detachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimosthenis Mantopoulos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detachment of photoreceptors from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium is seen in various retinal disorders such as retinal detachment and age-related macular degeneration and leads to loss of photoreceptors and vision. Pharmacologic inhibition of photoreceptor cell death may prevent this outcome. This study tests whether systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA can protect photoreceptors from cell death after experimental retinal detachment in rodents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Retinal detachment was created in rats by subretinal injection of hyaluronic acid. The animals were treated daily with vehicle or TUDCA (500 mg/kg. TUNEL staining was used to evaluate cell death. Photoreceptor loss was evaluated by measuring the relative thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL. Macrophage recruitment, oxidative stress, cytokine levels, and caspase levels were also quantified. Three days after detachment, TUDCA decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells compared to vehicle (651±68/mm(2 vs. 1314±68/mm(2, P = 0.001 and prevented the reduction of ONL thickness ratio (0.84±0.03 vs. 0.65±0.03, P = 0.002. Similar results were obtained after 5 days of retinal detachment. Macrophage recruitment and expression levels of TNF-a and MCP-1 after retinal detachment were not affected by TUDCA treatment, whereas increases in activity of caspases 3 and 9 as well as carbonyl-protein adducts were almost completely inhibited by TUDCA treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Systemic administration of TUDCA preserved photoreceptors after retinal detachment, and was associated with decreased oxidative stress and caspase activity. TUDCA may be used as a novel therapeutic agent for preventing vision loss in diseases that are characterized by photoreceptor detachment.

  12. The Protective Function of Neighborhood Social Ties on Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Docherty, Meagan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine relations between neighborhood characteristics and psychological health, specifically whether neighborhood trust and cooperation buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on depression and aggressive behavior. Methods: The sample was composed of 127 urban, African American young adults from Trenton, NJ. Results: The…

  13. Personality Traits and Psychological Symptoms of Music and Art Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yöndem, Sadik; Yöndem, Zeynep Deniz; Per, Meral

    2017-01-01

    The qualities of artists and musicians have attracted the attention of personality psychologists and researchers studying creativity. Artistic activities are considered by some to be therapeutic, and may offer a buffer effect on psychological health. On the other hand, research has occasionally revealed a positive relationship between creativity…

  14. Partner's Stake in Conformity and Abused Wives' Psychological Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaris, Alfred; Kaukinen, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the potential buffering effect of help-seeking in the association between intimate partner assault and women's psychological trauma, and how this, in turn, may depend on the partner's stake in conformity. The sample consists of 374 women reporting the experience of domestic violence from a current intimate partner, drawn…

  15. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in an eye of retinoblastoma treated by radiation and cryocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Kawai, Masataka; Nii, Seiji [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Katsura, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Akihiro

    1999-08-01

    A 4-month-old female infant was diagnosed as bilateral retinoblastoma. The left eye was treated by enucleation and the right by radiation. The right eye received repeated thermochemotherapy, cryocoagulation and photocoagulation for recurrence. Total retinal detachment was detected after surgery for complicated cataract at the age of 2 years 9 months. Vitreous surgery led to the detection of posterior vitreous detachment and retinal breaks in the coagulated scar areas with vitreoretinal adhesion around the calcified tumor. During the following one year, the retina has been attached with no reoccurrence of the tumor. This case illustrates that rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a possibility in retinoblastoma treated by radiation or retinal coagulations. (author)

  16. Delayed Descemet's membrane detachment after successful cataract surgery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Walsh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The detachment of Descemet's membrane can be a serious complication following cataract surgery, leading to severe corneal edema and reduced visual acuity. This report describes an unusual case of Descemet's membrane detachment 6 months after successful phacoemulsification, documented by anterior segment optic coherence tomography (OCT; RTVue, Optovue. The eye was treated successfully with pneumatic descemetopexy and transcorneal suturing, with reattachment of Descemet's membrane. This report should alert physicians that delayed corneal edema can be related to late-onset Descemet's membrane detachment, which requires proper treatment to avoid permanent corneal decompensation.

  17. Reaction of wheat cultivars and differential lines to Puccinia triticina races in detached leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Turra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The method of preserving detached wheat leaves in Petri dish was used for the inoculation and development of the fungus Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust. The reaction of 26 wheat cultivars was compared by using seedlings cultivated in pots (in vivo and detached leaves (in vitro inoculated with four physiological races of the pathogen. After inoculation, the material was kept in a growth chamber for 15 days. The reaction was evaluated on the 15th day after inoculation. Results for each race in the evaluated genotypes confirmed the efficiency of the detached leaf method in assessing the reaction of wheat cultivars.

  18. On the electric breakdown field of the mesosphere and the influence of electron detachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested recently that electron associative detachment from negative atomic oxygen ions provides an additional source of free electrons in electric discharges of the mesosphere, the sprites, and gigantic jets. Here we study attachment under some simplifying assumptions and show...... for electron avalanches to grow. Detachment is likely to affect the conductivity of streamer filaments and other long-lasting space charge structures like gigantic jets or the ionization state of the mesosphere when illuminated by thunderstorm fields. Detachment by itself does not directly affect small...

  19. Vegetative buffer strips for reducing herbicide transport in runoff: effects of buffer width, vegetation, and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of vegetative buffer strip (VBS) width, vegetation, and season of the year on herbicide transport in runoff has not been well documented for runoff prone soils. A multi-year replicated plot-scale study was conducted on an eroded claypan soil with the following objectives: 1) assess the ef...

  20. Buffered Versus Non-Buffered Lidocaine With Epinephrine for Mandibular Nerve Block: Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phero, James A; Nelson, Blake; Davis, Bobby; Dunlop, Natalie; Phillips, Ceib; Reside, Glenn; Tikunov, Andrew P; White, Raymond P

    2017-04-01

    Outcomes for peak blood levels were assessed for buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine compared with non-buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. In this institutional review board-approved prospective, randomized, double-blinded, crossover trial, the clinical impact of buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (Anutra Medical, Research Triangle Park, Cary, NC) was compared with the non-buffered drug. Venous blood samples for lidocaine were obtained 30 minutes after a mandibular nerve block with 80 mg of the buffered or unbuffered drug. Two weeks later, the same subjects were tested with the alternate drug combinations. Subjects also reported on pain on injection with a 10-point Likert-type scale and time to lower lip numbness. The explanatory variable was the drug formulation. Outcome variables were subjects' peak blood lidocaine levels, subjective responses to pain on injection, and time to lower lip numbness. Serum lidocaine levels were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were performed using Proc TTEST (SAS 9.3; SAS Institute, Cary, NC), with the crossover option for a 2-period crossover design, to analyze the normally distributed outcome for pain. For non-normally distributed outcomes of blood lidocaine levels and time to lower lip numbness, an assessment of treatment difference was performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests with Proc NPAR1WAY (SAS 9.3). Statistical significance was set at a P value less than .05 for all outcomes. Forty-eight percent of subjects were women, half were Caucasian, 22% were African American, and 13% were Asian. Median age was 21 years (interquartile range [IQR], 20-22 yr), and median body weight was 147 lb (IQR, 130-170 lb). Median blood levels (44 blood samples) at 30 minutes were 1.19 μg/L per kilogram of body weight. Mean blood level differences of lidocaine for each patient were significantly lower after nerve block with the buffered drug compared with the

  1. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  2. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  3. Buffer Sizing in 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for TCP flows in 802.11-based Wireless Mesh Networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. The problem is complicated by the time-varying capacity of the wireless channel as well as the random access mechanism of 802.11 MAC protocol. While arbitrarily large buffers can maintain high network utilization, this results in large queueing delays. Such delays may affect TCP stability characteristics, and also increase queueing delays for other flows (including real-time flows) sharing the buffer. In this paper we propose sizing link buffers collectively for a set of nodes within mutual interference range called the \\'collision domain\\'. We aim to provide a buffer just large enough to saturate the available capacity of the bottleneck collision domain that limits the carrying capacity of the network. This neighborhood buffer is distributed over multiple nodes that constitute the network bottleneck; a transmission by any of these nodes fully utilizes the available spectral resource for the duration of the transmission. We show that sizing routing buffers collectively for this bottleneck allows us to have small buffers (as low as 2 - 3 packets) at individual nodes without any significant loss in network utilization. We propose heuristics to determine these buffer sizes in WMNs. Our results show that we can reduce the end-to-end delays by 6× to 10× at the cost of losing roughly 5% of the network capacity achievable with large buffers.

  4. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  5. Validation of the Retinal Detachment after Open Globe Injury (RD-OGI) Score as an Effective Tool for Predicting Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodowska, Katarzyna; Stryjewski, Tomasz P; Papavasileiou, Evangelia; Chee, Yewlin E; Eliott, Dean

    2017-05-01

    The Retinal Detachment after Open Globe Injury (RD-OGI) Score is a clinical prediction model that was developed at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary to predict the risk of retinal detachment (RD) after open globe injury (OGI). This study sought to validate the RD-OGI Score in an independent cohort of patients. Retrospective cohort study. The predictive value of the RD-OGI Score was evaluated by comparing the original RD-OGI Scores of 893 eyes with OGI that presented between 1999 and 2011 (the derivation cohort) with 184 eyes with OGI that presented from January 1, 2012, to January 31, 2014 (the validation cohort). Three risk classes (low, moderate, and high) were created and logistic regression was undertaken to evaluate the optimal predictive value of the RD-OGI Score. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis evaluated survival experience between the risk classes. Time to RD. At 1 year after OGI, 255 eyes (29%) in the derivation cohort and 66 eyes (36%) in the validation cohort were diagnosed with an RD. At 1 year, the low risk class (RD-OGI Scores 0-2) had a 3% detachment rate in the derivation cohort and a 0% detachment rate in the validation cohort, the moderate risk class (RD-OGI Scores 2.5-4.5) had a 29% detachment rate in the derivation cohort and a 35% detachment rate in the validation cohort, and the high risk class (RD-OGI scores 5-7.5) had a 73% detachment rate in the derivation cohort and an 86% detachment rate in the validation cohort. Regression modeling revealed the RD-OGI to be highly discriminative, especially 30 days after injury, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.939 in the validation cohort. Survival experience was significantly different depending upon the risk class (P RD-OGI Score can reliably predict the future risk of developing an RD based on clinical variables that are present at the time of the initial evaluation after OGI. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc

  6. Moisture buffering capacity of highly absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerolini, S.; D' Orazio, M.; Stazi, A. [Department of Architecture, Construction and Structures (DACS), Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Di Perna, C. [Department of Energetics, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This research investigates the possibility to use highly absorbing materials to dampen indoor RH% variations. The practical MBV of sodium polyacrylate, cellulose-based material, perlite and gypsum is evaluated for a daily cyclic exposure that alternates high (75%) and low (33%) RH% levels for 8 h and 16 h, respectively. The adjustment velocity to RH% variations and the presence of hysteretic phenomena are also presented. The cellulose-based material proves to be the most suitable for moisture buffering applications. Starting from this material's properties, the effect of thickness, vapour resistance factor ({mu}) and mass surface exchange coefficient (Z{sub v}) on sorption capacity is evaluated by the use of a numerical model. (author)

  7. Huge capacity optical packet switching and buffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinada, Satoshi; Furukawa, Hideaki; Wada, Naoya

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate 2.56 Tbit/s/port dual-polarization DWDM/DQPSK variable-length optical packet (20 Gbit/s × 64 wavelengths × 2 polarizations) switching and buffering by using a 2×2 optical packet switch (OPS) system. The optical data plane of the OPS system was constructed of multi-connected electro-optical switches and fiber delay lines. The accumulated polarization dependent loss of each optical path in the data plane was less than 5 dB. This low-polarization-dependence OPS system enabled us to handle DWDM/DQPSK optical packets (1.28 Tbit/s/port) with time-varying polarization after transmission through 100 km fiber in the field. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  8. Surface Treatments of Nb by Buffered Electropolishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Andy T. [JLAB; Rimmer, Robert A. [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Manus, Robert L. [JLAb; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Williams, J. S. [JLAB; Eozénou, F. [CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette; Jin, S. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Lin, L. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Lu, X.Y. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Mammosser, John D. [JLAB; Wang, E. [BNL

    2009-11-01

    Buffered electropolishing (BEP) is a Nb surface treatment technique developed at Jefferson Lab1. Experimental results obtained from flat Nb samples show2-4 that BEP can produce a surface finish much smoother than that produced by the conventional electropolishing (EP), while Nb removal rate can be as high as 4.67 μm/min. This new technique has been applied to the treatments of Nb SRF single cell cavity employing a vertical polishing system5 constructed at JLab as well as a horizontal polishing system at CEA Saclay. Preliminary results show that the accelerating gradient can reach 32 MV/m for a large grain cavity and 26.7 MV/m for a regular grain cavity. In this presentation, the latest progresses from the international collaboration between Peking University, CEA Saclay, and JLab on BEP will be summarized.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of the Vitreous following Experimental Retinal Detachment in Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandal, Nakul; Lewis, Geoffrey P.; Fisher, Steven K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) remains incompletely understood, with no clinically effective treatment for potentially severe complications such as photoreceptor cell death and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Here we investigate the protein profile of the vi...

  10. Risk factors for multiple retinal tears in patients with acute posterior vitreous detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Eyyup; Karti, Omer; Er, Duygu; Cam, Duygu; Aydın, Rukiye; Zengin, Mehmet Ozgur; Kaynak, Suleyman

    2017-02-03

    To evaluate possible risk factors for multiple retinal tears in patients with acute posterior vitreous detachment. Three hundred and seventy-six consecutive patients presenting with symptoms of floaters and/or flashes were examined. The associations of retinal tears with the duration of symptoms, multiple floaters, flashing, a family history of retinal detachment, peripheral retinal degeneration, lens status, myopia, tobacco dust, and retinal or vitreous hemorrhage were analyzed. Fifty-four (14.4%) of the 376 patients had 71 initial retinal tears. Forty of the 54 eyes had one retinal tear, and 14 eyes had multiple retinal tears. The presence of retinal or vitreous hemorrhage increased the risk of multiple retinal tears 6.1 times using univariate analysis and 7.0 times using multivariate analysis. Unrecognized retinal tears in patients with acute posterior vitreous detachment can cause subsequent retinal detachment. It is therefore important to consider multiple retinal tears, especially in patients with retinal or vitreous hemorrhage.

  11. Clinical analysis and prevention of descemet membrane detachment in 30 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Xia Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the causes of descemet membrane detachment, and put forward the treatment and prevention methods. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 30 cases(30 eyeswith decement membrane detachment was investigated. Gas tamponade in anterior chamber was performed, after 6 months of follow-up, the corneal transparency and visual acuity were observed. RESULTS: Cataract and glaucoma were common causes of decement membrane and detachment, 25 of the 30 cases had vision improved obviously after gas infusion in anterior chamber, 27 patients with recovery of corneal transparency.CONCLUSION: The decement membrane detachment has great effect on cornea, it should be promptly dealt with, otherwise it can easily cause corneal persistent injury.

  12. Multilayered pigment epithelial detachment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimy, Ehsan; Freund, K Bailey; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in eyes with chronic fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment (PED) receiving intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy. METHODS: Retrospective observational case series of patients wi...

  13. Stochastic thermodynamics of interacting degrees of freedom: Fluctuation theorems for detached path probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Jannik; Engel, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Systems with interacting degrees of freedom play a prominent role in stochastic thermodynamics. Our aim is to use the concept of detached path probabilities and detached entropy production for bipartite Markov processes and elaborate on a series of special cases including measurement-feedback systems, sensors, and hidden Markov models. For these special cases we show that fluctuation theorems involving the detached entropy production recover known results which have been obtained separately before. Additionally, we show that the fluctuation relation for the detached entropy production can be used in model selection for data stemming from a hidden Markov model. We discuss the relation to previous approaches including those which use information flow or learning rate to quantify the influence of one subsystem on the other. In conclusion, we present a complete framework with which to find fluctuation relations for coupled systems.

  14. Developing suitable buffers to capture transport cycling behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper; Christiansen, Lars Breum

    2014-01-01

    The association between neighborhood built environment and cycling has received considerable attention in health literature over the last two decades, but different neighborhood definitions have been used and it is unclear which one is most appropriate. Administrative or fixed residential spatial...... units (e.g., home-buffer-based neighborhoods) are not necessarily representative for environmental exposure. An increased understanding of appropriate neighborhoods is needed. GPS cycling tracks from 78 participants for 7 days form the basis for the development and testing of different neighborhood...... buffers for transport cycling. The percentage of GPS points per square meter was used as indicator of the effectiveness of a series of different buffer types, including home-based network buffers, shortest route to city center buffers, and city center-directed ellipse-shaped buffers. The results show...

  15. Detached Anterior Horn of the Medial Meniscus Mimicking a Parameniscal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Fukuta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a detached anterior horn of the medial meniscus with anterior knee pain. Preoperative magnetic resonance images of the knee were initially interpreted as a parameniscal cyst. Arthroscopic examination revealed subluxation of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus due to detachment from its anterior tibial insertion. Arthroscopic fixation with a suture anchor was successful and the cystic lesion was no longer visible on postoperative images.

  16. Inicial nasal mucosa detachment using piezoelectric device in the Le Fort I osteotomy: A technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Hitoshi Shinohara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In maxillary Le Fort I type osteotomy the detachment of the nasal mucosa should be done carefully. Piezoelectric surgery contributed much to increase the safety of osteotomies, despite the initial advantage of minimizing the risk of injury in nervous tissue, mainly in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy; we use the piezoelectric device for the initial detachment of the nasal mucosa in the maxillary osteotomy.

  17. [Functional results of cryosurgical procedures in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region - our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapek, O; Sín, M; Jirková, B; Jarkovský, J; Rehák, J

    2013-10-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively functional results of cryosurgical treatment of uncomplicated, idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region in phakic patients operated on at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, E.U., during the period 2002 -2013, and to evaluate the significance of the macula detachment duration for the final visual acuity. In the study group were included 56 eyes of 56 patients operated in the years 2003 - 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc. All patients were phakic and in all of them, the retinal detachment including the macula region was diagnosed. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 8,75 months. The initial and final visual acuity testing were performed. Comparing the initial and final visual acuity we rated the level of the visual acuity change. The result was stated as improved, if the visual acuity improved by 1 or more lines on the ETDRS chart. The result was rated as stabilized, if the visual acuity remained the same or it changed by 1 line of the ETDRS chart only. The result was evaluated as worsened, if the visual acuity decreased by 1 or more lines of the ETDRS chart. In the followed-up group, the authors compared visual acuity levels in patients with the macula detachment duration 10 days and 11 days. For the statistical evaluation of achieved results, the Mann - Whitney U test was used. The visual acuity improved in 49 (87 %), did not changed in 5 (9 %) and worsened in 2 (4 %) patients. The patients with macula detachment duration 10 days achieved statistically significant better visual acuity than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days. Patients with macula detachment duration 10 days have better prognosis for functional result than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days.

  18. Aggressiveness of Phytophthora infestans on detached potato leaflets in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, A; Andersson, B; Le, V H

    2009-01-01

    Potato fields in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden were sampled for single-lesion isolates of Phytophthora infestans. The aggressiveness of the isolates was determined on detached leaflets of potato cvs Bintje (susceptible) and Matilda (moderately resistant). The aggressiveness tests were carried...... differences between the test laboratories for infection efficiency, lesion growth rate and sporulation capacity on detached leaflets. When the laboratory effect was taken into account, the differences in aggressiveness between the countries were generally small or inconsistent between the test cultivars...

  19. Dissecting the roles of ROCK isoforms in stress-induced cell detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jianjian; Surma, Michelle; Zhang, Lumin; Wei, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The homologous Rho kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are involved in stress fiber assembly and cell adhesion and are assumed to be functionally redundant. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from ROCK1 ?/? and ROCK2?/? mice, we have recently reported that they play different roles in regulating doxorubicin-induced stress fiber disassembly and cell detachment: ROCK1 is involved in destabilizing the actin cytoskeleton and cell detachment, whereas ROCK2 is required for stabilizing the actin...

  20. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    OpenAIRE

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress wa...

  1. The Effects of Job Event Stressors and Social Support on Psychological Stress Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    種市, 康太郎; 大塚, 泰正; 小杉, 正太郎

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of job event stressors and social support on psychological stress reactions. A total of 2,873 male employees in an industrial research institute completed a Job Events Check List (including job event stressors) and a Job Stress Scale (including social support and psychological stress reactions). Results showed that work support had buffering effects on 5 of the 14 relationships between job event stressors and psychological stress reactions. Non-work support had...

  2. A study on manufacturing and construction method of buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Sugita, Yutaka [Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Amemiya, Kiyoshi [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    As an engineered barrier system in the geological disposal of high-level waste, multibarrier system is considered. Multibarrier system consists of the vitrified waste, the overpack and the buffer. Bentonite is one of the potential material as the buffer because of its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. In order to evaluate the functions of buffer, a lot of experiments has been conducted. The evaluations of these functions are based on the assumption that the buffer is emplaced or constructed in the disposal tunnel (or disposal pit) properly. Therefore, it is necessary to study on the manufacturing / construction method of buffer. As the manufacturing / construction technology of the buffer, the block installation method and in-situ compaction method, etc, are being investigated. The block installation method is to emplace the buffer blocks manufactured in advance at the ground facility, and construction processes of the block installation method at the underground will be simplified compared with the in-situ compaction method. On the other hand, the in-situ compaction method is to introduce the buffer material with specified water content into the disposal tunnel and to make the buffer with high density at the site using a compaction machine. In regard to the in-situ compaction method, it is necessary to investigate the optimum finished thickness of one layer because it is impossible to construct the buffer at one time. This report describes the results of compaction property test and the summary of the past investigation results in connection with the manufacturing / construction method. Then this report shows the construction method that will be feasible in the actual disposal site. (J.P.N.)

  3. Middle Miocene E-W tectonic horst structure of Crete through extensional detachment faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, D.; Vassilakis, E.

    2008-07-01

    Two east-west trending extensional detachment faults have been recognized in Crete, one with top-to-the-north motion of the hanging wall toward the Cretan Sea and one with top-to-the-south motion of the hanging wall toward the Libyan Sea. The east-west trending zone between these two detachment faults, which forms their common footwall, comprises a tectonic horst formed during Middle Miocene slip on the detachment faults. The detachment faults disrupt the overall tectono-stratigraphic succession of Crete and are localized along pre-existing thrust faults and along particular portions of the stratigraphic sequence, including the transition between the Permo-Triassic Tyros Beds and the base of the Upper Triassic-Eocene carbonate platform of the Tripolis nappe. By recognizing several different tectono-stratigraphic formations within what is generally termed the 'phyllite-quartzite', it is possible to distinguish these extensional detachment faults from thrust faults and minor discontinuities in the sequence. The deformation history of units within Crete can be summarized as: (i) compressional deformation producing arc-parallel east-west trending south-directed thrust faults in Oligocene to Early Miocene time (ii) extensional deformation along arc-parallel, east-west trending detachment faults in Middle Miocene time, with hanging wall motion to the north and south; (iii) Late Miocene-Quaternary extensional deformation along high-angle normal and oblique normal faults that disrupt the older arc-parallel structures.

  4. Middle Miocene E-W tectonic horst structure of Crete through extensional detachment faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanikolaou, D [Professor of Dynamics and Tectonics, School of Geology and Geoenvironment, Department of Dynamics, Tectonics and Applied Geology, National and Kapodestrian University of Athens, 15784 (Greece); Vassilakis, E [Research Scientist, School of Geology and Geoenvironment, Department of Dynamics, Tectonics and Applied Geology, National and Kapodestrian University of Athens, 15784 (Greece)], E-mail: dpapan@geol.uoa.gr, E-mail: evasilak@geol.uoa.gr

    2008-07-01

    Two east-west trending extensional detachment faults have been recognized in Crete, one with top-to-the-north motion of the hanging wall toward the Cretan Sea and one with top-to-the-south motion of the hanging wall toward the Libyan Sea. The east-west trending zone between these two detachment faults, which forms their common footwall, comprises a tectonic horst formed during Middle Miocene slip on the detachment faults. The detachment faults disrupt the overall tectono-stratigraphic succession of Crete and are localized along pre-existing thrust faults and along particular portions of the stratigraphic sequence, including the transition between the Permo-Triassic Tyros Beds and the base of the Upper Triassic-Eocene carbonate platform of the Tripolis nappe. By recognizing several different tectono-stratigraphic formations within what is generally termed the 'phyllite-quartzite', it is possible to distinguish these extensional detachment faults from thrust faults and minor discontinuities in the sequence. The deformation history of units within Crete can be summarized as: (i) compressional deformation producing arc-parallel east-west trending south-directed thrust faults in Oligocene to Early Miocene time (ii) extensional deformation along arc-parallel, east-west trending detachment faults in Middle Miocene time, with hanging wall motion to the north and south; (iii) Late Miocene-Quaternary extensional deformation along high-angle normal and oblique normal faults that disrupt the older arc-parallel structures.

  5. Postoperative recovery of visual function after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Put, Mathijs A J; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M; Japing, Wouter J; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    To determine which factors affect the recovery of visual function in macula off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). In a prospective study of forty-five patients with a primary macula-off RRD of 24 hours to 6 weeks duration, the height of the macular detachment was determined by ultrasonography. At 12 months postoperatively, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast acuity, and color confusion indexes (CCI) were obtained. Macular detachment was present for 2-32 (median 7) days before repair. A shorter duration of macular detachment was correlated with a better CCI saturé (p = 0.0026) and lower LogMAR BCVA (better Snellen visual acuity) (p = 0.012). Also, a smaller height of macular detachment was correlated with a lower LogMAR BCVA (p = 0.0034). A younger age and lower pre-operative LogMAR BCVA at presentation were both correlated with better postoperative contrast acuity in the total group (age: p = 1.7×10(-4) and pre-operative LogMAR BCVA: p = 0.0034). Functional recovery after macula-off RRD is affected by the duration and the height of the macular detachment. Recovery of contrast acuity is also affected by age and BCVA at presentation. ARVO annual meeting 2013, May 7, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. trialregister.nl NTR839.

  6. Enzyme-free cell detachment mediated by resonance vibration with temperature modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashina, Yuta; Hirano, Makoto; Imashiro, Chikahiro; Totani, Kiichiro; Komotori, Jun; Takemura, Kenjiro

    2017-10-01

    Cell detachment is an essential process in adherent cell culture. However, trypsinization, which is the most popular detachment technique used in culture, damages cellular membranes. Reducing cellular membrane damage during detachment should improve the quality of cell culture. In this article, we propose an enzyme-free cell detachment method based on resonance vibration with temperature modulation. We developed a culture device that can excite a resonance vibration and control temperature. We then evaluated the cell detachment ratio and the growth response, observed the morphology, and analyzed the cellular protein of the collected cells-mouse myoblast cell line (C2C12). With the temperature of 10°C and the maximum vibration amplitude of 2 μm, 77.9% of cells in number were successfully detached compared with traditional trypsinization. The 72-h proliferation ratio of the reseeded cells was similar to that with trypsinization, whereas the proliferation ratio of proposed method was 12.6% greater than that of trypsinization after freezing and thawing. Moreover, the cells can be collected relatively intact and both intracellular and cell surface proteins in the proposed method were less damaged than in trypsinization. These results show that this method has definite advantages over trypsinization, which indicates that it could be applied to subcultures of cells that are more susceptible to trypsin damage for mass culture of sustainable clinical use. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2279-2288. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Postoperative recovery of visual function after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijs A J van de Put

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine which factors affect the recovery of visual function in macula off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. METHODS: In a prospective study of forty-five patients with a primary macula-off RRD of 24 hours to 6 weeks duration, the height of the macular detachment was determined by ultrasonography. At 12 months postoperatively, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, contrast acuity, and color confusion indexes (CCI were obtained. RESULTS: Macular detachment was present for 2-32 (median 7 days before repair. A shorter duration of macular detachment was correlated with a better CCI saturé (p = 0.0026 and lower LogMAR BCVA (better Snellen visual acuity (p = 0.012. Also, a smaller height of macular detachment was correlated with a lower LogMAR BCVA (p = 0.0034. A younger age and lower pre-operative LogMAR BCVA at presentation were both correlated with better postoperative contrast acuity in the total group (age: p = 1.7×10(-4 and pre-operative LogMAR BCVA: p = 0.0034. CONCLUSION: Functional recovery after macula-off RRD is affected by the duration and the height of the macular detachment. Recovery of contrast acuity is also affected by age and BCVA at presentation. MEETING PRESENTATION: ARVO annual meeting 2013, May 7, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. TRIAL REGISTRATION: trialregister.nl NTR839.

  8. Anxiety buffer disruption theory: a terror management account of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszczynski, Tom; Kesebir, Pelin

    2011-01-01

    We present anxiety buffer disruption theory (ABDT) and provide a review of current evidence regarding the theory. ABDT is an application of terror management theory to explain diverse reactions to traumatic events and the onset and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It posits that PTSD results from a disruption in one's anxiety-buffering mechanisms, which normally provide protection against anxiety in general and death anxiety in particular. The disruption of these mechanisms leaves the individual defenseless in the face of overwhelming anxiety, which leads to the major symptom clusters of PTSD: re-experiencing, hyper-arousal, and avoidance. According to ABDT, because of the disruption in their anxiety-buffering mechanisms, individuals with PTSD symptoms do not respond to mortality reminders in the defensive ways that psychologically healthier individuals do. We review four sets of studies conducted in four different cultures and with people who have experienced different types of trauma, which reveal this atypical response pattern and lend support to ABDT.

  9. BUFFER SIZING FOR THE CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Geekie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Methods for sizing project and feeding buffers for critical chain project management are investigated. Experiments indicate that – in the absence of bias, and for certain classes of bias – buffer consumption is independent of the mean duration of a chain. Generally the popular method – a buffer size equal to 50% of the longest path leading to it – gives rise to excessively large buffers. Buffers sized according to the square root of the sum of squares perform well in the absence of bias, but with bias present the performance is unacceptably poor. A new approach to buffer sizing is proposed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Metodes vir groottebepaling van projek- en saamvloeibuffers vir kritieke-ketting projekbestuur word ondersoek. Eksperimente dui daarop dat – in die afwesigheid van onewewigtigheid, en vir sekere tipes onewewigtigheid – bufferverbruik onafhanklik is van die gemiddelde lengte van ’n ketting. Oor die algemeen veroorsaak die metode van buffergrootte – gelyk aan 50% van die langste pad wat tot die buffer lei – onnodige groot buffers. Buffers bepaal met die metode van die vierkantswortel van die som van kwadrate, vaar goed in die afwesigheid van onewewigtigheid, maar vaar onaanvaarbaar swak wanneer onewewigtigheid teenwoordig is. ’n Nuwe metode vir die bepaling van buffergrootte word voorgestel.

  10. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  11. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  12. Comparative Delamination Study to Demonstrate the Impact of Container Quality and Nature of Buffer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothaar, Uwe; Klause, Michaela; Hladik, Bernhard

    Delamination of flakes in glass containers used for primary drug packaging has become a serious quality concern in recent years. Because glass delamination typically occurs weeks/months after filling and there are a variety of container, processing and drug formulation factors that contribute to glass delamination, it is recommended according to USP (1) to conduct suitable container/drug product compatibility tests. Such predictive studies should give results that allow a graduated assessment for increasing risk of delamination that can be used to detect early stages of this phenomenon and to help to select appropriate container/formulation systems to proactively prevent delamination instead of just monitoring for the presence/absence of flakes. This work demonstrates the capability of a container compatibility testing approach by determining the impact of three different model buffer/solution systems (citrate, phosphate and sodium bicarbonate) with the delamination behavior of two different types of 2 mL glass vials, standard quality and delamination controlled quality. Vials of each type were filled and stored up to 48 weeks at 40 °C. Using a USP -compatible package of different analytical methods clearly demonstrates the significant influence of both vial quality and chemistry of the content on glass delamination propensity.LAY ABSTRACT The detachment of flakes from the inner surface of a glass container-also referred to as delamination-has become a serious quality concern over the last years for the pharmaceutical industry. Chapter of the United Stated Pharmacopeia therefore recommends performing predictive screening studies with the drug formulation and the glass container to evaluate the risk of delamination in an early stage of the drug development. Predictive screening studies have been performed with three different representative buffer/solution and glass vials of two different quality steps (standard and delamination controlled). The results demonstrate

  13. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-03

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  14. Temperature buffer test. Installation of buffer, heaters and instruments in the deposition hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Barcena, Ignacio; Garcia-Sineriz, Jose Luis [Aitemin, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    During 2003 the Temperature Buffer Test was installed in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature, water pressure, relative humidity, total pressure and displacements etc. are measured in numerous points in the test. Most of the cables from the transducers are led in the deposition hole through slots in the rock surface of the deposition hole in watertight tubes to the data collection system in a container placed in the tunnel close to the deposition hole. This report describes the work with the installations of the buffer, heaters, and instruments and yields a description of the final location of all instruments. The report also contains a description of the materials that were installed and the densities yielded after placement.

  15. Pseudophakic retinal detachment in young-aged patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Laube

    Full Text Available To investigate the incidence and risk factors for retinal detachment (RD after cataract surgery or refractive lens exchange (RLE in patients aged below 61 years.Retrospective medical chart review of 7,886 patients (13,925 eyes who underwent cataract surgery or RLE. Patients aged below 61 years were selected. Age, gender, axial length, follow-up times, and the occurrence of RD were recorded. Additional characteristics documented for RD cases were: history of RD, preexisting retinal findings, laser capsulotomy, status of macula at RD, date and details of RD.From a total of 421 patients (677 eyes aged below 61 years 24 cases of RD were identified, resulting in an overall cumulative incidence per eyes of 3.55%. The mean follow-up time was 45 ± 32.8 months. Ninety-two % of all RDs occurred within 3.6 years from surgery. Axial length had a significant effect on the risk of RD after cataract/ RLE surgery (HR = 1.42, P = 0.0001, 95% CI 1.19-1.69. The highest incidence of RD occurred in the subgroup of 25 to 28.9 mm axial length (10.2%. With an increase in age of ten years, the hazard of postoperative RD was not significantly increased by a factor of 1.50 (P = 0.286, 95% CI 0.71-3.15. The highest incidence of RD occurred in patients aged 50-54 years (5.39%. Compared to females, males had an almost twofold not significant risk of postoperative RD (HR = 1.96, P = 0.123, 95% CI 0.83-4.63. None of the RD cases had a history of RD.Axial length is a significant risk factor for pseudophakic RD. The need for cataract surgery or RLE should be carefully considered in patients with axial lengths between 25 and 29 mm, aged 50-54 years, in males, and in case of preexisting retinal findings.

  16. The Frequency of Serous Macular Detachment in Diabetic Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Yaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the epidemiology and frequency of serous macular detachment (SMD in patients diagnosed with diabetic macular edema (DME. Materials and Methods: Hundred and forty-three eyes of 104 patients with DME were examined retrospectively. According to the results of OCT, the patients were separated into two groups; patients diagnosed with SMD and DME (group 1 and patients diagnosed with DME (group 2. They were assessed based on demographic characteristics, average age, duration of diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT history, best-corrected visual acuity, and diabetic retinopathy stages. Results: The average age of the patients was 61±8.7 years. Forty-three patients (41.3% were female and 61 patients (58.7% were male. Fifty-four of 104 patients (51.9% had DME with SMD. 21 (38.8% patients had bilateral SMD. In group 1, 31 patients were male (57.4% and 23 patients were female (42.6%. In group 2, 30 (60% patients were male and 20 (40% patients were female. In group 1, average age was 60.2±9.6 and the average duration of DM was 12.2±7.0 years, whereas the average age was 61.9±7.6 and the average duration of DM was 14.06±6.8 years in group 2. Forty-two patients in group 1 (77.8% and 30 patients (60% in group 2 had history of HT. Before the treatment, the average best-corrected visual acuity was found to be 0.30±0.24 in group 1 and 0.32±0.25 in group 2. Conclusion: Today, it is thought that diabetic maculopathy is the leading cause of SMD and it is a determining factor of treatment applications. In our study, we aimed at investigating the frequency of SMD in DME and the risk factors for the development of SMD. Although there were some differences between the factors, only the history of HT was found statistically higher in patients with SMD (p=0.04. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 92-96

  17. Psychosocial safety climate buffers effects of job demands on depression and positive organizational behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Garry B; Dollard, Maureen F; Winefield, Anthony H; Dormann, Christian; Bakker, Arnold B

    2013-01-01

    In a general population sample of 2343 Australian workers from a wide ranging employment demographic, we extended research testing the buffering role of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a macro-level resource within the health impairment process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Moderated structural equation modeling was used to test PSC as a moderator between emotional and psychological job demands and worker depression compared with control and social support as alternative moderators. We also tested PSC as a moderator between depression and positive organizational behaviors (POB; engagement and job satisfaction) compared with control and social support as moderators. As expected we found PSC moderated the effects of job demands on depression and further moderated the effects of depression on POB with fit to the data that was as good as control and social support as moderators. This study has shown that PSC is a macro-level resource and safety signal for workers acting to reduce demand-induced depression. We conclude that organizations need to focus on the development of a robust PSC that will operate to buffer the effects of workplace psychosocial hazards and to build environments conducive to worker psychological health and positive organizational behaviors.

  18. Detached Concern of Forensic Mental Health Nurses in Therapeutic Relationships With Patients: The Application of the Early Recognition Method Related to Detached Concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluttert, F.A.J.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Nijman, H.L.I.; Björkly, S.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective - Improvement of the interaction between forensic mental health nurses and patients may lead to a reduction of inpatient violence. The concept under study is detached concern, which refers to nurses' skills to neutralize the emotional appeal of patients by a balanced attitude between

  19. Predicting externalizing and internalizing behavior in kindergarten: examining the buffering role of early social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Amy E; Krill, Sarah C; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Carter, Alice S

    2015-01-01

    This study tested an ecological model predicting children's behavior problems in kindergarten from risk and protective factors (parent psychological distress, parenting behavior, and social support) during early childhood. Study participants were 1,161 sociodemographically diverse mother-child pairs that participated in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The predictor variables were collected at two separate time points and based on parent reports; children were an average of 2 years old at Time 1 and 3 years old at Time 2. The outcome measures were collected when children reached kindergarten and were 6 years old on average. Our results show that early maternal psychological distress, mediated by suboptimal parenting behavior, predicts children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors in kindergarten. Moreover, early social support buffers the relations between psychological distress and later suboptimal parenting behavior and between suboptimal parenting behavior and later depressive/withdrawn behavior. Our findings have several implications for early intervention and prevention efforts. Of note, informal social support appears to play an important protective role in the development of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, weakening the link between psychological distress and less optimal parenting behavior and between suboptimal parenting behavior and children's withdrawal/depression symptoms. Increasing social support may be a productive goal for family and community-level intervention.

  20. Effect of rheological approximations on slab detachment in 3D numerical simulations of continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton

    2017-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that slab detachment results from the development of extensional stresses within the subducting slab. Subduction slowdown due to arrival of buoyant continental material at the trench is considered to cause such stress build up in the slab. Following slab detachment, slab pull partially or completely loses its strength and hot asthenosphere may flow through the slab window, which can have major consequences for continental collision. The dynamics of slab detachment has been extensively studied in 2D (i.e. analytical and numerical), but 3D models of slab detachment during continental collision remain largely unexplored. Some of the previous 3D models have investigated the role of an asymmetric margin on the propagation of slab detachment (van Hunen and Allen, 2011), the impact of slab detachment on the curvature of orogenic belts (Capitanio and Replumaz, 2013), the role of the collision rate on slab detachment depth (Li et al., 2013) or the effect of along-trench variations on slab detachment (Duretz et al., 2014). However, rheology of mantle and lithosphere is known to have a major influence on the dynamics of subduction. Here, we explore a range of different rheological approximations to understand their sensitivity on the possible scenarios. We employ the code LaMEM (Kaus et al., 2016) to perform 3D simulations of subduction/continental collision in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. The models exhibit a wide range of behaviours depending on the rheological law employed: from linear, to temperature-dependent visco-elasto-plastic rheology that takes into account both diffusion and dislocation creep. For example, we find that slab dynamics varies drastically between end member models: in viscous approximations, slab detachment is slow, dominated by viscous thinning, while for a non-linear visco-elasto-plastic rheology, slab detachment is relatively fast, dominated by plastic breaking and inducing strong mantle flow in

  1. Masculinity and barriers to seeking counseling: The buffering role of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Patrick J; Brenner, Rachel E; Vogel, David L; Lannin, Daniel G; Strass, Haley A

    2017-01-01

    Less than 1/3 of college men seek psychological help per year when experiencing mental health concerns. Many believe this is because socialized masculine norms are incongruent with help-seeking decisions. In line with this, adherence to masculine norms, like emotional control and self-reliance, is consistently linked to factors associated with lower use of counseling. Identifying constructs that buffer, or reduce, the relationship between masculine norm adherence and common barriers to seeking help, like help-seeking self-stigma and resistance to self-disclosing, could shed light on mechanisms through which effective interventions could be developed. As such, this study examined whether self-compassion, or the ability to show oneself kindness and understanding in the face of challenges, moderated the relationship between masculine norm adherence and both help-seeking self-stigma and the risks associated with self-disclosing to a counselor in a sample of 284 undergraduate men (Mage = 19.68, range = 18-30). Results indicate that self-compassion is associated with lower levels of help-seeking self-stigma and disclosure risks. Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, self-compassion buffered the relationship between overall masculine norm adherence and each of these barriers. Furthermore, when specific masculine norms were examined, self-compassion buffered the relationship between emotional control and disclosure risks. These results support the need for future research focused on the development and assessment of self-compassion based interventions aimed at decreasing the barriers undergraduate men experience toward seeking psychological help. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTARCTIC LIVING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )

  3. The buffer/container experiment: results, synthesis, issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Chandler, N.A.; Dixon, D.A.; Roach, P.J.; To, T.; Wan, A.W.L

    1997-12-01

    A large in-ground experiment has examined how heat affects the performance of the dense sand bentonite 'buffer' that has been proposed for use in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experiment was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Underground Research Laboratory, Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba between 1991 and 1994. The experiment placed a full-size heater representing a container of nuclear fuel waste in a 1.24-m diameter borehole filled with buffer below the floor of a room excavated at 240-m depth in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The buffer and surrounding rock were extensively instrumented for temperatures, total pressures, water pressures, suctions, and rock displacements. Power was provided to the heater for almost 900 days. The experiment showed that good rock conditions can be pre-selected, a borehole can be drilled, and buffer can be placed at controlled densities and water contents. The instrumentation generally worked well, and an extensive data base was successfully organized. Drying was observed in buffer close to the heater. This caused some desiccation cracking. However the cracks only extended approximately one third of the distance to the buffer-rock interface and did not form an advective pathway. Following sampling at the time of decommissioning, cracked samples of buffer were transported to the laboratory and given access to water. The hydraulic conductivities and swelling pressures of these resaturated samples were very similar to those of uncracked buffer. A good balance was achieved between the mass of water flowing into the experiment from the surrounding rock and the increased mass of water in the buffer. A good understanding was developed of the relationships between suctions, water contents, and total pressures in buffer near the buffer-rock interface. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of measured parameters show that a good understanding has been developed of the processes

  4. Detaching droplets in immiscible fluids from a solid substrate with the help of electrowetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiwoo; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-02-07

    The detachment (or removal) of droplets from a solid surface is an indispensable process in numerous practical applications which utilize digital microfluidics, including cell-based assay, chip cooling, and particle sampling. When a droplet that is fully stretched by impacting or electrowetting is released, the conversion of stored surface energy to kinetic energy can lead to the departure of the droplet from a solid surface. Here we firstly detach sessile droplets in immiscible fluids from a hydrophobic surface by electrowetting. The physical conditions for droplet detachment depend on droplet volume, viscosity of ambient fluid, and applied voltage. Their critical conditions are determined by exploring the retracting dynamics for a wide range of driving voltages and physical properties of fluids. The relationships between physical parameters and dynamic characteristics of retracting and jumping droplets, such as contact time and jumping height, are also established. The threshold voltage for droplet detachment in oil with high viscosity is largely reduced (~70%) by electrowetting actuations with a square pulse. To examine the applicability of three-dimensional digital microfluidic (3D-DMF) platforms to biological applications such as cell culture and cell-based assays, we demonstrate the detachment of droplets containing a mixture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and collagen (concentration of 4 × 10(4) cells mL(-1)) in silicone oil with a viscosity of 0.65 cSt. Furthermore, to complement the technical limitations due to the use of a needle electrode and to demonstrate the applicability of the 3D-DMF platform with patterned electrodes to chemical analysis and synthesis, we examine the transport, merging, mixing, and detachment of droplets with different pH values on the platform. Finally, by using DC and AC electrowetting actuations, we demonstrate the detachment of oil droplets with a very low contact angle (<~13°) in water on a hydrophobic

  5. Correlation of visual recovery with macular height in macula-off retinal detachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowatt, L; Tarin, S; Nair, R G; Menon, J; Price, N J

    2010-02-01

    To determine the relationship between the preoperative macular height of a macular detachment and visual outcome of the post retinal reattachment. Prospective case series of 26 patients who presented to the Wolverhampton Eye Infirmary with a primary rhegmatogenous macula-off retinal detachment. Macular detachment height was assessed by B-scan ultrasound (10 Mhz) in the seated and supine postures before surgery. Age, gender, duration of the detachment, type of surgery, preoperative (pre-op) and postoperative (post-op) visual acuities at 3 and 6 months and status of the fellow eye were noted. A total of 26 eyes of 26 patients (mean age: 61.4 years+/-15.56 SD) were recruited. The mean logMAR pre- and post-op visual acuities at 3 and 6 months were 1.5+/-1.1 SD (range: 0.2-3), 0.38+/-0.23 SD (range: 0-0.84), and at 6 months 0.29+/-0.22 SD (range: 0-1.0). The median period of the macular detachment was 4.5 days (95% CI: 2-8 days). There was no significant difference between the mean macular heights while seated 2.42 mm+/-1.2 or supine 2.39 mm+/-1.0 (t-test, P=0.9). Correlation showed that the pre-op macular height is a statistical predictor of post-op visual acuity in our group of patients with macula-off retinal detachments. The shallower the macular detachment the greater the likelihood of a good visual outcome.

  6. Auxin-induced leaf blade expansion in Arabidopsis requires both wounding and detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christopher P.; Grundstad, Morgan L.; Evanoff, Michael A.; Keith, Jeremy D.; Lentz, Derek S.; Wagner, Samuel L.; Culler, Angela H.; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2011-01-01

    Elevation of leaf auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) levels in intact plants has been consistently found to inhibit leaf expansion whereas excised leaf strips grow faster when treated with IAA. Here we test two hypothetical explanations for this difference in growth sensitivity to IAA by expanding leaf tissues in vivo versus in vitro. We asked if, in Arabidopsis, IAA-induced growth of excised leaf strips results from the wounding required to excise tissue and/or results from detachment from the plant and thus loss of some shoot or root derived growth controlling factors. We tested the effect of a range of exogenous IAA concentrations on the growth of intact attached, wounded attached, detached intact, detached wounded as well as excised leaf strips. After 24 h, the growth of intact attached, wounded attached, and detached intact leaves was inhibited by IAA concentrations as little as 1 µM in some experiments. Growth of detached wounded leaves and leaf strips was induced by IAA concentrations as low as 10 µM. Stress, in the form of high light, increased the growth response to IAA by leaf strips and reduced growth inhibition response by intact detached leaves. Endogenous free IAA content of intact attached leaves and excised leaf strips was found not to change over the course of 24 h. Together these results indicate growth induction of Arabidopsis leaf blade tissue by IAA requires both substantial wounding as well as detachment from the plant and suggests in vivo that IAA induces parallel pathways leading to growth inhibition. PMID:22101347

  7. Effects of Methylcellulose on Fibrolytic Bacterial Detachment and Degradation of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of methylcellulose (MC on i bacterial detachment from rice straw as well as ii inhibition of bacterial attachment and fiber digestibility. To evaluate the effect of MC on fibrolytic bacterial detachment (Exp 1, in vitro bacterial cultures with 0.1% (w/v MC solution were compared with cultures without MC after 8 h incubation. The effect of MC on inhibition of bacterial attachment was determined by comparing with real-time PCR the populations of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus established on rice straw pre-treated with 0.1% MC with those on untreated straw after incubation for 0, 6 and 12 h (Exp 2. The major fibrolytic bacterial attachment on rice straw showed significantly lower populations with either the addition of MC to the culture or pre-treated rice straw compared to controls (p<0.05. Also, the digestibility of rice straw with MC was significantly lower compared with control (p<0.05. The F. succinogenes population did not show detachment from rice straw, but showed an inhibition of attachment and proliferation on rice straw in accordance with a decrease of fiber digestion. The detachments of Ruminococcus species co-existed preventing the proliferations with subsequent reduction of fiber degradation by MC during the incubation. Their detachments were induced from stable colonization as well as the initial adhesion on rice straw by MC in in vitro ruminal fermentation. Furthermore, the detachment of R. albus was more sensitive to MC than was R. flavefaciens. These results showed the certain evidence that attachment of major fibrolytic bacteria had an effect on fiber digestion in the rumen, and each of fibrolytic bacteria, F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus had a specific mechanism of attachment and detachment to fiber.

  8. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  9. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC IMPACT OF PIRACY ON SEAFARERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aleksandrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been discussed that being held hostage can have harmful short and often long-term physical, psychological, familial and social effects on the victims. This is a complex area of research and the data is sparse yet. The aim of our study is to present our experience concerning some psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate's attack long captivity and to suggest a suitable methodology of a psychological investigation in such cases. Methods: Seven Bulgarian hostage survivors underwent comprehensive psychological and psychiatric assessments twenty days after pirate’s captivity release. Results and discussion: In general terms, the psychological and psychiatric impact on the victims is similar to that of being exposed to other serious life-threatening events, including terrorist incidents and natural disasters. All the subjects, who have been examined in our study, reported feelings of detachment and alienation from close others and startle by noises, nightmares and sleep disturbances. Anxiety symptoms, characterized by apprehension, tension and fear in particular situations, and some depressive features (depressive mood, lack of interest and activities, lassitude on a sub- clinical level were registered. Conclusion: Despite some limitations our report discusses important issues, concerning psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate’s attack long captivity and present a suitable model of a psychological investigation in such cases and states the need of supportive care of the victims.

  10. Buffers Affect the Bending Rigidity of Model Lipid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvrais, H.; Duelund, L.; Ipsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    vesicles, of a more complex behavior, where the buffering molecules may considerably affect the bending rigidity of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Furthermore, a synergistic effect on the bending modulus is observed in the presence of both salt and buffer molecules, which serves as a warning...

  11. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  12. Reduction of buffering requirements: Another advantage of cooperative transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Yet another advent of cooperative transmission is exposed in this letter. It is shown that cooperation lends itself to the reduction of buffer sizes of wireless sensor nodes. It is less likely to find the channel busy when cooperative transmission is employed in the network. Otherwise, in the lack of cooperation, the probability of build up of packet queues in transmission buffers increases.

  13. Arise, amphibians: stream buffers affect more than fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Buffers along streams cover a tremendous proportion of the land base in the forested systems of the western Pacific Northwest. These buffers were designated primarily to conserve and restore habitat for salmon and trout, but conservation of habitat for a number of other organisms also has been implicit in their design. Recent research evaluated the importance of...

  14. Molecular Buffers Permit Sensitivity Tuning and Inversion of Riboswitch Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Genee, Hans Jasper; Jensen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    transcription factor, while interacting DNA-binding domains mediate the transduction of signal and form an interacting molecular buffer. The molecular buffer system enables modular signal inversion through integration with repressor modules. Further, tuning of input sensitivity was achieved through perturbation...

  15. The Effect of Double Buffer Management in Packet Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of file downloads between the HTTP server and clients are also varied to follow the behavior of data. The buf(er ... to accommodate. Keywords: buffer, traffic analysis, packet, HTTP, server, clients, byte, double buffer. ... Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), each node serves as a host as well as a router and uses consequently ...

  16. Challenges of Buffer Zone Management in Cross River National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological buffer zones are very crucial in minimizing the impact of land use practices close to protected areas, though there is no consensus surrounding their objectives, ... These developments might be adduced to the low level of awareness of Park laws and buffer zone management policies by these communities.

  17. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  18. Placement of riparian forest buffers to improve water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Tomer; Michael G. Dosskey; Michael R. Burkart; David E. James; Matthew J. Helmers; Dean E. Eisenhauer

    2005-01-01

    Riparian forest buffers can improve stream water quality, provided they intercept and remove contaminants from surface runoff and/or shallow groundwater. Soils, topography, hydrology, and surficial geology detemine the capability of forest buffers to intercept and treat these flows. This paper describes landscape analysis techniques for identifying and mapping...

  19. Riparian ecosystems and buffers - multiscale structure, function, and management: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Richard R. Lowrance

    2006-01-01

    Given the importance of issues related to improved understanding and management of riparian ecosystems and buffers, the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) sponsored a Summer Specialty Conference in June 2004 at Olympic Valley, California, entitled 'Riparian Ecosystems and Buffers: Multiscale Structure, Function, and Management.' The primary objective...

  20. A multipurpose switched reluctance motor with a series commutation buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Vasil'ev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power-supply circuit for a multipurpose switched reluctance motor with a series commutation buffer is presented. It is shown that a series buffer improves output characteristics of multipurpose switched reluctance motors under supply from a single-phase circuit and also lifts necessity of switching capacitors according to the motor power supply modes.

  1. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  2. Sampling phase lock loop (PLL) with low power clock buffer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Bahai, A.; Bohsali, M.; Djabbari, A.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Socci, G.

    2012-01-01

    A sampling phase locked loop (PLL) circuit includes a pull-up/down buffer configured to convert an oscillator reference clock into a square wave sampling control signal input to a sampling phase detector. The buffer circuit is configured to reduce power by controlling the switching of the pull-up

  3. Sampling phase lock loop (PLL) with low power clock buffer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Bahai, A.; Bohsali, M.; Djabbari, A.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Socci, G.

    2013-01-01

    A sampling phase locked loop (PLL) circuit includes a pull-up/down buffer configured to convert an oscillator reference clock into a square wave sampling control signal input to a sampling phase detector. The buffer circuit is configured to reduce power by controlling the switching of the pull-up

  4. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  5. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  6. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  7. Evaluation on elution feature of bentonite buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hirohisa; Kanno, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro

    1997-09-01

    In order to evaluate long term physical stability of artificial barrier in land disposal of high level radioactive wastes, it is necessary to know quantitatively elution behavior of buffering materials from disposal road (or cavity) to circumferential rock crack. When elution of the buffer material occurs on large scale, amount of bentonite in the disposal road (or cavity) reduces and reduction of various functions expected to the buffer materials is presumed. According to specification examples of road transverse arrangement and disposal vertical arrangement systems, evaluation on elution amount of the buffer materials at disposal environment was conducted. Opening width of rock crack in the disposal environment was supposed to be 0.5 mm. As a result, obtained mass elution ratios of the buffer materials due to extrusion phenomenon were 0.04 to 0.2% after 10,000 year and 2 to 12% after 1,000,000 years. (G.K.)

  8. Full scale tests of moisture buffer capacity of wall materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2005-01-01

    that are harmful such as growth of house dust mites, surface condensation and mould growth. Therefore a series of experiments has been carried out in a full scale test facility to determine the moisture buffer effect of interior walls of cellular concrete and plaster board constructions. For the cellular concrete...... of the changes of moisture content in specimens of the wall composites exposed to the same environment. It was found that the finishes had a big impact on the buffer performance of the underlying materials. Even though the untreated cellular concrete had a very high buffer capacity, the effect was strongly......, the buffer performance is investigated first for the untreated material, then after adding rendering on the surfaces, and finally with latex paint. Similarly for the walls of plasterboard construction, the buffer effects are investigated first for the insulation (cellulose or mineral wool), then after adding...

  9. Model-driven engineering of supramolecular buffering by multivalency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Tim F E; Teunissen, Abraham J P; de Greef, Tom F A; Meijer, E W

    2017-12-05

    A supramolecular system in which the concentration of a molecule is buffered over several orders of magnitude is presented. Molecular buffering is achieved as a result of competition in a ring-chain equilibrium of multivalent ureidopyrimidinone monomers and a monovalent naphthyridine molecule which acts as an end-capper. While we previously only considered divalent ureidopyrimidinone monomers we now present a model-driven engineering approach to improve molecular buffering using multivalent ring-chain systems. Our theoretical models reveal an odd-even effect where even-valent molecules show superior buffering capabilities. Furthermore, we predict that supramolecular buffering can be significantly improved using a tetravalent instead of a divalent molecule, since the tetravalent molecule can form two intramolecular rings with different "stabilities" due to statistical effects. Our model predictions are validated against experimental 1H NMR data, demonstrating that model-driven engineering has considerable potential in supramolecular chemistry. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Thin film photovoltaic devices with a minimally conductive buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Teresa M.; Burst, James

    2016-11-15

    A thin film photovoltaic device (100) with a tunable, minimally conductive buffer (128) layer is provided. The photovoltaic device (100) may include a back contact (150), a transparent front contact stack (120), and an absorber (140) positioned between the front contact stack (120) and the back contact (150). The front contact stack (120) may include a low resistivity transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer (124) and a buffer layer (128) that is proximate to the absorber layer (140). The photovoltaic device (100) may also include a window layer (130) between the buffer layer (128) and the absorber (140). In some cases, the buffer layer (128) is minimally conductive, with its resistivity being tunable, and the buffer layer (128) may be formed as an alloy from a host oxide and a high-permittivity oxide. The high-permittivity oxide may further be chosen to have a bandgap greater than the host oxide.

  11. Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Cernohous, Bob R [Rochester, MN; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Kumar, Sameer [White Plains, NY; Parker, Jeffrey J [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-11

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

  12. Thrust faults and extensional detachment faults in Cretan tectono-stratigraphy: Implications for Middle Miocene extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Vassilakis, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    The revised tectono-stratigraphy of Crete and especially of the "Phyllites-Quartzites" complex demonstrated the distinction of the probable Paleozoic low-medium grade metamorphic rocks of the Arna unit from the underlying Permo-Triassic phyllites and associated carbonate sediments (Trypali facies) of Western Crete unit as well as the overlying Permo-Triassic phyllites and associated sediments of the Tyros/Ravdoucha Beds at the base of the Tripolis unit. The pre-existing mixture of the above tectono-stratigaphic units in a single complex created a number of misinterpretations as far as stratigraphy, metamorphism and interpretation of low angle faults as thrusts or detachments. Especially in cases where the inferred tectonic contact concerns the transition between the Tyros Beds and the base of the Tripolis carbonate platform there is no structural omission and therefore the contact represents a minor disharmonic sliding surface and not a detachment. Based on the revised tectono-stratigraphic analysis the determination of the structural omission for each tectonic contact was possible and several detachments were described for the first time. Footwall rocks of the detachments comprised several tectonic units usually from the lower nappes and hanging wall rocks comprised several tectonic units usually from the upper nappes. The detachment may separate not only metamorphosed units in the footwall (Mani, Western Crete, Arna) from non metamorphosed units in the hanging wall (Tripolis, Pindos and higher nappes) but also all other possible combinations from the Cretan nappe pile. Extension in Crete started in the Middle-Late Miocene with the formation of extensional detachment faults. The reported extensional structures of Oligocene to Early Miocene age do not correspond to crustal extension of Crete but to localized shear zones related to nappe stacking and the exhumation of metamorphic rocks. Extensional detachments in Crete form a tectonic horst through two oppositely

  13. Visualization of Buffer Capacity with 3-D "Topo" Surfaces: Buffer Ridges, Equivalence Point Canyons and Dilution Ramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garon C.; Hossain, Md Mainul

    2016-01-01

    BufCap TOPOS is free software that generates 3-D topographical surfaces ("topos") for acid-base equilibrium studies. It portrays pH and buffer capacity behavior during titration and dilution procedures. Topo surfaces are created by plotting computed pH and buffer capacity values above a composition grid with volume of NaOH as the x axis…

  14. Simulation of DIII-D experiments on detachment and divertor closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Eric; Moser, Auna; Leonard, Tony

    2017-10-01

    While divertor detachment is necessary to control the heat flux to divertor targets in ITER and future tokamak fusion devices, detachment is often associated with high pedestal density, which can be problematic for core plasma performance. Divertor closure experiments on DIII-D have shown that the pedestal electron density at detachment is reduced by 35% for a configuration with a high degree of outer divertor closure, compared to an open outer divertor configuration. In this work, SOLPS-ITER modeling, with full drift physics engaged, is used to evaluate the experimental open and closed configurations. Realistic power and particle fluxes are assumed at the core boundary. Predicted 2D ionization profiles will be presented, and sensitivity of detachment behavior to particle and thermal diffusivities, cryopump efficiency, and wall pumping assumptions will be addressed. Initial simulations show a 20% decrease in pedestal density at detachment for the closed configuration, and a similar reduction in the pedestal ionization source. Work supported by US DOE under DE-SC0007880, DE-SC0010434, and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  15. Thermal regimes in the detachment fault environment as deduced from fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, R. E.; Wilkins, J., Jr.; Heidrick, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    Extensional tectonism, which dominates middle- and late-Tertiary geology in western Arizona, southeastern California, and southern Nevada, is characterized by normal regionally extensive, low-angle detachment faults. The decollement movement of Fupper plate rocks relative to lower plate assemblages created extensive zones of dilatency, including synthetic and antithetic listric normal faults, tear faults, tectonic crush breccias, shatter breccias, and gash veins in lithologic units above and below the detachment. The tectonically enhanced permeability above and below the detachment fault permitted mass migration of large volumes of hydrothermal solutions along the fault zone during and following upper plate movement. Major quantities of MgO, CaO, K2O, FeO/Fe2O3, SiO2 and CO2 were added to rocks in and near the detachment and related structures. Also introduced were varying amounts of trace elements including Mn, Cu, S, Mo, Ba, Au, Pb, Zn, U and/or Ag. Minerals containing fluid incusions were collected from all of these loci at locations in detachment faulted terranes in western Arizona and southeastern California.

  16. Evaluation of posterior vitreous detachment after uneventful phacoemulsification surgery by optical coherence tomography and ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmenci, Cumali; Afrashi, Filiz; Mentes, Jale; Oztas, Zafer; Nalcaci, Serhad; Akkin, Cezmi

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of uneventful phacoemulsification on vitreoretinal interface evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound. One hundred and fifty eyes were evaluated for the presence or absence of posterior vitreous detachment by ultrasound and OCT prior to cataract surgery. Only those eyes with intact vitreoretinal adhesion were included in the study. All patients underwent cataract surgery. At one month, three months and six months, all patients were assessed with OCT and ultrasound. The data were analysed for statistical significance. The study was carried out on 30 of 31 patients with no posterior vitreous detachment. The mean age of patients was 62.63 ± 7.15 years (range 49 to 75 years) and 15 were female. Posterior vitreous detachment developed in 17 patients (56.66 per cent) at one month, 21 patients (70 per cent) at three months and 22 patients (73.33 per cent) at six months following the surgery. No complications or acute symptoms were detected associated with posterior vitreous detachment. Vitreoretinal interface changes and vitreoretinal separations and progression of separation can be easily evaluated by OCT. The current study confirms that posterior vitreous detachment occurs commonly soon after cataract surgery. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  17. Absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde in solutions by detached banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhidong; Qi, Chuanjiao; Chen, Qi; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-05-01

    Detached banana leaves are one of the by-products of banana production. In this study, the absorption and metabolism of formaldehyde (HCHO) in solutions by detached banana leaves was investigated under submergence conditions. The results showed that banana leaves could effectively absorb HCHO in the treatment solutions, and the relationship between HCHO absorption and treatment time appeared to fit a radical root function model. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to investigate the ability of detached banana leaves to metabolise H(13)CHO, and the results indicated that the H(13)CHO absorbed from the treatment solutions was converted into non-toxic compounds. High amounts of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, [3-(13)C]serine and [3-(13)C]citrate were produced as a result of H(13)CHO metabolism in banana leaves, and the production of a small amount of [2,4-(13)C]citrate and [2,3-(13)C]alanine was also observed. These results suggest that detached banana leaves can metabolise H(13)CHO and convert it to non-toxic compounds. The metabolic pathways that produce these intermediates in detached banana leaves are postulated based on our (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance data. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of parameter space for fully detached long-legged divertor operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umansky, M. V.; Labombard, B.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2017-10-01

    Recently it was found in numerical modeling that passively-stable fully detached divertor regimes exist in a broad range of input power from the core, for divertor configurations with radially or vertically extended, tightly baffled, outer divertor legs, with or without a secondary X-point in the leg volume. This report presents a comparative computational study of detached divertor operation carried out for a variety of divertor configurations, expanding on the initial work reported in Ref.. The parameters are based on those of the ADX tokamak design, and the simulations are carried out with the tokamak edge transport code UEDGE. The simulations show that long-legged divertors have a large increase of the peak power handling capability, by up to an order of magnitude, compared to conventional divertors. For the detached divertor regime in these simulations, important physics combines interplay of strong convective plasma transport to the outer wall, confinement of neutral gas in the divertor volume, geometric effects including secondary X-point, and atomic radiation. As the power from the core is varied, the detachment front merely shifts up or down in the leg but remains stable. The present work addresses sensitivity of the detached divertor regime to various parameters used in the model, including the anomalous plasma transport, neutral transport, impurity radiation, and geometry of plasma-facing material surfaces. Work performed for U.S. DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Risk of serous retinal detachment in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuh-Shin; Weng, Shih-Feng; Chang, Chun; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Hong-I; Ko, Shun-Yao; Tu, I-Te; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Jian-Jhong; Wang, Ching-Min; Jan, Ren-Long

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective, nationwide, matched cohort study was to investigate the association of serous retinal detachment with having end-stage renal disease (ESRD) while on dialysis. The cohort study included 94,024 patients with ESRD on dialysis registered between January 2000 to December 2009 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. An age- and sex-matched control group comprised 94,024 patients selected from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Information for each patient was collected from the index date until December 2011. Twenty-seven ESRD patients and 11 controls developed serous retinal detachment (P dialysis compared with controls (incidence rate ratio = 3.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68-6.83). After adjustment for potential confounders, patients were 3.86 times more likely to develop serous retinal detachment than the full cohort (adjusted HR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.15-12.96). In conclusion, patients with ESRD on dialysis demonstrate an increased risk of serous retinal detachment. Interdisciplinary collaboration between nephrologists and ophthalmologists is important to deal with serous retinal detachment in patients with ESRD on dialysis and prevent impairments of visual acuity.

  20. Influence of cell detachment on the respiration rate of tumor and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Pierre; Copetti, Tamara; De Preter, Géraldine; Leveque, Philippe; Feron, Olivier; Jordan, Bénédicte F; Sonveaux, Pierre; Gallez, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Cell detachment is a procedure routinely performed in cell culture and a necessary step in many biochemical assays including the determination of oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in vitro. In vivo, cell detachment has been shown to exert profound metabolic influences notably in cancer but also in other pathologies, such as retinal detachment for example. In the present study, we developed and validated a new technique combining electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry and the use of cytodex 1 and collagen-coated cytodex 3 dextran microbeads, which allowed the unprecedented comparison of the OCR of adherent and detached cells with high sensitivity. Hence, we demonstrated that both B16F10 melanoma cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) experience strong OCR decrease upon trypsin or collagenase treatments. The reduction of cell oxygen consumption was more pronounced with a trypsin compared to a collagenase treatment. Cells remaining in suspension also encounter a marked intracellular ATP depletion and an increase in the lactate production/glucose uptake ratio. These findings highlight the important influence exerted by cell adhesion/detachment on cell respiration, which can be probed with the unprecedented experimental assay that was developed and validated in this study.

  1. Temperature Buffer Test. Final THM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Malmberg, Daniel; Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Ledesma, Alberto; Jacinto, Abel [UPC, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the final THM modelling which was resumed subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main part of this work has been numerical modelling of the field test. Three different modelling teams have presented several model cases for different geometries and different degree of process complexity. Two different numerical codes, Code{sub B}right and Abaqus, have been used. The modelling performed by UPC-Cimne using Code{sub B}right, has been divided in three subtasks: i) analysis of the response observed in the lower part of the test, by inclusion of a number of considerations: (a) the use of the Barcelona Expansive Model for MX-80 bentonite; (b) updated parameters in the vapour diffusive flow term; (c) the use of a non-conventional water retention curve for MX-80 at high temperature; ii) assessment of a possible relation between the cracks observed in the bentonite blocks in the upper part of TBT, and the cycles of suction and stresses registered in that zone at the start of the experiment; and iii) analysis of the performance, observations and interpretation of the entire test. It was however not possible to carry out a full THM analysis until the end of the test due to

  2. Psychological States and Working Conditions Buffer Beginning Teachers' Intention to Leave the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The high turnover rates of beginning teachers are an issue of continuing concern in education. However, little is known about the motivational process that encourages beginning teachers to stay in the teaching profession. This study investigated how working conditions (job insecurity, teacher autonomy, collective responsibility, reflective…

  3. Psychological Resources as Stress Buffers: Their Relationship to University Students' Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Juncker, Brian D.; Matheny, Kenneth B.

    2006-01-01

    The association of protective resources, personality variables, life events, and gender with anxiety and depression was examined with university students. Building on regression analyses, a structural equation model was generated with good fit, indicating that with respect to both anxiety and depression, negative life events and coping resources…

  4. Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

  5. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  6. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates. PMID:27069800

  7. Tris buffer modulates polydopamine growth, aggregation, and paramagnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Vecchia, Nicola Fyodor; Luchini, Alessandra; Napolitano, Alessandra; D'Errico, Gerardino; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Szekely, Noemi; d'Ischia, Marco; Paduano, Luigi

    2014-08-19

    Despite the growing technological interest of polydopamine (dopamine melanin)-based coatings for a broad variety of applications, the factors governing particle size, shape, and electronic properties of this bioinspired multifunctional material have remained little understood. Herein, we report a detailed characterization of polydopamine growth, particle morphology, and paramagnetic properties as a function of dopamine concentration and nature of the buffer (pH 8.5). Dynamic Light Scattering data revealed an increase in the hydrodynamic radii (Rh) of melanin particles with increasing dopamine concentration in all buffers examined, especially in phosphate buffer. Conversely, a marked inhibition of particle growth was apparent in Tris buffer, with Rh remaining as low as polydopamine samples prepared in Tris buffer, denoting more homogeneous paramagnetic centers with respect to similar samples obtained in phosphate and bicarbonate buffers. Overall, these results disclose Tris buffer as an efficient modulator of polydopamine buildup and properties for the rational control and fine-tuning of melanin aggregate size, morphology, and free radical behavior.

  8. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Montanaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2. All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates.

  9. Accelerating Science with the NERSC Burst Buffer Early User Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhimji, Wahid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, Debbie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romanus, Melissa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Paul, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ovsyannikov, Andrey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Friesen, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bryson, Matt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Correa, Joaquin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lockwood, Glenn K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsulaia, Vakho [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Byna, Suren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Farrell, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gursoy, Doga [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Daley, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beckner, Vince [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Van Straalen, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tull, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weber, Gunther H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wright, Nicholas J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Prabhat, none [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    NVRAM-based Burst Buffers are an important part of the emerging HPC storage landscape. The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory recently installed one of the first Burst Buffer systems as part of its new Cori supercomputer, collaborating with Cray on the development of the DataWarp software. NERSC has a diverse user base comprised of over 6500 users in 700 different projects spanning a wide variety of scientific computing applications. The use-cases of the Burst Buffer at NERSC are therefore also considerable and diverse. We describe here performance measurements and lessons learned from the Burst Buffer Early User Program at NERSC, which selected a number of research projects to gain early access to the Burst Buffer and exercise its capability to enable new scientific advancements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a Burst Buffer has been stressed at scale by diverse, real user workloads and therefore these lessons will be of considerable benefit to shaping the developing use of Burst Buffers at HPC centers.

  10. Gilliam County Riparian Buffers; 2003-2004 Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coiner, Josh (Gilliam Soil and Water Conservation District, Condon, OR)

    2004-06-01

    Interest appears to be at an all-time high for riparian conservation programs in Gilliam County. With the recently added Herbaceous Buffer and the already established CREP program interest is booming. However, more and more people are turning towards the herbaceous buffer because of expense. The riparian forest buffer is becoming too expensive. Even with the excellent cost share and incentives landowners are having trouble with Farm Service Agency's payment limitation. Because of this payment limitation landowners are not receiving their full rental and incentive payments, usually in year one. This has cooled the installation of riparian forest buffers and peaked interest in the CP-29 (Herbaceous Buffer for Wildlife). Either way, riparian lands are being enhanced and water quality is being improved. Year three should be very similar to the accomplishments of year 2. There has already been several projects proposed that may or may not be approved during year 3. I am currently working on three projects that are all over 2.5 miles long on each side and total anywhere from 60 to 250 acres in size. Along with these three projects there at least seven small projects being proposed. Four of those projects are riparian forest buffers and the remaining are herbaceous buffers.

  11. Detachment of secondary dendrite arm in a directionally solidified Sn-Ni peritectic alloy under deceleration growth condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-06-01

    In order to better understand the detachment mechanism of secondary dendrite arm during peritectic solidification, the detachment of secondary dendrite arm from the primary dendrite arms in directionally solidified Sn-36at.%Ni peritectic alloys is investigated at different deceleration rates. Extensive detachment of secondary dendrite arms from primary stem is observed below peritectic reaction temperature TP. And an analytical model is established to characterize the detachment process in terms of the secondary dendrite arm spacing λ2, the root radius of detached arms and the specific surface area (SV) of dendrites. It is found that the detachment mechanism is caused by not only curvature difference between the tips and roots of secondary branches, but also that between the thicker secondary branches and the thinner ones. Besides, this detachment process is significantly accelerated by the temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM) effect during peritectic solidification. It is demonstrated that the reaction constant (f) which is used to characterize the kinetics of peritectic reaction is crucial for the determination of the detachment process. The value of f not only changes with growth rate but also with solidification time at a given deceleration rate. In conclusion, these findings help the better understanding of the detachment mechanism.

  12. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  13. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  14. Return to work and risk of subsequent detachment from employment after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Laerke; Numé, Anna Karin; Charlot, Mette

    2017-01-01

    after first-time MI in the period 1997 to 2012, who were employed before admission. To assess the cumulative incidence of return to work and detachment from employment, the Aalen Johansen estimator was used. Incidences were compared with population controls matched on age and sex. Logistic regression...... was applied to estimate odds ratios for associations between detachment from employment and age, sex, comorbidities, income, and education level. Of 39 296 patients of working age discharged after first-time MI, 22 394 (56.9%) were employed before admission. Within 1 year 91.1% (95% confidence interval [CI......Background--Limited data are available on return to work and subsequent detachment from employment after admission for myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results--Using individual-level linkage of data from nationwide registries, we identified patients of working age (30-65 years) discharged...

  15. Ancient Wall Tiles – The Importance of the Glaze/Ceramic Interface in Glaze Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa COSTA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pathologies suffered by early industrially produced tiles in Portugal in late nineteenth century is glaze detachment in wall tiles placed in the lower part of the façade. It is known that salts crystallize provoking the glaze detachment, destroying the waterproofing and the beauty of the wall tile and this is one of the crucial factors towards this occurrence. The present work questions the importance of the thickness of glaze/ceramic body interface, in what concerns glaze detachment provoked by salt crystallization. SEM-EDS was used to perform all the observations that lead to the conclusion that the exuberance of the interface between glaze and ceramic body has no influence in the resistance of the glaze to salt crystallization though time, being the porous network more determinant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3815

  16. [A case of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (PAVF) treated with detachable balloon embolotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, N; Yamada, M; Ohtsuka, H; Akizawa, T; Narushima, M; Tanaka, K; Osakabe, Y; Suzuki, H; Noguchi, E; Suzuki, S

    1993-01-01

    A case of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (PAVF) treated with detachable balloon embolotherapy is reported. A 31-year-old man was admitted to hospital because of polycythemia and hypoxemia. He had a history of dyspnea on exertion and transient cerebral ischemic attacks (TIA). Chest roentgenogram revealed a peripheral lobulated lesion in the right upper lung field and a coin lesion in the left lung field connected by dilated blood vessels to each hilus. Pulmonary angiography and right heart catheterization was performed. Four PAVFs were observed in bilateral lung field, and the intrapulmonary shunt ratio was 25.8%. Because the patient was symptomatic, we embolized each PAVF with a detachable balloon without complications. After embolotherapy, there was improvement in his symptoms. hypoxemia and shunt ratio. Recent reviews have highlighted the need to consider embolotherapy for bilateral multiple PAVF. We conclude that embolotherapy with detachable balloon is a very useful procedure for treatment of bilateral multiple PAVF.

  17. Signs of hydroxychloroquine toxicity in a patient with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Pavón, J; Sambricio, J; Redondo-García, I

    2016-09-01

    The case is presented of a 56 year-old patient diagnosed with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and on treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). A Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) was performed that showed changes in the outer retina in the eye with macular detachment, as well as the «flying saucer» sign in the other eye. After a complete retinopexy the «flying saucer» sign was still present. SD-OCT could be used as a test in order to reveal HCQ toxicity in the event of retinal detachment. In this case, this technique shows abnormalities such as a hyper-reflective line in the outer retina layers. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. One- and two-electron detachment from I- in single rare-gas collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, B.; Rahman, F.

    1984-12-01

    Cross sections for the production of fast I0 and I+ particles from I- negative ions in single collisions with He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe targets are reported. The single-electron-detachment cross sections, which previously have been found to reach roughly constant values in other targets at about 100-eV center-of-mass energy, continue to rise until about 8 keV in neon, supporting the suggestion that the (I-Ne) molecular state does not cross into the continuum. The double-electron-detachment cross sections do not show the inverse target-mass dependence which has been found for F--rare-gas double-electron-detachment collisions.

  19. Return to Work and Risk of Subsequent Detachment From Employment After Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Laerke; Numé, Anna-Karin; Charlot, Mette

    2017-01-01

    was applied to estimate odds ratios for associations between detachment from employment and age, sex, comorbidities, income, and education level. Of 39 296 patients of working age discharged after first-time MI, 22 394 (56.9%) were employed before admission. Within 1 year 91.1% (95% confidence interval [CI...... with population controls. Predictors of detachment were heart failure (odds ratio 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08-1.34]), diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 1.13 [95% CI, 1.01-1.25]), and depression (odds ratio 1.77 [95% CI, 1.55-2.01]). High education level and high income favored continued employment. CONCLUSIONS: Despite......BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on return to work and subsequent detachment from employment after admission for myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using individual-level linkage of data from nationwide registries, we identified patients of working age (30-65 years) discharged...

  20. Shallow Anterior Chamber in a Severe Case of Unilateral Acute Central Serous Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Colakoglu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atypical serous chorioretinopathy can present with symptoms similar to those of other pachychoroid diseases; however, a proper differential diagnosis will prevent unnecessary intensive treatments. To this end, we report on the shallowness of anterior chamber and transitory anterior vitreous cells in a patient with atypical severe serous retinal detachment. Case Presentation: A 42-year-old woman presented with unilateral visual loss accompanied by mild, vague eye pain for 4 days. Spectral-domain OCT scans of the left eye showed macular and peripapillary serous detachment. Optical biometry showed the clinically significant shallow anterior chamber. Conclusions: Severe central serous chorioretinopathy can show up in an atypical fashion with macular, extramacular, juxtapapillary serous detachments, temporary existence of anterior vitreous cells, clinically detectable decreased anterior chamber depth, and mild eye pain of short duration.

  1. Farallon slab detachment and deformation of the Magdalena Shelf, southern Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Antonio; Holbrook, W.S. Steven; Kent, Graham M.; Driscoll, Neal W.; Fletcher, John M.; Lizarralde, Daniel; Umhoefer, Paul J.; Axen, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Subduction of the Farallon plate beneath northwestern Mexico stalled by ~12 Ma when the Pacific-Farallon spreading-ridge approached the subduction zone. Coupling between remnant slab and the overriding North American plate played an important role in the capture of the Baja California (BC) microplate by the Pacific Plate. Active-source seismic reflection and wide-angle seismic refraction profiles across southwestern BC (~24.5°N) are used to image the extent of remnant slab and study its impact on the overriding plate. We infer that the hot, buoyant slab detached ~40 km landward of the fossil trench. Isostatic rebound following slab detachment uplifted the margin and exposed the Magdalena Shelf to wave-base erosion. Subsequent cooling, subsidence and transtensional opening along the shelf (starting ~8 Ma) starved the fossil trench of terrigenous sediment input. Slab detachment and the resultant rebound of the margin provide a mechanism for rapid uplift and exhumation of forearc subduction complexes.

  2. Inverted autologous internal limiting membrane for management of optic disc pit with macular detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Osman Abdelzaher; Pai, Anant

    2013-01-01

    Macular detachment causes visual deterioration in 25-75% of patients with congenital optic disc pit. A number of treatment options have been reported to manage the macular detachment in optic pit. An optic disc pit represents a defect in the lamina cribrosa; theoretically, an ideal procedure to treat optic pit associated macular detachment would be one that prevents the flow of fluid across the pit by creating an additional barrier. We present a new surgical technique that employs an autologous internal limiting membrane (ILM) to create this barrier. The technique involves standard vitrectomy along-with ILM peeling. Subsequently, the peeled ILM was inverted and transplanted onto the optic disc pit to close the optic nerve pit. This technique showed satisfactory anatomic result with good functional improvement in visual acuity.

  3. Comparison of detached and radiative divertor operation in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, J.A.; Kurz, C.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Niemczewski, A.; McCracken, G.M.; Terry, J.L.; Boivin, R.L.; Bombarda, F.; Bonoli, P.; Fiore, C.; Golovato, S.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Horne, S.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I.; Irby, J.; Marmar, E.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, J.; Snipes, J.; Takase, Y.; Watterson, R.; Welch, B.; Wolfe, S.; Christensen, C.; Garnier, D.; Jablonski, D.; Lo, D.; Lumma, D.; May, M.; Mazurenko, A.; Nachtrieb, R.; OShea, P.; Reardon, J.; Rost, J.; Schachter, J.; Sorci, J.; Stek, P.; Umansky, M.; Wang, Y. [Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The divertor of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [Phys. Plasmas {bold 1}, 1511 (1994)] routinely radiates a large fraction of the power entering the scrape-off layer. This dissipative divertor operation occurs whether the divertor is detached or not, and large volumetric radiative emissivities, up to 60 MWm{sup {minus}3} in ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heated discharges, have been measured using bolometer arrays. An analysis of both Ohmic and ICRF-heated discharges has demonstrated some of the relative merits of detached divertor operation versus high-recycling divertor operation. An advantage of detached divertor operation is that the power flux to the divertor plates is decreased even further than its already low value. Some disadvantages are that volumetric losses outside the separatrix in the divertor region are decreased, the neutral compression ratio is decreased, and the penetration efficiency of impurities increases. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Measurement of He neutral temperature in detached plasmas using laser absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aramaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the heat load onto plasma-facing components by plasma detachment is an inevitable scheme in future nuclear fusion reactors. Since the control of the plasma and neutral temperatures is a key issue to the detached plasma generation, we have developed a laser absorption spectroscopy system for the metastable helium temperature measurements and used together with a previously developed laser Thomson scattering system for the electron temperature and density measurements. The thermal relaxation process between the neutral and the electron in the detached plasma generated in the linear plasma device, NAGDIS-II was studied. It is shown that the electron temperature gets close to the neutral temperature by increasing the electron density. On the other hand, the pressure dependence of electron and neutral temperatures shows the cooling effect by the neutrals. The possibility of the plasma fluctuation measurement using the fluctuation in the absorption signal is also shown.

  5. Recurrence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia manifesting as serous retinal detachments and optic disc swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabas Kiziloglu, Ozge; Mestanoglu, Mert; Totuk Gedar, Ozgun Melike; Adiguzel, Cafer; Toygar, Okan

    2017-07-15

    The aim of this case report is to describe a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who developed bilateral serous retinal detachments and unilateral optic disc swelling. A 23-year-old woman with ALL presented to the ophthalmology clinic with bilateral subacute visual loss. Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral serous retinal detachments and unilateral optic disc swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging for differential diagnosis was inconclusive; however, cerebrospinal fluid sampling demonstrated leukemic involvement of the central nervous system. The patient's vision improved and fundus findings resolved with the institution of systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy. Serous retinal detachment and optic disc swelling are unusual ocular manifestations of ALL. They may occur due to leukemic infiltration of ocular structures and may indicate extramedullary recurrence of the disease. Early recognition and treatment is crucial to improve prognosis.

  6. Management of retinal detachment in block related globe perforation with pneumatic retinopexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karandeep Rishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal detachment after ocular perforation related to local anesthesia is a common complication, which is usually associated with a poor prognosis despite complex vitreoretinal surgical procedures. We report a case of 62-year-old male with cataract surgery done 4 weeks back with nasal retinal detachment with a posterior break. Pneumatic retinopexy was performed and laser barrage of the breaks was done the next day when the retina got attached. A vision of 20/30 was achieved at the end of 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first case report in literature where pneumatic retinopexy was used to manage a retinal detachment caused by block-related perforation.

  7. Bacterial attachment and detachment in aluminum-coated quartz sand in response to ionic strength change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Park, Seong-Jik; Han, Yong-Un; Park, Jeong-Ann; Kim, Song-Bae

    2010-06-01

    Column experiments were performed to investigate the effect of ionic strength on the attachment and detachment of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10537 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 in aluminum-coated quartz sand. Results showed that the average mass recovery decreased from 80.7 to 45.3% in quartz sand and remained constant in aluminum-coated sand with increasing ionic concentrations of sodium chloride solution from 1 to 100 mmol/L. As the ionic concentrations of leaching solution changed from 100 to 0.1 mmol/L, average mass recovery of 39.1% was obtained from quartz sand (bacterial release), but no detachment was observed from aluminum-coated sand. This lack of detachment can be attributed to inner-sphere complexes between bacteria and aluminum-coated sand, which are minimally affected by ionic strength. This research indicates that aluminum-coated sand has advantages over quartz sand in bacteria removal in water filtration systems.

  8. Return to work and risk of subsequent detachment from employment after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Laerke; Numé, Anna Karin; Charlot, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background--Limited data are available on return to work and subsequent detachment from employment after admission for myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results--Using individual-level linkage of data from nationwide registries, we identified patients of working age (30-65 years) discharged...... after first-time MI in the period 1997 to 2012, who were employed before admission. To assess the cumulative incidence of return to work and detachment from employment, the Aalen Johansen estimator was used. Incidences were compared with population controls matched on age and sex. Logistic regression...... was applied to estimate odds ratios for associations between detachment from employment and age, sex, comorbidities, income, and education level. Of 39 296 patients of working age discharged after first-time MI, 22 394 (56.9%) were employed before admission. Within 1 year 91.1% (95% confidence interval [CI...

  9. Does colloid shape affect detachment of colloids by a moving air-water interface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L; Davis, Howard P

    2013-05-14

    Air-water interfaces interact strongly with colloidal particles by capillary forces. The magnitude of the interaction force depends on, among other things, the particle shape. Here, we investigate the effects of particle shape on colloid detachment by a moving air-water interface. We used hydrophilic polystyrene colloids with four different shapes (spheres, barrels, rods, and oblong disks), but otherwise identical surface properties. The nonspherical shapes were created by stretching spherical microspheres on a film of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The colloids were then deposited onto the inner surface of a glass channel. An air bubble was introduced into the channel and passed through, thereby generating a receding followed by an advancing air-water interface. The detachment of colloids by the air-water interfaces was visualized with a confocal microscope, quantified by image analysis, and analyzed statistically to determine significant differences. For all colloid shapes, the advancing air-water interface caused pronounced colloid detachment (>63%), whereas the receding interface was ineffective in colloid detachment (colloid shapes, the barrels were most readily removed (94%) by the advancing interface, followed by the spheres and oblong disks (80%) and the rods (63%). Colloid detachment was significantly affected by colloid shape. The presence of an edge, as it occurs in a barrel-shaped colloid, promoted colloid detachment because the air-water interface is being pinned at the edge of the colloid. This suggests that the magnitude of colloid mobilization and transport in porous media is underestimated for edged particles and overestimated for rodlike particles when a sphere is used as a model colloid.

  10. Quantification of the lateral detachment force for bacterial cells using atomic force microscope and centrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tong, E-mail: zhangt@hkucc.hku.hk [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Chao, Yuanqing; Shih, Kaimin; Li, Xiao-Yan; Fang, Herbert H.P. [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-01-15

    To determine the lateral detachment force for individual bacterial cells, a quantitative method using the contact mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM) was developed in this study. Three key factors for the proposed method, i.e. scan size, scan rate and cantilever choice, were evaluated and optimized. The scan size of 40x40 {mu}m{sup 2} was optimal for capturing sufficient number of adhered cells in a microscopic field and provide adequate information for cell identification and detachment force measurement. The scan rate affected the measurement results significantly, and was optimized at 40 {mu}m/s considering both force measurement accuracy and experimental efficiency. The hardness of applied cantilevers also influenced force determination. The proposed protocol for cantilever selection is to use those with the lowest spring constant first and then step up to a harder cantilever until all cells are detached. The lateral detachment force of Escherichia coli cells on polished stainless steel and a glass-slide coated with poly-L-lysine were measured as 0.763{+-}0.167 and 0.639{+-}0.136 nN, respectively. The results showed that the established method had good repeatability and sensitivity to various bacteria/substrata combinations. The detachment force quantified by AFM (0.639{+-}0.136 nN) was comparable to that measured by the centrifugation method (1.12 nN). -- Research highlights: {yields} A quantitative method via AFM is developed to measure the lateral detachment force of an attached cell. {yields} The parameters of AFM operation for this method are optimized. {yields} The tests using E. coli on different substrata show that the method has good repeatability and sensitivity. {yields} The method could obtain reliable results that are comparable to those using the centrifugation approach.

  11. Listeria monocytogenes attachment to and detachment from stainless steel surfaces in a simulated dairy processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poimenidou, Sofia; Belessi, Charalambia A; Giaouris, Efstathios D; Gounadaki, Antonia S; Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2009-11-01

    The presence of pathogens in dairy products is often associated with contamination via bacteria attached to food-processing equipment, especially from areas where cleaning/sanitation is difficult. In this study, the attachment of Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel (SS), followed by detachment and growth in foods, was evaluated under conditions simulating a dairy processing environment. Initially, SS coupons were immersed in milk, vanilla custard, and yogurt inoculated with the pathogen (10(7) CFU/ml or CFU/g) and incubated at two temperatures (5 and 20 degrees C) for 7 days. By the end of incubation, cells were mechanically detached from coupons and used to inoculate freshly pasteurized milk which was subsequently stored at 5 degrees C for 20 days. The suspended cells in all three products in which SS coupons were immersed were also used to inoculate freshly pasteurized milk (5 degrees C for 20 days). When SS coupons were immersed in milk, shorter lag phases were obtained for detached than for planktonically grown cells, regardless of the preincubation temperature (5 or 20 degrees C). The opposite was observed when custard incubated at 20 degrees C was used to prepare the two types of inocula. However, in this case, a significant increase in growth rate was also evident when the inoculum was derived from detached cells. In another parallel study, while L. monocytogenes was not detectable on SS coupons after 7 days of incubation (at 5 degrees C) in inoculated yogurt, marked detachment and growth were observed when these coupons were subsequently transferred and incubated at 5 degrees C in fresh milk or/and custard. Overall, the results obtained extend our knowledge on the risk related to contamination of dairy products with detached L. monocytogenes cells.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of human retinal detachment reveals both inflammatory response and photoreceptor death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Noëlle Delyfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinal detachment often leads to a severe and permanent loss of vision and its therapeutic management remains to this day exclusively surgical. We have used surgical specimens to perform a differential analysis of the transcriptome of human retinal tissues following detachment in order to identify new potential pharmacological targets that could be used in combination with surgery to further improve final outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Statistical analysis reveals major involvement of the immune response in the disease. Interestingly, using a novel approach relying on coordinated expression, the interindividual variation was monitored to unravel a second crucial aspect of the pathological process: the death of photoreceptor cells. Within the genes identified, the expression of the major histocompatibility complex I gene HLA-C enables diagnosis of the disease, while PKD2L1 and SLCO4A1 -which are both down-regulated- act synergistically to provide an estimate of the duration of the retinal detachment process. Our analysis thus reveals the two complementary cellular and molecular aspects linked to retinal detachment: an immune response and the degeneration of photoreceptor cells. We also reveal that the human specimens have a higher clinical value as compared to artificial models that point to IL6 and oxidative stress, not implicated in the surgical specimens studied here. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic analysis confirmed the occurrence of both neurodegeneration and inflammation during retinal detachment, and further identifies precisely the modification of expression of the different genes implicated in these two phenomena. Our data henceforth give a new insight into the disease process and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting inflammation and photoreceptor damage associated with retinal detachment and, in turn, improving visual prognosis after retinal surgery.

  13. Rockfall events in the European Alps: analysis of topography and permafrost conditions at the detachment zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegeli, Barbara; Nötzli, Jeannette; Fischer, Luzia

    2010-05-01

    The occurrence and changes of permafrost can influence the stability of high mountain rock walls among other factors such as topography, geology or hydrology. Knowledge of the connection between rock fall and permafrost is still limited, but several indications link past rock fall events and the warming of permafrost. For example, observation of numerous rock fall events in the unusually dry and hot summer 2003, the presence of ice in detachment zones, or the demonstrated reduction of shear-strength in ice-filled fractures with warming temperatures. The main objective of the presented study is the analysis of past rock fall staring zones in the European Alps with focus on permafrost and topography in order to learn about the conditions under which such instabilities develop. An inventory of recent rock fall events in the European Alps (mainly the past 100 years) has been established and the collected data has been analysed. The work presented bases on and extends similar earlier studies of rock fall starting zones in permafrost areas. In a first step, a descriptive statistical analysis of topographic and geological characteristics of the detachment zones was conducted and subsequently, the permafrost conditions in the detachment zones were investigated: a) the evaluation of the elevation and the aspect for each detachment zone and the relative comparison with two different permafrost boundary estimations from regional permafrost models, b) the relation of the mean annual air temperature and the potential solar radiation for each detachment zone, c) the assessment of the topographical situation of each detachment zone. Despite uncertainties in the raw data, results corroborate findings from earlier studies that the majority of the rock fall events in the inventory originated from areas with potentially warm permafrost. Interestingly, a large proportion of events originates from areas below ridges and peaks.

  14. Emotional detachment in psychopathy: Involvement of dorsal default-mode connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Arjun; Gregory, Sarah; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Periche Thomas, Eva; Simmons, Andy; Murphy, Declan G M; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Blackwood, Nigel J; Craig, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Criminal psychopathy is defined by emotional detachment [Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R) factor 1], and antisocial behaviour (PCL-R factor 2). Previous work has associated antisocial behaviour in psychopathy with abnormalities in a ventral temporo-amygdala-orbitofrontal network. However, little is known of the neural correlates of emotional detachment. Imaging studies have indicated that the 'default-mode network' (DMN), and in particular its dorsomedial (medial prefrontal - posterior cingulate) component, contributes to affective and social processing in healthy individuals. Furthermore, recent work suggests that this network may be implicated in psychopathy. However, no research has examined the relationship between psychopathy, emotional detachment, and the white matter underpinning the DMN. We therefore used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography in 13 offenders with psychopathy and 13 non-offenders to investigate the relationship between emotional detachment and the microstructure of white matter connections within the DMN. These included the dorsal cingulum (containing the medial prefrontal - posterior cingulate connections of the DMN), and the ventral cingulum (containing the posterior cingulate - medial temporal connections of the DMN). We found that fractional anisotropy (FA) was reduced in the left dorsal cingulum in the psychopathy group (p = .024). Moreover, within this group, emotional detachment was negatively correlated with FA in this tract portion bilaterally (left: r = -.61, p = .026; right: r = -.62, p = .023). These results suggest the importance of the dorsal DMN in the emotional detachment observed in individuals with psychopathy. We propose a 'dual-network' model of white matter abnormalities in the disorder, which incorporates these with previous findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lean buffering in serial production lines with Bernoulli machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean buffering is the smallest buffer capacity necessary to ensure the desired production rate of a manufacturing system. In this paper, analytical methods for selecting lean buffering in serial production lines are developed under the assumption that the machines obey the Bernoulli reliability model. Both closed-form expressions and recursive approaches are investigated. The cases of identical and nonidentical machines are analyzed. Results obtained can be useful for production line designers and production managers to maintain the required production rate with the smallest possible inventories.

  16. Job Shop Scheduling Focusing on Role of Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Rei; Kusumi, Tetsuya; Yoo, Jae-Kyu; Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    A scheduling problem is formulated in order to consistently manage each manufacturing resource, including machine tools, assembly robots, AGV, storehouses, material shelves, and so on. The manufacturing resources are classified into three types: producer, location, and mover. This paper focuses especially on the role of the buffer, and the differences among these types are analyzed. A unified scheduling formulation is derived from the analytical results based on the resource’s roles. Scheduling procedures based on dispatching rules are also proposed in order to numerically evaluate job shop-type production having finite buffer capacity. The influences of the capacity of bottle-necked production devices and the buffer on productivity are discussed.

  17. Enhanced adhesion for LIGA microfabrication by using a buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajikar, Sateesh S.; DeCarlo, Francesco; Song, Joshua J.

    1998-05-22

    The present invention is an improvement on the LIGA microfabrication process wherein a buffer layer is applied to the upper or working surface of a substrate prior to the placement of a resist onto the surface of the substrate. The buffer layer is made from an inert low-Z material (low atomic weight), a material that absorbs secondary X-rays emissions from the substrate that are generated from the substrate upon exposure to a primary X-rays source. Suitable materials for the buffer layer include polyamides and polyimide. The preferred polyimide is synthesized from pyromellitic anhydride and oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA).

  18. Enhanced adhesion for LIGA microfabrication by using a buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajikar, Sateesh S.; De Carlo, Francesco; Song, Joshua J.

    2004-01-27

    The present invention is an improvement on the LIGA microfabrication process wherein a buffer layer is applied to the upper or working surface of a substrate prior to the placement of a resist onto the surface of the substrate. The buffer layer is made from an inert low-Z material (low atomic weight), a material that absorbs secondary X-rays emissions from the substrate that are generated from the substrate upon exposure to a primary X-rays source. Suitable materials for the buffer layer include polyamides and polyimide. The preferred polyimide is synthesized form pyromellitic anhydride and oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA).

  19. Enhanced adhesion for LIGA microfabrication by using a buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajikar, Sateesh S. (San Jose, CA); De Carlo, Francesco (Darien, IL); Song, Joshua J. (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement on the LIGA microfabrication process wherein a buffer layer is applied to the upper or working surface of a substrate prior to the placement of a resist onto the surface of the substrate. The buffer layer is made from an inert low-Z material (low atomic weight), a material that absorbs secondary X-rays emissions from the substrate that are generated from the substrate upon exposure to a primary X-rays source. Suitable materials for the buffer layer include polyamides and polyimide. The preferred polyimide is synthesized form pyromellitic anhydride and oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA).

  20. On Buffer-Aided Multiple-Access Relay Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Rongkuan; Popovski, Petar; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This letter treats uplink scenario where M user equipments (UEs) send to a base station (BS), possibly via a common relay station (RS) that is equipped with a buffer. This is a multiple-access relay channel aided by a buffer. We devise a protocol in which the transmission mode is selected...... adaptively, using the buffer at the RS in order to maximize the average system throughput. We consider the general case in which the RS and the BS can have limits on the maximal number of transmitters that can be received over the multiple access channel. In each slot, there are three type possible actions...

  1. Buffer layers for REBCO films for use in superconducting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A superconducting article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface. A biaxially textured buffer layer, which can be a cap layer, is supported by the substrate. The buffer layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different transition metal cations. A biaxially textured superconductor layer is deposited so as to be supported by the buffer layer. A method of making a superconducting article is also disclosed.

  2. Retinal pigment epithelial atrophy following indocyanine green dye-assisted surgery for serous macular detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Nazimul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To report subretinal migration of indocyanine green dye (ICG and subsequent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE atrophy during macular surgery for serous macular detachment. A 65-year-old woman presented with residual epiretinal membrane and serous detachment of the macula following vitreoretinal surgery for epiretinal membrane. She underwent resurgery with ICG-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling and intraocular tamponade. Intraoperatively a large area of subretinal ICG was seen with subsequent RPE mottling and atrophy of the macula in the area involved during follow-up. This case demonstrates that subretinal migration of ICG is possible and can be toxic to RPE.

  3. Results from recent detachment experiments in alternative divertor configurations on TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiler, C.; Lipschultz, B.; Harrison, J.; Labit, B.; Reimerdes, H.; Tsui, C.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Boedo, J. A.; Duval, B. P.; Elmore, S.; Innocente, P.; Kruezi, U.; Lunt, T.; Maurizio, R.; Nespoli, F.; Sheikh, U.; Thornton, A. J.; van Limpt, S. H. M.; Verhaegh, K.; Vianello, N.; the TCV Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-07-01

    Divertor detachment is explored on the TCV tokamak in alternative magnetic geometries. Starting from typical TCV single-null shapes, the poloidal flux expansion at the outer strikepoint is varied by a factor of 10 to investigate the X-divertor characteristics, and the total flux expansion is varied by 70 % to study the properties of the super-X divertor. The effect of an additional X-point near the target is investigated in X-point target divertors. Detachment of the outer target is studied in these plasmas during Ohmic density ramps and with the ion \

  4. Vapour bubble growth and detachment at the wall of shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhar, G.; Riboux, G.; Colin, C. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

    2009-05-15

    N-pentane micro-bubbles are created on a small heated film flushed-mounted at the lower wall of a horizontal channel. The bubble growth and detachment in the shear flow are filmed with a high-speed video camera. The time evolutions of the bubble radius and bubble centre position are measured from image processing. The growth rate is determined and compared to models of the literature. The experimental results are also used to estimate the different forces acting on the bubble during its growth and after its detachment. (orig.)

  5. Detachment of Liquid-Water Droplets from Gas-Diffusion Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Prodip K.

    2011-01-01

    A critical issue for optimal water management in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells at lower temperatures is the removal of liquid water from the cell. This pathway is intimately linked with the phenomena of liquid-water droplet removal from surface of the gas-diffusion layer and into the flow channel. Thus, a good understanding of liquid-water transport and droplet growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layer is critical. In this study, liquid-water droplet growth and detachment on th...

  6. Surgical management of retinal diseases: proliferative diabetic retinopathy and traction retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Iñigo, Yousef J; Acabá, Luis A; Berrocal, Maria H

    2014-01-01

    Current indications for pars plana vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) include vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment (TRD), combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (CTRRD), diabetic macular edema associated with posterior hyaloidal traction, and anterior segment neovascularization with media opacities. This chapter will review the indications, surgical objectives, adjunctive pharmacotherapy, microincision surgical techniques, and outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy for PDR, TRD, and CTRRD. With the availability of new microincision vitrectomy technology, wide-angle microscope viewing systems, and pharmacologic agents, vitrectomy can improve visual acuity and achieve long-term anatomic stability in eyes with severe complications from PDR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for idiophatic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis associated with serous macular detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Escarião

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a 50-year-old woman with group 2 juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis and macular detachment treated with a single-dose of intravitreous bevacizumab injection. There was an improvement in her visual acuity, with a decrease in retinal thickness showed by the optical coherence tomography and fluorescein leakage in the angiography on follow-up visits. No adverse events were observed as a result of the treatment used. After one year of follow-up, the vision remained stable and macular detachment did not recur.

  8. A low-dose mindfulness intervention and recovery from work: effects on psychological detachment, sleep quality, and sleep duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüslheger, U.R.; Feinholdt, A.; Nübold, A.

    2015-01-01

    Although playing a crucial role for the prevention of long-term health impairment, interventions aiming at the improvement of employees' recovery processes are still scarce. In this study, we therefore investigated the effectiveness of a low-dose mindfulness intervention for recovery from work. In

  9. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  10. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M

    2006-08-01

    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  11. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  12. Transient response of a thermal buffer: A study for ISABELLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, W. J.

    The design and transient response of a buffer for use during cooldown of ISABELLE is discussed. Introduction of an insensitive thermal mass of the inlet of a sextant ahead of the first semiconducting magnets is considered.

  13. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  15. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  18. Effects of Different Buffers on the Construction of Aptamer Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Quan; Dai, Zhao; Wu, Wenjing; Zhu, Haijia; Ji, Luyu

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of different buffers, PBS and TBE, on the construction of an aptamer sensor (apt sensor) for ATP was investigated. The apt sensor was based on fluorescence energy resonance transfer (FRET), when the energy donor was 5'-carboxyfluorescein (5'-FAM) and the energy receptor was Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), respectively. Both the donor and acceptor were conjugated with complementary and single stranded DNA (ssDNA). The fluorescent changes of the sensors were measured to investigate the influence of different buffers during the whole preparation and detection process. The results indicated that when the AuNPs and ssDNA (Au-DNA1) were conjugated in PBS buffer, the corresponding apt sensors would obtain a better detection ability of ATP than in TBE buffer.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  20. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  2. Buffers for biomass production in temperate European agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    Buffer strips on agricultural land have been shown to protect surface water quality by reducing erosion and diffuse pollution. They can also play a key role in nature conservation and flood risk mitigation as well as in the design of bioenergy landscapes resilient to changes in climate, environme......Buffer strips on agricultural land have been shown to protect surface water quality by reducing erosion and diffuse pollution. They can also play a key role in nature conservation and flood risk mitigation as well as in the design of bioenergy landscapes resilient to changes in climate...... or pasture land. Root architecture of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants differs between species and is important for the extent of hydrological changes after establishment. Riparian buffers retain 30-99% of nitrate N and 20-100% of phosphorous from runoff and shallow groundwater. Buffers are also highly...

  3. Analysis of Buffer Arrangements in Low and High Dimensional Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alzeidi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual channels have been introduced to enhance the performance of wormhole-switched networks. They are formed by arranging the buffer space dedicated to a given physical channel into multiple parallel buffers that share the physical bandwidth on a demand driven time-multiplexed manner. The question to be answered is: given a fixed amount of finite buffer what is the optimal way to arrange it into virtual channels. There have been few studies attempting to address this issue, however, these studies have so far resorted to simulation experiments and focused on deterministic routing algorithms. In this paper we use analytical performance models to investigate the optimal arrangement of the available buffer space into multiple virtual channels when adaptive routing is used in wormhole-switched k-ary ncubes.

  4. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  10. EnviroAtlas - New Haven, CT - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  12. The influence of tooth brushing time over saliva buffering capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Mulyanti; Hetty Anggrawati

    2014-01-01

    Saliva gives a considerable influence against the growth of dental caries as a natural defense against caries. the things very important about saliva are its flow rate and buffering capacity. the decrease in saliva flow rate might cause food retention that furthermore would turn into dental plaques, meanwhile it’s buffering capacity will play a considerable role in maintaining the saliva’s pH and remineralization process of the teeth. One of the mechanisms which are considered to be effective...

  13. irradiation on the optical and electrical properties of buffer solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pure and aluminum doped (0.001 wt %Al) CdS thin films were deposited on microscope glass slides using buffer solution growth technique based on CdSO4 as the cadmium source, thiourea as the sulphur source, and (NH4)2 SO4 as a buffer. The effects of gamma radiation on the optical and electrical properties of the ...

  14. The buffer/container experiment design and construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, N.A.; Wan, A.W.L.; Roach, P.J

    1998-03-01

    The Buffer/Container Experiment was a full-scale in situ experiment, installed at a depth of 240 m in granitic rock at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The experiment was designed to examine the performance of a compacted sand-bentonite buffer material under the influences of elevated temperature and in situ moisture conditions. Buffer material was compacted in situ into a 5-m-deep, 1.24-m-diameter borehole drilled into the floor of an excavation. A 2.3-m long heater, representative of a nuclear fuel waste container, was placed within the buffer, and instrumentation was installed to monitor changes in buffer moisture conditions, temperature and stress. The experiment was sealed at the top of the borehole and restrained against vertical displacement. Instrumentation in the rock monitored pore pressures, temperatures and rock displacement. The heater was operated at a constant power of 1200 W, which provided a heater skin temperature of approximately 85 degrees C. Experiment construction and installation required two years, followed by two and a half years of heater operation and two years of monitoring the rock conditions during cooling. The construction phase of the experiment included the design, construction and testing of a segmental heater and controller, geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock, excavation of the experiment room, drilling of the emplacement borehole using high pressure water, mixing and in situ compaction of buffer material, installation of instrumentation in the rock, buffer and on the heater, and the construction of concrete curb and steel vertical restraint system at the top of emplacement borehole. Upon completion of the experiment, decommissioning sampling equipment was designed and constructed and sampling methods were developed which allowed approximately 2000 samples of buffer material to be taken over a 12-day period. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of experiment

  15. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  16. Deflating link buffers in a wireless mesh network

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for backlogged TCP flows in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. Unlike wired networks where a single link buffer feeds a bottleneck link, the radio spectral resource in a mesh network is shared among a set of contending mesh routers. We account for this by formulating the buffer size problem as sizing a collective buffer distributed over a set of interfering nodes. In this paper we propose mechanisms for sizing and distributing this collective buffer among the mesh nodes constituting the network bottleneck. Our mechanism factors in the network topology and wireless link rates, improving on pre-set buffer allocations that cannot optimally work across the range of configurations achievable with 802.11 radios. We evaluate our mechanisms using simulations as well as experiments on a testbed. Our results show that we can reduce the RTT of a flow by 6× or more, at the cost of less than 10% drop in end-to-end flow throughput.

  17. Receiver buffer requirement for video streaming over TCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyun; Ammar, Mostafa H.

    2006-01-01

    TCP is one of the most widely used transport protocols for video streaming. However, the rate variability of TCP makes it difficult to provide good video quality. To accommodate the variability, video streaming applications require receiver-side buffering. In current practice, however, there are no systematic guidelines for the provisioning of the receiver buffer, and smooth playout is insured through over-provisioning. In this work, we are interested in memory-constrained applications where it is important to determine the right size of receiver buffer in order to insure a prescribed video quality. To that end, we characterize video streaming over TCP in a systematic and quantitative manner. We first model a video streaming system analytically and derive an expression of receiver buffer requirement based on the model. Our analysis shows that the receiver buffer requirement is determined by the network characteristics and desired video quality. Experimental results validate our model and demonstrate that the receiver buffer requirement achieves desired video quality.

  18. Design, production and initial state of the buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Lennart; Gunnarsson, David; Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Jonsson, Esther

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the buffer for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the engineered barriers once they have been finally placed in the KBS-3 repository and will not be further handled within the repository facility. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the buffer shall be handled and installed. The report presents the design premises and reference design of the buffer and verifies the conformity of the reference design to the design premises. It also describes the production of the buffer, from excavation and delivery of buffer material to installation in the deposition hole. Finally, the initial state of the buffer and its conformity to the reference design and design premises is presented

  19. Diazinon and permethrin mitigation across a grass-wetland buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Kröger, R; Locke, M A; Lizotte, R E; Testa, S; Cooper, C M

    2014-11-01

    Vegetated buffers of different designs are often used as edge-of-field treatment practices to remove pesticides that may be entrained in agricultural runoff. However, buffer system efficacy in pesticide runoff mitigation varies widely due to a multitude of factors including, but not limited to, pesticide chemistry, vegetation composition, and hydrology. Two experimental systems, a control (no vegetation) and a grass-wetland buffer system, were evaluated for their ability to retain diazinon and permethrin associated with a simulated storm runoff. The two systems were equally inefficient at retaining diazinon (mean 9.6 % retention for control and buffer). Grass-wetland buffers retained 83 % and 85 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively, while the control only retained 39 % and 44 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively. Half-distances (the distance required to decrease pesticide concentration by one-half) for both permethrin isomers were 26 %-30 % shorter in grass buffers (22-23 m) than in the control (32 m). The current study demonstrates treatment efficacy was a function of pesticide properties with the more strongly sorbing permethrin retained to a greater degree. The study also demonstrates challenges in remediating multiple pesticides with a single management practice. By using suites of management practices, especially those employing vegetation, better mitigation of pesticide impacts may be accomplished.

  20. Cultural Consonance, Religion and Psychological Distress in an Urban Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Dressler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals approximate prototypes encoded in cultural models. Low cultural consonance is associated with higher psychological distress. Religion may moderate the association between cultural consonance and psychological distress. Brazil, with substantial variation in religion, is an important society for the examination of this hypothesis. Research was conducted in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, using a mixed-methods design. Measures of cultural consonance were derived using ethnographic methods and then applied in a survey of 271 individuals drawn from four distinct social strata. Low cultural consonance was associated with higher psychological distress in multiple regression analysis ( B = -.430, p < .001. Members of Pentecostal Protestant churches reported lower psychological distress independently of the effect of cultural consonance ( B = -.409, p < .05. There was no buffering effect of religion. Implications of these results for the study of religion and health are discussed.